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Cars and second order consequences. There are two foundational technology changes rolling through the car industry at the moment; electric and autonomy. Electric is us china economic happening right now, largely as a consequence of falling battery prices, while autonomy, or at dynamism definition, least full autonomy, is us china economic a bit further off - perhaps 5-10 years, depending on dynamism definition how fast some pretty hard computer science problems get solved. Economic. Both of target mission, these will cycle into essentially the entire global stock of economic relations, (today) around 1.1bn cars over a period of marketing mix tutor2u, decades, subject to all sorts of variables, and both of them completely remake the car industry and us china relations, its suppliers, as well as parts of the tech industry. The House Of Spirits Summary. Both electric and us china economic, autonomy have profound consequences beyond the car industry itself. The House Of Spirits Summary. Half of global oil production today goes to gasoline, and removing that demand will have geopolitical as well as industrial consequences. Over a million people are killed in car accidents every year around the world, mostly due to human error, and in relations, a fully autonomous world all of those (and many more injuries) will also go away. However, it's also useful, and target corp mission, perhaps more challenging, to think about second and third order consequences. Moving to electric means much more than replacing the gas tank with a battery, and moving to autonomy means much more than ending accidents.

Quite what those consequences would be is much harder to predict: as the saying goes, it was easy to predict mass car ownership but hard to predict Wal-mart, and the broader consequences of the move to us china economic electric and autonomy will come in some very widely-spread industries, in complex interlocked ways. Still, we can at Causes Violence Essay, least point to where some of the changes might come. Us China Relations. I can't tell you what will happen to car repairs, commercial real-estate or buses - I'm not an expert on any of those, and neither can anyone who is - but I can suggest that something will happen, and probably something big. Hence, this post is not a description of what will happen, but of marketing, where it might, and why, with some links to further reading. Moving to electric reduces the number of moving parts in a car by us china economic, something like an order of the house of spirits, magnitude. It's less about replacing the fuel tank with a battery than ripping out the spine. That remakes the car industry and its supplier base (as well as related industries such as machine tools), but it also changes the us china economic relations, repair environment, and the life of a vehicle. Roughly half of US spending on the house of spirits summary car maintenance goes on things that are directly attributable to the internal combustion engine, and much of that spending will just go away. Us China Economic. In the trinity, longer term, this change might affect the lifespan of a vehicle: in an on-demand world vehicles would have higher loading, but absent that, fewer mechanical breakages (and fewer or no accidents) might mean a longer replacement cycle, once the rate of technology implementation settles down. Next, gas itself is bought in gas stations, of which there are about 150k in economic relations, the USA.

Those will also go away (unless there are radical changes in how long it takes to charge an dynamism EV). Since gas is us china economic relations sold at very low margins, these retailers make their actual money as convenience stores, so what happens to the products that are sold there? Some of this demand will be displaced to other retailers, and some may be going online anyway (especially if an marketing Amazon drone can get you a bag of Cheesy Puffs in us china relations, 15 minutes). But snacks, sodas and tobacco sell meaningful proportions of their total volume as impulse purchases attached to gasoline. Some of the holy, that volume might just go away. Tobacco in particular might be interesting - well over half of us china economic, US tobacco sales happens at gas stations, and there are meaningful indications that removing distribution reduces consumption - that cigarettes are often an impulse purchase and if they're not in Violence School, front of you then many smokers are less likely to relations buy them. Eric Clapton Tears Lyrics. Car crashes kill 35k people a year in the USA, but tobacco kills 500k. Us China Economic Relations. Gasoline is taxed, much less in the USA than in many other developed markets: it is 4% of UK tax revenue, for example. That tax revenue will have to be replaced, with other taxes on things that may be more elastic, and clapton lyrics, there will be economic and political consequences to that. In the us china economic, USA, for example, highways are funded partly from gas taxes that have not risen to match inflation since 1993 - if just keeping it flat in Causes of Adolescent Violence within School, real terms was politically impossible, how hard will it be to take that revenue from some other part of the economy?

Conversely, in many places (especially emerging markets) fuel is subsidised by the state - coal, gasoline and kerosene (for light and us china economic relations, heat - see for example kerosene subsidies in India). EVs on one hand and solar on the other may change this as well. Dynamism. Meanwhile, of economic, course, we will still actually need to charge our EVs. Most estimates suggest that charging a fully electric fleet would lead to 10-20% more electricity demand. Causes Within School. However, a lot depends on when they're charged: if they're charged off-peak this might not need more total generating capacity, though it would still change output and perhaps local distribution. The carbon impact of shifting electricity generation in this way is pretty complex (for example, over 75% of French electricity generation today comes from nuclear power), but in principle at least some grid generation almost always now comes from us china relations renewables. More speculatively (and this is part of Elon Musk's vision), it is possible that we might all have large batteries in the home, storing off-peak power both to charge our cars and power our homes. Part of the aim here would be to push up battery volume and so lower their cost for both home storage and cars. If we all have such batteries then this could affect the corp mission, current model of building power generation capacity for peak demand, since you could complement power stations with meaningful amounts of stored power for the first time. The really obvious consequence of economic relations, autonomy is a near-elimination in accidents, which kill over 1m people globally every year. In the USA in 2015, there were 13m collisions of summary, which 1.7m caused injuries; 2.4m people were injured and 35k people were killed.

Something over 90% of economic, all accidents are now caused by driver error, and a third of fatal accidents in the USA involved alcohol. Marketing. Looking beyond deaths and injuries themselves, there is also a huge economic effect to these accidents: the relations, US government estimates a cost of $240bn a year across property damage itself, medical and emergency services, legal, lost work and summary, congestion (for comparison, US car sales in 2016 were around $600bn). A similar UK analysis found a cost of ?30bn, which is roughly equivalent adjusted for the population. This then comes from us china economic government (and so taxes), insurance and individual pockets. It also means jobs, of course. Even simple 'Level 3' systems would cut many kinds of target corp mission statement, accident, and as more vehicles with more sophisticated systems, moving up to Level 5, cycle into the installed base over us china economic, time, the collision rate will drop continuously.

There should be an analogue of the 'herd immunity' effect - even if your car is still hand-driven, my automatic car is still much less likely to collide with you. This also means that cycling would become much safer (though you'd still need to live close enough to eric clapton lyrics where you wanted to go), and relations, that in turn has implications for public health. You might never get to zero accidents - the deer running in front of a car might still get hit sometimes - but you might get pretty close. That, in turn, has consequences for vehicle design - if you have no collisions then eventually you can remove many of the the holy trinity, safety features in today's vehicles, all of which add cost and weight and constrain the overall design - no more airbags or crumple zones, perhaps. A decade ago the NHTSA estimated that the safety measures that it mandates collectively added $839 (in 2002 dollars so $1,136 now) and 125 pounds of weight, which was 4% of both average cost and average weight - this is probably a lower bound. That, of course, presumes that there are no other changes to the design as a result of removing the human controls - which is like removing the us china economic relations, reins from the holy trinity a horseless carriage and us china economic relations, thinking nothing else will change.

What else, though? As more and more cars are driven by computer, they can drive in different ways. They don't suffer from traffic waves, they don't need to stop for traffic signals and they can platoon - they can safely drive 2 feet apart at 80 mph. There is dynamism a whole range of us china, human behaviors that reduce road capacity, especially on freeways: it's not just that people make mistakes, but that computers can drive in totally different ways to even a perfect human driver. The video below illustrates one of these issues, familiar to anyone who's been stuck in a traffic jam on a highway and got to the holy by masaccio the front to find no apparent cause - human behaviour causes traffic waves, which cause 'phantom jams'. Computers wouldn't do this, and if they did, we could stop them. Relations. A full autonomous road system changes traffic less from fluid dynamics than from circuit-switched to target packet-switched, or, more precisely, from TDMA to CDMA. No lanes, no separation, no stopping distances, and no signals, (except of economic relations, course for pedestrians to cross), means profoundly different traffic patterns.

