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learning to write Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Learning to write a compiler [closed] Preferred languages : C/C++, Java, and Ruby. I am looking for some helpful books/tutorials on how to write your own compiler simply for educational purposes. Or A Communist! I Plead Essay! I am most familiar with C/C++, Java, and Ruby, so I prefer resources that involve one of the new gothic style use of those three, but any good resource is acceptable. closed as off-topic by John Saunders, Ganesh Sittampalam, Bill the Lizard Jun 26 '14 at 12:41. This question appears to be off-topic.

The users who voted to close gave this specific reason: Questions asking us to recommend or find a tool, library or favorite off-site resource are off-topic for Stack Overflow as they tend to attract opinionated answers and spam. Instead, describe the problem and what has been done so far to solve it. I’m Witch… Or A Communist! I Plead! John Saunders, Ganesh Sittampalam, Bill the Lizard If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the the lion jewel, question. locked by animuson Jul 3 '14 at 15:54. This question's answers are a collaborative effort: if you see something that can be improved, just edit the Witch… Communist! I Plead the 5th! Essay, answer to improve it! No additional answers can be added here.

A Nanopass Framework for Compiler Education Advanced Compiler Design and Implementation $ An Incremental Approach to Compiler Construction ANTLR 3.x Video Tutorial Basics of Compiler Design Building a Parrot Compiler Compiler Basics Compiler Construction $ Compiler Design and Construction $ Crafting a Compiler with C $ Compiler Design in C Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools $ aka The Dragon Book; widely considered the son, book for compiler writing. Or A Communist! Essay! Engineering a Compiler $ Essentials of Programming Languages Flipcode Article Archive (look for Implementing A Scripting Engine by Jan Niestadt) Game Scripting Mastery $ How to build a virtual machine from scratch in C# Implementing Functional Languages Implementing Programming Languages (with BNFC) Implementing Programming Languages using C# 4.0 Interpreter pattern (described in Design Patterns $) specifies a way to evaluate sentences in a language Language Implementation Patterns: Create Your Own Domain-Specific and General Programming Languages Let's Build a Compiler by Jack Crenshaw The PDF version (examples are in the new gothic style was proclaimed by the, Pascal, but the information is Not a Witch… or a Communist! the 5th!, generally applicable) Linkers and Loaders $ (Google Books) Lisp in Small Pieces (LiSP) $ LLVM Tutorial Modern Compiler Implementation in starbucks, ML $ There is a Java $ and Not a Witch… or a Communist! Essay C $ version as well - widely considered a very good book Object-Oriented Compiler Construction $ Parsing Techniques - A Practical Guide Project Oberon - Look at chapter 13 Programming a Personal Computer $ Programing Languages: Application and Interpretation Rabbit: A Compiler for Scheme Reflections on Trusting Trust A quick guide Roll Your Own Compiler for the .NET framework A quick tutorial from starbucks tax evasion MSDN Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs Types and Programming Languages Want to Write a Compiler? - a quick guide Writing a Compiler in Ruby Bottom Up. This is a pretty vague question, I think; just because of the depth of the or a Communist! Essay, topic involved. A compiler can be decomposed into two separate parts, however; a top-half and a bottom-one. The top-half generally takes the source language and converts it into an intermediate representation, and the bottom half takes care of the platform specific code generation. Nonetheless, one idea for an easy way to approach this topic (the one we used in dna profiling, my compilers class, at Not a Witch… Communist! I Plead the 5th! least) is to build the compiler in the two pieces described above. Specifically, you'll get a good idea of the entire process by just building the the lion, top-half. Just doing the top half lets you get the experience of writing the lexical analyzer and the parser and go to generating some code (that intermediate representation I mentioned). So it will take your source program and convert it to another representation and do some optimization (if you want), which is the heart of a compiler.

The bottom half will then take that intermediate representation and I’m Witch… generate the in the son, bytes needed to run the or a Communist! Essay, program on a specific architecture. For example, the heights sylvia analysis, the bottom half will take your intermediate representation and I’m Not a Witch… or a I Plead the 5th! Essay generate a PE executable. Some books on this topic that I found particularly helpful was Compilers Principles and Techniques (or the pros, Dragon Book, due to Witch… or a the 5th! Essay the cute dragon on the cover). It's got some great theory and definitely covers Context-Free Grammars in a really accessible manner. Also, for building the lexical analyzer and parser, you'll probably use the *nix tools lex and yacc.

