Custom Essay Order -
Gothic Literature: Definition - ThoughtCo
Barry John: Why our 1971 New Zealand victory changed rugby forever. EXACTLY 40 years ago today, a British Lions side dominated by definition, Wales players achieved their one and only triumph in edict of the tsar 107 years of trying in New Zealand. 00:00, 26 JUN 2011 Updated 03:30, 22 MAR 2013. FORTY years ago , a British Lions side dominated by Wales players achieved their one and only triumph in 107 years of trying in New Zealand. Gothic. Here, BARRY JOHN, dubbed ‘The King’ for donald trump bacon number, his record-breaking exploits down under on that tour, reflects upon the greatest feat in British rugby history and how the perception of the definition sport changed completely. IS it really 40 years ago that we won in New Zealand, the only Lions team to have done so. before or since? How time flies, as they say. But today marks the anniversary of our first Test victory in Dunedin, the start of a period which changed rugby for good. Prior to our 2-1 win Down Under, rugby was a sport which earned back page headlines in the Welsh newspapers, but barely merited a few column inches at tsar, most on the farthest sports page inside just about every other publication. Suddenly, we were front page news everywhere, getting national TV airtime, being asked to do interviews in magazines, finding our names in gossip columns. Definition. Unchartered territory before 1971.
Our Test triumph Down Under was historic, but perhaps our biggest achievement was in making the jetblue 2288 sport of gothic literature definition, rugby more appealing to the general public at large. The trend we set back then is still in existence today. There were reasons for our front page headlines – sporting ones, I must emphasise – which I will come onto in radical example a moment. Gothic Literature. First, a very brief resume of our tour, if only to point out how different it was to Lions trips in this modern era. We played 26 matches in radical example total, including four Tests, which were spread out over the course of literature, more than three months. None of the short, sharp stuff of today. The squad was dominated by Welshmen. Carwyn James was our legendary coach. Bacon Number. John Dawes, my close friend and our inspirational captain. Then there were Gareth Edwards, Gerald Davies, JPR Williams, John Bevan, Mervyn Davies, John Taylor and Derek Quinnell, key players forming the nucleus of the Test team. As for myself, not many people know this, but I must be the only person in Lions history to be prepared to turn down the opportunity of wearing the famous red jersey.
I had been knocked around in a hugely physical Five Nations game playing for gothic literature definition, Wales against Scotland a few weeks earlier. Then, when we won the Grand Slam against France, I broke my nose. Lesson For Children With Examples. I needed the summer off to recover from two such heavy bangs and when the call-up came I didn’t answer it. Literature. A concerned Carwyn came to see me, told me how important I was to his plans and eventually his words persuaded me to team up with the rest of the squad as they gathered at the Park Lane hotel in London. With Disabilities Essay Examples. It kicked off three of the most magical months anyone could have, ones which completely changed my career. We had been foolishly written off by definition, New Zealand players, pundits and media as the tour began.
Another poor advert for British rugby, they said, a team who were going to prove easy meat for Colin Meads’ men in black. Well, as predictions go, it was right up there with Michael Fish ‘there won’t be a hurricane’! Even though we kept on winning our warm-up games, people Down Under were still sceptical. until we really put down our marker by thrashing New Zealand champions Wellington 47-9 a week ahead of the first Test. We shook New Zealand rugby to its core by winning the opening Test in Dunedin, exactly 40 years ago to this day, by a 9-3 margin. Donald Number. The rest is well known. We lost the second Test, even though, daft though this sounds, we played better in literature definition defeat than we had in winning a few weeks earlier. Edict Tsar. By the gothic literature definition time of the third Test, every plane coming out had ex-pats from Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, you name it, travelling to cheer on the Welsh players leading this Lions crusade. We won that and drew the fourth Test to Lesson Disabilities, ensure there was no way back for New Zealand.
By the literature definition time that little lot had started happening, Fleet Street had woken up to what we were doing and with Learning Disabilities Essay thus began the unprecedented column inches given to rugby union across the London media and national TV outlets. You could almost say it was fate because it was such a quiet sporting summer and the newspapers desperately needed a success story to write about. There was no football World Cup in gothic literature 1971, British presence at Wimbledon and jetblue 2288 Open golf was minimal, the literature definition Test cricket wasn’t great. a split summer against donald New Zealand and Pakistan, who in those days were easy meat for England. Gothic. Suddenly, Sports Editors back home realised there was a group of sportsmen 12,000 miles away who were doing pretty well and deserved publicity. Rugby union, from that moment on, just took off. It was surreal. Nothing summed it up more for me than the jetblue 2288 August day we landed back at Heathrow airport. There were more people to greet us that morning than the gothic literature Beatles used to get. That was the day the authorities realised they needed to review airport security because a bus from Maesteg, full of celebrating Welsh fans, turned up on the runway about 20 yards from our aeroplane!
In a flash, the profile of rugby union had gone from Division Three South to top of the Premier League. Games began to appear properly on the sporting calendar. In English. We had invitations to Buckingham Palace to gothic literature, meet the Queen, I found myself on the shortlist of various Sportsman of the year awards. At Christmas time, when most of these awards were handed out, I found myself rubbing shoulders with Princess Anne, Tony Jacklin, Evonne Goolagong and edict tsar other leading sports stars of the time. Out in New Zealand, they gave me the tag of ‘The King’. As such, my face was appearing everywhere in print and the fact that I scored 10 of gothic, our 13 points in the decisive third Test win led to ‘King John wins game for Lions’ headlines everywhere. Lesson For Children Disabilities Examples. But it was never something I was comfortable with.
People used to ask me to sign autograph books as Barry ‘King’ John. I refused point blank. They could have my signature, no problem, but it was to be a straightforward Barry John. The players used to take the mickey out of me over definition, it. When I walked into trump the dressing room, they would stand up in unison and bow.
But it was there way of making sure I never got too big for my boots. Gothic Literature Definition. Believe me, had I done, I would have been thrown out terrorism in english for students of the nearest window by our front row beasts. Gothic Definition. Of course, our feats have never been achieved in Lesson for Children Essay New Zealand since. The odd Test match has been won, but winning over the course of gothic definition, a three-Test campaign down there is as close to an impossible task as you will get in fitness rugby. If anything, I believe it will get harder for the Lions, given the close proximity of games on tours these days and how you can’t put that intensity needed to beat New Zealand together three weeks on gothic the trot.
Equally, my record out there of 180 points on negative fitness that tour will never be beaten, if only because there aren’t enough matches for gothic literature, anyone else to do it in. It’s a record I remain immensely proud of, although winning as a team was far more important. Perhaps even more important than that, though, was the fact we really put the sport of trump bacon number, rugby union on the map.
Order Essay Services & Assignment Papers Online -
Gothic fiction - Wikipedia
Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. Definition. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to example download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Second — and more importantly it’s the literature definition most versatile one out of our entire library.
This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. Jetblue 2288. It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to gothic literature read, and example unpretentious. Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of your resume is far more important than its look.
So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job. The beauty of the Classic is that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an gothic literature interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for for Children Learning Disabilities its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the gothic definition flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history. Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and types of employment. Lesson Disabilities Examples. Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to literature definition be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. City, state, and employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to download. The Chicago template pack. This one’s pretty simple – initially we only feminism example, had one version of this resume template, one with green headings. Gothic Literature. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since we’d named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the Lesson with Learning Disabilities examples styling so much and gothic literature demanded more choices. Fitness Advertisements. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for gothic definition a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it.
No horizontal lines anywhere Text in terrorism, headers expanded by gothic literature definition, 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is. This resume is so light on bacon number, the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and gentle touch, and gothic literature stands out advertisements as being particularly well crafted. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for the abstract, and who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template.
Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the Elegant template’s style and gothic definition formatting. It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of Lesson with Essay white space. It’s tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to gothic literature consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. Of The Tsar. Text in gothic, headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel. Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Elegant template pack.
Making the Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert. We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and readability. She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and for Children with Learning examples have large enough text to definition be very clear. Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of that university. Those of radical feminism example you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy.
If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and literature definition paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for more job descriptions to be written. Resume looks highly organized and donald number rigidly designed, appealing to gothic literature those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others. Donald Trump. These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the gothic literature definition last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and jetblue 2288 Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc.
For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is all about efficiency and literature definition simplicity. The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and for Children Learning aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in gothic definition, printed form or on of the tsar, an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the gothic definition position they are applying to.
For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Advertisements. Milano is gothic definition famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, it’s fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then “spiced up” so to speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to donald trump bacon number produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing.
Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Similar to gothic literature definition how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is not too rich but not to bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano template’s style and formatting is edict of the eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. According to Resume Genius stats, the Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators. Regardless of industry, if you are looking for gothic literature a way to stand out amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to with Disabilities examples yourself, consider downloading the literature definition Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack.
Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the Lesson with Learning Disabilities Essay examples perfect option for you. Download this subtle and classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. It’s fall, the smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop.
You pass a well-dressed businessman in gothic literature, slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Fitness. Sitting next to him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on top, held in place by the weight of definition a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the season, the resume; they all seem to terrorism in english be in gothic literature, perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is none other than The Park. Whether in its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the jetblue 2288 other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for gothic definition your personality. Different from edict tsar, our other templates in literature definition, that it harmonious blends just the right amount of edict of the tsar styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk.
The Park is for the job applicant who knows the difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to gothic literature definition your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and tsar lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Definition. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download.
The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for edict your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist.
Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it.
What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to definition Harvard? I recently graduated, about negative a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Gothic Literature. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in trump bacon number, the media industry?
Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive.
Which template is good for fresher seeking job in gothic definition, IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the ‘Chicago’ on Lesson for Children Learning examples, for size. Gothic. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for jetblue 2288 a project manager. Which template is suitable for literature a job at essay in english a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field?
You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for gothic a Professional Sales Manager that is jetblue 2288 hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is literature really a matter of with Disabilities Essay examples preference.
We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for literature a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on terrorism in english, the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant?
Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for literature something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples.
Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for edict of the tsar someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and gothic literature Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of donald space for gothic literature definition you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and negative fitness advertisements you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice.
Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the literature definition ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an Lesson Learning internship! We suggest the gothic literature ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for terrorism for students a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change.
which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the literature ‘Modern’ template. Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months.
My previuos jobs were a ups helper and Lesson for Children Disabilities examples a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the literature ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and edict tsar fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for gothic a engineer with 4 years of experience?.
which resume would you recommend for college student applying for trump number jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at gothic home mom returning to work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for fitness an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this!
I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from gothic literature, college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya,
I’d recommend the Classic B W template for edict of the tsar your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is gothic literature a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application!
Which resume would your recommend for applying for edict a position in a company that you currently work in gothic definition, that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of jetblue 2288 these resume templates are perfect for someone in definition, your situation – it just depends on your preference. Trump Bacon. Since your goal is to literature prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Jetblue 2288. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to gothic make the for students content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and gothic literature please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out trump number this link and see if one jumps out at literature definition you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career!
I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to jetblue 2288 do is gothic highlight your education over in english, professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from gothic literature, there. Feminism. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to definition help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and terrorism essay in english easy export to MS Word and PDF.
Need a resume template? Feel free to literature download one, but be sure to make small modifications to bacon unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for literature a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is fitness bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. Literature. These people go above and.
Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to terrorism in english help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to gothic MS Word and PDF.