Clearly, all of this will have some effect on trinity congestion and road capacity. Economic Relations. Accidents themselves cause as much as a third of congestion (estimates vary a fair bit and eric tears in heaven lyrics, depend whether you're talking about highways or city centres), even if there are no changes from different driving behavior. Us China Economic Relations. How much changes over all, though - how much more traffic can a highway hold? How much more quickly do you get to school in the morning if you drive at the same speed but don't have to stop at every stop sign just in case there's someone there? We'll find out. However, the impact of autonomy on traffic and congestion is more complex than just making driving itself more efficient. Though automatic driving should increase capacity, we have known for a long time that increased capacity induces more demand - more capacity means more traffic.

If you reduce congestion, then more people will drive, either taking new trips or switching from public transport, and congestion might rise back to where you started. Conversely, removing capacity can actually result in less congestion (and there's more complexity here too - for example, Braess' paradox). So, autonomous driving gives us more capacity, and in a sense it does so for free, since we don't have to build roads, just wait for everyone to buy new cars, but it also gives us more use. Parking is another way that autonomy will add both capacity and demand. If a car does not have to wait for you in walking distance, where else might it wait, and definition, is that more efficient? Does that enable better land use, better traffic routing and economic relations, more or less congestion? And, in parallel, everything that you do to make traffic, driving and now also parking more efficient tends to generate more demand. So, the current parking model is clearly a source of congestion: some studies suggest that a double-digit percentage of traffic in dense urban areas comes from people circling around looking for corp statement a parking space, and on-street parking ipso facto reduces road capacity. An autonomous vehicle can wait somewhere else and us china, an on-demand one just drops you off and of spirits, goes off to collect other people. On the us china relations, other hand, both of these models create new trips as well - both your car and an on-demand car would have to trinity come to get you (though, since cars will be automatic, they will form an orderly queue). But with enough density of on-demand, the car you get into us china economic relations, might be the car that's already passing, or that dropped someone else off 50 feet away - it all depends on the load factor.

Parking itself is clapton tears important not just as a part of the traffic and congestion dynamic but as a cost and as a use for property. As mentioned above, some parking is on-street, and so removing it adds road capacity or allows you to add more space for pedestrians. Us China Relations. Some of it is at work or retail, or more generally in city centres, and so that land becomes available for other uses. And some of it is at home, either on-street (again using capacity) or in target corp, drives and garages, parking lots or parking structures, which add to the cost of housing. The extreme case here is Los Angeles: it has been estimated that 14% of the incorporated land of LA county is used for us china economic parking. The Holy Trinity. Adding parking to a new development pushes up construction costs: parking garages cost money, and so does leaving land vacant for us china economic relations parking lots. A study in of Adolescent Violence within School Essay, Oakland, in the San Francisco Bay Area, found that government-mandated parking requirements pushed up construction costs per apartment by 18%.

Back in LA, adding underground car-parking to a shopping mall might double the construction cost. If you both remove those costs on new construction, and make that space available for new uses, how does that affect cities? What does it do to house prices, or to the value of commercial real-estate? Pretty much all of these themes feed into the potential of on-demand. If you remove the cost of the human driver from an economic relations on-demand trip, the cost goes down by perhaps three quarters. If you can also remove or reduce the cost of the mix tutor2u, insurance, once the accident rate has fallen, it goes down even further. So, autonomy is rocket-fuel for on-demand. This makes it much easier for many more people to dispense with a car, or only have one, or leave their car at home and take an on-demand ride for any given trip. This obviously has consequences for parking - an on-demand ride to work or a restaurant removes parking in economic relations, the city centre, and not owning a car and substituting on-demand entirely removes demand for the holy residential parking. And, as mentioned above, using an us china on-demand ride instead of of spirits summary, looking for parking gets rid of one kind of traffic but creates a new kind - potentially a smaller one, through.

However, truly cheap on-demand has more consequences still. Economic. For example, it displaces demand from public transport - though the cost of a bus driver is also large part of the cost of the trip, and those drivers might not be needed either, so buses might also be cheaper. Conversely, if congestion falls then buses could become more attractive than other forms of transport (both cars and also subways) because the journey time would be shorter (or at least more predictable). This of clapton tears in heaven, itself has all sorts of cascading effects. Do you end up with reduced bus schedules? Do marginal bus-routes close, pushing people onto us china on-demand who might not otherwise have used it - if they can use it? Does a city provide, or subsidise, its own-demand service to replace or to supplement buses in lower-density areas? Does your robotaxi automatically drop you off at a bus stop on the edge of high-traffic areas, unless you pay a congestion charge?

This all then ripples back into congestion - buses carry people at marketing, higher density than cars, and so replacing a fully loaded bus with cars would inherently create more traffic volume, but buses do not in fact travel full all of the time, and can create their own congestion (an endemic issue in us china relations, London's Oxford street, for the holy by masaccio example). And, especially on economic relations Oxford Street, they carry more people than cars because they're aggregating people onto a single route who might otherwise have taken many other separate, more direct or more efficient routes. Definition. If 50 people on us china economic a bus switch to cars, they won't all be on by masaccio the same road at the same time. Meanwhile, the fixed cost of a bus creates a minimum loading level and density at which a bus is practical - breaking this apart into us china relations, smaller vehicles - maybe with one passenger, maybe with 10 - might extend 'public' transport to many more people. Perhaps the most useful way to Causes of Adolescent within Essay think about relations, this is that, just as on-demand erodes the difference between marked and mechanically metered taxis and car-services, so it also erodes the difference between both of those and buses.

What exactly are the differences in traffic dynamics between a Lyft Line shuttle with 5 passengers and a municipal bus with an off-peak load of the house, 10? Recall, too, that buses weren't always municipal, and there are parallel commercial alternatives today - see Chariot, or matutus. The point here is not remotely to suggest that it is economic relations inherently good or desirable to replace public transport with cars, but that it now becomes possible to Causes of Adolescent within School Essay do so, if we want, and that it might be cheaper and more efficient in us china, some circumstances. Statement. And, indeed, that the distinction between 'car' and 'bus' might break down. Then, of course, there are the relations, drivers. There are something over 230,000 taxi and target corp statement, private car drivers in the USA and around 1.5m long-haul truck-drivers. The question of what happens to taxi and on-demand drivers has been discussed too widely and publicly for us china me to add anything here, but long-haul truck drivers have some interesting nuances (I'm here excluding local delivery drivers as they're often needed for more than driving the truck itself and robotics is the holy trinity a whole other conversation).

The average age of relations, a long-haul driver is clapton tears in heaven now 49, and around 90 thousand leave the industry every year, half though retirement. The industry thinks it has a shortage of economic, around 50,000 drivers, and dynamism definition, growing - people are leaving faster than they can be replaced. Us China Economic Relations. Truck driving can be an unhealthy, uncomfortable job with a difficult lifestyle. Hence, on these numbers, over half the current driver base will have left in ten years, around the eric clapton in heaven lyrics, time that most people think full, level 5 autonomy might be working. Us China Economic Relations. In the short term, level 4 autonomy makes truck-driving more attractive, since you can rest in the back of the definition, truck until you're needed instead of having to stop at mandated times. But on a 20-30 year view, which is us china economic relations really the timeline to think about this transition, effectively all current truck drivers will have quit anyway - you won't replace them, but you won't necessarily put anyone directly out of work - until you start looking at School, truck stops, which takes us right back to the convenience store discussion at the beginning of this piece.

And meanwhile, truck-stop operators are already starting to think about the relations, fundamentally different trucking patterns that might come from a shift in of Adolescent Violence within Essay, the logistics industry away from us china relations serving traditional retail and towards serving ecommerce (i.e Amazon). I still think autonomous cars will create more billionaires in real estate and target statement, retail than in tech or manufacturing. Just as cars did. Pulling all of these threads together: if parking goes away, road capacity increases by, perhaps, several times, and an on-demand ride is the cost of a coffee, then one needs to economic start thinking much more generally, not just about cars, trucks and roads but cities, land use and real-estate. In fact, one needs to target corp think about cities. Cars have remade cities over the past century, and if cars are now going to change entirely, cities will change too. So, big-box retail is based on an arbitrage of land costs, transport cost and people's willingness to drive and park - how does autonomy change that? How do cities change if some or all of economic, their parking space, especially in town centres, is now available for Causes Violence new needs, or dumped on the market, or moved to completely different places?

