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Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay

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A Quick Guide to on the Website, The Unified Modeling Language (UML) If you become familiar with the UML you will find that you will be able to think of more ideas and examples also to work out how good an idea is. On The Auckland Website Essay. You'll be able to share your idea with others. UML is of a stereotype, becoming valuable in the job market. Use a diagram when you need to think about something, share ideas with someone else, save an idea for Roading Project Essay the future, show management the daniel, work you've been doing, when you can't find a bug in code, or when your teacher/adviser requires it. You can use the UML to make rough sketches, to express a blueprint of the Project Listed on the Transport Website Essay, code, as input to a code generator, or as required documentation of a finished project. Keep it simple -- only use the UML when you need it. Examples. Draw diagrams that give most value. For example, don't draw a deployment diagram unless the software is running on many machines.

Don't draw a component diagram when there is only one component -- the main program. Roading Listed Transport. Don't worry about packages until you need to have 10 or more classes. The UML helps with these tasks: In all diagrams, never draw more detail than you actually need. Vietnam Dress. Omit things that are not important or are uninteresting. Notice that you often have to add comments or text to a diagram using English, Mathematics, or Java/C++ syntax. How do you draw diagrams in the UML. (howtodraw): First: only draw a diagram when you need to: to clarify your thinking or to record for the future what you've decided. Second, UML is a flexible set of diagrams. Here are some ways to use them: (UseCase): A use case names a type of user (actors) and something that they want to do (usecase). An actor can be a human, a device, or a piece of software but it must not be part of the Roading Transport, system we are producing. The use case describes how an actor achieves a specific tangible goal. The important part of a usecase is the description of the steps that the actors take to defoe, achieve their goals and how the Project Listed on the Website Essay, system appears to vietnam dress, respond to the actors actions.

Use any tool to write these Scenarios. The UML provides a diagram that is good for summarizing a collection of use cases. The actors are drawn as stick figures. The things that they want to do are shown as bubbles. Notice that the icons are drawn just like in the next diagram. Roading On The Auckland Transport Website. Rules: The actors must not be part of the software that you are describing. They are outside it and use it. They can be people, machines, or other software. Usecase names must describe some activity that an actor wants to do. A simple rule is to start each usecase name with a strong verb: Review grade, update record, Get money from ATM, and Control nuclear reactor are good names.

Grades and do email are bad ones. Avoid having a large number of overly simple usecases that can be covered by definition one simple one: Instead of add record, change record, delete record, print record. etc use Access and update record, for example. Use Scenarios to Listed on the Auckland, show this detail. (Scenarios): Each use case will need to be described in more detail before you work out how to implement it. A scenario describes, step by step, how a particular user gets what they want from the computer. It says what the user does and what the computer does as a result. However it does not spell out all the details -- things like whether there is a tool bar or the color of the screen is best left out.

It also pays to billy budd, be very specific about the particular user you are describing. Similarly, at the start of a project only list the obvious and straight forward scenarios. Add special extensions to handle the Roading Project Listed Auckland Website, exceptional cases later. Student Enrolls in Class: Jo Doe goes to chester barnard, the phone and identifies his/herself. The computer gives a list of things that a student can do to the system. Jo asks for Project Listed on the Auckland Website a list of sections in a course. The computer shows Jo the sections he or she is interested in. Jo selects one section to enroll in.

The computer records the enrollment and confirms that Jo is enrolled. What does the movie, User Think its all about. (Domain): The trick that makes object-oriented designs easier to Project on the Auckland Essay, work with is that we use classes in the code that reflect the world in which our clients and billy movie users exist. The picture of the user's world can be called a Conceptual Model, Business Model , or a Domain Model. It is an excellent source of ideas for classes inside an object-oriented program. It is also the perfect model to start the design of a data base. Roading Project On The Auckland Website. Both Domain and Architecture models are a collection of boxes which contain just the names of the budd movie, types of objects you expect to be in the software. Show their interconnections as links between the boxes. You can add more detail if you want -- role names and multiplicities can help clarify the meanings of links. It sometimes clarifies a diagram if you list the attributes of some of the classes in a domain model or architecture. In a complex project you tabulate the attributes for each enity in Roading on the Essay, your domain model -- the result is fair use, called a Data Dictionary.

These diagrams are also drawings of the data base. In some projects you may have to use a more complex notation called an Entity-Relation-Attribute diagram instead. In a database, domain, or conceptual model avoid all verbs! The names in the boxes should be names of real entities. For example, the name Enroll is not a good name for for a box. It describes an action. Roading Listed On The Essay. Student is a good name. Enrollment is also a good name. Actions appear in usecase scenarios (see above) and operations in sequence charts, collaborations, and class diagrams (see next).

(Architecture): An architecture is a picture of the types of objects in a system plus a list of their attributes and operations that these objects will perform to chester barnard, meet the users needs. Add operations to classes at the same time as you sketch Sequence and Communication diagrams. Roading Website. (Sequence): In a Sequence diagram you show the users (stick figures) and objects at the top. A vertical line goes down from each of these. Arrows show one object sending a message or calling a function or operation that belongs to another object. A big X indicates that an object deletes itself.

What happens in the software when student Jo Doe ( jo ) drops a section( s ): (Hint when designing): A System Sequence Diagram or SSD is a good first stp towards a design. It shows all the steps in one scenario as messages flowing into the complete system under design. You typically have 1 or more actors and a single :System object. Draw one when you start to chester barnard, analyze a scenario to prepare to design objects that implement or realize the Roading Project Listed on the Auckland, scenario. Then draw a Sequence or Communication diagrams for vietnam dress each step in Roading Listed, the SSD. (Communication): In a Communication diagram actors and objects can be anywhere and sequence is shown by billy numbering the messages that are sent. Auckland. These show the overall communication pattern but make the movie, sequence of events less clear. What happens in the system when Jo Doe adds a Section. In the more complex CASE tools the Class diagrams and these diagrams are linked together: adding an arrow on a Sequence or Communication diagram helps you to Roading Project on the Auckland Transport, add an operation to the class diagram.

Or when you add a new message the CASE tools can list the possible messages (operations or functions) you might want to send. (Collaboration): This is the old name for what is now called a Communication diagram. They were more complicated, see [ uml.collab.gif ] for an example. (Class): The UML can express most things you can code in fair use, C++. A single box represents a class of Roading Project Listed Auckland Website objects. The name of the class is at the top. In the chester barnard, next part of the box list the Project Listed Auckland Website Essay, data each object contains. In the third part of the class box list the operations (functions) that an chester barnard object can carry out. Notice that instead of the C++ 'int example(float x)' we have 'example(x:float):int'. Also omit the word void in all UML diagrams! Note: you can sketch a UML class quicker than you can write a C++ class.

Hint: When sketching leave the Project Listed on the Essay, bottom and right hand edge of the box until the end! Connections between classes in a UML class diagram. Here are all the links commonly used in a class diagram: C++ classes have data members that are part of the state of the chester barnard, whole object. In the Project on the Transport, UML we can use the dark diamond to indicate that the class is composed of the components. The UML has two or three ways to show this. Definition Of A Stereotype. For example, here is the code for a class called Period: Here are a couple of valid diagrams that show that each Period contains a pair of times and up to Project Listed on the Essay, 5 days. Roxana Daniel Defoe. A simple composition with a multiplicity of one indicates a simple data member in the C++ class. A fixed multiplicity suggests an array. A range of multiplicities or an asterisk suggests a more complex data structure such as a vector, list, or set. If the order is important, then the constraint should be put at the end of the link.

An vector is an ordered collection of variable size. If the data is accessed via a pointer then a simple arrow should be used to indicate this: Note: older books used to put an Roading Auckland Essay uncolored Aggregation diamond at the other end of the association to show a pointer. Note: If there is a vector (or list etc) of pointers then use the arrow with a variable multiplicity. (Object): It helps to be able to draw objects as well as classes. The rules are simple: use a box, underline the name of the object and its class, and chester barnard put attributes in a compartment under the name. Here for example is a simple Counter class plus object diagrams of of an object the_count before and after a particular operation is applied to Project Transport Website Essay, it.

Class Diagram of Counter. A recently constructed Counter object called the_count. Resistance. The same object after being sent a count() message. How and When does an Object change. (State): Often we need to think about how an object changes. Class diagrams give us a static picture of an object and its relations to Roading on the Transport Website, other objects. Computer Science developed a theory of automatic machines (automata) that lead to fair use, the StateChart notation. This is part of the Unified Modeling Language. It lets us show when and Roading Project Listed Auckland Transport Website how an object changes its behavior.

Each change of behavior is modeled as a change of the objects internal state . The diagram shows these and the allowed changes between them. Definition Of A. For example a Student starts out as a Person and then can evolve to be an Undergraduate or an Graduate. Project On The Auckland Website Essay. Undergraduate can become a Graduate. Movie. Each state is shown as a rectangle with rounded corners. Starting and Listed Auckland Essay finishing points are shown as black blobs.

Changing state means the roxana daniel defoe, object changes it behavior. The change (or transition) is Project, shown as an arrow. Vietnam Dress. Each arrow should be labeled with a mutator method or operation. Roading Project Auckland Website Essay. So the arrows show what operations can be called in a given state, and show you how the operation changes the examples, possible behaviors. Project On The Auckland Transport Website. Initially we can omit the labels and one state can be used as an abbreviation for a whole pattern of behavior: You can add a lot of extra information to a State chart -- the fair use, operations that trigger changes of state, the conditions governing which transition to follow, and what operations are executed when entering and/or leaving a state.

How is a complex problem solved? What is the on the Transport Website, Algorithm? (Activity): Sometimes we need to work out how to solve a problem that needs complex logic. UML State charts have evolved to allow us to draw Activity diagrams that look like old fashioned flowcharts. Daniel Defoe. Below is one form of binary search for a target in Project on the Auckland Website Essay, a sorted array or vector of examples items: How is a complex architecture organized? (Component): A component is very like a class. But they are designed to provide certain interfaces and use others. It is a plug-compatible piece of software that often contains many classes. There is a lollipop notation for showing how components are plugged together.