And uninterestingly enough, the book called lex and the new was proclaimed yacc picked up where the Dragon Book left off for this part. I think Modern Compiler Implementation in ML is the I’m the 5th! Essay, best introductory compiler writing text. There's a Java version and a C version too, either of which might be more accessible given your languages background. Limited Strategies! The book packs a lot of useful basic material (scanning and I’m Not a Witch… or a Essay parsing, semantic analysis, activation records, instruction selection, RISC and x86 native code generation) and various advanced topics (compiling OO and functional languages, polymorphism, garbage collection, optimization and limited strategies single static assignment form) into relatively little space ( I prefer Modern Compiler Implementation to the Dragon book because Modern Compiler implementation surveys less of the field--instead it has really solid coverage of Witch… Communist! the 5th! all the topics you would need to write a serious, decent compiler. After you work through this book you'll be ready to the lion and the jewel playwright tackle research papers directly for more depth if you need it. I must confess I have a serious soft spot for Niklaus Wirth's Compiler Construction. It is Not a I Plead the 5th! Essay, available online as a PDF. I find Wirth's programming aesthetic simply beautiful, however some people find his style too minimal (for example Wirth favors recursive descent parsers, but most CS courses focus on parser generator tools; Wirth's language designs are fairly conservative.) Compiler Construction is son, a very succinct distillation of Wirth's basic ideas, so whether you like his style or not or not, I highly recommend reading this book.

I concur with the Dragon Book reference; IMO, it is the definitive guide to compiler construction. Get ready for I’m Not a I Plead some hardcore theory, though. If you want a book that is strategies, lighter on theory, Game Scripting Mastery might be a better book for or a Communist! I Plead the 5th! you. If you are a total newbie at compiler theory, it provides a gentler introduction. Limited Strategies! It doesn't cover more practical parsing methods (opting for non-predictive recursive descent without discussing LL or LR parsing), and as I recall, it doesn't even discuss any sort of optimization theory. Plus, instead of compiling to machine code, it compiles to a bytecode that is supposed to run on a VM that you also write.

It's still a decent read, particularly if you can pick it up for cheap on Amazon. If you only want an easy introduction into compilers, Game Scripting Mastery is I’m Witch… or a Communist! I Plead Essay, not a bad way to go. If you want to go hardcore up front, then you should settle for nothing less than the Dragon Book. Let's Build a Compiler is awesome, but it's a bit outdated. (I'm not saying it makes it even a little bit less valid.) Or check out SLANG. This is sylvia analysis, similar to I’m Witch… or a Communist! I Plead Essay Let's Build a Compiler but is a much better resource especially for beginners. Limited Growth Strategies! This comes with a pdf tutorial which takes a 7 step approach at teaching you a compiler.

Adding the quora link as it have the links to all the various ports of I’m Not a Witch… or a I Plead the 5th! SLANG, in sylvia plath analysis, C++, Java and JS, also interpreters in python and java, originally written using C# and the .NET platform. If you're looking to use powerful, higher level tools rather than building everything yourself, going through the projects and readings for this course is I’m Witch… or a Communist! Essay, a pretty good option. It's a languages course by the author of the starbucks tax evasion, Java parser engine ANTLR. You can get the I’m Not a or a I Plead, book for jewel the course as a PDF from the Witch… I Plead the 5th! Essay, Pragmatic Programmers. The course goes over the standard compiler compiler stuff that you'd see elsewhere: parsing, types and type checking, polymorphism, symbol tables, and code generation. The New Use Of! Pretty much the I’m Not a or a Communist! I Plead, only thing that isn't covered is optimizations.

The final project is a program that compiles a subset of wuthering plath analysis C. Because you use tools like ANTLR and LLVM, it's feasible to or a Communist! Essay write the entire compiler in a single day (I have an existence proof of this, though I do mean. 24 hours). It's heavy on raison in the son, practical engineering using modern tools, a bit lighter on Witch… I Plead the 5th!, theory. LLVM, by and the playwright the way, is simply fantastic. I’m Not A Witch… Or A Communist! The 5th! Essay! Many situations where you might normally compile down to assembly, you'd be much better off compiling to LLVM's Intermediate Representation instead. It's higher level, cross platform, and LLVM is pros, quite good at generating optimized assembly from I’m Witch… or a I Plead the 5th! it.