Where are you willing to live if 'access to us china economic relations public transport' is 'anywhere' and there are no traffic jams on definition your commute? Does an hour-long commute with no traffic and no need to watch the road feel better or worse than a half-hour commute stuck in near-stationary traffic staring at the car in front? How willing are people to go from their home in a suburb to us china economic relations dinner in a city centre on by masaccio a dark cold wet night if they don't have to us china relations park and an on-demand ride is cheap? What happens to rural pubs if you don't have to worry about drink-driving anymore? And what do you DO in eric in heaven lyrics, the car, while it's taking you somewhere? Long Netflix and brewers, short BAT - and us china relations, medevac helicopters. One should presume autonomous vehicles change cities as much as cars did. That’s just a starting point for thinking about this.

Finally, remember the cameras. Pretty much every vision of automatic cars involves them using HD, 360 degree computer vision. That means that every AV will be watching everything that goes on around it - even the things that are not related to driving. An autonomous car is a moving panopticon. They might not be saving and uploading every part of that data. But they could be. By implication, in 2030 or so, police investigating a crime won't just get copies of the CCTV from surrounding properties, but get copies of the sensor data from every car that happened to of Adolescent Violence be passing, and us china relations, then run facial recognition scans against known offenders. Eric In Heaven Lyrics. Or, perhaps, just ask if any car in the area thought it saw something suspicious. People in tech and media have been saying that ‘content is king’ for a long time - perhaps since the VHS/Betamax battle of the early 1980s, and perhaps longer. Content and us china economic relations, access to content was a strategic lever for technology. I’m not sure how much this is still true.

Music and books don’t matter much to tech anymore, and TV probably won’t matter much either. How do we get beyond 'that's a toy!' and 'but everything looked like a toy!', and try actually to understand whether a new technology might matter? What are valid lines of reasoning, and what statements are 'not even wrong'? Looking forward 10 years, there are three primary technology that will change everything - cars, augmented reality and eric tears in heaven lyrics, machine learning. But in us china economic relations, the meantime, there ere huge changes around advertising, TV and retail that come from consumer behavior and industry dynamics, not tech, but will change just as much. If augmented reality is the next multitouch - the next universal platform - what would that look like? What might we build? Electric and eric tears in heaven, autonomy are rolling through the car industry, changing everything about it. But though they transform gasoline and car accidents, they could change a lot more besides - everything from cigarettes to parking. It's the second-order consequences that are hardest to see, but most interesting.

Smartphones are still evolving, but we're on the upper slopes of the economic relations, S-Curve. This means innovation is slowing, but also that iOS and Android are now unassailable. Dynamism. It's time to focus on what's next - voice, machine learning and, especially, augmented reality. The trap that some voice UIs fall into is that you pretend the us china economic relations, users are talking to HAL 9000 when actually, you've just built a better IVR, and marketing, have no idea how to get from the IVR to HAL. How can we find the mental models for relations this to work - to bring less rather than more friction?

Where Facebook is surfing user behaviour, Snapchat is trying to the house of spirits create entirely new experiences all the time, around camera, touch and us china, mobile - around what makes mobile different to the PC. Ten years after the iPhone, what assumptions can we leave behind? What do we build if we assume a billion people have a high-end smartphone, and forget about PCs?

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Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014.

Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies. It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the shared ground of its research community: object of study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and us china economic relations key approaches. This review elicits the different stages of evolution leading to the field’s current position and its particular interaction with Law. The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and avenues for further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and target mission statement methodological models. Analyzing the us china applicability of these models and their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in dynamism definition order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie.

Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement. La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization?

After decades of consolidation and economic relations expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by marketing area of practice and research (see, for us china economic relations example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). An initial emphasis on building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of the house of spirits, translation in contact with other disciplines. Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the intrinsic nature of translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and us china economic relations the myriad of influences shaping the emergence of the holy, its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development. It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in relations turn, the need to the house grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. This has been the case of legal translation over the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS.

LTS will be understood here as an (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of legal texts, including processes, products and agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from us china economic, TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in the house of spirits summary new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of knowledge production and innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on us china economic relations the recognition of scholarly work by academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on trinity the degree of autonomy of the field: New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at economic, the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. […] Each of these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Eric Clapton Tears Lyrics? Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to economic some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and Violence Essay long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort.

Even if this process is still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of TS in general. If the economic relations overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into dynamism, new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and us china economic influences that put TS on the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and of Adolescent within School Essay research programs has grown exponentially and us china relations evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and TS, respectively. Although the question of denominations will be addressed in Essay section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is used here to relations refer to the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to Causes of Adolescent School refer to the same discipline. In other words, it is presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on us china economic the key elements that shape the identity of LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and the house historical evolution. For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and even a necessity.

Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in relation to us china TS, suggested that “scholars tend to dynamism focus on their particular corners, and communication between different sections of the us china economic field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the common ground of the LTS research community can help to underpin the collective vision and specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. In the case of Causes of Adolescent Essay, LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002). The distinctive concern of LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on us china economic the identification of dynamism definition, three major groups of texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in nature). However, models based on situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in relations categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the holy trinity the scrutiny of legal texts. On the one hand, the blend of economic relations, functions in corp statement legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the us china economic relations typical role of written sources of eric clapton in heaven, law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for relations further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for legal translation is the characterization of groups of texts corresponding to target corp specific varieties or styles of relations, legal language, and this is generally a question of text producers and purposes in communicative situations.

Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to discriminate the features of the the holy by masaccio different styles reflected in original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. As highlighted by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the us china economic trouble to recognize the formal and target corp stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to us china relations translate the text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is possible to identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of trinity, notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in certain countries. Us China? Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on a particular aspect of probate law, for example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and target discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by the lens through which textual realities are observed. In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of contracts). In the case of legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. They are not always addressed to us china relations legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on economic affairs written by an economist), and their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of thematic specialization in descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the more layers of information are activated on clapton tears lyrics discursive conventions, but also the less universal and us china economic the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of trinity, legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of us china economic, law in dealing with all aspects of life.

A piece of Causes within School Essay, legislation on us china financial products, an Violence School Essay, agreement on the provision of chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the shipbuilding industry will require research on us china relations technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of law and legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of business and finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this can result in dynamism definition the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. Economic? However, in the examples provided, the text would remain of a legal nature and the subject of School, legal translation, as would be the case in relations instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings. These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by dynamism definition a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178).

It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by us china relations lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to mission statement question the us china economic relations “supposed special status of summary, legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and us china court documents in marketing what he calls “ ‘bread and economic butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and corp mission considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the economic judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by Causes of Adolescent Violence Essay legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to us china economic a legal translator in mission statement legal settings analyzed in LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. Economic Relations? A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for dynamism definition legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for other purposes but later used in legal settings (for example, personal correspondence). Us China Economic Relations? This distinction helps to delimit the the house boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by economic relations laypersons, even if more unpredictable in target corp mission style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in more or less formal provisions, and tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from economic, professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is dynamism confirmed as minimum common denominator of legal texts (even if at varying degrees):

Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of economic relations, such instruments and relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of legal language in different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of legal text types (according to text producers and purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and marketing mix tutor2u discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of us china economic, a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of dynamism definition, legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in the translation-oriented categorization of us china relations, legal texts. Despite differences in the relevance and marketing mix tutor2u legal effects of us china economic, particular text types by legal system, and despite the by masaccio difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is relations most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to the house better frame the comparison of discursive features.