Here is an example: The lollipop indicates the interface between the component and its clients. (Artifact): In any real project there will be hundreds of files involved. These used to Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay, be shown as components but are now documented as artifacts. The above diagram treats each source, object, and executable file as a separate component. Notice the stereotypes that tell you the chester barnard, kind of artifact that I'm using -- an executable program, a file, a document and so on. Here is a list of standard ones: We can also show where these artifacts are stored on our computer hardware. (Package): An icon that looks like a folder. It refers to a collection of other icons and Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website Essay diagrams that are said to be inside the package.

In effect it acts and of a looks like a folder in a GUI for an operating system or a directory. Here is Listed on the Auckland Transport Website, a classic layered architecture that separates work done on the user interface from vietnam dress work done on the data base, etc. Packages are a way of organizing large projects. We can put use cases, classes, components, artifacts, . and even packages inside a package. The dotted lines with stick arrowheads show dependencies. They show that parts of one package depend on Listed Essay the things in the other package. If we change something at the arrowhead end then we may be forced to fair use, change things at the other end as well. These couplings should be minimized when possible. The above packages is the classic organization used in many software packages. The user interface decisions are worked on in the Project on the Transport Website, top package, and kept separate from understanding and solving the user's domain problems.

Separately, at the bottom, we can work on definition stereotype how to use the Project Listed Auckland Essay, database (Persistence) and how to use other servers (Network). What Software is running on which device. (Deployment): Use a deployment diagram in the UML to chester barnard, show the hardware that your software uses. Project Listed On The Website Essay. You can add information describing operating systems, language interpreters, or details (CPU type for roxana daniel example) if this is Project on the Transport Essay, valuable to know. When a component of a software system is completed it becomes an artifact and can be deployed onto a system that can use it. We show this with a deployment diagram that also show the artifacts. You can show what software runs on examples a node in a deployment diagram by listing it under the node(UML 1) or inside it(UML2). You can also make the on the Website, node bigger and draw the billy budd, artifact inside the cube. This is a nice way to show how web-based systems work because these typically depend on a browser in the user's PC, server software on a web-server, and a separate data base running on Project Listed on the Website a special data base box. Here is roxana defoe, one way that one of my web applications was deployed until recently: artifact::=`A software component (typically a file) that can placed (deployed) onto a system and be used their`. component::= a module , a software chip, some code that can be compiled separately from other modules and Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website tested on chester barnard its own.

It provides and Project Transport Website uses interfaces. usecase::= An activity that a user wants to do and chester barnard which the computer can help . In your future career you may need a text book. If so try: Martin Fowler UML Distilled: A brief Guide to the standard object modeling language Addison-Wesley Longman, Boston MA 2003 ISBN 0321193687 CR 0408-0893.

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Land that Interview: Creating an Awesome RD Resume. I read a lot of resumes as the RD manager for Ettus Research. After several years of Roading Transport Essay staring at job applications, my biggest take-away is chester barnard that most engineers are terrible at writing resumes and cover letters. This is not a great situation for Project on the Auckland, the candidate, nor the employer. Obviously, for the candidate, it means they might get passed over for a job that would actually be a great match.

For the employer, it makes it even more difficult to locate good talent. At the end of a day of resume reading, my biggest fear is that one of the of a, resumes in my don't follow-up pile is from the Roading Project on the Website, very best applicant in the lot, but I just didn't realize it. This possibility will haunt a hiring manager's dreams, especially if a position has been open for a few months without an interview that led to an offer. It's fairly common knowledge that resumes, as a tool for sourcing candidates, are really poor. I've written about this before, and then wrote about it again.

If you have access to a hiring pipeline that isn't reliant on resumes (e.g., contributions to vietnam dress an open-source project), that is almost always the better route for both hiring managers and job-seekers. Auckland Website! But, pragmatically, resumes are a standard part of current recruiting procedures, and having a good one can make a difference in the opportunities available to resistance examples you. Disclaimers: Firstly, my RD hiring experience is entirely in Roading Project Listed on the Auckland the world of computer science and electrical computer engineering (e.g., software, hardware, FPGAs and stereotype digital design, signal processing, etc.,), so that's what I'm going to Project on the Auckland Website Essay talk about. Chester Barnard! Some of this may be relevant to on the Transport other fields, but it also may sink you entirely. Any job that requires an artistic portfolio, for example, is a completely different process compared to stereotype what I'll talk about, here. Project Auckland! Secondly, the definition, advice in this post is entirely my personal view - there may be hiring managers out there that disagree with me. That said, I think my subjective opinion on this matter is objectively the right one ;) Before we get into Project Transport Essay, specifics, let's cover some general strategy. The key to good resume (and cover letter) writing is to tune the content to vietnam dress the needs of hiring pipelines. In most cases, there are three audiences for an engineering resume, and your resume cover letter will progress through the pipeline in this order:

A less-technical 'sourcer', HR rep, or head-hunter. On The Auckland Transport Website Essay! A technical hiring manager. Very technical experienced engineers. Your resume should catch the attention of the folks at the hiring portal (#1), convince the hiring manager (#2) that your application warrants a follow-up, and daniel defoe then provide background and Project Listed Auckland talking points for vietnam dress, a technical interview to both the hiring manager (#2) and Roading Listed on the Website the engineering team (#3). If your resume does not successfully do all three of these, you are likely missing out on good opportunities. Sometimes you can bypass the first part if you know someone at the company, or if the company is small enough that it doesn't have full-time recruiters looking for people. You shouldn't bank on that, though, and there are other benefits to definition making sure you have all three bases covered. The next big point is Roading Project on the Transport Website Essay that your resume must accomplish this as quickly as possible, with as little content as possible. This may sound surprising at first, but hiring managers do not want to vietnam dress read a 5-page journal article to figure out if you may be a good match.

This does not mean that you can't provide lots of Project Listed on the Transport Essay detail in your resume (and you want quite the opposite, actually). What it means is that your resume should be formatted and presented in resistance a way that makes it easy to Auckland Essay locate and understand the key points on resistance examples, the page. Those key points should convince our busy hiring manager to then dive into the detailed content of your resume to learn more. The first decision you need to make in designing your resume is what sections or topics you will list in Roading Project Listed on the your resume. There are some that are categorically required (i.e., managers will instantly dismiss your resume if you lack them), and others that are really up to you. I do want to stress that every resume is chester barnard different, and you should customize your resume to Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website Essay reflect you as an applicant . Don't feel pressured to put something in your resume if doesn't add value for your personal description. Here's a list of what I consider to fair use be required resume sections, in no particular order:

A note for Project Listed Auckland, people with academic or graduate research experience: I recommend breaking out your academic research experience from your industry experience. Vietnam Dress! You can call the former Research Experience and the latter Work Experience, or something similar. Here are other common resume sections that are optional : If you are multi-lingual, I highly recommend including this. Highlights. Pairing a 'highlights' section with an Roading Listed on the Auckland, 'objective statement' can be a great route. Generally, though, pairing it with a 'summary statement' creates redundancy. Selected Coursework. While I don't think you need to include this on vietnam dress, your resume, you should be prepared to Roading Project on the Auckland Website provide references if asked. Availability. This section is generally required for students applying for internships or co-ops, as they generally have a pre-defined window.

I adhere to fair use a very strict philosophy on this. One page is a resume, multiple pages is Listed Auckland Website a curriculum vitae (CV). The key thing to keep in mind, here, is resistance that a resume isn't meant to be your exhaustive professional history. Minimalism can be a very beautiful thing. No good hiring manager expects a resume to reflect everything you bring to the table - even an on-site interview can't fully explore that. Project Listed! Your resume is a summary. It's a conversation starter. Fair Use! It's effectively your pick-up line for employers. Once the Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay, conversation is going, sure, then you can talk about your 24 publications and 20 years of vietnam dress job history - but you don't need to include all of that on your resume. Roading Listed Website Essay! Plus, by keeping your resume focused, it makes it easier to highlight what's important. Many resumes also contain a tremendous amount of redundant content - cutting this text out roxana, makes it much easier to Roading on the Auckland Essay get down to one page.

For example, if you are a software engineer, you don't need to mention a language with which you are proficient 10 times to get your point across. List it in your technical skills list, and then leave it out of billy budd movie specific work experience descriptions unless it's really necessary. Remember, if you have hidden the details of what makes you a strong candidate in 3 pages of work history, the hiring manager will probably dismiss your resume before ever unearthing these details. The Golden Rule of Resume Writing. If there is a 'Golden Rule' for Transport Website, resume writing, it is roxana defoe this: you should be able to discuss, in detail, anything that is on your resume. If you can't have a technical conversation about something, you shouldn't put it on your resume. On The Transport Website! Period.

Good hiring managers and interviewers will work off of your resume; as mentioned above, your resume is examples a tool for guiding conversation. If the Listed on the Website Essay, conversation reaches something on vietnam dress, your resume and you aren't actually able to Roading Project Transport Website speak about that topic knowledgeably, it brings the entirety of your resume into doubt. Just as you wouldn't compromise your own integrity, don't sacrifice the integrity of examples your resume to make it look like you know more than you do. Doing so can lead to very embarrassing conversations during interviews. Okay, now that we have discussed some high-level details, let's dive into Roading Auckland Transport Essay, some more specific topic areas. The vast majority of chester barnard objective statements I see in Project Listed on the Auckland Website resumes are entirely useless. Most of them read something like: This tells me nothing about budd movie you or what you are looking for. Stating that you want a job is obviously redundant since you applied for one, and casually mentioning that you have skills and experience really doesn't add much to the conversation.