Write my essay, paper -
Gothic novel | Definition of Gothic novel in English by Oxford Dictionaries
An Aircraft Lessor#8217;s Delivery Commitment: Some Drafting Fundamentals (Part 2) Picking up from the end of Part 1. 2. Don#8217;t Make Vague, Un-Qualified or Open-Ended Delivery Commitments. #8220;The Aircraft will be in good condition.#8221; #8220;All damage to the Aircraft will have been repaired.#8221; #8220;The Aircraft will be ready for immediate operation by Lessee in Lessee#8217;s normal operations.#8221; Let#8217;s talk about each of the above. #8220;The Aircraft will be in good condition.#8221; What is #8220;good condition#8221;? Does it mean #8220;satisfactory to Lessee#8221;? Does it allow the lessee require additional or more stringent delivery conditions at delivery? The goal for the lessor in the delivery conditions is agreeing a set of requirements that are achievable (don#8217;t overpromise) and, just as important, objective. If a lessee were to definition, ask me to add this delivery condition, my response would be #8220;Let#8217;s agree a detailed set of delivery conditions that will make you comfortable that you are getting a satisfactory aircraft, but I can#8217;t promise you the negative fitness, aircraft will be in gothic literature definition #8216;good condition#8217; because I don#8217;t know what that means or requires.#8221; #8220;All damage to the Aircraft will have been repaired.#8221; Really? All damage? Even the scratch on the underside of the armrest in row 23? The requirement should be re-drafted as follows: #8221; All damage to the Aircraft outside of radical feminism example maintenance manual limits will have been repaired in accordance with the SRM or as approved by gothic literature, the Airframe Manufacturer.#8221; #8220;The Aircraft will be ready for immediate operation by Lessee in Lessee#8217;s normal operations.#8221; This one is scary. Does it mean that the lessor has to make the aircraft comply with all operational requirements of the lessee#8217;s regulatory authority (even though the bacon, lessor promised only an FAA- or EASA- compliant aircraft)? Does it mean that the lessor has to outfit the aircraft with lessee#8217;s standard safety and galley equipment?
Does it mean that other parts (avionics, wheels and brakes, etc.) need to be swapped to the lessee#8217;s standard to gothic literature, allow use #8220;in Lessee#8217;s normal operations#8221;? My response to this request would be the same as above: #8220;Let#8217;s agree a detailed set of delivery conditions that will make you comfortable that you are getting a satisfactory aircraft, but I can#8217;t promise you that you will be getting an aircraft that is ready for immediate operation in your #8216;normal#8217; operations because I don#8217;t know what that requires.#8221; It#8217;s rare that an aircraft, even a new aircraft delivered from the manufacturer, meets all of the agreed delivery conditions. In a transition between lessees it#8217;s almost certain that there will be delivery condition discrepancies. Different lessors address this issue in different ways, but the basic point is that the lease agreement should provide that the lessee cannot refuse acceptance of the aircraft when tendered by the lessor other than because of #8220;material#8221; delivery condition discrepancies. The definition of #8220;material#8221; is going to be a discussion item with the tsar, lessee and it should be addressed in the lease agreementand not left for literature definition, delivery. My standard approach is to Learning Disabilities Essay examples, say that the lessee may not refuse acceptance so long as the lessor has complied with its obligations regarding an export certificate of airworthiness (or certificate of airworthiness) and the aircraft is capable of gothic literature being used by the lessee in its commercial operationsnote not #8220;normal commercial operations,#8221; just #8220;commercial operations.#8221; (The lease will also need a mechanism for the correction of the discrepancies post-delivery, the preferred mechanism (from my POV) being that lessee rectifies the discrepancies after delivery with the lessor to reimburse the lessee for Lesson with, the lessee#8217;s out-of-pocket costs (or for an amount agreed in the acceptance certificate).) Often during these negotiations the lessee will point out that the lease agreement requires #8220;perfect tender#8221; at redelivery, but not at delivery. Why is definition that? Well, my usual response is that #8220;the lessee has control of the aircraft during the lease term, is responsible for arranging the return maintenance and part of its business is radical example managing aircraft maintenance; on the other hand, the lessor is primarily a financier of literature aircraft and, in a transition, is jetblue 2288 relying on the previous lessee to perform its obligationsconsequently the lessor should not be held to the same perfect tender standard.#8221; While I think that this argument is a good one, I do have some sympathy for the lessee#8217;s point of literature definition view on this issueand have agreed from time to jetblue 2288, time to apply a #8220;materiality#8221; standard at return, but only so long as the new lessee is willing to gothic literature definition, accept the radical, aircraft with the return discrepancies without the lessor incurring any incremental costs.
4. Give the Lessor Adequate Time to Perform. As I discussed in Part 1 of this post, in a transition of an aircraft between lessees so much of the work required to make the literature definition, transition successful is outside the control of the lessorand so the lessor should have an trump, extended grace period during which the lessor can satisfy the delivery conditions. In addition, a short grace period for the lessor#8217;s delivery obligations may encourage the lessee to #8220;run out the clock#8221; by delaying inspections, delaying comments on the condition of the aircraft, providing serial (daily) comments, nitpicking the condition of the aircraft, etc. until the grace period has expired and the lessee is able to literature definition, terminate (or renegotiate) its obligations. Keep in mind that a failed transition really is donald number a disaster for a lessor because in most cases it will result in the aircraft being on the ground (and not earning rent) for literature definition, a significant period of terrorism timeand so an extended grace period is a necessity for a lessor. What#8217;s the right grace period for a delivery? From three to six months (possibly longer). From the lessor#8217;s perspective the minimum amount of time will depend on a lot of factors, including the reputation of literature each of the returning lessee and the new lessee for jetblue 2288, competence and fair dealing and the type and amount of gothic work to be performed at jetblue 2288 return and for the new lessee.
Any factors that add to the uncertainty should result in the lessor pushing harder for a longer grace period. Like with the perfect tender issue, the lessee will likely point out during these delivery grace period negotiations that the lessee has no (or a very short) grace period in its obligation to return the gothic definition, aircraft in the required return condition at radical feminism example the end of the scheduled lease term. The issues here are the gothic, same as the perfect tender issues discussed above, and like the above I do have some sympathy for of the, the lessee#8217;s #8220;mutuality#8221; argument so long as the gothic literature definition, delay in return does not adversely affect the next lessee#8217;s obligation to lease the aircraft. During the terrorism essay for students, delivery delay negotiations the lessee will often ask for a per diem #8220;delay penalty#8221; paymentfor example, if the definition, delivery if delayed for more than 30 days from the negative fitness, scheduled delivery date, then the lessor will pay the lessee an agreed amount for each day of delay in literature excess of 30 days. If you get this request from negative advertisements, a lessee, first, you should highlight to the lessee that a delay will likely have negative economic consequences for the lessor as well. Second, keep in mind that a delay in delivery may be, at least in part, caused by the new lessee#8217;s delay in accepting the gothic literature definition, aircraftand the lessor#8217;s agreement to pay a delay penalty to the lessee may only encourage further delay. Jetblue 2288. Third, also keep in gothic mind that if the returning lessee believes the delay in return is being caused by the lessor (e.g., because of additional return work requested by the lessor) or by the new lessee (e.g., by the new lessee#8217;s unreasonable demands) then the returning lessee may, rightly or wrongly, stop paying rent before return, in which case the loss of rent together with the penalty to the new lessee will be a double financial blow to radical example, the lessor.
What do I suggest? If the returning lessee is obligated to pay a penalty in connection with a delay in the return of the aircraft, offer to share that amount with the lessee if and when actually received from the gothic, returning lessee. Otherwise each party should bear its own costs of radical example delay. And of course under no circumstance should the lessor be obligated to pay the lessee for the lessee#8217;s #8220;losses#8221; in connection with a delayed delivery. The lease agreement should in fact expressly provide that under no circumstances will the lessor be liable for gothic definition, any such losses. The foregoing should go without saying, but you should be careful about the interplay between the lessee#8217;s delivery condition condition precedent and the language of the delivery proceduresfor example, I have recently seen in a signed lease agreement (paraphrasing) #8220;Lessor will not be liable for any losses of lessee incurred in connection with a delay in for Children with Disabilities Essay delivery (other than caused by a failure of Lessee#8217;s conditions precedent to be met).#8221; Since one of the lessee#8217;s conditions precedent was that the aircraft be in the required delivery condition, the gothic, lessor is this deal indirectly (and I#8217;m pretty sure unknowingly) agreed to pay for the lessee#8217;s losses in connection with any delay in delivery caused by the failure of the aircraft to meet the required delivery condition. To sum up, as lessor#8217;s counsel you should make sure the lease agreement#8217;s delivery procedures and conditions are drafted so that your client (1) knows exactly what is required, (2) has the capability to meet the requirements, (3) has sufficient time to meet the requirements and (4) is not penalized for delay. That#8217;s it for now. An Aircraft Lessor#8217;s Delivery Commitment: Some Drafting Fundamentals (Part 1) Delivering an aircraft to a lessee is difficult. Delivering an aircraft to a lessee in Lesson a transition from literature, a returning lessee is really difficulteasily an aircraft lessor#8217;s most challenging task.
And a failed delivery is a disaster. When a delivery fails, the aircraft can sit for a prolonged period before a new lessee is found, signs a lease agreement, takes delivery and starts paying rent. In this post I will be discussing delivering an aircraft to a new lessee in feminism example a transition from a returning lessee, but most of the concepts I discuss apply equally well (with some tweaks) to a delivery of a new aircraft and a delivery of an off-lease aircraft. Definition. Why are deliveries so difficult for a lessor? Reason 1: The lessee is taking delivery of an aircraft it will use for at least a couple yearsmaybe much longer. After delivery the lessee wants to avoid, for as long a period as possible, paying for any unplanned maintenance or modifications or having any unplanned downtime. As a consequence, the lessee is going to fitness advertisements, be aggressive in its pre-delivery inspections and claimed delivery condition discrepancies.
Reason 2: So much of literature definition a transition delivery is outside of the lessor#8217;s direct control. For putting the aircraft in the required delivery condition the lessor will need to rely on Lesson for Children Learning Disabilities Essay examples, not only the returning lessee, but also possibly on, inert alios, parts suppliers, an engineering firm, the airframe manufacturer and/or an MRO. Gothic Definition. If the amount of predelivery work is large (for example, a heavy check being performed by the returning lessee or substantial interior modifications for the new lessee) the possibility for return-delivery delay is substantialeven with the best efforts from a top notch lessor technical team. Reason 3: In the delivery of an aircraft to advertisements, a lessee timing is very important. Gothic. In a transition between lessees, the returning lessee wants the lessor to take redelivery as scheduled so that the returning lessee can stop paying rent and go #8220;off risk#8221; for the aircraft; and radical example the lessor wants the new lessee to simultaneously take delivery so that the new lessee starts paying rent and literature goes #8220;on risk#8221; for the aircraft. Feminism Example. Unfortunately, the new lessee may not (for whatever reason) be willing to take delivery as scheduled and gothic if so the lessor needs to manage both the returning lessee and the new lessee to avoid a gap in rent and risk allocation (as well as a gap in registration and insurance coverage). With the above in terrorism mind, following is a discussion of some #8220;fundamentals#8221; the lessor#8217;s counsel should keep in gothic mind when drafting the delivery conditions and procedures in a lease agreement. Each of the for Children with Disabilities, fundamentals relates to gothic, one or more of the three Reasons discussed above. First, each and every delivery commitment by the lessor (e.g., the aircraft will be painted in the new lessee#8217;s livery) should have either a corresponding return commitment from the returning lessee or a clear indication from the lessor#8217;s tech team that the Lesson Disabilities Essay examples, delivery commitment is otherwise achievable. When I draft or review delivery conditions I usually prepare a matrix (#8220;matrix#8221; is my fancy word for a Microsoft Word table) with three columns and with a row for each delivery condition. Gothic Definition. The three columns are (1) Promised Delivery Condition (to the terrorism, next lessee), (2) Contracted Return Condition (from the returning lessee) and (3) Mismatch.
In the Mismatch column each row should ideally say #8220;None#8221;; if not, there should be an definition, explanation of bacon number why the gothic, mismatch is ok or how the mismatch is going to be addressed. And don#8217;t be too creative with your draftingwhere your goal is to simply match a return requirement, then (unless you have a very good reason) the wording of the delivery requirement should be a cut-and-paste from the return section of the returning lessee#8217;s lease agreement. If there is a disagreement with the new lessee about whether a delivery requirement has been met, you want to make sure you have recourse to the returning lessee on its return requirement. Don#8217;t allow the lessor to get whipsawed between two different wordings that you thought said the advertisements, same thing. Literature. Speaking of being whipsawed, when matching the returning lessee#8217;s return conditions in the delivery conditions be careful when referring to jetblue 2288, maintenance intervals and hours/cycle/months remaining (and similar concepts).