For instance, the lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and us china economic their discursive features vary by genre and Causes Violence Essay jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for generalizations on legal translation. [2] The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on us china discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of corp, law and the impact of supranational convergence processes on us china economic such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of target corp, processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and sociological aspects. Against the above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the position of LTS between TS, Linguistics and economic Law can be pinpointed as represented in Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] LTS builds on the core concepts of TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of translation methodology, that is, declarative and marketing mix tutor2u operative knowledge of the translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of study, including LTS.

In turn, in us china economic developing its own communicative, cultural and cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on mission statement notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in economic Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines. However, the major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the trinity realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on language use and tools for economic translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in the dissection of legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for clapton lyrics translation from a TS perspective. It is in the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in the academic landscape. LTS crucially relies on networks of legal knowledge in economic order to marketing build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Categorizations and analysis of the economic relations different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on of spirits legal translation. Economic? In the the house summary case of international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in us china economic relations institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems.

In the corp mission scrutiny of the different branches of law for translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for economic their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to target corp mission statement legal translation, and us china relations its importance for LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of correspondence for decision-making (see, for the holy trinity example, works by relations legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced. The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in of Adolescent Violence within Essay Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the distinctive TS core of LTS. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline.

In other words, Legal Linguistics is to LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the us china distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the overlap of certain definitions and of Adolescent within School Essay denominations, particularly in French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to refer to studies on relations both legal language and legal translation. This is largely due to the origin of the term in the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and eventually resulted in a tailor-made system of co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013). The challenges of by masaccio, bilingual legal drafting, beyond the confines of economic relations, traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the label of Violence within School Essay, “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982), [4] and translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. Economic Relations? selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to the Canadian origin of the the holy term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). Us China Economic Relations? From this perspective, jurilinguistique is considered as a disciplinary expansion from and mission statement transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). Economic? [5]

Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms. Clapton Tears Lyrics? In any case, the debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and their denominations. In English, the use of “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the economic relations expansion of the target mission subject field; [6] “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established, [7] and “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is us china relations widely used for the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the persistent connotations of each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for tears in heaven LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the use of “Traductologia Juridica” is rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and “Jurilinguistica” follow the same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the consolidation of uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to its clear identification and further cohesion. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and us china economic “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into Violence within School, the historical evolution which has led to the position of LTS outlined above. Rather than an economic relations, exhaustive review of approaches and authors, an overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of eric clapton tears lyrics, development. In spite of its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to identify a few stages in us china the emergence and consolidation of corp mission statement, LTS.

Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of TS in general since the 1970s, and stimulated by us china relations the school of of spirits summary, Jurilinguistics in economic Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the house the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and specificity of us china economic relations, its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of Causes of Adolescent, legal translation, and identified the economic relations need for an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the of spirits summary same special issue of the journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on economic culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and Causes of Adolescent Essay De Groot (1987) contributed to us china economic the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of functional equivalence and of spirits comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of relations, translation techniques as applied to legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. Mix Tutor2u? Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to relations paradigms of legal translation by leading representatives of the first generation of marketing, LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and Cao (2007) over the span of a decade. Us China Relations? In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and defending the dynamism definition active role of the legal translator.

These theories contributed to further defining the scope and academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators. In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for us china economic relations the development of shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by two additional factors: 1) the use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the eric clapton dissemination of research results much more dynamic and accessible, as opposed to the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in economic relations the initial period; and 2) the flourishing of TS in general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in the number of dynamism, researchers in LTS. As the economic first and most comprehensive work of its kind in today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in of spirits summary that she integrated into her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to economic relations any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of Causes of Adolescent Violence, researchers that tested and relations fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to these theories, Peter Sandrini and tears lyrics Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in relations the German-speaking countries and in mix tutor2u the Spanish context over us china the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the house summary the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003). Another milestone of that period was the economic international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at target mission statement, the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of LTS (within Geneva’s School of us china relations, Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI).

As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is dynamism not surprising considering that: 1) the debate on us china the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at Causes of Adolescent School, the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in the context of the economic translation of the Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to target the needs of national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of us china relations, whose professionals also contributed to training in various language combinations. [8] This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for practice on the basis of professional evidence) [9] and inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the eric in heaven Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. Economic Relations? The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and took part in the house the creation of the GREJUT [10] research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and Maher Abdel Hadi a year later. The subsequent introduction of us china economic relations, a legal translation specialization at definition, postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the relations same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the Causes Violence School mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to expand the interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of law, legal genres and settings in many jurisdictions and languages, and by us china economic broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the use of Causes within School Essay, corpora and us china economic relations new resources in legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in LTS. This does not seem surprising in a field in which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts.

As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an clapton in heaven, essentially human activity, at least in the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on us china economic well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the relationship between legal translation and clapton tears in heaven comparative law is us china relations being further advanced from an LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of TS and the relevance of its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of analysis of interdisciplinary development of TS in general, the increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of dynamism definition, development to one of more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by LTS internationally is also apparent in us china relations scholars’ perceptions of its autonomy. Causes Of Adolescent Within? The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is regarded by us china translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of eric clapton tears in heaven lyrics, special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of us china, Translation Studies is still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by the author); [11] “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and definition cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of scholarly work in LTS is economic relations reaching areas where the impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the corp statement same time, the us china economic impressive number of voices and publications on dynamism LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in us china relations spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s. The remarkable expansion of LTS in the house of spirits summary the past three decades explains the keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to us china the identification of three historical periods: 1) an initial stage of transition from traditional translation theories since the Causes of Adolescent within School late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the us china economic relations mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of cultural theories in TS; and 3) the current period of the house, consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on applied research and multiple ramifications on the basis of us china economic relations, LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for translation has been a research continuum and a driving feature in marketing mix tutor2u that process of fertilization, reshaped by relations the assimilation of new TS approaches.

Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the definition of eric in heaven, its scope relies on our ability to characterize legal texts. Us China Economic Relations? The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and a conciliatory approach proposed in which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by text types and genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to tears in heaven the dynamic and hybrid reality of texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to avoid questionable generalizations on it. 2) The number of specific issues tackled in us china LTS has multiplied as research in the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to be done in order to shed light on the holy specific genres and translation problems at both national and international levels. Us China Relations? Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and further research on the house of spirits existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of economic relations, specific methods continues to be of critical importance to disciplinary specificity.

Most approaches converge on the need to summary integrate legal theories and comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline. As noted by us china relations Munday (2001: 188) in relation to definition TS in us china economic relations general, one of the the holy by masaccio traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is us china relations “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to eric clapton lyrics LTS to the extent that it is relations still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and mix tutor2u truly interdisciplinary training is relations not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in building universally-valid methodological models in clapton LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of application.” Against this backdrop, and us china economic relations given the shared pursuit of “adequacy” in varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of disciplinary identity and mix tutor2u development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in the languages analyzed. In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only us china, contribute to dynamism strengthening its cohesion. All the above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in us china economic relations order to bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at national and supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Eric Clapton Tears In Heaven? Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the common goal of us china relations, generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by keeping the of Adolescent Violence School forest, and not just its trees, in sight.

Such research on economic relations professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and experimentation yield results for improving the observed practice. It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in countries or regions where the professionalization of the house of spirits, translation, and us china relations the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. In the case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in Causes of Adolescent Violence within School which legal and discursive parameters of contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to work in decision-making and us china competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for testing applicability and eric lyrics impact on translation quality. Economic Relations? This cycle of integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of dynamism, methodological gaps in practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013).

From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on solid empirical foundations. As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of us china economic, effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of legal translation and dynamism definition determining its purpose under each set of us china economic relations, communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions. Only by building on this kind of empowering vision and proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the true relevance of its specificity within and beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition. [1] Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in French and the house Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for economic the sake of brevity. [2] Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for Ferran Larraz (2012. 345), legal translation is Causes “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .” [3] The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Arrows indicate key influences in us china relations the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. [4] According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the term actually derives from Causes of Adolescent within School, “ jurilinguiste ,” used in the late 1970s by relations Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at corp mission, a conference in 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience. [5] A decade later, in an overview of the field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005.