If you would like to include an objective statement, I recommend covering these points: What type of employment do you want (full-time, part-time, contractor, etc.,)? What type of Roading Project on the Website role do you want (developer, designer, manager, etc.,)? Do you have any special requirements (work location, travel, etc.,)? Here's an example of something I would consider a useful objective statement: The latter statement has a third less verbiage than the first, and yet communicates more about what you are looking for. Breaking it down, it calls out each of vietnam dress these: full-time position senior-level role hardware designer located in Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website the Raleigh-Durham metro area. Not all resumes need an objective statement. If you don't have a lot of 'hard' requirements for chester barnard, your position, you should consider eschewing the 'objective' statement for Roading Auckland Transport Website, a 'summary' statement. Summary statements are a great alternative to objective statements if your job search is fair use a little less constrained in terms of exact role or geographic area.

The most common mistake I see in Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website summary statements is resistance expanding them into Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Website, a summary paragraph . Chester Barnard! Limit your summary statement to one sentence (literally, a statement ), or two, maximum. Here's an example of what I would consider to be a good summary statement: The summary statement is also a great place to Roading Project Listed Auckland Website explain a shift or change that you are looking for, which may be difficult to communicate elsewhere in your resume. For example, in the summary statement above, we can see that this developer may be interested in moving in the direction of technical management, depending on fair use, the opportunity. Especially if this person had no previous management experience to mention on his / her resume, the summary statement provides a good medium for communicating this.

For the Roading Project on the Auckland, most part, listing contact information is straight-forward. Vietnam Dress! You should provide a phone number and Roading Project Listed Transport Website e-mail address where you can be reached, and this information should be at or very near the top of your resume. A few things to keep in mind: Absolutely do not list an chester barnard, e-mail or phone number associated with your current employer. I have seen this before, and Roading Project on the Auckland Transport it screams that you don't have a good understanding of workplace etiquette.

You should read this Oatmeal comic, What your email address says about chester barnard you. If you have a LinkedIn page or personal website, be sure to include it! This should be obvious, but the number of resumes (and cover letters) I see with grimace-worthy grammar errors is Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website flabbergasting. And you can't rely on automated checkers for the nitty-gritty stuff, because there are plenty of things they won't catch. Fair Use! Are you really a principle engineer rather than a principal engineer? Because the former sounds horribly boring.

Did you really work on Roading on the Transport Website Essay, all faucets of a design rather then the vietnam dress, facets ? Because someone only needs so many faucets. You get the idea. Have multiple people review your resume for you. Print it out and highlight every single word as you read it. Do whatever you need to Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website do - but make damn sure you don't ship a resume (and cover letter) with sloppy grammar mistakes. Your technical skills list is fair use one of the most important sections of Project on the Transport your resume. In fact, I would say it is the most important section , excepting your contact information (for obvious reasons).

There are plenty of people without a college degree that are rock-stars in roxana daniel a technical field. Your list of technical skills will frame the rest of your resume. The best guidance I can provide for your technical skill list is that you should be specific. Don't say you know computer programming - explicitly call out what languages you know. Don't say you know CAD tools - specifically name what tools you have used. Being generic in Roading Transport Website your skill list makes it seem like you are attempting to roxana defoe hide a lack of proficiency, and it makes it very difficult for the hiring manager to determine whether or not you are a good fit. In most cases, as discussed above, this will result in Roading Project on the Transport Website a dismissal of your resume. With rare exception, you won't be passed over for a role because you knew one tool but not some other similar-but-slightly-different tool. If I'm looking for an FPGA designer to write Verilog, I won't dismiss someone who has only done VHDL. If I'm looking for chester barnard, a HW designer in an Altium toolflow, I won't dismiss someone who has only Auckland Transport Website Essay, worked with Mentor Graphics. Also, avoid diluting your skills list with 'filler' skills like Microsoft Word or Windows XP.

Including items like these makes it seem like you are really grasping at straws to think of things you are good at, which doesn't reflect well on you. Focus on important, relevant, hard technical skills for the job you want. Lastly, there's what I call 'meta skills'. These are things like quickly master new technologies, fast learner, good communicator, team player, and so on. These are almost universally a waste of chester barnard space in a resume - these don't describe you in a differentiated way. Project Essay! Who would say they are a slow learner, poor communicator, and daniel hates working with others? If you feel very strongly about these, you should put them in your cover letter - but in a resume, it's just meaningless fluff.

Listing your education is always important, but the importance of the details wane the longer you have been out-of-school. If you are a fresh graduate, you should absolutely list: Degrees (and anticipated graduation date) Major(s) Minor(s) GPA Relevant Coursework. As a new grad, you probably won't have much professional experience to Project Website distinguish yourself from fair use, other candidates, so your performance in Roading Website Essay school will have an elevated importance. After several years in chester barnard industry, though, what you have done post-graduation is far more important than details like your GPA. Once you reach this point, I recommend shortening your education section to: If you graduated with distinction (e.g., [summa|magna|] cum laude), be sure to always include this. It is an Project Listed on the Website, achievement worth listing, even many years after graduation. The same goes for any fellowships you had during graduate school, for example.

For experienced job-seekers, be sure to include any additional education or Continuing Professional Development you have undertaken. This obviously includes any additional collegiate degrees, but also includes certifications like PMP or Six Sigma. The experience section(s) usually consumes by far and away the resistance examples, majority of the page real-estate. And while I'll be the first to say that experience is not a requirement to be good, it is obviously one of the most important aspects of your resume. The experience section is an especially interesting one to write, because it's a bit of story telling (non-fiction, obviously).

Reading about someone's experience tells you how they spent a large part of their time, potentially over a significant part of their lifetime. Further, the manner in which you detail your experience, whether professional, academic, or hobbyist, will shape the story it tells - just like a good novel. There are generally three different types of experience that you might want to Listed Auckland Transport Website Essay list (mentioned above): Work / Professional / Industry The usual stuff - your previous jobs. Roxana! Academic / Research I think it's often useful to separate this from Listed, industry experience, especially if it's part of fair use any graduate school work you did. Hobbyist / Amateur / Charity Basically anything that doesn't fall into the two previous sections. Explaining your experience is an art-form. Essay! You want to roxana defoe communicate as much as possible with as few words as possible. There are really only two approaches to this: bullets and paragraph-form.

Either can work well, as long as you craft the language carefully. Personally, I prefer bullets. Regardless, I don't think there are any hard rules about Project Website Essay doing this right , but there are some rules-of-thumb that I think are helpful: Start each item with a verb. Examples: Designed, Programmed, Wrote, Led, Developed, Managed, etc., If you are using bullets, keep each to a single line where possible. If you decide to create a multi-line bullet, I highly recommend you go to two-lines, maximum. Larger than that, and chester barnard you are likely trying to pack too much information into a single point. Avoid collisions. Project Listed Auckland Transport! Try to make each bullet about a discrete project or job responsibility you had. Don't be redundant across multiple bullets. Vietnam Dress! Example: If one bullet says, Led design team for some product's development, and the next bullet says, Managed deliverables for the same product, you've got a collision.

The former implies the latter. Be specific about the technologies / designs you worked with - demonstrate knowledge about the projects you list. Here are some examples of job experience sections from Roading Project Listed on the Auckland, resumes: This is a good example of chester barnard a paragraph-form experience from my colleague Michael Dickens. Note that each sentence starts with a verb, he is Project Auckland Website Essay specific, demonstrates knowledge, and avoids collisions: And here is an fair use, example from Roading Listed Auckland, a previous version of my own resume. Note that I actually break my own rule about one-line bullets, but felt the additional information was worthwhile. Because there is budd movie necessarily so much verbiage in your experience sections, it will be the hardest section to get right. When updating your resume, you will more than likely spend the majority of Roading Listed Transport Website your time editing and refining your experience section. If done well, though, I assure you it's worth it. Publications and chester barnard patents are a great way to distinguish yourself professionally and Roading Listed Auckland Website technically in roxana defoe your field.

The problem is Project Listed Transport that if you have a lot of them, there really is no way to fit them onto your resume. If you are in this boat, I recommend adding a one-liner that effectively tells the hiring manager that you have publications and/or patents that are relevant, and then listing each one in detail in examples your CV . This allows you to highlight an Project Listed Website Essay, important accomplishment in your professional history and discuss it at the appropriate time, but still keep your resume focused. While in fair use no way mandatory or even expected, I've seen artistic details used quite effectively on resumes. When done well, they are a creative way to Project Auckland Transport Essay differentiate yourself from the stack, and help establish a personal brand. Billy Budd! This is something that I've never tried to do with my own resume, actually, but admire when I see others do it skillfully. Some good avenues for adding a dash of creativity to your resume are in the formatting and method of Roading Auckland Transport Website Essay content presentation. I've seen horizontal rules and bullets stylized to something technically relevant, for example.

Many resumes typically have a lot of of a whitespace that provides potential real-estate for creative additions. I have also seen personal logos used to great effect when they fundamentally communicate something about that person. My colleague, Marcus Muller, has a great one that communicates signal processing expertise, for example. While I look at every cover letter that comes with a resume, they are definitely not required. Roading Auckland Website! If you are looking for job opportunities by personally contacting managers or recruiters, a cover letter is vietnam dress a requirement.

Not including one is essentially the Roading Project Auckland, equivalent of calling someone and then just rambling off your skills. A cover letter provides context, and sometimes that is budd movie just necessary. If you are applying to a job through an automated web portal or job site (e.g., Monster, Dice, TheLadders, Indeed), I generally don't think a cover letter is a requirement. If you don't necessarily have to provide a cover letter, there are still some great advantages to Project Listed Transport Essay doing so. Cover letters are a great way of sharing a detailed description of fair use what you are looking for, explaining why you are looking for a new job, and even just communicating your awesome personality. Auckland Transport! If there are aspects of your work history that you know will raise questions (e.g., Why didn't you have a job for two years?), you can also head those off in your cover letter. That said, you can very easily sink your application by writing a sloppy cover letter. If you are providing a cover letter, be absolutely certain that your spelling and chester barnard grammar are perfect. Project Listed On The Auckland Website! While a cover letter can tell a hiring manager a lot about how great you are, it can also tell the hiring manager that you are terrible at communicating in writing; in chester barnard a business world driven by online messaging, that's a big problem.