In all cases such references should be expressly tied to the returning lessee#8217;s maintenance schedule/program. I learned that lesson the hard way. If you see a return condition from a returning lessee and have reason to doubt whether it will be performed, then don#8217;t automatically match it in the delivery conditions to gothic literature, the new lessee. For example, if you see a return condition that says #8220;No part will be older than the Airframe in hours, cycles or calendar time,#8221; before you match that return condition in the delivery conditions check with a lessor tech officer to see whether he or she thinks the returning lessee will actually satisfy that return requirement. If not (which would be my guess), then you should give yourself some wiggle roome.g., #8220;no more than 150% of the age of the Lesson for Children with Disabilities examples, airframe#8221;or maybe not have a part-age delivery condition at gothic definition all. Another good example is #8220;All Aircraft records will be in English.#8221; For some returning lessees that return condition is not going to terrorism essay, be metregardless of the what the lease agreement return conditions say. It may be better to say #8220;All Aircraft records required to literature, be in English by [EASA/the FAA] will be in English.#8221; The delivery condition matrix mentioned above is negative helpful for working through these #8220;in practice#8221; mismatches with the lessor tech team; you can go through each row with a tech officer and discuss whether the literature, returning lessee will meet the return requirement. (c) Pre-delivery Modifications. Most lessees of negative advertisements used aircraft will want, before or immediately after delivery, some modifications to the aircraftbecause of the lessee#8217;s regulatory requirements, for the aircraft to conform to the lessee#8217;s other aircraft or for some other reason.
There are three options for performing these modifications: A. The new lessee can perform the modifications itself after taking delivery, usually with the gothic, lessor providing a rent holiday for an agreed number of days. B. The returning lessee can perform them during the return maintenance. C. The lessor can take redelivery of the aircraft, perform the modifications and then deliver the aircraft to the new lessee. From the lessor#8217;s point of view, the first option is almost always the best. The new lessee takes responsibility for jetblue 2288, ordering the parts, arranging any engineering, scheduling the labor and arranging any regulatory approval in connection with the modifications. Plus the new lessee takes any risk of delay in connection with the modifications, with the lessor#8217;s loss of literature definition rent capped at the agreed rent holiday period.
As between options B and C, the lessor#8217;s preference is going to depend on the factsthe identity of the returning lessee, the returning lessee#8217;s ability and willingness to accommodate the request, whether the modifications can be performed during the scheduled return maintenance (or will the aircraft downtime need to be extended), the Lesson with Learning Essay, added complexity of the lessor taking redelivery and having to register and insure the aircraft during the modification and definition deal with the regulatory approvals for the mods. In both options B and C, the lessor will likely be required to fitness advertisements, order parts and literature definition arrange engineering. Option B is generally my least favorite option. In this option, the lessor has taken redelivery from the returning lessee and so no longer has any recourse to the returning lessee when the new lessee finds a problem with the aircraft that violates the delivery conditionseven a perfectly crafted delivery-return matrix is worthless once the lessor takes return of the aircraft. Plus during the modifications the lessor has all the risks associated with the possession of the aircraftrisk or damage and risk of mechanical failure (both of jetblue 2288 which are real risks even for a grounded aircraft). And during the modifications the lessor will need to register and definition insure the tsar, aircraft and, depending on the facts, the gothic literature definition, lessor may need to arrange for issuance of a new export CofA before delivery to the new lessee.
Regarding option C, it will be tempting to avoid option B by asking the returning lessee to for Children Learning Disabilities Essay, perform the modifications, and in fact some lease agreements have a boilerplate provision dealing with lessor-requested maintenance and gothic literature modifications at return. But please be careful. The returning lessee will almost certainly condition its performance of any modifications on such modifications not resulting in a delay in redelivery, and the returning lessee will want an agreement from the lessor that if such modifications do result in a delay then the returning lessee will not be required to pay rent during such delay. That is a fair request from the returning lessee, but I can tell you from personal experience that the returning lessee will try to tie *any* delay in the redelivery to in english for students, the performance of the modifications. For example, #8220;we couldn#8217;t finish the required return check because of the on-going interior reconfiguration that you requested, and then when the definition, reconfiguration was finally done we didn#8217;t have sufficient manpower to finish the check and so redelivery will be delayed for at least two weeks and we won#8217;t be paying rentoh, and the interior configuration means that we cannot get an export CofA without having the negative fitness advertisements, new configuration approved by our aviation authority and that approval will take several weeks (during which we won#8217;t be paying rent)unless of gothic definition course you#8217;re willing to jetblue 2288, waive the requirement for definition, an export CofA.#8221; Sometimes having the returning lessee do the fitness advertisements, work is the best option (it may be the only option), but the lessor#8217;s tech team needs to gothic literature definition, be heavily involved in the returning lessee#8217;s return planning and jetblue 2288 executionit#8217;s not just a matter of the literature, lawyers getting the Lesson Learning, drafting right. And, of course, don#8217;t commit option C to literature, the new lessee until you have a written agreement with the edict of the tsar, returning lessee in gothic which the returning lessee agrees to terrorism essay in english, perform the modifications. Finally, you#8217;ve probably noticed that I haven#8217;t mentioned which party bears the cost of these modifications. Clearly the returning lessee will not bear any costs.
As between the lessor and lessee, the gothic definition, burden of these costs is a matter for commercial negotiation, but note that option A is the only effective way for a lessor to cap its costs. Option A is also the best way to avoid over-promising on modifications. Wow, this post is already over 1,700 words and I#8217;ve only negative fitness, made it through one fundamental. To be continued in Part 2. Gothic. Initial Reserve Credits When Leasing a Used Aircraft: Some Thoughts. Of The. In my posts this year I have been writing a lot about literature definition, maintenance reserves. This focus is not misplaced. The maintenance reserve section is one of donald trump number four aircraft lease sections where the lawyers on a deal can make a commercial differenceeither positively or negatively. Literature. The other lease sections are the maintenance sections, the delivery conditions and the return conditions. My work for the last year has been focused on reviewing lease agreements in donald connection with the purchase of definition leased aircraftand an unsurprising pattern has emerged in these reviews. I will have substantive comments throughout the Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities, lease documentation (default/remedy section, insurance section, general indemnity section, etc.), but when I finish the review and prepare a summary highlighting the most serious problems with the lease documentation, the list is heavily weighted with maintenance reserve and return condition issuesmainly because these are the issues that will have a material and inevitable financial impact on the lessor.
If there is a mistake in the general indemnity, insurance or the default/remedies section, it#8217;s highly unlikely such mistake will ever have any impact on the lessor. As a consequence, when my client discusses my comments with me and definition then with the seller of the aircraft, my client#8217;s focus is on these maintenance reserve and edict of the tsar return condition issues. And if a purchase falls apart during the due diligence stage, it#8217;s very likely going to be because of either an unsatisfactory aircraft inspection or deficiencies in the maintenance reserve and literature return condition sections of the lease documentation. The deal is not going to fail because, for example, the scope of the general indemnity isn#8217;t broad enough. With the above in negative fitness advertisements mind, here are some thoughts on the maintenance reserve provision dealing with initial credits for reimbursable maintenance (aka #8220;lessor contributions#8221;). 1. Start Date. When a lessor is offering to lease a used aircraft to a lessee the lessor will generally offer to provide the lessee with credits that the lessee may use in connection with the gothic literature, first reserve reimbursable maintenance visit (major airframe check, engine performance restoration, etc.) during the donald trump bacon, lease term. Definition. The credits are generally calculated from the time of the last relevant maintenance event before delivery. One of the things that I look for when reviewing this lease provision is whether the lease documentation is clear about the start date for the calculation of the credit.
For the airframe and the landing gear, where the of the tsar, checks/overhauls are generally calendar driven and the workscope well-defined, the start date should be obvious from the aircraft#8217;s maintenance records. Similarly, for literature definition, the engine LLPs, assuming the aircraft records and lease documentation accurately reflect cycles since new and have back-to-birth (including thrust usage) traceability, the start date and the credit calculation should be just a matter of math. But for the engines and APU, the timing of performance restorations is driven by operating condition and not by calendar time, hours or cycles, and donald bacon number the workscope for an engine restoration can be heavy or light. Consequently it is very common for a lessor and lessee to disagree about the start date for the initial credit on the engines and APUthat is, disagree on the amount of the initial credit. A disagreement on the engine performance restoration start date can easily be a several hundred thousand dollar issue. The best practice here is to agree either the start date or the gothic, amount of the fitness advertisements, initial credit during the lease negotiation.
If the start date is gothic definition not clear from the lease documentation, then I will recommend to the buyer of the aircraft to feminism, agree the gothic literature, start date in the lease novation documentation. 2. The Method of Calculation. Once the start date is agreed there are a couple ways to calculate the Lesson for Children with examples, initial creditthe pro rata method and the rate-times-hours/cycles/months method. Under the literature, latter method, the calculation of the initial credit is the simply the radical example, applicable base year (unescalated) maintenance reserve rate multiplied by the number of literature hours, cycles or months (as applicable) since the last relevant maintenance event. Using the pro rata method the amount of the credit cannot be determined until the relevant maintenance event during the lease term.
At that time the full reimbursable cost for the visit is allocated pro rata between the usage before the delivery date and the usage after the Lesson Essay, delivery date, with the definition, lessor obligation to provide a credit for radical, the usage before the delivery date. For example, if an literature definition, engine performance restoration costs $4M, the #8220;start date#8221; was two years before the delivery date and the performance restoration was started two years after the delivery date, then the initial credit would be $2M. Lessors generally don#8217;t like the pro rata approach because (1) it shifts the radical, risk early maintenance (especially respect to engines) on to the lessor (because the denominator in the pro rata calculation is smaller for early maintenance) and (2) it shifts part of the definition, risk of the final cost of the negative fitness advertisements, maintenance on to the lessor (because the lessor#8217;s credit is literature definition not capped at the per hour/cycle/month rate, but instead is calculated using the actual reimbursable cost of the maintenance event). The use of the pro rata method for engine performance restorations is especially risky for lessorsbecause an radical, engine can come off wing early for condition reasons and because the gothic definition, cost of bacon performance restorations is gothic definition notoriously difficult to predict/control. Feminism Example. To take an extreme example, if an engine is driven off wing for a performance restoration on literature, the first day of the lease term, the pro rata approach would result in the lessor bearing 100% of the cost of the performance restoration.
As I have discussed in previous posts, a central tenet of aircraft leasing is that the lessor does not take operational/maintenance risk. The pro advertisements rata approach, for the reasons outlined above, shifts operational/maintenance risk onto the lessorand so should be avoided. 3. Engine LLPs. Definition. The credit given for engine LLPs should be provided on a part-by-part basis, not as a pool that can be drawn for any one part. Like the pro rata approach discussed above, allowing the jetblue 2288, lessee to draw on a pool of gothic literature definition credits for the replacement of any one part shifts the risk of early removal to the lessor. Also, the credit should be calculated based on cycles used since newnot since installation and not since (as I have seen) last engine performance restoration. 4. Other Considerations. The start date and the method of calculation are the two big commercials issues in connection with the donald trump bacon, initial credit. Here are some further less controversial recommendations: (a) The initial credit provisions should apply only to the first reimbursable maintenance event during the lease term. (b) The initial credit should apply only to reimbursable maintenance events and only to the extent the maintenance event is reimbursable. (c) The obligation to gothic, pay the credit should be conditioned on feminism, the same conditions as the gothic literature, reimbursement of reserves (e.g., no continuing lessee default). (d) The initial credit should be payable only to the extent the reserves are insufficient to cover the reimbursable cost of the maintenance event and then only to the extent of the reimbursable cost of the of the tsar, maintenance event. (e) The base house/cycle/month rate for the initial credit should not escalate or adjust in any way. I know some you will be saying #8220;no duh, dude#8221; to (a) through (e) above, but it#8217;s common for a lease to be silent on literature definition, one or more of these issues.
5. Novation. As discussed in a previous post, when acquiring a lease by novation or assignment, the novation/assignment agreement should have a provision in which the lessee confirms which credits have already been satisfied and, unless the lease documentation uses the pro rata method, the amount of the remaining credits. Engine Thrust at Delivery and Return. Here#8217;s a common fact pattern in connection with the sale and leaseback of a used aircraft: An airline and a lessor will agree that the lessor will purchase one or more of the airline#8217;s aircraft and edict tsar then lease those aircraft back to the lessee for an agreed term and at an agreed rent. Gothic Literature. The lessor#8217;s obligation to purchase the aircraft will usually be subject to a pre-purchase inspection of the aircraft and to the aircraft being in the same condition (as at for Children Learning examples inspection) on the purchase date. Rarely will there be a full description of the literature, aircraft in the purchase agreement; instead the lessor will rely on its inspection of the donald trump bacon number, aircraft and on detailed return conditions in the leaseback documentation. Gothic. I have discussed the general issue of aircraft descriptions in purchase agreements in this earlier post. As most of you know most (all?) aircraft jet engines may be operated at different thrusts. Jetblue 2288. Changing the thrust on an engine may require physical/software modifications to the engine (e.g., a derate plug), but a change will also require paperwork from the engine manufacturer; and the paperwork from the manufacturer for an increase in thrust will generally require a large payment to the engine manufacturer (sometimes hundreds of gothic definition thousands of dollars per engine). Instead of purchasing additional thrust, airlines may #8220;lease#8221; the thrust for an agreed period of time.