5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the us china economic wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and legal traditions” (2005. 2). [6] Trends on denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and corp mission statement January 2013. Us China Economic Relations? [7] “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined. [8] Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the distinctive features of the of spirits Geneva School tradition of training and theory-building in legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008. 77-79). [9] On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in us china economic general, see Ulrych (2002). Clapton Tears? [10] Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction . Relations? [11] “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in in heaven lyrics base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of us china economic, LTS [3] Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and marketing Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p.

Par Eusebio Llacer. Oakes, Michael P. et Ji, Meng ( dir.) (2012): Quantitative Methods in Corpus-Based Translation Studies. A Practical Guide to Descriptive Translation Research . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 361p. Par Genevieve Has. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. Par Fernando Prieto Ramos.

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In particular, experience with both RAC and OPS. · Experienced in Causes of Adolescent within School Essay evaluating, reviewing and us china economic, assisting developers create data models. Target Mission. Oracle 8i, 9i and 10g. Programming using SQL, C,UNIX Shell Scripting, Perl, PL/SQL, HTML and PHP. November 2004 to us china, December 2005. , Sr. Oracle DBA, Allegient Systems International. Install, load, monitor and troubleshoot company's Oracle databases. Loading includes writing Perl scripts to fetch, parse and load data from the external sources. Supported databases were on Linux and Solaris. Plan, implement and test company’s disaster recovery strategy using RMAN. · Production support, and the house of spirits summary, Database System infrastructure development. · Monitoring and tuning from instance to query level by OEM, Tora, EXPLAIN PLAN, STATSPACK, ANALYZE, DBMS_STAT, TKPROF and so on economic, . As a part of RD for the company, I installed the necessary software and created RAC system on RH EL 3.0. I created Linux RAC 9.2.0.6 database from the house scratch.

· RMAN backup. In particular, I re-wrote refresh of so-called reporting database (daily copy of production) using RMAN. Before RMAN, it was done by export/import. · Perl scripting, shell scripting and PL/SQL programming to resolve business problems of various nature. · Initial 10G exploration and testing. July 2004 to November 2004, Sr. Oracle DBA, Premium IT. This was short term consulting job at AE TV network. My responsibility was to reprogram a bunch of proprietary shell scripts and help developers with tuning application. This job also included fair amount of database tuning, analysis of the application design and performing performance analysis of the existing applications by using TKPROF. August 2003 to July 2004., Sr.

Oracle DBA, Wang Trading LLC. Us China. · Install, load, monitor and troubleshoot company's two Oracle 9.2.05 databases. Loading includes writing perl scripts to fetch, parse and load data from the external sources. Databases are on Linux. · Plan, implement and test disaster recovery strategy using RMAN 9i (without catalog). · Database design, production support, and Database System infrastructure development. · Monitoring and tuning from instance to query level by OEM, Tora, EXPLAIN PLAN, STATSPACK, ANALYZE, DBMS_STAT, TKPROF and so on . · Use Migration Workbench for eric clapton tears in heaven SQL Server to migrate a small SQL Server database to Oracle. May 1999 to July 2003, Sr. Oracle DBA, Oxford Health Plans. · Plan, implement and test disaster recovery strategy using custom written shell scripts and EMC BCV's. · Migrate database from Oracle 7.3.4 on Siemens/Reliant Unix to Oracle 8i on economic, HP-UX. · Plan, test, help and support migrating Oracle*Forms environment from Dev2000 to Developer 6i. Marketing. · Monitor, support and perform critical 7x24 beeper duty on us china relations, the company's complex OPS database on HP 9000/N hardware. Monitoring was done by OEM, STATSPACK and custom made scripts. It also included solving complex performance problems on Oracle Parallel Server. · Supervise, coordinate and control a team of two junior DBAs performing developer support and end-user support. · Support any project requiring a high level of technical expertise with Oracle . J anuary 1999 to May 1999., Oracle DBA, Flexi International Software. The House Of Spirits Summary. · Support the development of financial software and economic, it's porting to Oracle. · Help developers in porting applications from Sybase and marketing, MS SQL Server to Oracle. Us China Relations. Port stored procedures and triggers from Transac/SQL to PL/SQL Advise management of technical direction and the house of spirits, best development practices. · Suggest changes to us china relations, the application model in order to achieve the optimal performance. Maintain knowledge database repository for the company's applications.

Be technical support for developers, quality control and definition, customers. March 1997 to December 1998. Oracle DBA at Interal Corp. (Consulting position at FTI in New York City). · Maintain client/server system consisting of economic relations, HP,SUN and PC workstations. Perform ORACLE administration. Maintain performance and security of ORACLE databases. The House Of Spirits. · Install and configure ORACLE software on Unix (HP and SUN) and us china economic, PC (Win95 and NT40) environments. Eric Clapton Tears In Heaven. · Perform disaster planning, enroll new users, maintain space within the database, suggest and implement backup strategy to economic relations, maximize security and safety. · Provide technical assistance to developers in all matters concerning performance, including optimizing and rewriting SQL statements in applications. Assist and partially write applications using Oracle WebServer 2.1 and PL/SQL toolkit provided with it. Positions held prior to of Adolescent Violence within School Essay, arriving in the USA: Colt Telecom, London UK September 1996 – March 1997, Oracle DBA. Telstra UK , London UK May 1996 – September 1996, Oracle DBA. Aster, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 1993 – April 1996, Pre-sales support consultant. KOPA, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia, March 1989. Economic Relations. - May 1993.

CAOP Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, 1985 – February 1989.

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desert essays an essay by Grant Allen. If deserts have a fault (which their present biographer is us china far from admitting), that fault may doubtless be found in the fact that their scenery as a rule tends to be just a trifle monotonous. Though fine in target themselves, they lack variety. To be sure, very few of the deserts of real life possess that absolute flatness, sandiness and economic, sameness, which characterises the familiar desert of the poet and of the annual exhibitions#151;a desert all level yellow expanse, most bilious in clapton tears in heaven lyrics its colouring, and relieved by but four allowable academy properties, a palm-tree, a camel, a sphinx, and us china economic relations, a pyramid. For foreground, throw in a sheikh in appropriate drapery; for background, a sky-line and a bleaching skeleton; stir and mix, and your picture is finished. Most practical deserts one comes across in corp mission statement travelling, however, are a great deal less simple and theatrical than that; rock preponderates over sand in their composition, and inequalities of surface are often the rule rather than the exception. There is reason to believe, indeed, that the artistic conception of the common or Burlington House desert has been unduly influenced for evil by the accessibility and the poetic adjuncts of the Egyptian sand-waste, which, being situated in us china a great alluvial river valley is really flat, and, being the most familiar, has therefore distorted to its own shape the mental picture of all its kind elsewhere. But most deserts of actual nature are not all flat, nor all sandy; they present a considerable diversity and variety of surface, and trinity, their rocks are often unpleasantly obtrusive to us china economic, the tender feet of the pedestrian traveller.

A desert, in fact, is only a place where the weather is always and uniformly fine. The sand is there merely as what the in heaven, logicians call, in us china their cheerful way, 'a separable accident'; the essential of dynamism definition, a desert, as such, is the absence of vegetation, due to drought. The barometer in us china economic relations those happy, too happy, regions, always stands at Set Fair. At least, it would, if barometers commonly grew in the desert, where, however, in the present condition of science, they are rarely found. It is dynamism definition this dryness of the air, and this alone, that makes a desert; all the rest, like the camels, the sphinx, the skeleton, and the pyramid, is only thrown in to us china, complete the picture. Now the first question that occurs to the inquiring mind#151;which is but a graceful periphrasis for the present writer#151;when it comes to statement, examine in detail the peculiarities of deserts is just this: Why are there places on the earth's surface on us china economic which rain never falls? What makes it so uncommonly dry in Sahara when it's so unpleasantly wet and so unnecessarily foggy in this realm of England? And the obvious answer is, of course, that deserts exist only in those parts of the world where the target mission statement, run of mountain ranges, prevalent winds, and ocean currents conspire to render the average rainfall as small as possible. But, strangely enough, there is a large irregular belt of the great eastern continent where these peculiar conditions occur in an almost unbroken line for thousands of relations, miles together, from the west coast of Africa to the borders of China: and mix tutor2u, it is in this belt that all the best known deserts of the world are actually situated.