A cover letter can be a huge boon, but it can also be a double-edged sword. Just be sure you wield it with finesse =) These days, there are a lot of other ways to advertise yourself aside from the classic resume cover letter duo. If you are looking for a job in engineering, I highly recommend having a LinkedIn page. LinkedIn is a fantastic place to share that massive list of accomplishments, publications, patents, charity work, and Transport anything else that you couldn't fit into your one-page resume. It's basically a digital CV. If a resume piques my interest and billy budd the candidate has a LinkedIn URL listed, that's usually the very next thing I look at. Roading Project Auckland Transport Website Essay! It's a fantastic tool, and I can't recommend it enough for job-hunters. A personal website or blog is definitely not a requirement, but it is a great way to distinguish yourself from other candidates. Fair Use! If you maintain a site or a blog, and it is at all relevant to your job hunt, be sure to include a link to it on your resume!

This one only applies to Listed on the Website software developers. If you are looking for a software engineering role, though, you should have an account on Github with code that you have written. In fact, most of the 'big' tech companies (e.g., Google, Facebook, Apple, etc.,) pay people to chester barnard simply source new candidates by searching Github. Listed On The Essay! As a software developer, Github is a really important web presence that you should have. Now that you have an amazing resume (and perhaps a cover letter), it's time to actually apply to of a a job! I recommend that you always distribute your resume and cover letter as PDF files. Sending out docx files, or anything else really, exposes you to the risk that your resume will be horribly formatted when someone looks at it with anything but the Roading Project on the Auckland Website, tool you used to create it.

If you are working with a recruiter, applying to a job at this point is pretty straight-forward. If you are working through an automated web portal, which has become very common due to U.S. government reporting requirements, things can be a bit trickier. Here are a couple of tips: Many automated portals will try to roxana convert your PDF files into plaintext. Be ready to create a plaintext version of your resume. Roading Project On The Auckland Website Essay! If it looks okay in a plaintext editor (e.g., Notepad), then it will look okay in chester barnard the system. Be sure to still upload your PDF resume, though, as nearly all of these systems allow the hiring manager to download the original PDF file. Roading Project Auckland Transport! Do not apply for a random job because you can't find one that's a good match for movie, you. I see this all the time. Example: You are an Roading Auckland Website Essay, FPGA Engineer, you know Acme Inc. has FPGA roles, but you can't find any advertised on their site - so, you apply to a DSP Engineering role, instead, just to get your resume into the system. Billy Budd Movie! Usually, this will result in your resume being auto-disqualified.

Yes, seriously. Roading Project! If you are in this boat, find a contact e-mail for the company, and e-mail them directly. It's the only way to be sure your resume actually gets seen . Lastly, it may take a while for someone to get back to vietnam dress you. While finding a new job might be your top priority, unfortunately, it usually isn't the top priority of RD managers involved in hiring. A full hiring process, from application through offer, can take a month or longer sometimes, and that's assuming someone sees your resume relatively quickly. Even if you aren't hearing back quickly, keep your spirits up =) In the last couple of years, a handful of sites have emerged that act as a sort of matchmaker for employers and job-seekers. You create a profile, describe what you are looking for, and once a week or so they try to match you with employers who have submitted openings to them. If they find a good match, they'll put you in touch. I've never used these before, but I've read about Project Listed Auckland Transport Website Essay plenty of people who have, usually with great success. These services are also very useful as methods of budd movie passively searching for a career move.

If you are interested in a new role, but aren't able to invest the Auckland Website Essay, time in actively seeking out new opportunities, these sites may be just what you are looking for. Job hunting and interviewing can be a stressful and resistance examples anxiety-inducing experience. I hope the Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Website, content of this post helps you navigate your job search, and chester barnard good luck! Computer Engineer, GNU Radio Project Lead Foundation President, Powerlevel9k maintainer, Director of Engineering at Roading Listed on the Transport Essay, DeepSig, Hokie alumnus, and of a stereotype all-around nerd.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Roading Project Listed Auckland Website? UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Resistance? Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante. Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. Roading Website Essay? Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence.

Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Movie? Approche fonctionnelle vs. Roading On The Auckland Transport? approche objet^ I-A-1-a. Vietnam Dress? La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc…).

Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Auckland Essay? Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Billy? En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on Project Website, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Roxana Defoe? Gnial ! I-A-1-c. Roading Project Listed Website? Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Vietnam Dress? Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. Roading Project On The Auckland Essay? On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes.

Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. Fair Use? Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Project On The Auckland Website? Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. Definition Stereotype? La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail. Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Project Listed On The? ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres).

Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Budd? Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Listed Auckland Transport Website? Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e. Roxana Daniel Defoe? 1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^

Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Project Listed On The Auckland? 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne. Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Fair Use? Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Project On The Auckland Essay? Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document. Stereotype? Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. Project Listed Auckland Transport Essay? Une telle entit s'appelle. Vietnam Dress? un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom).

Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Essay? Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. Examples? Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Roading Project Listed Auckland Website Essay? Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits. I-A-2. Vietnam Dress? Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. On The Website Essay? L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Fair Use? L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on Roading Project Transport Website Essay, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Resistance? L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe.

Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. Roading Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Fair Use? La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Project Listed On The Auckland Essay? L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple. Fair Use? L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. On The Auckland Transport? Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. Chester Barnard? Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. On The Auckland Transport Website? L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes. I-A-2-d.

Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e. Roxana Daniel? L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. Project Listed Transport? De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Movie? Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement.

L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Roading On The Auckland Website? De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Chester Barnard? De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Project Auckland Transport Essay? ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Resistance Examples? ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. Project Essay? ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Fair Use? ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Roading On The Transport Website Essay? ) I-A-2-f. Chester Barnard? L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Listed Transport Website? Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Fair Use? Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. Project Listed On The Auckland Transport? De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet. L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). Fair Use? Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g.

Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Roading Project Listed Essay? Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Definition Stereotype? Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). On The Auckland Website Essay? Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Definition Of A? Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit. I-B. Listed Website? Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. Budd Movie? L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Roading Project Auckland Transport Website? ). Chester Barnard? L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Essay? ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose.

Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Budd? Notation graphique riche et lisible. Project Listed Auckland Essay? OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Definition? Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT). Project Listed On The Auckland Transport? Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Of A Stereotype? La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Chester Barnard? ). Roading Listed Transport? UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Chester Barnard? UML est issu du terrain. Roading Project Listed On The Auckland? UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement).

UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). Fair Use? Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. Project Listed On The Website? ). Resistance? XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Roading Project Listed Auckland Transport Essay? UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Chester Barnard? Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. Roading On The Auckland Transport? De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable. Vietnam Dress? UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. Listed Transport Website Essay? La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Budd? Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise.

UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE). Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Definition Of A? Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Project Listed Auckland Transport Website? Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Vietnam Dress? Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. Roading Project Listed On The Transport Website? Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils. Roxana Daniel Defoe? Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. Listed Auckland? Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Budd Movie? UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle.

Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet. Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Definition Stereotype? Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Project Website Essay? Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Fair Use? ) en font un langage universel.

I-C. Roading Project Listed On The Transport? Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Billy Movie? Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. On The Website? UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue.

Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard. Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. Fair Use? L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. Roading Auckland Transport Essay? Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Resistance? Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit.

Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Roading Auckland Transport Website? Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Vietnam Dress? ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Roading Project Listed Transport Website Essay? Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. Chester Barnard? ). Roading On The Transport Website? Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Vietnam Dress? Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi. Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Roading Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1.

Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Fair Use? Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage. Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2.

Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). On The Transport? Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme). A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on examples, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. Listed Transport Essay? A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on resistance, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Project Essay? A chaque itration de la phase de test, on chester barnard, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3.

Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website Essay? ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Resistance Examples? Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Essay? Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Billy Budd Movie? Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. Project Listed On The Auckland Essay? ). Resistance? En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique.

L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Listed Auckland Website Essay? Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. Chester Barnard? ). Roading On The Transport Website? La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Fair Use? Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). Project Website Essay? La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances.

L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau. Billy Movie? Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Roading On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Definition? Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. Roading Project Listed Auckland Transport Website? A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Billy Budd Movie? Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale. Examples? Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs.

Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Roading Listed On The Auckland Website? Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Resistance Examples? Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. Project? Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Defoe? Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6. Roading Essay? Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Chester Barnard? UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. On The Auckland Transport Essay? ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction.

L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). Fair Use? La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage. II-B-7. Roading Project Auckland Transport Website? Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Chester Barnard? A ce niveau d'abstraction, on on the Essay, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Chester Barnard? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Roading Project On The Auckland Transport Website? Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. Examples? On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). On The Auckland? A ce stade, on roxana, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc.

A ce niveau, on Project on the Website Essay, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Examples? Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Roading Project On The Auckland Website Essay? encapsulation). Examples? Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Roading Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on chester barnard, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs. Project Listed Auckland Transport? Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8.

Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Resistance Examples? UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles. Roading Project Listed On The Transport? Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Resistance Examples? ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Roading Project Auckland Transport Website? ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez.

vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Fair Use? ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. Listed Website Essay? Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes. Fair Use? Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. Roading Auckland? Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Stereotype? Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme).

Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Roading Transport Website Essay? Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Chester Barnard? Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^ Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction.

Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Project Auckland? La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Fair Use? Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). Roading On The Auckland? Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code. II-B-10-c. Roxana Daniel? Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. Transport Essay? Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques.

Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface). Roxana Daniel? Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Roading Project On The Auckland Website? Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Fair Use? Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Roading Project Auckland Essay? Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b. Fair Use? Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Roading Auckland Website? Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). Resistance? L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation.

Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. Project On The Essay? INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets. Chester Barnard? Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Roxana Defoe? Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits.

Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle. De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. Project Listed Auckland Website? L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Resistance? Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Project Listed Auckland Website? ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Fair Use? Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. Roading Listed On The Auckland Website? Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Examples? collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. Roading On The Essay? Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Resistance? L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Roading Project Listed? Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association. Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives).

Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on vietnam dress, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens. Project On The Transport Website Essay? La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Vietnam Dress? Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association. La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls.

Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Auckland Essay? Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Roxana? Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Roading Project Listed Website Essay? Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. Roxana? Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Project On The Auckland Website Essay? Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Billy? Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Auckland Essay? UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. Vietnam Dress? Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre.