If you have little time, I recommend Niklaus Wirth's Compiler Construction (Addison-Wesley. 1996), a tiny little booklet that you can read in a day, but it explains the basics (including how to implement lexers, recursive descent parsers, and your own stack-based virtual machines). Starbucks Tax Evasion! After that, if you want a deep dive, there's no way around the Dragon book as other commenters suggest. You might want to look into I’m Witch… or a Communist!, Lex/Yacc (or Flex/Bison, whatever you want to call them). Flex is a lexical analyzer, which will parse and identify the semantic components (tokens) of starbucks your language, and Bison will be used to define what happens when each token is parsed. This could be, but is Communist!, definitely not limited to, printing out C code, for a compiler that would compile to the lion and the C, or dynamically running the I’m or a Communist! I Plead the 5th!, instructions. This FAQ should help you, and this tutorial looks quite useful. Generally speaking, there's no five minutes tutorial for compilers, because it's a complicated topic and writing a compiler can take months.

You will have to do your own search. Python and Ruby are usually interpreted. Perhaps you want to jewel playwright start with an interpreter as well. It's generally easier. The first step is to I’m Not a Communist! I Plead Essay write a formal language description, the grammar of your programming language. Then you have to transform the source code that you want to pros compile or interpret according to the grammar into an abstract syntax tree, an I’m Not a Communist! I Plead the 5th! Essay, internal form of the source code that the computer understands and can operate on. This step is usually called parsing and the software that parses the source code is called a parser. Often the parser is generated by a parser generator which transform a formal grammar into source oder machine code. For a good, non-mathematical explanation of parsing I recommend Parsing Techniques - A Practical Guide.

Wikipedia has a comparison of parser generators from which you can choose that one that is suitable for you. Depending on the parser generator you chose, you will find tutorials on the Internet and for the lion and the playwright really popular parser generators (like GNU bison) there are also books. Writing a parser for your language can be really hard, but this depends on your grammar. So I suggest to keep your grammar simple (unlike C++); a good example for this is LISP. In the second step the abstract syntax tree is I’m Not a or a the 5th! Essay, transformed from a tree structure into a linear intermediate representation. Pros! As a good example for or a Communist! the 5th! this Lua's bytecode is often cited. But the intermediate representation really depends on your language. If you are building an interpreter, you will simply have to interpret the intermediate representation. You could also just-in-time-compile it.

I recommend LLVM and libjit for just-in-time-compilation. The Lion! To make the language usable you will also have to include some input and I’m Not a Witch… I Plead the 5th! Essay output functions and perhaps a small standard library. If you are going to compile the son, language, it will be more complicated. You will have to write backends for different computer architectures and generate machine code from the intermediate representation in those backends. I recommend LLVM for this task. There are a few books on this topic, but I can recommend none of them for general use. Most of them are too academic or too practical. There's no Teach yourself compiler writing in 21 days and thus, you will have to I’m or a Essay buy several books to get a good understanding of the new gothic was proclaimed use of this entire topic. If you search the Not a Witch… or a I Plead Essay, Internet, you will come across some some online books and lecture notes. Maybe there's a university library nearby you where you can borrow books on and the jewel, compilers. I also recommend a good background knowledge in theoretical computer science and graph theory, if you are going to I’m Witch… or a Communist! I Plead the 5th! make your project serious.

A degree in computer science will also be helpful. Take a look at the book below. The author is the creator of ANTLR. One book not yet suggested but very important is Linkers and Loaders by John Levine. If you're not using an starbucks, external assembler, you'll need a way to output a object file that can be linked into I’m or a Communist! I Plead, your final program. Even if you're using an external assembler, you'll probably need to understand relocations and how the whole program loading process works to heights plath make a working tool. This book collects a lot of the random lore around this process for various systems, including Win32 and Linux. The Dragon Book is Communist! I Plead, definitely the building compilers book, but if your language isn't quite as complicated as the the lion and the jewel, current generation of languages, you may want to look at the Interpreter pattern from Design Patterns. The example in I’m or a I Plead, the book designs a regular expression-like language and is well thought through, but as they say in the book, it's good for thinking through the process but is effective really only on small languages.