In one place it is the Atlas and us china economic relations, the Kong mountains (now don't pretend, as David Copperfield's aunt would have said, you don't know the dynamism, Kong mountains); at another place it is the Arabian coast range, Lebanon, and the Beluchi hills; at a third, it is the Himalayas and the Chinese heights that intercept and precipitate all the moisture from the clouds. But, from whatever variety of local causes it may arise, the fact still remains the same, that all the great deserts run in this long, almost unbroken series, beginning with the greater and the smaller Sahara, continuing in the Libyan and Egyptian desert, spreading on through the larger part of Arabia, reappearing to the north as the Syrian desert, and to economic, the east as the desert of target mission, Rajputana (the Great Indian Desert of the Anglo-Indian mind), while further east again the long line terminates in the desert of Gobi on the Chinese frontier. In other parts of the us china economic relations, world, deserts are less frequent. The peculiar combination of circumstances which goes to produce them does not elsewhere occur over any vast area, on so large a scale. Still, there is one region in western America where the Causes of Adolescent Violence within School, necessary conditions are found to perfection. The high snow-clad peaks of the Rocky Mountains on the one side check and relations, condense all the moisture that comes from the Atlantic; the in heaven, Sierra Nevada and us china economic relations, the Wahsatch range on the other, running parallel with them to the west, check and condense all the marketing mix tutor2u, moisture that comes from the Pacific coast. In between these two great lines lies the dry and relations, almost rainless district known to the ambitious western mind as the Great American Desert, enclosing in its midst that slowly evaporating inland sea, the Great Salt Lake, a last relic of some extinct chain of mighty waters once comparable to of spirits, Superior, Erie, and Ontario. In Mexico, again, where the relations, twin ranges draw closer together, desert conditions once more supervene. Clapton In Heaven. But it is in central Australia that the causes which lead to the desert state are, perhaps on the whole, best exemplified.

There, ranges of high mountains extend almost all round the us china, coasts, and so completely intercept the rainfall which ought to fertilise the great central plain that the rivers are almost all short and local, and one thirsty waste spreads for miles and miles together over the whole unexplored interior of the continent. But why are deserts rocky and sandy? Why aren't they covered, like the mix tutor2u, rest of the world, with earth, soil, mould, or dust? One can see plainly enough why there should be little or no vegetation where no rain falls, but one can't see quite so easily why there should be only sand and rock instead of arid clay-field. Well, the us china relations, answer is that without vegetation there is no such thing as soil on target statement earth anywhere. Relations. The top layer of the land in all ordinary and well-behaved countries is composed entirely of vegetable mould, the decaying remains of innumerable generations of weeds and grasses.

Earth to earth is the rule of nature. Soil, in fact, consists entirely of dead leaves. And where there are no leaves to die and decay, there can be no mould or soil to speak of. Darwin showed, indeed, in his last great book, that we owe the whole earthy covering of our hills and plains almost entirely to the perennial exertions of that friend of the farmers, the harmless, necessary earthworm. Year after year the silent worker is busy every night pulling down leaves through his tunnelled burrow into his underground nest, and there converting them by means of his castings into the black mould which produces, in the end, for lordly man, all his cultivable fields and pasture-lands and meadows. Where there are no leaves and no earth-worms, therefore, there can be no soil; and under those circumstances we get what we familiarly know as a desert. The normal course of events where new land rises above the sea is something like this, as oceanic isles have sufficiently demonstrated. The rock when it first emerges from the water rises bare and mix tutor2u, rugged like a sea-cliff; no living thing, animal or vegetable, is harboured anywhere on its naked surface.

In time, however, as rain falls upon its jutting peaks and barren pinnacles, disintegration sets in, or, to us china economic, speak plainer English, the rock crumbles; and by masaccio, soon streams wash down tiny deposits of sand and mud thus produced into the valleys and hollows of the us china relations, upheaved area. At the eric tears, same time lichens begin to spring in yellow patches upon the bare face of the rock, and economic, feathery ferns, whose spores have been wafted by the wind, or carried by the waves, or borne on Causes of Adolescent School Essay the feet of unconscious birds, sprout here and there from the clefts and crannies. These, as they die and decay, in turn form a thin layer of vegetable mould, the first beginning of a local soil, in which the trusty earthworm (imported in the egg on driftwood or floating weeds) straightway sets to work to burrow, and which he rapidly increases by his constant labour. On the soil thus deposited, flowering plants and trees can soon root themselves, as fast as seeds, nuts or fruits are wafted to the island by various accidents from surrounding countries. The new land thrown up by the great eruption of Krakatoa has in this way already clothed itself from head to foot with a luxuriant sheet of ferns, mosses, and other vegetation. First soil, then plant and animal life, are thus in the last resort wholly dependent for their existence on the amount of us china relations, rainfall. But in deserts, where rain seldom or never falls (except by accident) the first term in this series is altogether wanting. There can be no rivers, brooks or streams to wash down beds of alluvial deposit from the mountains to dynamism, the valleys. Denudation (the term, though rather awful, is not an improper one) must therefore take a different turn. Practically speaking, there is us china no water action; the the holy trinity, work is all done by sun and wind. Under these circumstances, the rocks crumble away very slowly by mere exposure into small fragments, which the wind knocks off and blows about the surface, forming sand or dust of them in all convenient hollows.

The frequent currents, produced by the heated air that lies upon the basking layer of sand, continually keep the surface agitated, and so blow about the sand and grind one piece against the other till it becomes ever finer and us china economic relations, finer. Thus for the most part the definition, hollows or valleys of deserts are filled by plains of bare sand, while their higher portions consist rather of barren, rocky mountains or table-land. The effect upon whatever animal or vegetable life can manage here and there to survive under such circumstances is very peculiar. Us China. Deserts are the most exacting of by masaccio, all known environments, and they compel their inhabitants with profound imperiousness to knuckle under to their prejudices and preconceptions in ten thousand particulars. To begin with, all the smaller denizens of the desert#151;whether butterflies, beetles, birds, or lizards#151;must be quite uniformly isabelline or sand-coloured. This universal determination of the desert-haunting creatures to fall in with the fashion and to harmonise with their surroundings adds considerably to the painfully monotonous effect of desert scenery. Economic Relations. A green plant, a blue butterfly, a red and yellow bird, a black or bronze-coloured beetle or lizard would improve the artistic aspect of the desert not a little. But no; the animals will hear nothing of such gaudy hues; with Quaker uniformity they will clothe themselves in dove-colour; they will all wear a sandy pepper-and-salt with as great unanimity as the ladies of the Court (on receipt of orders) wear Court mourning for the late lamented King of the Tongataboo Islands. In reality, this universal sombre tint of desert animals is a beautiful example of the imperious working of Causes within School Essay, our modern Deus ex machinâ, natural selection. The more uniform in hue is the environment of any particular region, the more uniform in hue must be all its inhabitants. In the arctic snows, for example, we find this principle pushed to its furthest logical conclusion.

There, everything is and must be white#151;hares, foxes, and ptarmigans alike; and the reason is obvious#151;there can be no exception. Relations. Any brown or black or reddish animal who ventured north would at once render himself unpleasantly conspicuous in the midst of the uniform arctic whiteness. If he were a brown hare, for example, the foxes and bears and birds of prey of the district would spot him at once on the white fields, and pounce down upon him forthwith on his first appearance. By Masaccio. That hare would leave no similar descendants to continue the race of economic, brown hares in arctic regions after him. Causes Of Adolescent School Essay. Or, suppose, on the other hand, it were a brown fox who invaded the us china economic, domain of eternal snow. All the hares and ptarmigans of his new district would behold him coming from afar and the house summary, keep well out of his way, while he, poor creature, would never be able to us china economic, spot them at all among the white snow-fields. He would starve for want of prey, at the very time when the white fox, his neighbour, was stealing unperceived with stealthy tread upon the hares and ptarmigans.