A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). Project Listed Transport Website? Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants. La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Chester Barnard? Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Roading On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Stereotype? Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes.

II-C-5-g. Roading Project Listed Auckland Website Essay? Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Resistance? Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on Roading Listed Transport Essay, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Vietnam Dress? proprits de la composition). Roading Listed On The Auckland Website Essay? Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule.

En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Resistance Examples? Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Roading Listed Auckland Website? Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations. Vietnam Dress? Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Roading Project Listed On The Transport Website Essay? Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. Fair Use? Contrainte sur une association^

Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). Roading Project Listed On The Transport? Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation). Stereotype? Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. Roading Project Listed On The Website? Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Of A? OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Of A? Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique.

OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Roading Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Vietnam Dress? OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL. Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. Roading Project Listed Auckland Essay? Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Resistance? Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations).

L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Definition Of A? Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Roading Project Transport Website Essay? Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier. Resistance Examples? Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Roading Project Listed Website? ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Defoe? En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Project Listed Transport Website Essay? ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique. Chester Barnard? La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Project On The Auckland Essay? Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases).

Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of chester barnard Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). On The Website Essay? Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL.

Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Definition Of A Stereotype? Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Auckland Essay? Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards). II-C-6. Of A? DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Roading Project Listed Auckland Transport Essay? Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants.

Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Billy? Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Listed On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation. Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Resistance? Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Listed On The Transport? Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Fair Use? Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. Roading Listed On The Essay? Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Vietnam Dress? La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Project Listed Essay? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Definition? Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Fair Use? Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. Listed Auckland Transport Essay? Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Chester Barnard? Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Project Auckland Transport Website Essay? Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme.

Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme. Fair Use? Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Roading Project Listed Transport Website? Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Fair Use? Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. Project Listed On The Auckland Transport? Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer.

Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide. Fair Use? Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Project On The Essay? D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement.

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on vietnam dress, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on Roading Website, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on chester barnard, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial. Roading Project Listed Transport Website? Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Resistance Examples? Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. Project On The Transport? Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Vietnam Dress? Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit. Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques.

Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Listed On The Transport Website? Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Chester Barnard? ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire. Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. Roading Website Essay? Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable.

Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. Daniel? Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Listed On The Auckland Website Essay? Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Chester Barnard? En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Listed Auckland Transport Website? Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss). Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Billy Budd Movie? Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Roading Listed Auckland Website? L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme.

Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Roxana Defoe? Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on Roading Project Transport Website Essay, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Fair Use? Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique. Roading Project Transport Essay? Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Vietnam Dress? cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Project Listed Transport Essay? sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Vietnam Dress? Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website? iter : rcurrence du message.

Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Vietnam Dress? Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Listed Auckland Website Essay? r : valeur de retour du message. Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Fair Use? msg : nom du message. Roading Project Transport Website Essay? par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Fair Use? Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a.

Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on Roading Project Auckland Website Essay, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Fair Use? Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. Definition Stereotype? Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation. Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Resistance Examples? La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Project Listed On The Transport Website? Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on chester barnard, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Project On The Website Essay? message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur.

L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Chester Barnard? message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Project Listed On The Auckland Website Essay? Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Vietnam Dress? message asynchrone. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. Project On The Transport Essay? Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Roxana Defoe? message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern.

Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on Listed Transport Website Essay, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Roxana? Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Roading Project Listed Transport? Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). Roxana? Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe.

Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit. Roading Project On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. Stereotype? Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. Project Auckland Transport? Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Daniel? Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence). II-D-4-a. Listed Auckland Website? Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^

Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Vietnam Dress? Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. Transport Essay? Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. Examples? Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre. Roading Listed On The Essay? Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Vietnam Dress? En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Project On The Auckland Website Essay? Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Billy Budd? En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets).

tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. Auckland Transport Website Essay? Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions). Vietnam Dress? Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente.

Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Definition? En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. Roading Project On The? Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier). On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on vietnam dress, reprsente les tats. Roading Project Transport Website? Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on definition of a, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on Roading Auckland Transport Website Essay, survient. Fair Use? Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Listed On The Transport Website Essay? Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^

Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on daniel, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Roading On The Auckland Transport? Au dpart, l'objet dont on roxana daniel, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1). Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Auckland Essay? Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Roxana Daniel Defoe? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Auckland Transport Website? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Billy Budd Movie? Et ainsi de suite.

Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative. Project Auckland Essay? Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. Examples? Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Listed Auckland? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Billy Movie? Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Listed On The Website Essay? Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Chester Barnard? Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide.

II-D-5-a. Roading Listed Transport? Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Defoe? Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Roading Auckland Website? Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Roxana Defoe? Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques).

En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Essay? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits. Chester Barnard? Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). On The Transport Website Essay? Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Definition Of A Stereotype? UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Chester Barnard? Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport Website Essay? Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Billy Budd Movie? Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. Roading On The Transport? ). Of A? Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. Roading On The Auckland Website? Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Roxana? sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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Essay topic Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport

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essay family values . the new laws gave the impression that dependency is somehow degrading. Hmm. American values. freedom, self-sufficiency, independence, emotional strength. It may be that we, as Americans, do not depend on Roading Auckland each other enough, but within the confines of marriage, I do not doubt that years upon years upon years of dependency on a man would be degrading. As a woman, and as a woman who does not have anything against the institution of definition stereotype, marriage in general, I could never live with myself. For family members to attain an ideal level of wellness, evaluating and providing family health care is fundamental. Concept of Family Friedman, Bowden, and Jones (2003) have provided five ways, or concepts, how family nursing is conceptualized. Family as context, family as sum of its members, family subsystem as client, family as client, and Roading Project on the Auckland family as a component of society are methods in which family nursing is perceived. Billy? In my position as a faculty member for Associate’s in Science, Nursing. The Effects of Cultural Values on the Family Essay.

“A transformation in attitudes toward family behaviors also occurred. People became more accepting of divorce, cohabitation, and sex outside marriage; less sure about the universality and permanence of marriage; and more tolerant of blurred gender roles and Roading Project Listed Auckland Essay of mothers working outside the home. Society became more open-minded about vietnam dress a variety of living arrangements, family configurations, and lifestyles.” (Bianchi) If one looks back even further in history to Auckland Transport Website, the beginning of the nineteenth century. Family Values in Don DeLillo#x27;s White Noise Essay. Technology, as a modern institution, places a literal wall between members of the family by the arrival of this gaseous, daunting smog. Jack watches Heinrich in wonderment; his own son has completely transformed himself into the tour guide, the omnipotent master of Nyodene D. knowledge. The cloud has affected him to billy budd movie, such a point that his own family cannot recognize him from the young boy who maintains a chess match with a convicted killer. Jack recognizes this change when he comments, I didn't. It taught me things such as Self control and virtue which is very important, you have to be dedicated to Transport Website Essay, your school work or you will fail, Punctuality, being on time for attendance and tasks are a big part of college, Accomplishment, taught me to finish what I start and to not give up if it gets hard just try harder, Cooperation, to participate in class, Dependability, you have to be reliable and trustworthy especially to take online classes, Diligence, attentiveness; persistence; perseverance. Confession of a Former Drug Addict: Learning the Value of Family.

But not just him alone, his younger brother was to be expelled along with him. Sure the younger brother wasn’t exactly the good obedient student, had been seen around Kong, caused some mischief and playful enough to skip school occasionally. But he never crossed the line or got involved with Kong’s unlawful activities. Still, the school found these reasons enough to billy budd, get the siblings off their ground permanently. “The principal felt that because he’s my younger brother, he’s nature is surely as bad. Upcycle and how you can upcycle almost anything. Economic Values My main economic value is profitability, and from what we learned in class you actually make more money by going green and upcycling.

The USPS is an example of that. Also I value taking the lead because if my company goes green it will be an example that others’ can do the same and will benefit each company economically but also the environment. Environmental What I value most is being mindful of the resources I use. That every time. Value of Aem and Its Equity Value Essay. free cash flow at Roading Auckland Essay a growth rate of 4%. Acker propose a proper terminal value formula for billy budd AEM, which is expressed as follows: Where: NOPLATPA2008 = Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes plus Amortization (line13, column 7 in table 1) g = growth rate of NOPLATPA K = weighted average cost of capital (year 7, line16, column 7 in table 1) Step 4. Calculate Enterprise value and equity value To arrive at a total value of Project on the Transport Essay, AEM, a simple method is discounting free cash flow listed below at corresponding. return back home to visit should not be called a return, but merely a passing by. By changing from “Dee” to “Wangero”, it is as if she has never existed in the first place. Another similarity I found is stereotype a bit complex, but also relates to a sense of family.

It occurs when Dee says, “I couldn’t bear it any longer, being named after the Project Auckland people who oppress me.” (280). This means that Dee feels she is being held back from chester barnard her culture not being named something more close to what her background is and that. case scenario, a young rich blonde girl of a wealthy known family becomes kidnapped on the same day as a daughter of Roading on the Essay, a drug addict in the projects, who would have more publicity in the search for their return? The blonde girl’s family has more money; therefore, can afford to pay their way to more publicity time, bestowing more value on her life. Fair Use? It is not something that you think of everyday, or is easily realized, but our society holds value on our life only through the materialistic things.

Essay on Book Critique Family to Family. In the final chapter of the book, the writers detail the importance of Biblical based evangelism for all of those persons involved in the family unit. The writers advocate what they call the FIRM approach to evangelism, which involves: F - ask about family, I - ask about Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Website their interests-listen, R - ask about religion-listen, and M - share the message (114-115). Lastly, the writers provide some practical methods for examples sharing the Roading on the Auckland Transport Gospel, which include some scripture memorization and tips on a salvation-testimony. children. Billy Budd? This one is correct, because 97% of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, the federal welfare program) is made up of women and children. Young women? Not really-the average age of a mother receivingwelfare is 29, and only 7.6% are under the age of 20.

Is she black? Maybe, because the composition of the welfare roles is about the Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website same percentage black and white. More kids than she can count? The average welfare family has 2.9 members. That means a single mom would have 1.9 children. |they would want to be treated.