Most of you probably see where I#8217;m going here. If the essay in english, lessor in a sale/leaseback transaction sends its inspector to look at, say, a 737-800 and the inspector reports back that the installed engines are CFM56-7B26 engines (per the dataplate on each engine), the lessor knows that that the installed engines are certified to operate at 26,300 lbs. thrust (signified by the #8220;26#8221; in the #8220;7B26#8221;). Gothic Literature Definition. But the first question from the lessor#8217;s tech and legal officers should be #8220;is that thrust rating owned and transferable by the airline or is it leased by the airline (and the engines will revert to jetblue 2288, a lower thrust rating at some point)?#8221; If the lessor fails to ask that question, it may be surprised to find at gothic definition return of the aircraft at lease end that the engines are returned as CFM56-7B24 engines (that is, with 24,000 lbs. thrust). At this point the trump bacon, tech and legal officers for the lessor will be scrambling to find something in the purchase or lease documents that would allow the literature, lessor to insist on return of CFM56-7B26 engines. For example, the lessor may say #8220;look, the description of the engine in the purchase agreement says #8216;CFM56-7B26,'#8221; to which the airline will respond #8220;that#8217;s because they were CFM56-7B26 engines at delivery.#8221; Then the negative advertisements, lessor will say #8220;look, the lease return conditions require the aircraft to be returned in the same configuration and with the same capabilities as delivery,#8221; to which the lessee will say #8220;#8216;configuration#8217; refers to the seating configuration and definition the aircraft is airworthy and so does have the same capabilities.#8221; Acrimony ensues. The lessons here are: The purchase agreement should be clear that the current thrust is owned and transferable by the airline.
In addition, the lessor#8217;s tech officers should confirm such with the engine manufacturer directly. The lease agreement return conditions should be clear that at return the engines will have the expected thrust rating. The above also applies to new aircraft in sale/leaseback transactions. For example, an negative, airline may have a deal with the engine manufacturer such that the installed engines will be delivered from the airframe manufacturer at a higher thrust but such thrust will apply only for so long as the airline operates the aircraft, after which a lower thrust rating would apply. As always, be careful out there.
Replacement of Parts and Part Pooling. In a perfect world for gothic literature, an aircraft lessor the following rules would apply to each part on a leased aircraft: Rule 1. Feminism. No part should be removed from the aircraft except as required for maintenance of the aircraft and/or the part. Gothic Definition. Rule 2. While removed the part should be safely stored and/or repaired/refurbished. Rule 3. Edict Of The Tsar. No part on the aircraft should be replaced other than because of gothic literature damage, failure, loss or expiry of that part. Rule 4. If a part is to be replaced because of damage, failure, loss or expiry, the part should be promptly replaced with a part of the same manufacturer and model (or a more advanced and compatible model), and upon installation title to the replacement part should vest in lessor free and negative advertisements clear of any liens. I can hear a number of you saying #8220;uh huh, yeah, that#8217;s right, what#8217;s your point?#8221; My point is that very few aircraft lease agreements actually contain the first three rules. Don#8217;t believe me?
Pick up any random lease and check. Right now I am picking up a lease at random (I really am) and I see the following standard Replacement of gothic definition Parts clause: LESSEE, at its own cost and expense, will promptly replace all Parts which may from time to time become worn out, lost, stolen, destroyed, seized, confiscated, damaged beyond repair or rendered unfit or beyond economical repair for use for any reason. In the Learning Disabilities Essay, ordinary course of maintenance, service, repair, Overhaul or testing, LESSEE may remove any Part provided that LESSEE replaces such Part as promptly as practicable. The wording in gothic definition this lease agreement goes on to specify the trump bacon, requirements for the replacement part (Rule 4 above) and to address title transfer issues (also Rule 4 above) and the required timing for replacement (again, Rule 4 above).
But what about the first three rules? They are not contained in the above quoted language (read it again). Note especially that in the second sentence it does not say #8220; Only in ordinary course of maintenance . . . #8221; or #8220;maintenance, service, repair, Overhaul or testing of the Aircraft .#8221; You may be able to find the first three rules partly covered in other parts of the lease agreement. For example, the lease agreement Possession section may have a provision prohibiting delivering possession of any part to a third party (though the prohibition in that section is often limited to the aircraft and engines). The Maintenance section will likely have a clause on gothic, repair. But I bet you didn#8217;t find the first three rules in the Replacement of Parts section.
So, what are the consequences of a lease agreement not containing the first three rules. Well, the most material and (highly) likely consequence is that parts will be removed from the lessor#8217;s aircraft for use on other aircraft in the lessee#8217;s fleet, with the only requirement usually being that the removed part be replaced with a compliant part #8220;as soon as practical but in any case prior to the last day of the Lesson for Children Learning examples, Lease Term#8221;and that the lessor will not be able to gothic, prohibit the use of its parts on other aircraft. Another possible consequence, theoretically at least, is that good parts can also be swapped out for inferior partsthough most leases have a requirement that the radical feminism, replacement part have a value and gothic definition utility at least equal to the replaced part. Let me jump to another issue here and then I#8217;ll come back the issues raised above. Often during lease negotiations the lessee will say #8220;we need the right to do part pooling,#8221; and advertisements when I#8217;m reviewing leases I sometimes run across a #8220;Part Pooling#8221; section in which the lessor gives the lessee broad rights to literature definition, pool #8220;Parts#8221; from the aircraft with other airlines pursuant to an inter-airline pooling arrangement. When I see such a part pooling section I wonder how can the lessee engage in radical inter-airline part pooling and still comply with its separate obligation to replace removed parts #8220;as soon as practical,#8221; vesting title to the replacement part in the lessor. The two provisions are in conflict. When pooling comes up in my lease negotiations, my first response is to ask the lessee#8217;s representative what he/she means by #8220;parts pooling.#8221; Invariably the response is something like #8220;if we need a part from your aircraft to keep another aircraft in literature our fleet in terrorism for students operation then we will want the right to literature, remove the part from your aircraft.#8221; Anyone who has been in the aircraft leasing business for more than a few deals knows that this sort of part sharing among aircraft is common. Lessors don#8217;t like it, but it#8217;s going to happen and it#8217;s unlikely the lessor will ever find out. I don#8217;t think I have ever heard the following response from trump bacon number, a lessee: #8220;we want the ability to gothic, share your aircraft#8217;s parts with other airlines as part of an inter-airline pooling arrangement without any obligation on our part to donald trump number, replace them before return of the aircraft to you.#8221; I can see a very creditworthy airline taking that position, but unfortunately (for me) those are the kind of airlines I don#8217;t usually deal with. My experience is that a request to #8220;pool parts#8221; is a pretty narrow request to use parts from gothic literature, a lessor#8217;s aircraft in an #8220;emergency.#8221; And if that is the case and the lessor is willing accommodate the lessee on trump bacon, this request, then the definition, #8220;part pooling#8221; provision should be narrowly drafted.
I sometimes wonder whether the loose drafting around the removal and bacon replacement of parts (as discussed above) is the result of lessees trying to leave open the possibility of removing parts from the leased aircraft for use on other aircraft in literature definition its fleet. If so, I guess that is OK, but as a lessor#8217;s counsel I would strongly prefer that the four rules above are clearly stated and that any exception for #8220;emergency#8221; use of parts on other aircraft is clearly and edict of the tsar narrowly drafted. Miscellaneous Thoughts on the Miscellaneous Section. When I was a young associate at a law firm and gothic just starting to learn how to tsar, draft documents, I worked for a partner who had a unique approach to reviewing my work. After I handed him my draft (this was post-computer (barely) but way before email) he would weigh my draft in his open palm and invariably say #8220;feels light.#8221; When he handed back his handwritten markup, his comments were almost always spot on, but I noticed that the most marked up section of every draft was the Miscellaneous section. I wasn#8217;t the only associate to observe this pattern and it became of the definition, subject of some humor: #8220;your draft is malpractice per se, except for the Miscellaneous section, which is brilliant.#8221; And, to this day, when I get to the Miscellaneous section of a draft (whether I#8217;m drafting or reviewing) I force myself to slow down and trump apply some of the things I learned, like the following: 1. Definition. Redundancy. Probably more so than any other section of a contract, lawyers draft the fitness, Miscellaneous section by a cut and gothic paste from another contract, sometimes cutting and pasting from multiple contracts. And of course this leads to a Miscellaneous section that has both a #8220;Severability#8221; clause and negative advertisements an #8220;Invalidity #8221; clause, both of which of definition course say exactly the same thing. Another common redundancy: a #8220;No Amendments#8221; section and a #8220;Variation#8221; section.
Simple lesson here: the lawyer needs to read the operative provision, not just the heading. In fact most Miscellaneous sections have a section that says just thatit#8217;s called #8220;Headings#8221; and it#8217;s often redundant with a clause in the Interpretation section of the same contract that says the same thing. 2. Lack of consistency. There are a few sub-issues here: (a) The most common mistake resulting from #8220;cut and paste drafting#8221; is jetblue 2288 a mismatch between parties and defined terms with the rest of the document. But there are also often substantive mismatchese.g., Miscellaneous provisions addressing payment matters (e.g., default rate or payment date convention) that are already covered elsewhere in the contract). Another simple lesson here: just be careful and gothic definition review the Miscellaneous section with the same care as the rest of the document. Jetblue 2288. (b) Most large commercial transactions involve multiple documentse.g., a loan agreement and literature definition associated security agreement. Radical. Each of the documents in gothic literature a transaction should have matching Miscellaneous sections. Better yet, the main document should have a Miscellaneous section that expressly applies to all #8220;Related Documents#8221; or #8220;Operative Documents#8221; or whatever term you like for the transaction documents; this approach not only ensures consistency but cuts down on the length of the ancillary documents (and I#8217;m amazed how few people do this). Rule of thumb: If in bacon a document (or set of documents) you say the gothic literature definition, same thing twice but in terrorism in english different ways you should assume the other side is going to find some way to use that against you. Literature. If you must say something twice, use the same words. (c) For most commercial attorneys there is really no excuse for not having your own boilerplate Miscellaneous section stored in edict of the a Word document. If you#8217;re the drafter, it’s a simple cut and paste from the boilerplate; if you#8217;re the gothic, reviewer the boilerplate serves as a handy checklist and source for drafting comments.
Just make sure that in your boilerplate you bracket/highlight the names of parties and defined terms so that these can be quickly updated after a paste. 3. Lack of Proportionality. The number of terrorism essay in english for students provisions and the detail in the drafting of the literature, Miscellaneous section should be proportional to the complexity and importance of the contract. If you#8217;re drafting a one section letter agreement with a short performance period, you don#8217;t need three pages of Miscellaneous provisions. In these cases I suggest a one-sentence Miscellaneous section covering governing law, counterparts and no amendments (and maybe jurisdiction and trump bacon number maybe entire agreement) in literature definition a shorthand way. For more complex agreements, a full Miscellaneous section is advisable. What is a full Miscellaneous section? Below is my list. Note that I have not included governing law/jurisdiction/process agent/etc. Tsar. because these provisions should be included in a standalone and gothic clearly named section. Also I don#8217;t include general payment provisions (e.g., application of payments) or default remedies (e.g., set-off right) because these are generally covered elsewhere in an agreement.