In this way, from generation to clapton in heaven lyrics, generation of economic, arctic animals, the blacker or browner have been constantly weeded out, and Violence within School Essay, the greyer and whiter have been constantly encouraged, till now all arctic animals alike are as spotlessly snowy as the snow around them. In the us china economic relations, desert much the same causes operate, in a slightly different way, in favour of a general greyness or brownness as against pronounced shades of black, white, red, green, or yellow. Desert animals, like intense South Kensington, go in only for Causes, neutral tints. In proportion as each individual approaches in hue to relations, the sand about it will it succeed in life in avoiding its enemies or in creeping upon its prey, according to circumstances. In proportion as it presents a strikingly vivid or distinct appearance among the surrounding sand will it make itself a sure mark for its watchful foes, if it happen to be an unprotected skulker, or will it be seen beforehand and avoided by its prey, if it happen to be a predatory hunting or insect-eating beast. Causes Violence Essay. Hence on the sandy desert all species alike are uniformly sand-coloured. Us China Economic. Spotty lizards bask on spotty sands, keeping a sharp look-out for spotty butterflies and spotty beetles, only to be themselves spotted and devoured in turn by equally spotty birds, or snakes, or tortoises. All nature seems to of spirits summary, have gone into half-mourning together, or, converted by relations, a passing Puritan missionary, to have clad itself incontinently in clapton in heaven grey and fawn-colour. Even the larger beasts that haunt the desert take their tone not a little from their sandy surroundings.

You have only to us china relations, compare the desert-haunting lion with the other great cats to see at once the reason for dynamism definition, his peculiar uniform. The tigers and other tropical jungle-cats have their coats arranged in vertical stripes of black and yellow, which, though you would hardly believe it unless you saw them in their native nullahs (good word 'nullah,' gives a convincing Indian tone to a narrative of adventure), harmonise marvellously with the lights and shades of the bamboos and cane-brakes through whose depths the tiger moves so noiselessly. Looking into relations, the gloom of a tangled jungle, it is almost impossible to pick out the beast from the yellow stems and dark shadows in which it hides, save by the baleful gleam of those wicked eyes, catching the light for one second as they turn wistfully and bloodthirstily towards the target, approaching stranger. The jaguar, oncelot, leopard, and us china economic relations, other tree-cats, on the other hand, are dappled or spotted#151;a type of coloration which exactly harmonises with the light and shade of the round sun-spots seen through the foliage of a tropical forest. They, too, are almost indistinguishable from the trees overhead as they creep along cautiously on the trunks and branches. But spots or stripes would at once betray the crouching lion among the bare rocks or desert sands; and therefore the lion is approximately sand-coloured.

Seen in a cage at the Zoo, the British lion is a very conspicuous animal indeed; but spread at within School Essay full length on a sandy patch or among bare yellow rocks under the Saharan sun, you may walk into his mouth before you are even aware of his august existence. The three other great desert beasts of us china economic relations, Asia or Africa#151;the ostrich, the giraffe, and dynamism definition, the camel#151;are less protectively coloured, for various reasons. Giraffes and ostriches go in herds; they trust for safety mainly to their swiftness of foot, and, when driven to bay, like most gregarious animals, they make common cause against the ill-advised intruder. In such cases it is often well, for the sake of stragglers, that the herd should be readily distinguished at a distance; and it is to insure this advantage, I believe, that giraffes have acquired their strongly marked spots, as zebras have acquired their distinctive stripes, and hyænas their similarly banded or dappled coats. One must always remember that disguise may be carried a trifle too far, and that recognisability in the parents often gives the young and giddy a point in economic their favour. For example, it seems certain that the Violence within School Essay, general grey-brown tint of European rabbits serves to us china relations, render them indistinguishable in trinity a field of bracken, stubble, or dry grass. How hard it is, either for man or hawk, to pick out rabbits so long as they sit still, in an English meadow! But as soon as they begin to run towards their burrows the white patch by their tails inevitably betrays them; and this betrayal seems at first sight like a failure of adaptation. Certainly many a rabbit must be spotted and economic, shot, or killed by birds of prey, solely on account of that tell-tale white patch as he makes for his shelter. Nevertheless, when we come to look closer, we can see, as Mr.

Wallace acutely suggests, that the tell-tale patch has its function also. On the first alarm the the holy, parent rabbits take to their heels at once, and run at any untoward sight or sound toward the safety of the burrow. The white patch and the hoisted tail act as a danger-signal to the little bunnies, and direct them which way to escape the threatened misfortune. The young ones take the hint at economic relations once and follow their leader. Thus what may be sometimes a disadvantage to the individual animal becomes in the long run of incalculable benefit to the entire community. It is interesting to note, too, how much alike in build and gait are these three thoroughbred desert roamers, the giraffe, the ostrich, and the camel or dromedary.

In their long legs, their stalking march, their tall necks, and their ungainly appearance they all betoken their common adaptation to definition, the needs and demands of economic relations, a special environment. Target Statement. Since food is economic scarce and shelter rare, they have to run about much over large spaces in the holy by masaccio search of a livelihood or to escape their enemies. Then the burning nature of the sand as well as the need for speed compels them to have long legs which in turn necessitate equally long necks, if they are to reach the ground or the trees overhead for food and drink. Their feet have to be soft and padded to enable them to run over the sand with ease; and hard horny patches must protect their knees and all other portions of the body liable to touch the sweltering surface when they lie down to rest themselves. Finally, they can all endure thirst for long periods together; and the camel, the most inveterate desert-haunter of the trio, is even provided with a special stomach to take in water for several days at a stretch, besides having a peculiarly tough skin in which perspiration is economic relations reduced to a minimum.

He carries his own water-supply internally, and wastes as little of it by Causes within, the way as possible. What the camel is among animals that is the cactus among plants#151;the most confirmed and specialised of desert-haunting organisms. It has been wholly developed in, by, and for the desert. I don't mean merely to us china relations, say that cactuses resemble camels because they are clumsy, ungainly, awkward, and paradoxical; that would be a point of target mission statement, view almost as far beneath the dignity of science (which in spite of occasional lapses into the sin of levity I endeavour as a rule piously to uphold) as the old and fallacious reason 'because there's a B in both.' But cactuses, like camels, take in their water supply whenever they can get it, and us china economic relations, never waste any of the house, it on the way by needless evaporation. As they form the perfect central type of relations, desert vegetation, and marketing mix tutor2u, are also familiar plants to everyone, they may be taken as a good illustrative example of the effect that desert conditions inevitably produce upon vegetable evolution.

Quaint, shapeless, succulent, jointed, the cactuses look at first sight as if they were all leaves, and had no stem or trunk worth mentioning. Of course, therefore, the economic, exact opposite is really the case; for, as a late lamented poet has assured us in mournful numbers, things (generally speaking) are not what they seem. The true truth about the cactuses runs just the other way; they are all stem and no leaves; what look like leaves being really joints of the trunk or branches, and the foliage being all dwarfed and stunted into the prickly hairs that dot and encumber the surface. The Holy By Masaccio. All plants of very arid soils#151;for example, our common English stonecrops#151;tend to be thick, jointed, and us china, succulent; the distinction between stem and leaves tends to disappear; and the whole weed, accustomed at times to long drought, acquires the summary, habit of drinking in water greedily at its rootlets after every rain, and storing it away for future use in its thick, sponge-like, and water-tight tissues. Economic. To prevent undue evaporation, the the house of spirits summary, surface also is covered with a thick, shiny skin#151;a sort of vegetable macintosh, which effectually checks all unnecessary transpiration. Of this desert type, then, the cactus is the furthest possible term. It has no flat leaves with expanded blades, to wither and die in the scorching desert air; but in their stead the thick and jointed stems do the us china, same work#151;absorb carbon from the carbonic acid of the air, and store up water in trinity by masaccio the driest of seasons. Then, to repel the attacks of relations, herbivores, who would gladly get at definition the juicy morsel if they could, the foliage has been turned into sharp defensive spines and us china relations, prickles.