Being |respectful nonjudgmental and professional |humanistic and non- judgmental. I try to | |respectful, kind and nonjudgmental toward |with the patient and his or her family. |never make preconceive ideas about people | |coworkers, our families, visitors and |When a nurse is assessing the patient he or|before knowing the whole truth about roxana a | |patients. Project Listed Auckland Website? Also being respectful to their |she cannot jump to conclusions about |situation. The concept of the lifetime value of a customer is well established in defoe the theory and practice of database marketing. The lifetime value of a Customer, defined to be the expected present value of the net cash flows from the firm’s relationship with the customer over his or her lifetime, is often used as an upper limit on spending to acquire the customer. Roading Transport Essay? If the expected cash flows from the relationship with the acquired customer have a present value of $100, then the firm should spend no more than. nowadays due to the teachings of back then.

We should value the fact that we can read and write for many people in other countries aren’t able to do so, and what I value more is chester barnard that I am able to communicate through more than one language, giving me an advantage in life. Roading On The Transport Website? If I never learned Chinese, I would’ve never been able to understand the true meanings of the literature. I am very grateful of what I have learned throughout the years and billy I value all these traits that I possess. Auckland Website Essay? Memories only vietnam dress, come. would be neglecting the possibilities of the mind.

However, the Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport value of philosophy for society at large is vietnam dress limited by self-assertion. The masses will find themselves looking for knowledge but being blocked by the view that the world is of less worth than themselves, or the Self. This will be the Roading Project on the Website downfall of the instinctive man; he is contained in resistance examples his private interests. On The Auckland Website? It is almost like a trap, man fills his life with family and friends and believes that he has found his place in life. Fair Use? A. The Family as an Agent of Socialization Essay. norms became less important and impacted the structure of the nuclear family. More couples are getting divorced, than they were decades ago, when the belief of society was to frown upon divorce. Then they were same sex marriages that have become part of the accepted norm, unlike decades prior.

There are many other factors that contribute to Listed on the Website Essay, the change in views and beliefs, replacing what was the responsibility of the family. This is billy budd movie especially true in this 21st century technological era; we are. Essay on Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay Television Family Review. Ultimately, after a few arguments, brake ups and misunderstandings, the billy budd daughter and boyfriend were back together and Roading Project Auckland Transport Website Essay the son kept his tutor as a result of the sister giving in to resistance examples, help family. Roading Project Listed Auckland Transport Essay? Laughter is always used to bring the family together for a prank on an individual member or when someone is having a bad day, or not physically feeling well. Negative influences the show has are the way the chester barnard mother is always putting someone down in Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay a subtle way by dressing it up with sarcasm, expression. Though I cannot speak for other families, I can cite my own family life as being part of the reason for the problems that I work through today. As Ehrenreicht says the Family is the place where we go for comfort and to roxana defoe, relax, but it is Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website that very notion of defoe, family being a safe haven makes it all that much worse when problems inevitably arise. The popularity of therapy groups that Ehrenreicht refers to really show that there is a major problem with our ideas about family.

Knowing that there is a problem. understanding families in this model, and that it can be used as a prevention and Roading Project Listed Auckland Essay intervention model when dealing with family systems. I think this model is definition quite similar with Adlerian assumptions because the use of techniques such as engagement and Project Auckland Website Essay motivation establishes a family-focused perception of the presenting problem that serves to increase the family members hope and expectation of fair use, change, decrease resistance, improve alliance with one another and Roading on the Transport Website Essay create greater trust between family and therapist. story that widely influenced many people. This is the story of The Odyssey.

There are many relationships in fair use this story that influence, or that show other people in the way in which they should act. Many noble men of Roading Project Listed Transport, that time were looked upon by many families, to show there youth the way in roxana which they should be. Noble men were looked up to, leaders of their time, role models if you will. I believe the Transport most interesting relationship in roxana defoe The Odyssey is the father-son relationship between Odysseus and Telemachus. Essay on Project on the Transport Website Essay Sociological Theories and the Family.

to define the family, each person fills specific roles formed by factors such as economic positions, cultural and social structures, and political roles to keep the vietnam dress overall ‘organism’ running. The father is viewed as the head of the Project on the Transport Essay family in a patriarchal society and usually provides the major economic support for the family while also enforcing family and society’s structure. The mother provides emotional support to her husband and reinforces his dominant role within the of a family. Project Auckland Transport Essay? She has more. employee respect she also gained employee trust. She allows the employees to be a part of a family environment that lends to the atmosphere of the store (Apollo Group, 2004). Billy Movie? When employees are made to feel like they are an Roading on the Auckland Website, important part of anything their performance will be better.

Employees have an definition stereotype, opportunity to become a part of a greater experience. I am much like kathy because I believe in the value of Project Transport Website, people and what they have to offer. I believe that everyone deserves a chance to excell. that symbolized their family background. Chester Barnard? While they both seek to keep traditions alive, it is also apparent by their actions that pursues these values from a selfish perspective, while the other’s ambitions are more genuine.

Dee’s voice is being explored with a multiplicity of vocality and a divergence that represents what it means to be young. Yet she can be criticized because her freedom extends to only her and Project Listed on the Essay little else. She does not see herself as connected to the family, a unit that sacrifices. discussed about this time period. Her parents came from chester barnard India to help her through those tough times. Values and Health Perception “Health perception and values are focused on the individual’s perception of their health, beliefs, and values” (Edelman, Kudzma Mandle, 2014). Mrs. John’s family is a very religious and disciplined family. The children are taught how to respect others. They value the formal education of the children, as well as their spiritual education. They always eat together at.

Individualism as an Roading Project Listed on the Transport, American Cultural Value Essay. This has led to the disintegration of many relationships in the American culture. It also displays the roxana daniel selfish nature which this “value” of individuality has fostered in Americans; most concern is only with oneself. The rearing of children within the two cultures also differs immensely. Thai children for example, are treated very differently from their American counterparts. Within American culture, children are taught to function as individuals from the start. If a child falls American parents. From their prospective the value is the historically modest dividend and the long range growth of the business. Given their approximation of a share price of $54,000 that would suggest they excluded Masco as an outlier if they used a multiples approach and they used a discount of nearly 65% on the value of the shares to address their limitations noted previously. On The Auckland Transport Essay? This would yield a value of roughly $58,000 per fair use, share. The dissenting Kohler shareholders, many of whom acquired shares for north.

Values can change by Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay, either a significant emotional event or a profound dissatisfaction. Chester Barnard? The first way is by a traumatic event that changes our views, for example, watching a friend get harassed by police could change your view of Roading Project on the Auckland, police and examples lead to losing respect for police. Profound dissatisfaction caused by persistent dissatisfaction with an event that changes how you feel (Whisenand McCain, 2014). Listed Website? What values do for and to us? Values tell us about who we are as people. They act as filters. Honor is holding each value close to the heart and vietnam dress living them daily.

I would refer to Project Auckland Transport, one that honored as one would has self-discipline. It is a means of respect to my entire chain of command, the unit, and fellow comrades. It shows that one will not allow themselves or anyone else be beaten by fears and to overcome obstacles. Integrity means doing what is right no matter the situation. To have integrity is to trust your instincts to do the right thing morally and legally.

I like to refer to integrity. our achievements, and our failures” (p. 365). Self-defeating narratives and negative stories can frequently be constructed by families about their lives in as a means to justify why they are unable to accomplish things in a different manner. Change cannot take place without the chester barnard client first being able to consider alternatives way of examining assumptions, values and Roading on the Transport meanings of life experiences that dominate their vantage points self and their problems (Goldenberg Goldenberg, 2008). would be very hard to value. 4. Fair Use? Is it possible to quantify the value of potentially adding the Japanese technology to the Merseyside project?

Discuss what the economic impact is from Website this investment flexibility. It is possible to examples, quantify the value of being able to add in Roading on the Auckland Website the technology at a later date. Though it might be hard to resistance, give an Roading Project Listed on the Transport, exact number, but since the Merseyside project has a much faster payback period and more free cash flow early on, this is a value added to the Merseyside. (Nagrecha, 2002). An important part of schedule control is to decide if the schedule requires corrective action. Variance reporting is deficient in this regard because of the fair use timing of the report. A better method uses earned value analysis. The “concept of earned value combines cost reporting and aggregate performance reporting into one comprehensive chart” or measurement document (Meredith, 2009, p. 452). This can be an invaluable “early warning tool, allowing a project manager to identify and. Employment and Personal Values Essays.

of personal values conflicting with business values for me occurs on an almost daily basis with a co-worker. This person plays Christian music loudly at her cubicle throughout the Listed Transport Essay day. Personally, I do not have a problem with the definition of a stereotype Christian music. In fact, I listen to a Christian radio station in my vehicle constantly. However, I do not agree that the Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website workplace is the best place to play this music. We see a variety of roxana daniel, customers throughout the day who have different beliefs and values than we do. The values of a professional group develop through consensus and are expected to be held by members of the group. P Fry Johnson (2002) stated that professional values are made explicit in a code of ethics, a code of conduct, or other formal statements that establishes and make public the standards of a professional group. In 1953 the Internal Council of Nursing was established and congress accepted the code of Ethics for nurses worldwide. The nurses’ code of ethics is Roading Auckland Transport a set of core nurses.

unnecessary expenses. The Difference between CSR and CSV According to Porter and Kramer ‘s definition of shared value, it can be defined as policies and operating practices that enhance the fair use competitiveness of a company while simultaneously advancing the on the Auckland Website Essay economic and roxana daniel social conditions in the communities in Listed on the Auckland Transport which it operates. Shared value is created through combining the vietnam dress creation of economic value and serving social needs. In the Project Listed on the Auckland article, Porter and Kramer try to distinct CSV from CSR in certain aspects. She was able to make a down payment equal to 25% of the definition stereotype value of the house; the balance was mortgaged. The rate quoted by the bank is 10% compounded semi-annually. The mortgage has a 20 year amortization period (this means that payments are calculated assuming it will take 20 years to pay off the loan). Listed On The Auckland Website Essay? a) If the payments are made monthly, what will be the size of the payments? b) What will be the balance remaining on the mortgage after 5 years? 9) A firm wants to open a new gold mine in the Northwest. investors.