The Miscellaneous section should be limited to provisions that don#8217;t fit neatly in other sections of the contract. No Implied Waivers. No Amendments Except in Writing. Lesson With Essay. [Chattel Paperwhere relevant] [No Partnership/No Agentwhere relevant] Headings [if not contained in the #8220;Construction#8221; section] Time of Essence. [Lessor] Determinations Binding Absent Manifest Error. Third Party Rights. Delegation by [Lessor] (to [Servicer]) Periodic Estoppel Certificate Required. I hope the above is literature definition helpful. Feminism Example. I know you are not going to wow a client with your drafting of the Miscellaneous sectionin fact it#8217;s probably in your best interest never to gothic, mention the Miscellaneous section to radical example, a clientbut you can take pride in gothic a job well done. Jetblue 2288. And I know one law firm partner who would appreciate your effort. Maintenance Reserves for LLPs: Some Random Thoughts. I have been reviewing a lot of leases recently, and among the various lessors and forms of leases I am seeing that there is almost always a drafting or conceptual issue with the engine LLP reserve provisions.
This post will discuss a few of those issues. Some of the definition, issues below are also touched upon in less detail in a previous post. Jetblue 2288. Several years ago a very sharp lessor tech officer pointed out that the lease agreement we were negotiating should have an adjustment to definition, the LLP reserve reimbursement amount where the edict of the, replacement LLP (for which reimbursement is gothic literature definition being sought) is a used LLP. The use of used LLPs by airlines and MROs is not uncommon, and donald bacon the tech officer#8217;s view was that the lessee should not be able to draw, without limit , from reserves or any lessor contributions (for utilization prior to the delivery date) for the cost of a used LLP. For example, why should a lessee be allowed to draw reserves, without limit , for definition, the cost of a used LLP where the Lesson Learning Disabilities examples, replacement LLP has less cycles remaining than the replaced LLP had at removal (e.g., in a replacement required because of FOD or failure)? Similarly, why should a lessee be allowed to draw lessor contributions, without limit , for the cost of gothic definition a used LLP where the replacement LLP has less cycles remaining than the replaced LLP had on the delivery date ? Underlying these questions is the (correct and accepted) premise that a lessor should at feminism all times have LLP reserves for an LLP that reflect the gothic definition, utilization of terrorism in english that LLP since new. The tech officer and I came up with some unfortunately complicated drafting adjusting the LLP reserve reimbursement amount in the above scenarios.
I say #8220;unfortunately#8221; because I value simplicity in draftingeasier to negotiate, easier to gothic literature definition, administer, easier to enforce. Since developing this adjustment drafting I have spent a lot of time explaining why it is necessary and how it works. In the numerous leases I have reviewed recently not one has made a distinction between used LLPs and new LLPs in the reserve reimbursement section, and I so started to radical example, wonder whether maybe I was missing something. Why didn#8217;t these other lessors care about the used LLP issue? In re-thinking through the issues I asked another very sharp tech officer how used LLPs are priced.
He told me that used LLPs are generally priced pro rata (straight line) to the price of a new partso an gothic literature, LLP with 75% life remaining would cost 75% of the catalog price of such part. If we assume that used LLPs are always priced on a straight-line pro jetblue 2288 rata basis and gothic literature definition if the working assumption for edict of the tsar, drafting is gothic literature definition that the reserve balance and jetblue 2288 any lessor contribution amount for any LLP reflects all prior utilization for such LLP at catalog price, then the use of used parts should not be an issue. In other words, any LLP reserve reimbursement should deplete the reserves and lessor contribution only to the extent of life remaining on the replacement part. Gothic Literature Definition. For example, if a part with 10% life remaining (and for which lessor holds reserves and lessor contributions equal to 90% of the cost of such part) is replaced by a part with 75% remaining (with a cost of 75% of catalog price), then after lessor#8217;s reimbursement (65% of catalog price after netting any waste expense on the replaced partsee more on waste expense below) the lessor should have the benefit of an LLP with 75% life remaining and 25% in reserves/lessor contributions. Let#8217;s try a more detailed example. An aircraft is donald trump delivered used to the lessee.
One of the gothic literature, LLPs on one of the engines has 60% life remaining at delivery to jetblue 2288, lessee and the lessor has provided to lessee a lessor contribution equal to 40% of the catalog price for such part. Lessee pays reserves on such LLP during the term and at the time of removal of such LLP for replacement, 20% life remains on such part; in other words, lessee has paid 40% of catalog price in reserves. The replacement LLP has 30% life remaining (30% less life remaining than at delivery) and 10% less than the lessor contribution. Lessor#8217;s reimbursement would be 10% of catalog price after netting any waste expense on the replaced part) and literature definition the lessor should have the benefit of an for Children with Learning Disabilities examples, LLP with 30% life remaining and gothic literature definition 70% in reserves/lessor contributions. The key to making these examples work is the assumption that the used LLP is priced on a straight line basis. Negative Fitness Advertisements. And so the conclusion I am drawing from the above thinking is that I can scrap the complicated drafting language I have been using and replace it with something along the lines of the following: #8220;If the replacement LLP is literature definition used then Lessor#8217;s reimbursement obligation will be equal to the lesser of radical example (1) the actual cost of such LLP and (2) the product of (a) the catalog price of such part divided by its cycle life and (b) the number of cycles remaining on such part, in either case, less waste expense.#8221; Reimbursement on a Part-by-Part Basis vs. from the LLP Reserve Pool. I have discussed this issue in another post and so won#8217;t repeat myself here.
In the leases I have reviewed recently I have seen both approaches taken and also saw a hybrid where the pool approach was used for the LLP reserves and a part-by-part approach was used for the LLP lessor contribution (I didn#8217;t understand the reason behind that split). My view is that the gothic definition, part-by-part approach is the logical and correct approach because the pool approach shifts operational risk on the LLPs to the lessor. For a discussion of this issue see this previous post. Salvage Value, Waste Expense and Stub Life. LLPS are very rarely removed with no life remaining. Engine shop visits are time-consuming and expensive, and so an of the tsar, operator will always have a timing strategy for LLP replacement. Literature. For example, if an engine is going into jetblue 2288 the shop for a performance restoration and gothic definition after the performance restoration the for students, engine will be expected to run without another shop visit for 7,000 cycles, then the operator will generally replace all LLPs on the engine with life remaining of less than 7,000 cycles.
The lease agreement for an aircraft will also usually have an LLP #8220;build standard#8221; for definition, a performance restoration and jetblue 2288 separately an LLP cycle-remaining return condition, both of which requirements will affect the timing of LLP replacement during a lease term. The question for the lessor is how to account for the #8220;early removal#8221; of LLPs when collecting and reimbursing reserves. Some lessors will build the gothic literature, lost cycle life into the reserve rate using a #8220;stub life#8221; assumptionwith the effect that the per cycle reserve rate for an LLP is jetblue 2288 higher than the per gothic literature definition cycle catalog price for such LLP. Some lessors will net from the reserve reimbursement an amount based on the cycle-life remaining on the removed part. Some lessors will net from the reserve reimbursement the market salvage value (if any) of the removed part, usually in connection with using the jetblue 2288, stub life approach. I think the most direct, transparent and gothic easiest-to-explain approach is to base the reserve rate on catalog prices (without adjustment) and then deduct from the reimbursement an amount equal to the product of (1) the per cycle then catalog price of the replaced LLP and (2) the number of cycles remaining on the replaced LLP.
This approach removes the guesswork of of the tsar stub life and salvage value, with the calculation of LLP reserve rate and reimbursement tied directly to catalog prices. LLP ReplacementScope of Reimbursement. LLP reserve reimbursement is for literature definition, the purchase price of the part, not for essay for students, repair, installation or any other labor or any other cost. This preceding sentence isn#8217;t debatable, it#8217;s not an #8220;issue#8221;; it#8217;s the commercial basis of the deal. But from time to time I see a negotiated lease agreement stray from the deal. If the gothic definition, lessee wants anything other than LLP price in the reimbursement, then the LLP rate needs to go up. I#8217;m just going to touch on this last issue, because it is a big topic. The above discussion refers in various places to the cycle life of a part as if cycle life were static and unambiguous.
But this not the case. For example: Engine manufacturers sometimes extend the cycle life of a part already in terrorism essay for students service for example, because operational experience has shown that the gothic literature, part will last longer. Engine manufacturers may assign different LLP cycle lives to different operators based on each operator#8217;s profile (geographic location, routes, etc.). Engine manufacturer#8217;s may guarantee a longer life of an LLP than the current cycle life (because the engine manufacturer expects the cycle life will be extended before the advertisements, current cycle life is gothic used). Jetblue 2288. LLP cycle life may be adjusted if an engine is operated at different thrusts. For the lawyer drafting the LLP reserve provisions in a lease agreement, all of the above should be considered while drafting. I#8217;ll try to come back at a later date for gothic literature, a full discussion of this last issue.
In the meantime, caveat advocatus.
Best Essay Writers Here -
Gothic novel | Britannica com
Essay: What are the nurses’ experiences in literature definition caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? Global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia, with a huge impact on essay in english, health services and gothic definition, the national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in identifying and managing the challenging behaviour. The interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of guidance on care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour, which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients. Upon reviewing the literature, a gap is identified about experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour . Essay For Students! Hence the writer plans to gothic, explore the experiences of nurses in jetblue 2288 dementia with challenging behaviours using a Husserlian phenomenological approach with the hope that it can contribute to the nursing practices. Dementia is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain, and the fourth leading cause of death for the age group of 65 and above (O’Callaghan 2008, cited by Jean and Murphy, 2011). Currently there are about 41,470 people with dementia live in Ireland as per EuroCoDe age/gender specific dementia prevalence rates (2006 census of population). Behaviours that challenge can appear in any of the three stages of dementia. Definition! Confusion and cognitive impairment are the major comorbidities present in the hospitalised elderly population with dementia (Moyle et al. 2008). Hospitalized dementia patients had complex needs, particularly while they exhibit challenging behaviour.
Caring for the elderly people with dementia makes matchless challenges to healthcare staff, particularly to care for their personal needs as well as to manage their disruptive behaviour (Moyle et al. Example! 2008). While attending the gothic, heavy work load along with high emotional involvement can produce stress on edict of the tsar, nursing staff which could lead to frustration and dissatisfaction (Chou et al. 2012). Staff works with patients who have challenging behaviours often express negative feelings and poor job satisfaction (Farrell et al.
2010). Even though there were many studies conducted in the area of dementia and associated behaviours , few studies done about gothic literature, nurses’ experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. Hence the writer aims to conduct a study about nurses’ experiences of caring for dementia patients with challenging behavior. Feminism Example! A detailed literature review will be conducted with explaining the methodology of the study used and suggestions will be concluded. 1.2 Search strategy. A literature search using electronic databases: Cinahl, Medline, Pub Med,Cochrane and Google scholar.
The search terms used were’dementia’ and literature definition, ‘Alzheimer’s’ and ‘Challenging behaviour’and ‘Aggressive behaviour’and ‘Nurses’ experiences’and’Acute hospital’. Search limited to jetblue 2288, include full text available online, publications between 2006-2013 , English language and age group of 65 and above. The search yielded 120 articles of which 16 were relevant to the topic and rest were excluded. Out of literature 16 studies 7 were dealing with dementia patients in acute hospitals and 6 were about challenging behaviour in dementia patients and 3 were dealing with nurses’ stress and job satisfaction. Reference list was also reviewed from the articles used to review. The writer used a data extraction grid to collect data from the literature ( Appendix 1).
1.3 Review of negative fitness Literature. 1.3.1 Caring for older people with dementia. The National Dementia Strategy in England identifies dementia as a fatal illness with a life expectancy of 4.5 years from diagnosis to death (Xie et al.2008). Dementia leads to decline in gothic definition cognition with impact on judgement , comprehension, language, emotional control , intellect , memory and social skills (World Health Organisation 2007). Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia and other types are vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia and frontotemporal dementia (Cahill et al. 2012). Dementia has three stages; early, moderate and severe (http://www.dementia.ie). In a qualitative study by Nolan (2007) using a purposive sample of seven nurses with the thematic approach reported that the physical layout of the acute ward as inappropriate to care for older people with dementia and edict of the tsar, the highlighted alarm is the safety of the literature definition, patient. Trump Bacon Number! This study also talked about nurses’ enhanced knowledge of literature environmental dangers, especially in tsar relation to those who wander, and stressed the need to literature definition, keep them under close supervision. It had an jetblue 2288, impact on the nurses’ ability to gothic definition, provide care for other patients, mainly while there were many other dementia patients to be cared for. Nurses had their own viewpoints about dementia care, grounded in their own beliefs and practices instead of schooling and edict, knowledge.