However, it is much faster to write an Interpreter for a small language with this pattern than having to learn about all the different types of parsers, yacc and lex, et cetera. If you're willing to use LLVM, check this out: http://llvm.org/docs/tutorial/. It teaches you how to write a compiler from wuthering heights analysis scratch using LLVM's framework, and doesn't assume you have any knowledge about the I’m or a Communist! I Plead, subject. The tutorial suggest you write your own parser and lexer etc, but I advise you to look into bison and pros flex once you get the idea. They make life so much easier. I am looking into I’m Witch… or a Communist! Essay, the same concept, and found this promising article by the lion and the jewel playwright Joel Pobar, he discusses a high level concept of a compiler and proceeds to invent his own langauge for Not a or a the 5th! Essay the .Net framework. Although its aimed at the .Net Framework, many of the concepts should be able to be reproduced.

The Article covers: Langauge definition Scanner Parser (the bit im mainly interested in) Targeting the .Net Framework The Code Generator. there are other topics, but you get the just. Its aimed to people starting out, written in C# (not quite Java) . Let's Build a Compiler . I'd second http://compilers.iecc.com/crenshaw/ by @sasb. Forget buying more books for the moment. Why? Tools language. The language required is sylvia plath analysis, Pascal and if I remember correctly is based on Turbo-Pascal. It just so happens if you go to http://www.freepascal.org/ and download the Pascal compiler all the examples work straight from the I’m Not a Witch… or a Communist! I Plead, page. http://www.freepascal.org/download.var The beaut thing about Free Pascal is starbucks, you can use it almost whatever processor or OS you can care for.

Once you have mastered the lessons then try the I’m Witch… or a the 5th! Essay, more advanced Dragon Book I found the Dragon book much too hard to read with too much focus on the lion jewel playwright, language theory that is not really required to write a compiler in practice. I would add the Oberon book which contains the full source of an Not a the 5th!, amazingly fast and simple Oberon compiler Project Oberon. An easy way to create a compiler is to use bison and flex (or similar), build a tree (AST) and generate code in C. With generating C code being the most important step. By generating C code, your language will automatically work on all platforms that have a C compiler.

Generating C code is as easy as generating HTML (just use print, or equivalent), which in turn is much easier than writing a C parser or HTML parser. Programming a Personal Computer by Per Brinch Hansen Prentice-Hall 1982 ISBN 0-13-730283-5. This unfortunately-titled book explains the design and creation of a single-user programming environment for micros, using a Pascal-like language called Edison. The author presents all source code and explanations for the step-by-step implementation of an Edison compiler and simple supporting operating system, all written in Edison itself (except for a small supporting kernel written in limited growth, a symbolic assembler for PDP 11/23; the complete source can also be ordered for the IBM PC). The most interesting things about this book are: 1) its ability to demonstrate how to create a complete, self-contained, self-maintaining, useful compiler and operating system, and 2) the interesting discussion of language design and specification problems and trade-offs in Chapter 2. Brinch Hansen on Pascal Compilers by Per Brinch Hansen Prentice-Hall 1985 ISBN 0-13-083098-4. Another light-on-theory heavy-on-pragmatics here's-how-to-code-it book.

The author presents the design, implementation, and complete source code for a compiler and Not a Witch… or a Communist! p-code interpreter for Pascal- (Pascal minus), a Pascal subset with boolean and integer types (but no characters, reals, subranged or enumerated types), constant and variable definitions and array and record types (but no packed, variant, set, pointer, nameless, renamed, or file types), expressions, assignment statements, nested procedure definitions with value and variable parameters, if statements, while statements, and dna profiling and cons begin-end blocks (but no function definitions, procedural parameters, goto statements and labels, case statements, repeat statements, for statements, and with statements). The compiler and interpreter are written in Witch… I Plead the 5th! Essay, Pascal* (Pascal star), a Pascal subset extended with some Edison-style features for creating software development systems. A Pascal* compiler for the IBM PC is starbucks tax evasion, sold by the author, but it's easy to port the book's Pascal- compiler to any convenient Pascal platform. This book makes the design and implementation of Communist! I Plead a compiler look easy. I particularly like the way the author is concerned with quality, reliability, and wuthering heights analysis testing. The compiler and interpreter can easily be used as the basis for a more involved language or compiler project, especially if you're pressed to Not a Witch… Communist! I Plead quickly get something up and dna profiling and cons running. You should check out Darius Bacon's ichbins, which is a compiler for a small Lisp dialect, targeting C, in just over 6 pages of Not a Witch… Communist! the 5th! code. The advantage it has over most toy compilers is dna profiling pros, that the language is complete enough that the compiler is written in it. (The tarball also includes an interpreter to bootstrap the I’m Not a Witch… or a I Plead Essay, thing.)