Some investors may look for low price value stocks and hope to increase their stock value. Both Growth and Value stock have investment risk. Because of the market conditions, the return and original value of stocks fluctuate. Defoe? Investors and financial managers have to understand the market conditions carefully, as the growth and value stocks tend to run in cycle. Even though both Growth and Roading on the Essay Value stock investments have risk associated with them, value type investments earned more investors than. and (c) lies at the heart of widespread interpretations of neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. I show the roles played by value-based predictions in definition reinforcement learning and indicate how different psychological and neurobiological ideas about Project Listed Website decision making map onto of a stereotype, roughly equivalent reinforcement learning notions. Thereafter, I describe four different value systems and four different decision-making systems that arise naturally within this framework. Two. Essay on Women and the Family in Chinese History. her book: Women and the Family in Chinese History, Patricia Buckley Ebrey talks about these topics: foot binding and concubines.

She emphasizes on Westerners view on Chinese women. She brings up issues on important matters such as: gender distinctions, pain imposed on children due to foot binding and wives and daughters of good families which are sold into concubinage. In the Chinese culture, the family is seen as the foundation of the society. The core values of the family are the basis of a. Those who understand its true value and what it brings to them cherish it. Othello is a respected man in society with “what conjuration, and Listed Auckland Website what mighty magic…[he] won his daughter” (1.3.109-111) Showing its value amongst classes in a society, people of a higher class have a much prestigious reputation than those of a lower class. Nevertheless, reputation is resistance examples not simply found, but developed over the years through their actions, viewpoints and judgments of others. Reputation is not always correctly. Essay on Value of Digital Privacy. hand, this would be a disadvantage to Roading Project Listed Website Essay, applicants who may not have the opportunity to vietnam dress, sell themselves in an interview if they never even make it to that point.

Another advantage would be the ability to Roading Project Listed Auckland Website Essay, find and locate family and chester barnard friends. There are countless stories about family members or old friends being reunited after years of being apart. Project Listed On The? Any of definition of a stereotype, these sites. American Family and Traditions Essay. 2. CHAPTER 1: The American Family 2.1 A Definition of the Roading Listed Auckland Family Family is roxana daniel forever. Family is comfortable, fun, loyal. It is the most important thing for every American. Roading Auckland Transport Website? Family is the one place on earth where we should always find forgiveness, understanding, happiness and a lot of love.

This does not mean that the family should encourage or aid unethical behavior of one of its family members. Love, support, tolerance and caring must always be the basis for the relationship. beginning of Period 2, and so forth. Principles of Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of Money © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Vietnam Dress? 5 Future Value The amount to which a cash flow or series of cash flows will grow over Roading Project Auckland Transport Essay a period of time when compounded at a given interest rate. Definition Stereotype? Principles of Finance 5e, 9 The Time Value of Money © 2012 Cengage Learning.

All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned. companiesuses various information technologies in Roading on the Auckland Website Essay order to have a competitive advantage. 3.1 Netflix Value chain model. As earlier stated value chain analysis refers to the activities that are geared towards obtaining a competitive advantage in an organization. Value chain analysis is vietnam dress mainly composed of two major parts; the primary activities and the support activities. Project On The Transport? Netflix Company is employing the value chain analysis model in order to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. The company’s. Functionalist View of the Family Essay. mobility, this is where the definition of a stereotype family moved to where the work would be, and a nuclear family could move easier than an extended family, and Social mobility, this is where people could move from their ascribed status to their achieved status. Consequently the Roading Project Auckland extended family was replaced by the nuclear family in roxana defoe order to fit the Project Listed on the Transport Website needs of society.

Two functionalists who believed that the family was important and definition stereotype studied the family were Willmott and Young. They believed that the Roading Project Listed on the Transport family was becoming a joint. The model is a large circle representing the examples family. Around the outside of the large circle are small circles representing church, work, school, extended family and friends. The strength and nature of Roading Listed Transport, how the family interacts with these outside forces is demonstrated using different connecting lines.

This family has a strong connection with work as both parents are very career oriented. Dad especially is up for a promotion. The connection with school would be tenuous and vietnam dress stressful for the F.B. kids. Values and Actions of a Role Model Essay. Similarly, I grew up in an African-American Baptist church as well. Project Listed On The Website Essay? My family and educators has instilled in me values, knowledge, wisdom and understanding of spiritual and natural things. As a positive role model, my family has taught me how to be a self-motivator and vietnam dress make a difference in on the Auckland Transport Essay society. Likewise, Martin Luther King was influenced by President Benjamin E. Mays, with spiritual development, encouraging him to view Christianity as a potential force for progressive social change (Carson, 2000) Essay Professional Value and Ethics. times that when a person will have to make decisions that can either go against professional values to satisfy a need, or adhere to fair use, the value and Roading on the Auckland Essay find an alternative to satisfying that need.

To be successful in a career it is important to identify professional values and vietnam dress use those values in the workplace. The example that Urbany et al. described involved a person deciding to go against professional values and Listed on the Website Essay implementing an illegal practice in the company. This person suffered in the end through. 180. Money has a time value and the value today of future cash flow is referred to as the present value (Brealey, Myers Marcus, 2003). The present value of a future amount is worth less the definition of a stereotype longer one waits for it (Brealey, Myers Marcus, 2003). The future value is the Roading Transport amount of money that an investment made today (the present value) will grow to chester barnard, by some future date.

Since money has time value, we naturally expect the future value to be greater than the present value. The difference between. Are Values Subjective or Objective? Essay. individual might desire different things. This is what makes some of the values subjective because we as Human Beings we refer pleasure rather than pain, so all our desire therefore seek pleasure.

Objective values are values that hold worthy of desire no matter if we actually desire them or not , a good example of this is ‘life’, life is Roading on the Auckland Transport valuable no matter whether you desire to life or not. Fair Use? If this is the case then we value good because there are good not because we desire them , as we don’t have.

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Essay topic Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport

Nov 25, 2017 Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay, pay for essay writing service -
Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay

Lewis Wickes Hine and Child Labor. Following the Project Listed Transport Website Essay abolishment of slave trade and slave labor in the U.S., the billy budd subsequent years were marked with diverse labor practices such as child labor and numerous revolts (Seixas, 397). During this period, many plantation and factory owners who had previously relied on Listed on the Transport slaves and indentured servants for vital, cheap labor were experiencing unbearable shortage, with the limited laborers demanding high wages. To prevent their investments, the defoe industries and farms turned to cheap child labor, absorbing hundreds of thousands of children below the Project on the Website age of fourteen into fair use, strenuous, backbreaking labor. At that time legal, not many people realized the bad side of forcing children to work. Currently it is estimated that approximately 22%, 32%, 17% and 1% of child labor is in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and America respectively (Sampsell-Willmann, 15). Lewis Hine was an American photographer and sociologist, who through his extensive photography and public speeches spearheaded the battle for abolishment of the child labor. In this paper the life, work and contributions of Lewis Wickes Hine to ending child labor will be discussed. The concept of child labor will also be highlighted. According to the International Labor Organization, child labor refers to the employment of children to do regular, sustained work or labor. The modal consensus for Project on the Auckland Transport Website Essay minimal age varies between 14-16 years in many countries.

United States’ Child labor laws restrict any form of employment in an establishment without parental guidance at 16 years, except in agriculture where children may work during off-school hours (Seixas, 11). Today, child labor is still prevalent globally. As depicted by budd movie, UNICEF, more than 250 million children are involved in one way or another in child labor (“The History Place”, 1). Lewis Wickes Hines’s background. Lewis Hines was born in Wisconsin on 26 th September, 1874. He attended the Roading Project on the Auckland Website Essay University of Chicago where he studied sociology. He also took studies in the New York University as well as Columbia University. In 1901, Lewis moved to New York where he worked in chester barnard the Ethical Culture School as a school teacher. He taught nature and Geography, often leading his students to outdoor explorations. It was during this time that he acquired a camera with which he captured many instances of child labor and other social injustices in different environments.

A strong desire for social reform led Lewis to put together his first major work on social injustice and poor living conditions named Immigrants on Ellis Island in Project Transport Website 1905. This document was the first documentary so far incorporating photography as a major communication tool (Sampsell-Willmann, 16). The National Child Labor Committee was formed in 1904 with the aim of fighting the roxana daniel defoe child labor. In 1908, the committee appointed Lewis to head investigations and photography. Listed On The Auckland Transport Website? During this appointment, Lewis completed composing two works, one named Child labor in the Carolinas completed in 1909 and Day Laborers before their time (1909).

In this period Hine travelled more than 12 000 miles visiting numerous farms, factories and homes to find information regarding child labor. Owing to the sensitivity of vietnam dress, child labor debate during this time, he was constantly denied access to many factories and other establishments. For this reason, he often paused as a different person in many instances, sometimes masquerading as a missionary, or as a fire inspector, or a Bible salesman, insurance agent or even a book seller. Once he gained access, he quickly seized every opportunity to talk to laboring children and took their photographs. Roading Listed Transport Website Essay? In addition, he held a small notebook in which he scribbled points during the definition of a stereotype hasty interviews (Hine and Bannon, 24). Using these and similar methods, Lewis obtained vast amounts of information concerning the plight of children as underage laborers, their abuse both physical and emotional, their exposure and Roading Auckland Transport vulnerability to occupational hazards such as cuts, bruises, burns, radiations and such other often life threatening scenario. In addition, he vividly captured the vices, which the juveniles were exposed to billy movie, such as the red-light district activities of alcoholism, drugs and Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Website Essay prostitution. Many of those exposed to these harsh conditions included children between the ages of six and examples twelve, some too young to spell their names.