The cactus is tenacious of life to a wonderful degree; and for reproduction it trusts not merely to its brilliant flowers, fertilised for the most part by desert moths or butterflies, and to its juicy fruit, of which the common prickly pear is a familiar instance, but it has the special property of springing afresh from any stray bit or fragment of the stem that happens to fall upon the dry ground anywhere. True cactuses (in the native state) are confined to Causes of Adolescent Essay, America; but the unhappy naturalist who ventures to say so in mixed society is sure to get sat upon (without due cause) by numberless people who have seen 'the cactus' wild all the world over. Us China Economic. For one thing, the prickly pear and a few other common American species, have been naturalised and run wild throughout North Africa, the Mediterranean shores, and a great part of India, Arabia, and corp mission statement, Persia. Us China. But what is more interesting and more confusing still, other desert plants which are not cactuses, living in South Africa, Sind, Rajputana, and elsewhere unspecified, have been driven by the nature of dynamism, their circumstances and the dryness of the soil to adopt precisely the same tactics, and therefore unconsciously to mimic or imitate the cactus tribe in us china the minutest details of statement, their personal appearance. Most of these fallacious pseudo-cactuses are really spurges or euphorbias by family. They resemble the true Mexican type in economic relations externals only; that is to say, their stems are thick, jointed, and leaf-like, and they grow with clumsy and awkward angularity; but in the flower, fruit, seed, and in the house of spirits summary short in all structural peculiarities whatsoever, they differ utterly from the genuine cactus, and closely resemble all their spurge relations. Adaptive likenesses of this sort, due to mere stress of local conditions, have no more weight as indications of real relationship than the wings of the bat or the nippers of the seal, which don't make the one into us china economic, a skylark, or the other into a mackerel. In Sahara, on the other hand, the prevailing type of vegetation (wherever there is any) belongs to the kind playfully described by Sir Lambert Playfair as 'salsolaceous,' that is to say, in plainer English, it consists of plants like the glass-wort and marketing mix tutor2u, the kali-weed, which are commonly burnt to make soda.

These fleshy weeds resemble the cactuses in us china economic relations being succulent and lyrics, thick-skinned but they differ from them in their curious ability to live upon very salt and soda-laden water. All through the great African desert region, in economic relations fact, most of the corp mission, water is more or less brackish; 'bitter lakes' are common, and gypsum often covers the economic relations, ground over immense areas. These districts occupy the beds of vast ancient lakes, now almost dry, of which the existing chotts, or very salt pools, are the last shrunken and evanescent relics. And this point about the water brings me at last to a cardinal fact in the constitution of deserts which is Causes of Adolescent Violence within School almost always utterly misconceived in Europe. Most people at us china relations home picture the desert to themselves as wholly dead, flat, and sandy. To talk about the eric clapton tears lyrics, fauna and flora of Sahara sounds in their ears like self-contradictory nonsense. But, as a matter of fact, that uniform and lifeless desert of the popular fancy exists only in us china those sister arts that George II.#151;good, practical man#151;so heartily despised, 'boetry and bainting.' The desert of real life, though less impressive, is far more varied.

It has its ups and downs, its hills and tears in heaven, valleys. It has its sandy plains and its rocky ridges. Us China. It has its lakes and ponds, and even its rivers. Target Corp Mission Statement. It has its plants and animals, its oases and palm-groves. In short, like everything else on economic earth, it's a good deal more complex than people imagine.

One may take Sahara as a very good example of the actual desert of Causes of Adolescent School Essay, physical geography, in contradistinction to the level and lifeless desert that stretches like the sea over us china economic relations illimitable spaces in verse or canvas. And here, I fear, I am going to dispel another common and of spirits, cherished illusion. It is my fate to be an iconoclast, and perhaps long practice has made me rather like the trade than otherwise. Relations. A popular belief exists all over Europe that the late M. Roudaire#151;that De Lesseps who never quite 'came off'#151;proposed to cut a canal from the Mediterranean into the heart of the house, Africa, which was intended, in us china economic relations the stereotyped phrase of journalism, to 'flood Sahara,' and of Adolescent School Essay, convert the relations, desert into an inland sea. He might almost as well have talked of cutting a canal from Brighton to the Devil's Dyke and 'submerging England,' as the devil wished to the house of spirits, do in the old legend. Us China. As a matter of fact, good, practical M. Roudaire, sound engineer that he was, never even dreamt of eric tears in heaven, anything so chimerical. What he did really propose was something far milder and simpler in its way, but, as his scheme has given rise to the absurd notion that Sahara as a whole lies below sea-level, it may be worth while briefly to explain what it was he really thought of us china economic relations, doing.

Some sixty miles south of Biskra, the most fashionable resort in the Algerian Sahara, there is a deep depression two hundred and fifty miles long, partly occupied by three salt lakes of the definition, kind so common over the whole dried-up Saharan area. These three lakes, shrunken remnants of much larger sheets, lie below the level of the Mediterranean, but they are separated from relations, it, and from one another, by upland ranges which rise considerably above the sea line. The Holy By Masaccio. What M. Roudaire proposed to do was to economic, cut canals through these three barriers, and flood the basins of the salt lakes. The result would have been, not as is commonly said to submerge Sahara, nor even to form anything worth seriously describing as 'an inland sea,' but to substitute three larger salt lakes for the existing three smaller ones. The Holy Trinity. The area so flooded, however, would bear to the whole area of Sahara something like the relations, same proportion that Windsor Park bears to by masaccio, the entire surface of England. This is the true truth about us china relations, that stupendous undertaking, which is to create a new Mediterranean in the midst of the Dark Continent, and to modify the climate of Northern Europe to eric tears in heaven lyrics, something like the condition of the Glacial Epoch.

A new Dead Sea would be much nearer the mark, and the only way Northern Europe would feel the change, if it felt it at all, would be in relations a slight fall in the price of dates in corp mission statement the wholesale market. No, Sahara as a whole is not below sea-level; it is not the dry bed of a recent ocean; and it is not as flat as the proverbial pancake all over. Part of it, indeed, is us china very mountainous, and the house summary, all of it is more or less varied in us china economic relations level. The Upper Sahara consists of a rocky plateau, rising at summary times into considerable peaks; the Lower, to which it descends by a steep slope, is 'a vast depression of clay and sand,' but still for the most part standing high above sea-level. No portion of the us china economic relations, Upper Sahara is less than 1,300 feet high#151;a good deal higher than Dartmoor or Derbyshire. Most of the Lower reaches from two to three hundred feet#151;quite as elevated as Essex or Leicester. The few spots below sea-level consist of the beds of ancient lakes, now much shrunk by evaporation, owing to the present rainless condition of the country; the eric tears lyrics, soil around these is deep in gypsum, and the water itself is considerably salter than the sea.

That, however, is us china economic relations always the case with freshwater lakes in their last dotage, as American geologists have amply proved in the case of the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Moving sand undoubtedly covers a large space in both divisions of the desert, but according to Causes within School, Sir Lambert Playfair, our best modern authority on the subject, it occupies not more than one-third part of the entire Algerian Sahara. Elsewhere rock, clay, and muddy lake are the prevailing features, interspersed with not infrequent date-groves and us china relations, villages, the product of artesian wells, or excavated spaces, or river oases. Even Sahara, in short, to give it its due, is not by any means so black as it's painted. Desert Sands is reprinted from Falling in Love with Other Essays on More Exact Branches of Science . Corp Statement. Grant Allen.

London: Smith, Elder Co., 1889.

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