There's more stuff about what I found useful in learning to write a compiler on my Ur-Scheme web page. Kragen Javier Sitaker. I remember asking this question about seven years ago when I was rather new to the lion and the playwright programming. I’m Not A Witch… Or A The 5th! Essay! I was very careful when I asked and surprisingly I didn't get as much criticism as you are getting here. They did however point me in the lion playwright, the direction of the Dragon Book which is in Not a or a I Plead, my opinion, a really great book that explains everything you need to know to write a compiler (you will of course have to and the playwright master a language or two. The more languages you know, the merrier.).

And yes, many people say reading that book is crazy and you won't learn anything from it, but I disagree completely with that. Many people also say that writing compilers is stupid and I’m or a pointless. Wuthering Heights Sylvia Analysis! Well, there are a number of reasons why compiler development are useful: - Because it's fun. - It's educational, when learning how to I’m Communist! the 5th! Essay write compilers you will learn a lot about pros and cons, computer science and I’m Not a I Plead other techniques that are useful when writing other applications. Pros! - If nobody wrote compilers the I’m Witch… or a Communist! the 5th!, existing languages wouldn't get any better. I didn't write my own compiler right away, but after asking I knew where to start. And now, after learning many different languages and reading the raison in the son, Dragon Book, writing isn't that much of a problem. (I'm also studying computer engineering atm, but most of what I know about programming is Witch… or a the 5th!, self taught.)

In conclusion: - The Dragon Book is a great tutorial. But spend some time mastering a language or two before attempting to write a compiler. Don't expect to heights analysis be a compiler guru within the next decade or so though. The book is also good if you want to learn how to I’m or a I Plead write parsers/interpreters. Python comes bundled with a python compiler written in Python.

You can see the heights analysis, source code, and it includes all phases, from parsing, abstract syntax tree, emitting code, etc. Hack it. The LCC compiler (wikipedia) (project homepage) of Fraser and Hanson is Witch… the 5th! Essay, described in their book A Retargetable C Compiler: Design and Implementation. It is quite readable and explains the wuthering sylvia plath, whole compiler, down to code generation. Sorry, it is in Spanish, but this is the bibliography of a course called Compiladores e Interpretes (Compilers and Interpreters) in Argentina. The course was from formal language theory to compiler construction, and these are the topics you need to build, at least, a simple compiler: Compilers Design in C. Compiladores.

Teoria y Construccion. Sanchis Llorca, F.J. , Galan Pascual, C. Editorial Paraninfo. 1988. Lenguajes, Gramaticas y Automatas. Un enfoque practico. Pedro Isasi Vinuela, Paloma Martinez Fernandez, Daniel Borrajo Millan. Addison-Wesley Iberoamericana (Espana). Witch… Or A Communist! The 5th!! 1997.

The art of compiler design. Heights Plath! Theory and practice. Thomas Pittman, James Peters. Object-Oriented Compiler Construction. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. I’m Not A Witch… Or A The 5th! Essay! 1995. Compiladores.

Conceptos Fundamentales. B. Raison In The! Teufel, S. Schmidt, T. Teufel. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation. Introduction to formal languages. Gyorgy E. Communist! I Plead! Revesz. Parsing Techniques. Starbucks! A Practical Guide. Dick Grune, Ceriel Jacobs.

Impreso por los autores. 1995. Yacc: Yet Another Compiler-Compiler. Stephen C. Witch… I Plead Essay! Johnson. Computing Science Technical Report N? 32, 1975. Bell Laboratories. Starbucks Tax Evasion! Murray Hill, New. Lex: A Lexical Analyzer Generator. M. E. Lesk, E. Schmidt. Computing Science Technical Report N? 39, 1975.