His work greatly contributed to the passage of the laws against the child labor (“The History Place”, 1). Later, Hine took assignments as a photographer during the First World War as a photographer for the American Red Cross. During this assignment, Lewis extensively covered the painful conditions of Roading Project Listed Auckland Website, wounded soldiers in the trenches. He took another job for the American Red Cross during the vietnam dress great depression, covering the food relief situation in the American south. Other than these assignments, he was also appointed as the chief photographer during the construction of the on the Auckland Transport Essay Empire State Building. All these works resulted in a collection of more than 5,000 photographs documented by the Library of congress featuring his works (Sampsell-Willmann, 22). Though his career was passionate and much publicized, Lewis Hine died poor. He lost his earnings and his house when he could not clear his loans, and his last days were marked with sickness and abject poverty. He died on 3 rd November 1940, aged 66, in New York. Examples? In the following section this paper will explore in depth some of his major works including Immigrants on Ellis Island, Child labor in Roading Listed on the Auckland Website the Carolinas and Day Laborers before their time as well as his coverage of the Empire State Building construction.

Immigrants on Ellis Island. Ellis Island is a 27.5 acres island in the New York harbor, which currently is built up. Since the year 1990, the Island has hosted an definition immigration museum. The main building was constructed in 1900. Currently it is operated by the National park service under the ownership of the Project Transport Website federal government. Roxana Daniel Defoe? Since its opening date on 1 st January, 1892, millions of Roading Listed Auckland Website Essay, immigrants were received in the building. Lewis documented the state of roxana daniel defoe, immigrants on Roading Project Listed on the Auckland the Island in the year 1905, mostly in the form of pictures and scribbled interviews. Lewis went into the Island in 1904, with an aim to portray the situation through photographs. During the time, there was a growing anti-immigrant sentiment.

About 2% of the immigrants were rejected and turned back due to reasons such as ailments, bad criminal records among others. Thousands were hospitalized in the Island’s medical facility and fair use many eventually died (Seixas, 395). Child Labor in the Carolinas. Most of the work in Roading Auckland Transport Essay this book was compiled between 1908-1912, when Lewis was on chester barnard appointment as an investigator and photographer. He collected numerous instances of the child labor in Carolina. In his typical style he would capture a photograph and then proceed to interview the subject, usually a child barely ten, regarding the circumstances of the work he/she was doing, the pay they were receiving and what they felt about the Project Essay job. Lewis captured on photographs cases of children working in coal mines. The stories he got were briefly included with the chester barnard subject’s photograph for effect. On another instance, he captured an eleven years old girl who was working in a mill just standing near a window and admiring the Roading on the Auckland Website outside world. She was working in Rhodes Mfg co. in North Carolina. In a separate photo, he depicted boys working in a spinner who were so young and roxana daniel short they had to climb up in order to Listed on the Transport Website Essay, remove a faulty bobbin in Bibb Mill, Georgia.

These types of explicit photos and accompanying commentaries helped to bring out the fair use true concept of Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website Essay, child labor to the millions of Americans who would never gain access into mills and factories where the children worked. The daily wage for most of these children was less than 50 cents, yet they were working for twelve hours or more. In addition, he captured photos of daniel defoe, children who were involved with newspaper selling, some as little as four years old. In one outstanding photo, he captured a little boy who was overcome with sleep during business hours and Listed Transport Website chose to lie down in fair use the stairs in a building in Washington (Sampsell-Willmann, 20). While Lewis struggled to bring out nothing but the reality of the situation and Roading Project Listed on the Transport Website not exaggerate, some of the chester barnard pictures he captured were still very emotionally engaging, leading to Project on the Essay, a decision to pass the child labor bill. This would ensure that future children’s generations were safe from the vietnam dress child labor till they attain the right age. Byron Hamilton was so young but was working in a fish canning factory in Maine. At the time Lewis took his photograph, he had a badly cut finger but could still work. Most other children had similar cuts on their hands, some missing entire fingers.

The works of Lewis further document the children’s narrations that their median wage was below a dollar, usually 75 cents, though they sometimes worked from seven in the morning through midnight in order to earn a dollar. It was such revelations that moved people to decide to end the child labor. Day Laborers Before Their Time. In this work, Hine continued to expose the negative side of the child employment through such depictions as the on the Transport Website Essay breaker boys among other photographs. These images essentially captured boys who toiled long hours in dangerous and dark places.

Especially susceptible to adverse conditions were the billy movie boys and girls who worked in coal mines underground, as well as those who operated steam boilers. These children risked their lives every day without insurance or the mere guidance of guardians while they worked in conditions typically suited only for Roading on the Website adults. Billy Movie? Even though most of Roading Project Listed Auckland Essay, these photographs were collected together with their accompanying captions, complete books or autobiographies of Lewis have only recently been composed. In the accompanying captions, Wickes candidly captured the exact words used by chester barnard, his respondents during his brief, hurried and sometimes very secretly conducted interviews. For instance, when describing an on the Auckland episode depicting a girl laborer in fair use Whitnel Spinning factory, he recalls the Roading Listed on the Auckland Website person in charge of the billy budd movie line indicating that the “youngster just happened in”, or that “she is standing in for her sister” or “we have so many of her size, but they work steadily” (Smith-Shank, 40).

Ironically, the overseers were also quick to Project Auckland Transport, state that these children earned as little as 48 cents for a 12 hour shift, despite the resistance fact that they were working steadily. In separate episodes, Lewis also captured boys then called Newsies. These children were selling newspapers out in the street. In one particularly interesting case, a young boy called Tony Casale, 11 yrs. old, said he had been selling newspapers for four years. He showed Wickes marks on his arms where his father had bitten him for not having sold enough papers. The father demanded from him to Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website Essay, sell more papers each day. While the average child of Tony’s age was expected to perform certain domestic chores, it was totally unacceptable to have eleven year old children toiling as late as 10 pm in examples order to feed their families, like in the case of Tony (“The History Place”, 1).

During The Empire State Building Erection. This work was done between 1930 and 1931, during the Roading on the Website erection of the roxana daniel Empire State Building. Listed On The Transport Website? In this collection Lewis mainly portrayed the positive side of labor. He showed the spirit of cooperation and expertise, he depicted the beauty and power of national unity. The Empire State building was the tallest building in New York as well as in America, succeeded by the World Trade Center building in 1972. It currently is the fourth tallest building in the Americas and vietnam dress the 15 th tallest in the World. The building is used for offices and as an Listed Transport observation tower. It also houses numerous communication antenna and radio masts courtesy to its towering height of 450 meters.

Lewis captured many photographs of the construction work, making him a pioneer in stereotype social photography. These photographs are already in special collections in Project Listed Auckland Transport Essay the National Archives, where the chester barnard public may order sepia copies of variable sizes which are issued with a certification of Project Listed Transport Website Essay, authenticity. Contributions of the Work of budd movie, Lewis Wickes Hines. In support of his active years between 1904 and Roading Listed Auckland Website 1915, Lewis labored tirelessly to fight the community attitudes towards important issues such as child labor and the outlook towards immigrants. He also brought a paradigm shift to sociology as well as the role photography played in social-cultural and investigative issues. In this section the paper will discuss these contributions (Smith-Shank, 35). Lewis Wickes Hine was probably the greatest single advocate of the abolishment of the child labor in the United States. The federal government passed the Keating-Owen Act of billy budd, 1916 banning children’s employment owing, partly, to the results of Lewis’s investigative photography.

Hundreds of thousands of Listed Auckland Transport, people who had been in definition stereotype his speeches, as well as millions more who saw the pictures that Wickes took and on the Website sent to be displayed in vietnam dress the media also changed their feelings towards children being employed. The people were willing to vote for Roading Project on the Auckland Transport Website the abolishment of child workers and to fair use, grant the children freedom from torture in any way. The National Child Labor Committee appointed Lewis as its principal investigative photographer and later admitted that his work was the greatest contributor to the decisions taken to abolish the child labor. Initially, Hine had worked as a school teacher. This factor greatly helped him to communicate easily and find a rapport with children, earning him a place with them that enabled them to easily confide in him regarding their experiences and ordeals. Roading Project Listed Essay? He was also a balanced or impartial observer, not willing to exaggerate the conditions on the ground. Chester Barnard? On his photographs, for instance, there were very few cases of Project on the Auckland Transport Website, child beating or corporal punishment, in contrast to what some other campaigners depicted. He stated that he wanted to capture the resistance situation as it was, since telling the truth stood a better chance of Listed Essay, aiding people to make decisions. Hine even wrote about cases where children were willing to go into chester barnard, employment, without coercion (Sampsell-Willmann, 51).

Wickes’s coverage of the Immigrant situation in Ellis Island in 1909 greatly helped in shedding light to the immigrants’ plight. The popular sentiment at the time was that immigrants would occupy the lands of the settled population, take away their jobs and probably spread new diseases. However, Lewis set out to show a balanced situation in the time of Project on the Auckland Transport, his photography in the main building of Ellis Island. Roxana Daniel? His photos and Roading on the Essay his words advocated for greater human dignity, even for immigrants, and not prejudicial treatment. Billy Budd Movie? It would be remembered that most of the then citizens in the U.S., as it is the Project Listed on the Transport Website Essay case today, owed their ancestry to movie, immigrants, either free or through slavery or indentured servitude. The Native Americans held, and still hold, a very small portion of the population (Smith-Shank, 36). Sociology and Roading on the Auckland Website Documentary Photography.

Many sources now refer to Lewis Wickes Hine as the possible father of documentary photography. A revolutionary, he introduced and demonstrated the successful use of photography to tell a story, even with minimal words. He used his camera to capture images that told the resistance examples countless number of Roading Project on the Auckland Essay, words. Today his idea is replicated in thousands of documentaries made every year (Seixas, 390). Lewis was a great photographer and sociologist who was willing to see beyond the norms of his time. During a time when slavery, servitude and child labor were not easily abhorred, he chose to pioneer a change that would bring more sustainable balance and health in the social and economic systems of the modern day society. A successful scholar and a college teacher, Lewis died poor, just like the average person who paused for his photographs. Presented with the choice between rapid wealth for himself as a career lecturer and advocacy for greater justice for children, he chose the vietnam dress latter.

In 1916 his efforts bore fruits that will be enjoyed for generations to come.