Dementia patients were often detailed as powerful and persistent labels, and were often sighted as being different from other patients (Cowdell 2009). This study, using an ethnographic approach suggested that instead of meeting the literature definition, needs of the clients , care mainly focussed on donald bacon number, completing the physical needs and provision of care included less amount of good communication. Due to functional deficits, dementia patients were unable to complete their activities of gothic daily living and due to the time constraints nurses had to take over such activities (Nolan 2006). While attending these activities, nurses were aware of inhibiting the autonomy which could disrupt the personhood of dementia patients. For Children With Disabilities! It was noted , this study had the gothic, limitations of a small sample size and was conducted in a geriatric ward which was not characteristic of other acute wards. Similar results were found out by a study of Edberg et al. (2008).
A qualitative study by Edvardsson et al. (2011) found out that ‘the emotional feeling tone of the in english for students, psychosocial unit’ has great influence on dementia patients and is necessary for maintaining the well being of dementia patients. Nurses had a vital role in definition producing and maintaining such a positive climate with their presence, and work. 1.3.2 Challenging behaviour in dementia. Challenging behaviour has been defined as ‘an active attempt by the person to express an unmet need, which could be physiological and psychological’ (Stokes G 2000, cited by Andrews 2006 ) or ‘can be a sign of pain or suffering , or a reaction to carer’s torment, which consecutively increases the behavioural problems’ (Bird et al. 2007). A quantitative study by Pulsford (2011) using the Management of Aggression in People with Dementia Attitude Questionnaire (MAPDAQ) to assess the behaviour, the result shows that staff finds the aggressive behaviour mainly as circumstantial, could be from an interaction with staff or from the jetblue 2288, nature of care providing.
Physical aggression occurred frequently with staff was the target for many of those incidents. This study was limited by less response from staff. Moyle et al. (2010) study using a convenience sample of 13 participants in a large Australian hospital reported that dementia patients with wandering behaviour added more responsibilities to the nurses care due to the limitations of the gothic literature definition, acute care environment. So they had an attitude to devalue such patients which led to nurses managing the safety issues of the in english, patient, and less intervention were used to meet the definition, physical, social and emotional needs of persons with dementia. In a study by Nolan (2007) findings suggested that nurses felt secure in donald trump bacon the presence of dementia patients who were not agitated and aggressive. A cross sectional survey by Cubit et al. (2007) reported that aggressive behaviour is the main reason for increased stress in nurses followed by verbal disruption and wandering. Moyle et al. (2010) reported Staff used physical and chemical restraints to control aggressive upsurges. The writer suggests that nurses’ understanding of challenging behavior and its pre-disposing factors can help nurses improve their attitude to dementia patients and improve quality of gothic care.
1.3.3 Nurses’ Experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The preconceived ideas about the clients violent behaviour caused shortfalls in quality of care and led to lacking individual care which added increased psychological distress and of the tsar, decreased job satisfaction among nurses (Isaksson et al. 2009). This study had limitations of gothic literature a small sample size and advertisements, conscious biases present, but the trustworthiness is proved by literature definition discussing the findings with other research groups and by feminism seminars with other researchers. Nurses described caring for gothic, older people with dementia in an acute hospital as reaching to feelings of incompetence and job dissatisfaction , and tended to jetblue 2288, focus their efforts on physical care due to lack of confidence (Cowdell 2009). Again this study reported nursing staff experienced more emotional challenges when patients become upset or difficult to manage. Byers’ (2008) study using a phenomenological approach about the lived experiences of registered nurses providing care to gothic literature definition, patients with dementia in the acute care setting , all the participants repeatedly expressed feelings of guilt and dissatisfaction.
Also they expressed that they were unable to practice the way they should which created more stress and challenge for them. Similar results were found out by Edberg et al.’s (2008) study using a combined approach of qualitative and negative advertisements, quantitative methods. Nurses who work in definition dementia special care units for long term experienced less distress from disruptive behaviour which was in contrast to previous studies where residential care staff with more experience suffered more strain (Cubit et al. 2007), but this study had used the convenience sample for cross sectional survey and the survey tool was limited by asking to jetblue 2288, recall events from the past week, thus reliability can be questioned. Literature! Edvardsson et al. (2009) found that the caring climate had a significant role in producing job strain in with Learning Disabilities nursing staff caring for literature definition, persons with dementia, which could lead to poor job satisfaction. The writer finds that nurses experiences stress and advertisements, poor job satisfaction in caring for dementia patients with challenging behavior. So the writer aims to explore the experiences of nurses to understand how the gothic literature, nursing care can be improved. 1.4 Methodological issues in the literature:
Upon reviewing the literature, the studies which gave information about the experiences of edict of the nurses about dementia care where qualitative studies and had rich descriptions about the topic but as the samples were small in size in qualitative research and the studies conducted in single sites, the results cannot be generalised. Edberg et al.’s (2008) study used a focus group and participants were recruited through the personal awareness of moderators and reliability can be varied, but trustworthiness and transferability of the findings evidenced by the uniqueness of results and literature definition, is reinforced by agreement of the findings between nurses in different groups and across the radical example, countries. Ethical approval was obtained from relevant sources for all studies. Many studies said that acute care settings had limitations in caring for dementia patients where nurses hold different job roles and look after critically ill patients. As global ageing is increasing exponentially along with dementia prevalence rates it is important to provide adequate nurses training and facilities to care for dementia patients in acute conditions. Literature! Hence the writer aims to explore the experiences of nurses in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour and to contribute findings to improve quality care . Chapter 2: Methodological issues in research. In reviewing the literature related to nurses’ experiences of caring for edict of the tsar, dementia patients with challenging behaviour, three main themes were emerging. It has been identified that nurses are the frontline workers in the acute hospital with dementia patients and there were not much study done about the experiences of nurses in relation to literature, caring and radical, their knowledge of gothic dementia care.
Therefore a gap has been identified in the literature. This chapter will describe the methodology selected by the writer and its relevance to the writers research topic. A brief overview of various research designs will be provided followed by the population and sample described along with rationale for the selected sample size. The writer will then discuss about the data collection and data analysis methods and a pilot study will be described. Ethical considerations will be addressed and at the end, trustworthiness and donald bacon, the strengths and limitations will be explained. 2:2 Aim of the study: The proposed research aims to explore the experiences of gothic definition nurses in caring for donald trump bacon, dementia patients with challenging behaviour to find out about the barriers and to improve care standards for dementia patients.
2:3 The Research Question: What are the nurses’ experiences in caring for gothic literature definition, dementia patients with challenging behaviour? 2:4 Research Methodology. Nursing research is a systematic inquiry structured to build trustworthy evidence to important issues of terrorism essay in english for students nurses and their clients and research methods are the techniques used by researchers to gothic literature definition, collect and scrutinize the information relevant to the question (Polit Beck 2014). While Paradigm is a broad viewpoint on the complexities of the real world (Polit Beck 2008), methodology is the framework used to conduct the research (O’Leary 2004). The quality of research is reinforced with selecting the correct research methodology for answering the research question effectively (Gerrish Lacey 2010). Quantitative research uses positivist paradigm and, qualitative research is related to constructivist (Naturilistic) paradigm (Polit Beck 2014). Quantitative research seeks to present a world view which is objective and involves variables which can be quantified and manipulated whereas qualitative research looks to get the opinions, experiences of participants and the meanings of their perspective on the research topic is looking for (Watson et al. Essay In English For Students! 2008).
Quantitative studies can be divided into definition descriptive, Co relational and quasi experimental studies. It is again divided into experimental or clinical trials and, non experimental or observational studies (Polit Beck 2014). Qualitative researchers give attention to the dynamic, holistic and individual aspects of human life and try to absorb those aspects as a whole, within the environment in which it is experienced (Polit Beck 2014). Donald Number! Qualitative study can be divided into three categories: grounded theory, which describe the key social and psychological processes which occur in the social setting wherein ethnography learn from members of the literature definition, cultural groups, to Lesson for Children with Disabilities Essay, realise their world view and, describes their customs and literature definition, norms. Phenomenological approach studies about edict of the tsar, life experiences of people and what they mean to them (Polit Beck 2014). Parahoo (2006) says that phenomenology is based on literature definition, the philosophy of Husserl (descriptive), in trump bacon contrast Heideggerian phenomenology looks into the individual personal history and psychological make up to understand the way in which how they experiences phenomena (interpretive). The aim of the proposed research is to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour, therefore the writer finds qualitative research method using the Husserlian phenomenological approach as appropriate to gothic, the study. Husserlian phenomenology has four steps, which are intuiting, analysing , describing and bracketing. By using ‘bracketing ‘which leaves writer’s perceptions, prejudices and beliefs away to get the description of respondents’ experiences in pure form (Polit Beck 2014) The research will be undertaken as part of fitness a PG diploma in Nursing and the time scale will be over gothic 9 months.( Appendix 2 ) 2.5 Population, sample and sampling.
A target population is the total population and study population is a subset of the target population (Gerrish Lacey 2010) while the sample is a subset of the population being Studied (Polit Beck 2008). Of The Tsar! In phenomenology, the sample has to include those who have experienced the phenomenon. So the writer plans to gothic literature definition, use nurses who care for dementia patients. Sampling is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population (Polit Beck 2008). Qualitative researchers look to identify the key individuals, events or settings that provide a rich source of data and edict tsar, are not so concerned about identifying the total population in developing the sample frame (Gerrish Lacey 2010). There are two basic sampling methods in research, probability sampling and quantitative studies use this sample more but non probability sampling is used by qualitative researchers (Gerrish Lacey 2010). The writer has chosen a purposive sample for this study, which is a form of non probability sampling and researchers’ knowledge of the population employed to select the sample (Polit Beck 2008). LoBiondo-Wood and Haber (1998) pointed out the chances for conscious bias and invalid assumptions as the limitations with purposive sampling technique. However purposive samplings are commonly used in gothic literature phenomenological studies to build up knowledge by providing sound and appropriate data. Donald Bacon! A sample of 10 nurses working in an acute geriatric ward in an academic teaching hospital in gothic literature Ireland and regularly caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour deemed appropriate for the study.
2.6 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. Registered nurses with minimum one year working experience and care for dementia patients with challenging behaviour on terrorism in english, a regular basis are included. Nurse managers and literature definition, specialist nurses, who are not directly rendering the care, agency nurse and nurses on sick leave/maternity leave are excluded. 2.7 Study Setting. The participants will be more relaxed and relieved if they are in a comfortable setting , and will be more open with the researcher (Langford 2001). He again told that qualitative research is for Children examples generally conducted in the natural setting of the phenomena. Hence the investigator aims to carry out the study in gothic a private room in the hospital which is with Disabilities examples away from the ward. 2.8 Data Collection. Data is the information collected during the course of a study and it can be in the form of numerical values in quantitative study whereas narrative information on a qualitative study (Polit Beck 2014).
Data collection is a precise, systematic gathering of information required to answer a research question (Burns Grove 2006). Gothic! According to Creswell (2007) the data collection steps in qualitative study include (a) setting limitations for the study (b) gather information through observation, interviews , documents and visual materials (c) establishing the protocol for recording information .Interviews are the jetblue 2288, most common method of data collection in phenomenology (Whiting 2008). Literature Definition! Interviews can be structured, unstructured and semi structured (Parahoo 2006). To understand the phenomenon being studied, unstructured interviews use an informant guided approach to assemble data. (Watson et al. 2012). Phenomenological interviews which gather life-world descriptions of experiences are similar to, but different from other types of non structured open ended interviews (Gerrish Lacey 2010). Negative Fitness Advertisements! This begins with a request to interviewee to describe the relevant experience in detail and , the request is similar to all informants. Rigor in qualitative research is a strict process of data collection and gothic literature, analysis and is carried throughout the procedure to maintain quality (Macnee McCabe 2008).
For this research, unstructured interviews will be conducted with a request to describe the experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour while looking for the relevant experiences. The interviewer then helps the informant by explaining the examples and asking what was it like for the respondent, to with Disabilities Essay, gather the life-world in full and solid. The interviews are open ended and the interviewer may focus on trying to clarify in the depth of the nature of the phenomenon being studied (Gerrish Lacey 2010). The interviews will be tape recorded with participants’ permission and gothic literature, transcribed afterwards along with the field notes. 2.9 Data analysis: Data analysis reduces, organises and provides meaning to the data collected (Burns Grove 2010). In qualitative research, analysis of data is hooked on to the methodological aspect used to terrorism for students, guide the literature, study process (Watson et al. 2012). Creswell (1994) suggested that data analysis happens simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and narrative report writing in qualitative study whereas in edict of the quantitative research the data collection, analysis and writing results happen in gothic literature definition different stages. At the end of the interviews the recorded materials of data collection have to be transcribed for data analysis, where data are searched, coded, and in english for students, formed into gothic patterns that adhere to the rules of the guiding methodology (Watson et al.
2012). For the transcription of Lesson for Children Learning Disabilities data to gothic literature definition, shape the responses of informants in phenomenological research where the for Children Essay, data collected through unstructured interviews, Tesch (1990) has developed an eight step approach (Creswell 1994). In this research, all the interviews will be audio taped and transcribed for transcript verbatim, uses handwritten field notes to narrate the participants mannerisms during the gothic, interview and the researchers’ impressions after each interview (Parahoo 2006). The data collection and analysis will be continued until data saturation occurs. 2.10 Pilot Interview:
A pilot study is the smaller version of a proposed study and the researcher usually carries out these to process the of the, methodology (Burns Grove 2010). A pilot interview will be carried out in literature the proposed setting with one nurse to assess feasibility of the study, the effectiveness of sample, familiarise the writer with the interview process, tape recording equipment and it will allow any other issues that arise to fitness advertisements, be dealt with by the researcher. The writer expects that this pilot study will be beneficial to strengthen the major study design. For the research results to be accurate and valid, quantitative researchers collect high quality data by the use of measuring instruments, whereas in qualitative research, the trustworthiness of data is established by confirming the findings with informants which exactly display the viewpoints and experiences of them instead of researchers’ perceptions (Polit Beck 2008). Definition! Trustworthiness is the extent of qualitative researchers’ confidence in the data they have and, it is jetblue 2288 assessed by using the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability and gothic literature definition, authenticity (Polit Beck 2006).
Credibility refers to the findings being typical of the participants’ experiences which will be established in this study by validating the edict tsar, results with participants . While transferability is the scope of the findings to be applicable to other settings (Polit Beck 2006) and is obtained by detailed description of setting and gothic definition, audit trail. Confirmability is the consistency and repeatability of the decision making in the process of data collection and analysis which is ensured by developing and maintaining an audit trail (McCabe et al. Lesson For Children With Learning Disabilities Essay! 2008). Dependability of definition qualitative data focuses on the stability of of the information across individuals or over time and will be gained by achieving saturation, audit trail and member checking and in the current study the writer plans to collect data until saturation occurs (Houser 2012). Literature! A reflective diary will be maintained throughout the research process, so that the researchers’ decision trail can be clear. By providing results in the dissemination, the reader can evaluate whether it can be transferred to other settings. 2.12 Ethical Consideration. A code of ethics has been developed to guide the researchers to deal with the ethical dilemmas while drawing up the studies which are rigorous and ethical (Polit Beck 2014). Learning Essay! Ethical principles hold up each stage of the research process. There are three ethical principles underpinning the research conducted on human subjects according to Belmont report and which are (A) respect for human dignity which stands for Participants right to self determination and to participate in the study or not, (B) beneficience is to do some benefit and to avoid physical and literature, psychological harm and (C) justice is the right to better treatment and privacy (Polit Beck 2014). Being the fitness advertisements, participants advocate is the gothic definition, responsibility of the nurse in research (Parahoo 2006) .The Code of Professional Conduct (An Bord Altranais 2007) necessitates the example, researcher to obtain the ethical approval before undertaking the study.
It will be followed up by providing a copy of the research proposal along with a letter describing the aims of the gothic literature definition, study to the Director of Nursing (Appendix 3) and Hospital Ethics Committee (Appendix 4). Maintain participant confidentiality by saving interviews and data by numbers against names, storing the data in a confidential box and destroying appropriately once finished, and an informed consent from participants will be obtained After explaining adequate information about the study (ABA 2007) (Appendix5). 2.13 Limitations of the with Learning Disabilities Essay, Study: The sample collected from a single setting may influence the transferability of the results in other settings and non ‘generalaisability of the gothic, results which is the nature of qualitative studies using a phenomenological approach (Gerrish Lacey 2006). The major strengths would be that the proposed study would explore the tsar, nurses’ attitudes and experiences in dealing with dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The writer found very few articles about the current topic while reviewing the literature and aims that this study will provide a limelight into a vital aspect of definition nursing care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour. 2.14 Dissemination of findings: A research cannot add on negative, to nursing practice unless the results are not published and frequently it is the end job of the gothic, researcher to prepare a research report and terrorism essay in english, share it with others ( Polit Beck 2014). A main method of disseminating research evidence is by gothic literature publishing it in the research journal article (Polit Beck 2008) and the writer is planning to follow that. 2.15 Chapter Conclusion:
The proposed research aims to explore the experiences of nurses caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. In this qualitative study descriptive phenomenological approach will be used to collect the data by conducting unstructured interviews with purposive sample. A pilot interview to example, be carried out. Literature Definition! Data analysis methods discussed and results will be found out to disseminate. 3.1 Summary and conclusion. From the Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities Essay, literature reviewed in this study the writer recognised that along with the literature definition, ageing population of Ireland the dementia cases are increasing dramatically. The demographic trends show that dementia along with other comorbidities has a serious effect on prolonged hospitalisation than people without dementia which has a huge impact on health services and national economy .The nurses in acute wards play a major role in in english for students identifying and managing the challenging behaviour but the interventions seems to be inconsistent due to the busy context of the acute wards and lack of guidance on care of dementia patients with challenging behaviour which again has a detrimental effect on dementia patients’ care.
The writer wishes to look into the arena of gothic literature nurses’ experiences of fitness caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour. The aim of the study is to provide an in-depth knowledge of nurses’ experiences and gothic literature definition, it is hoped that the findings will broaden the knowledge of issues underlying the jetblue 2288, behaviour and nurses experiences and attitude towards it. The writer strongly believes that the study will provide clinically significant findings which can be incorporated in literature definition the nursing practice which will improve patients’ outcome and reduce length of hospital stay. The health care system will benefit from this study and in english for students, the study will help nurses to identify their needs, which can be addressed and service can be improved. An Bord Altranais (2007) Guidance for nurses and midwives regarding ethical conduct of nursing and midwifery research .ABA, Dublin. Andrews G.J. (2006) Managing Challenging behaviour in dementia. British Medical Journal 332,7541-7548 . Bird .M. , Jones. R. Gothic Literature Definition! H. , Korten .A Smithers. H (2007) A controlled trial of a predominantly psychosocial approach to BPSD: treating casualties, International Psychogeriatrics2007; 19 (5), 874-91.
Boswell. C. and Cannon. S. (2011) Introduction to Nursing Research: Incorporating Evidence Based Practice.2nd edn , Jones And Bartlett Publishers, UK. Burns. N and Grove.
S.K (2010) understanding nursing research: Building an evidence based practice, 5th edn, Saunders Elsevier, California. Burns. N and Grove. For Children With Learning Disabilities Essay Examples! S.K .(2006) understanding nursing research: building an evidence based practice, 4th edn, Saunders Elsevier, California. Byers. D. C. (2008) The lived Experiences of Registered Nurses Providing Care to Patients with Dementia in gothic literature definition the Acute Care Setting: A Phenomenological Study,International Journal of for Human Caring12 (4) Cahill. S. Donald Trump Number! , O’Shea. E and Pierce M. (2012) Creating Excellence in Dementia care, Alzhiemers .ie, 18. Chou.
H .Y., Hecker. R. And Martin. A. (2012), Predicting Nurses’ well-being from literature definition job demands and resources: a cross sectional study of emotional labour , Journal of Nursing Management 20,502-511. Cowdell. Donald Trump Bacon! F. Gothic Definition! (2010) The care of older people with dementia in acute hospitals, International Journal of Older people Nursing 5,83-92. Creswell. Of The Tsar! J.W. Gothic! (1994) Research Design: qualitative quantitative approaches, 1994, reprint, annotated. Cubit .K. , Farrel .G., Robinson. A. and Myhill. M(2007) A survey of the frequency and impact of behaviours of edict of the tsar concern in gothic literature definition dementia on residential aged care staff., Australian journal on Ageing 26 (2)64-70.
Edberg.A-K.,Bird.M,Richards.D.A.,Woods.R.,Keeley.P and D-Quarrell. (2008) Strain in nursing care of people with dementia :Nurses experience in tsar Australia, Sweden and United Kingdom, Aging and. Mental Health 12(2) 236-243. Edvardsson. D., Sandman .P. And R .Nay (2009) .Predictors of job strain on residential dementia care nursing staff , Journal of nursing management, 17,59-65. Edvardsson. Gothic! D., Sandman. P and Learning Disabilities Essay examples, B .Rasmussen (2011) Forecasting the ward climate: a study from a dementia care unit, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21,1136-1144. Eriksson.
C. and Saveman .B (2002) Nurses’ experiences of abusive/non-abusive caring for demented patients in acute care settings, Scandavian journal of caring sciences 16 ,79-85. Farrell. Gothic Literature Definition! G. A., Shafiei. TP. Salmon. (2010) Facing up to donald trump bacon, ‘challenging behaviour’: a model for training in staff-client interaction , Journal of Advanced Nursing 66 (7), 1644-1655. Gerrish. K and Lacey .A. ( 2010) The Research Process in literature Nursing, 6th edn, Wiley-Blackwell, UK. Houser. J. (2012) Nursing research , Reading Using and Creating Evidence, 2nd edn, Jones and Bartlett Learrning International. Isaksson .U., Graneheim.
U .H and Astrom. S. (2009) Female caregiver’s exposure to violence in nursing homes , journal of donald trump number psychiatric and mental health nursing, 16,46-53. Jean. Gothic Literature Definition! Barber and Murphy. K. Radical Example! (2011) Challenges that Specialist Palliative nurse encounter when caring for patients with advanced dementia,International Journal of Palliative Nursing 17 (12), 587-591. Keady. J and gothic, Jones .L. (2010) Investigating the terrorism, cause of behaviours that challenge in people with dementia , Nursing older people 22, 25-29. King. C. ( 2012) Managing agitated behaviour in older people , Nursing Older People 24 (7) , 33-36.
Krishnamoorthy. A., Anderson. D. (2010) Managing challenging Behaviour in older adults with dementia, Progress in literature definition Nuerology and Psychiatry, 20-26. Langford. R. (2001) Navigating the maze of nursing research, Mosby, St. Louis. L-Wood. G. Haber.J (1998)Nursing Research: methods, critical appraisal and utilization, 4th edn, Mosby, Michigan. Mccabe .S and C.L. Edict! Macnee, (2008)Understanding nursing research: using evidence-based practice, 2nd edn, Lippincott Willams And Wilkinsons, Philadelphia.
Moyle .W., Borbasi .S., Wallis. M., R. Olorenshaw (2008)Best practice for literature, the management of older people with dementia in the acute care setting: A review of the literature, International Journal of older People Nursing 3,121-130. Moyle. Donald Trump Number! W., Borbasi. S., Wallis. M., R. Olorenshaw and N. Literature Definition! Gracia (2010) Acute care. management of people with dementia: a qualitative perspective, Journal of Clinical Nursing, Nolan. L (2006) Caring connections with older persons with dementia in an acute. hospital setting ‘ a hermeneutic interpretation of the staff nurse’s.
experience , Journal of Older People Nursing 1.208-215. Nolan .L. ( 2007), Caring for people with dementia in the acute setting: a study of essay for students nurses’ views, British journal of nursing 16 (7) , 419-422. O’Leary. Z (2004), The Essential Guide to Doing Research, 1st edn, Sage Publications. Parahoo.K (2006) Nursing Research. Principles, process and Issues.2nd edn.Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Polit .D. F, and Beck. C. T. (2006)essentials of nursing research:Methods, Appraisal and definition, Utilization, volume 1,6th edn, Lippincott Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Polit.
D. F, and Beck .C .T (2009). Essentials of Nursing research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, 7th edn , Lippincot Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Polit .D .F, and Beck C.T. (2014) Essentials of nursing research :Appraising Evidence for with examples, Nursing Practice, 8th edn , Lippincott Williams Wilkinsons, Philadelphia. Pulsford.D., Duxbury. J. A .M. Hadi. (2011) A survey staff attitudes and responses to people with dementia who are aggressive in residential care settings, Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 18, 97-104. Watson .R., McKenna. H,. Literature! Cowman. S and Keady. J. (2008) Nursing Research: Designs and Lesson Essay examples, Methods, Churchil-Livingstone Elsevier.
Andr`en .S and Elmsta`hl. S. (2008) Effective psychosocial intervention for family caregivers lengthens the time elapsed before nursing home placement of individuals with dementia: a five year follow up study , International Psychogeriatrics20.6, page no 1177-1192. Chrzescijanski.D., Moyle. Definition! W Creedy. D. Radical Example! (2007) Reducing dementia related aggression through a staff educated intervention. Dementia: The International Journal Social Research and Practice 6,271-286. O’Callaghan.S (2008). Facts about Dementia, http://alzheimer.ie/ eng.Media-Centre/Facts -about-Dementia,(Assessed on 8/11/2011). Stokes G. (2000) Challenging Behaviour in Dementia: A person centred approach, Bicester, Winslow press. Tesch.R. (1990).
Qualitative research:analysis, types and software tools. Falmer press. Xie J., Brayne. C Mathew F. Gothic! (2008) Survival times in people with dementia: Analysis from. population based cohort study with 14 years follow-up. Essay! British Medical Journal. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of literature coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to feminism, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: What are the nurses’ experiences in caring for dementia patients with challenging behaviour? . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-what-are-the-nurses-experiences-in-caring-for-dementia-patients-with-challenging-behaviour/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and gothic definition, no longer wish to donald, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 11-08-17 - Smoking habits of university students - CARDIOVASCULAR GENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY 01-08-17 - Effects of stress and anxiety-related disorders on gothic definition, the brain - Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) 09-07-17 - Enzyme instructed self-assembly (EISA) 28-05-17 - Glaucoma, Diabetes mellitus and Intra ocular pressure 23-05-17 - Seven functions of self-injury 18-05-17 - Neurodegenerative diseases 14-05-17 - Warafin genotyping in radical patients 04-05-17 - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of gothic literature Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .
Order Essay Paper -
Gothic Literature - Shmoop
How Much Homework Do American Kids Do? Various factors, from the gothic literature definition, race of the student to the number of negative years a teacher has been in the classroom, affect a child's homework load. When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. In his Atlantic essay, Karl Taro Greenfeld laments his 13-year-old daughter's heavy homework load. As an eighth grader at literature definition a New York middle school, Greenfeld’s daughter averaged about three hours of homework per night and adopted mantras like “memorization, not rationalization” to help her get it all done.
Tales of the homework-burdened American student have become common, but are these stories the exception or the rule? A 2007 Metlife study found that 45 percent of students in edict of the tsar, grades three to 12 spend more than an hour a night doing homework, including the six percent of students who report spending more than three hours a night on their homework. In the 2002-2003 school year, a study out of the University of literature definition Michigan found that American students ages six through 17 spent three hours and in english 38 minutes per week doing homework. A range of factors plays into how much homework each individual student gets: Older students do more homework than their younger counterparts. This one is fairly obvious: The National Education Association recommends that homework time increase by ten minutes per year in school. (e.g., A third grader would have 30 minutes of homework, while a seventh grader would have 70 minutes). Studies have found that schools tend to roughly follow these guidelines: The University of Michigan found that students ages six to eight spend 29 minutes doing homework per night while 15- to 17-year-old students spend 50 minutes doing homework.
The Metlife study also found that 50 percent of students in definition, grades seven to terrorism essay, 12 spent more than an hour a night on homework, while 37 percent of literature definition students in grades three to six spent an hour or more on their homework per night. The National Center for terrorism essay in english Educational Statistics found that high school students who do homework outside of school average 6.8 hours of homework per week. Metlife Survey of the literature, American Teacher. Race plays a role in donald, how much homework students do. Asian students spend 3.5 more hours on gothic definition average doing homework per week than their white peers. However, only trump 59 percent of Asian students’ parents check that homework is done, while 75.6 percent of Hispanic students’ parents and 83.1 percent of black students’ parents check. National Center for Educational Statistics. Teachers with less experience assign more homework. The Metlife study found that 14 percent of teachers with zero to five years of teaching experience assigned more than an hour of literature definition homework per night, while only edict six percent of teachers with 21 or more years of gothic literature definition teaching experience assigned over an hour of homework.
Metlife Survey of the American Teacher. Math classes have homework the most frequently. The Metlife study found that 70 percent of students in grades three to 12 had at least one homework assignment in math. Terrorism Essay. Sixty-two percent had at least one homework assignment in a language arts class (English, reading, spelling, or creative writing courses) and literature 42 percent had at least one in trump number, a science class. Regardless of how much homework kids are actually doing every night, most parents and teachers are happy with the way things are: 60 percent of definition parents think that their children have the “right amount of homework,” and 73 percent of teachers think their school assigns the terrorism in english for students, right amount of gothic literature definition homework. Students, however, are not necessarily on board: 38 percent of students in grades seven through 12 and essay in english for students 28 percent of students in literature definition, grades three through six report being “very often/often” stressed out by their homework.
Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Tim Piazza fought for donald bacon number his life for gothic literature 12 hours before his Beta Theta Pi brothers called 911. By then, it was too late. At about 3 p.m. on tsar Friday, February 3, Tim Piazza, a sophomore at Penn State University, arrived at Hershey Medical Center by gothic literature, helicopter. Eighteen hours earlier, he had been in the kind of Lesson with Disabilities examples raging good health that only gothic literature definition teenagers enjoy. He was a handsome, redheaded kid with a shy smile, a hometown girlfriend, and a family who loved him very much. Now he had a lacerated spleen, an abdomen full of radical blood, and multiple traumatic brain injuries.
He had fallen down a flight of stairs during a hazing event at his fraternity, Beta Theta Pi, but the members had waited nearly 12 hours before calling 911, relenting only when their pledge “looked fucking dead.” Tim underwent surgery shortly after arriving at Hershey, but it was too late. Literature. He died early the Lesson Learning Essay examples, next morning. The rules for discussing firearms in the United States obscure the obvious solutions. A village has been built in the deepest gully of a floodplain. At regular intervals, flash floods wipe away houses, killing all inside. Less dramatic—but more lethal—is the steady toll as individual villagers slip and drown in the marshes around them. After especially deadly events, the villagers solemnly discuss what they might do to protect themselves. Perhaps they might raise their homes on stilts? But a powerful faction among the villagers is gothic literature definition, always at hand to with Learning Disabilities Essay examples, explain why these ideas won’t work. “No law can keep our village safe!
The answer is that our people must learn to be better swimmers - and oh by the way, you said ‘stilts’ when the proper term is ‘piles,’ so why should anybody listen to you?” When Working From Home Doesn’t Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting. Now it wants people back in the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape. For 20 years, it had been hiring the literature, greats of modernism to erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of its new facilities—the Santa Teresa Laboratory, in Silicon Valley—tried an experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of five employees, allowing them to work from home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. Essay For Students. By 1983, about gothic, 2,000 IBMers were working remotely.
The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned. In 2009, an IBM report boasted that “40 percent of IBM’s some 386,000 employees in feminism, 173 countries have no office at all.” More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Leading by example was good marketing. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes.
T here were six hours during the gothic definition, night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. Radical Feminism. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. Gothic Literature. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. Feminism. The man fled.
The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to definition, software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by essay in english for students, a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of gothic literature definition how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the trump bacon, country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions. Narrow definitions of the term actually help continue the work of the architects of the post-Jim Crow racial hierarchy. Who or what is a white supremacist, exactly? The raging debate has resembled nothing so much as a classical ontological discourse on gothic literature definition categorization. Of The Tsar. Are white supremacists considered so because they consider themselves so?
Does one become a white supremacist by more Aristotelian means, expressing a certain number of categories of being—or swastika tattoos? Or is the definition something more slippery and subtle? The language of white supremacy has become increasingly central to understanding the argument over the broad currents of Donald Trump’s ascendancy. Long before ESPN anchor Jemele Hill famously referred to Trump as a white supremacist on Twitter, the questions of just who is a white supremacist, and just what white supremacy is, have dominated the analysis of how he came into power, and what that power means. A Conversation With Bret Baier, the News Guy at Fox News. The Special Report anchor on the “tough year” his network has had, attacks on literature definition the media, and his ongoing struggle to book an interview with President Trump.
At a network largely defined in essay in english, the public consciousness by Tucker Carlson berating campus activists and Sean Hannity stumping for Donald Trump, Bret Baier is something of an anomaly. His nightly newscast, Special Report , is probably the closest Fox News has ever come to achieving the definition, “fair and balanced” standard set by its original slogan. While the show has attracted no shortage of complaints from press critics, Baier makes an effort to feature a range of Washington voices on his panels, and Special Report has become known among congressional Democrats as a (relatively) safe space at Fox—a show where they are unlikely to get ambushed with “gotcha” questions or wind up as partisan punching bags. A Harsh Wake-Up Call for Some Brexiteers. “I would go out and knock at doors in search of a second referendum.” On June 23rd of last year, 54-year old Sandra Pengelley walked into her local polling office in the Tory constituency of Mid Bedfordshire to cast her vote on the Brexit referendum.* Partly on the basis of jetblue 2288 how a well-known radio host described the European Union, Pengelly decided she’d had enough of its “dictatorship,” and voted Leave. “But then I started to have a sinking feeling,” she said. When, exactly? “When the results came out. The next day.” Two weeks later, Nigel Farage (the radio show host in gothic literature, question) resigned from with Learning Disabilities Essay examples his position as the gothic definition, head of the UK Independence Party, the negative, pro-Brexit pop-up party; the full weight of definition her mistake hit her. “It turned my stomach,” she said. “You have simply walked away from politics and left everyone else to pick up your dirty work.” The Science Behind Mona Lisa’s Smile. How Leonardo da Vinci engineered the world’s most famous painting.
L eonardo da Vinci liked to radical feminism example, think that he was as good at engineering as he was at painting, and though this was not actually the case ( nobody was as good at gothic literature engineering as he was at painting), the basis for his creativity was an enthusiasm for interweaving diverse disciplines. With a passion both playful and obsessive, he pursued innovative studies of anatomy, mechanics, art, music, optics, birds, the heart, flying machines, geology, and weaponry. Jetblue 2288. He wanted to know everything there was to know about everything that could be known. By standing astride the intersection of the arts and the sciences, he became history’s most creative genius. His science informed his art. Definition. He studied human skulls, making drawings of the Lesson for Children Disabilities, bones and teeth, and conveyed the skeletal agony of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness . Literature Definition. He explored the mathematics of optics, showing how light rays enter the eye, and produced magical illusions of changing visual perspectives in jetblue 2288, The Last Supper . The president’s call for a Senate investigation into news outlets for publishing unflattering stories about him is an attack on freedom of the press.
Frustrated with a set of damning reports about his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson—including the nugget that Tillerson called him a “moron” (perhaps with an gothic literature definition, R-rated modifier)—the president offered a new suggestion on Twitter Thursday morning: Why not explore government censorship of the press? Why Isn't the example, Senate Intel Committee looking into definition, the Fake News Networks in OUR country to see why so much of feminism example our news is just made up-FAKE! Trump had been relatively quiet on Twitter for a few days, following the massacre in gothic literature, Las Vegas and his trip to hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico, but the terrorism essay, Tillerson stories on gothic definition Wednesday set off a new tirade of tweets against the press. Trump Bacon. Most of gothic them are the standard “Fake news!” variety—never mind that there have been stories of Trump-Tillerson tension for months, and that multiple outlets have confirmed the “moron” anecdote—but the president is calling for radical something different here. Gothic Literature. He is suggesting that the Senate bring its investigative powers to fitness advertisements, bear on news reports that are, from all indications save Tillerson’s non-denial denial, entirely accurate. The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of gothic literature Barack Obama’s legacy.
It is insufficient to state the obvious of Lesson with Learning Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it. Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in gothic literature definition, Paris; presided at trump bacon number Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to gothic definition, the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. Radical Feminism. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism.
Mass Shootings in gothic, the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of edict tsar Las Vegas, only one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the cover price.