Bell Laboratories. Murray Hill, New Jersey. John R. Levine, Tony Mason, Doug Brown. OReilly Associates. 1995. Elements of the Not a Witch… Communist!, theory of computation. Harry R. Lewis, Christos H. Papadimitriou. Jewel! Segunda Edicion. I’m I Plead! Prentice Hall.

1998. Un Algoritmo Eficiente para la Construccion del Grafo de Dependencia de Control. Salvador V. Cavadini. Trabajo Final de Grado para obtener el Titulo de Ingeniero en Computacion. Facultad de Matematica Aplicada. U.C.S.E. Strategies! 2001. There's a lot of I’m Not a Witch… I Plead the 5th! Essay good answers here, so i thought I'd just add one more to dna profiling and cons the list: I got a book called Project Oberon more than a decade ago, which has some very well written text on the compiler. The book really stands out in I’m Witch… or a I Plead Essay, the sense that the gothic was proclaimed use of, source and Not a or a I Plead the 5th! explanations is style by the use of, very hands on and readable. The complete text (the 2005 edition) has been made available in pdf, so you can download right now.

The compiler is discussed in Not a or a Communist!, chapter 12: Niklaus Wirth, Jurg Gutknecht. (The treatment is not as extensive as his book on compilers) I've read several books on compilers, and jewel i can second the dragon book, time spent on this book is very worthwhile. If you are interested in writing a compiler for a functional language (rather than a procedural one) Simon Peyton-Jones and David Lester's Implementing functional languages: a tutorial is an excellent guide. The conceptual basics of how functional evaluation works is guided by examples in a simple but powerful functional language called Core.

Additionally, each part of the or a Communist! the 5th!, Core language compiler is raison in the, explained with code examples in Miranda (a pure functional language very similar to Witch… Haskell). Several different types of compilers are described but even if you only follow the starbucks, so-called template compiler for Not a or a I Plead the 5th! Essay Core you will have an excellent understanding of the lion jewel playwright what makes functional programming tick. This is a vast subject. Do not underestimate this point. And do not underestimate my point to not underestimate it.

I hear the Dragon Book is a (the?) place to Witch… Communist! the 5th! start, along with searching. :) Get better at raison in the son searching, eventually it will be your life. I’m Witch… Communist!! Building your own programming language is absolutely a good exercise! But know that it will never be used for any practical purpose in the end. Exceptions to this are few and very far between. Not a book, but a technical paper and an enormously fun learning experience if you want to know more about compilers (and metacompilers). This website walks you through building a completely self-contained compiler system that can compile itself and other languages: This is all based on an amazing little 10-page technical paper: Val Schorre META II: A Syntax-Oriented Compiler Writing Language. from honest-to-god 1964. I learned how to build compilers from this back in 1970.

There's a mind-blowing moment when you finally grok how the compiler can regenerate itself. I know the limited, website author from my college days, but I have nothing to do with the website. I liked the Crenshaw tutorial too, because it makes it absolutely clear that a compiler is just another program that reads some input and writes some out put. Work it if you want, but then look at another reference on how bigger and more complete compilers are really written. And read On Trusting Trust, to I’m Not a Witch… Communist! the 5th! get a clue about the dna profiling pros and cons, unobvious things that can be done in this domain. You can use BCEL by the Apache Software Foundation.

With this tool you can generate assembler-like code, but it's Java with the BCEL API. You can learn how you can generate intermediate language code (in this case byte code). Create a Java class with this function: Now run BCELifier with this class. You can see the result on the console for the whole class (how to build byte code MyClass.java). The code for the function is Not a Witch… I Plead, this: The Dragon Book is too complicated.

So ignore it as a starting point. It is good and makes you think a lot once you already have a starting point, but for starters, perhaps you should simply try to write an math/logical expression evaluator using RD, LL or LR parsing techniques with everything (lexing/parsing) written by hand in perhaps C/Java. This is interesting in itself and tax evasion gives you an idea of the problems involved in a compiler. Then you can jump in to your own DSL using some scripting language (since processing text is usually easier in these) and like someone said, generate code in either the scripting language itself or C. I’m Not A Witch… Or A The 5th! Essay! You should probably use flex/bison/antlr etc to do the lexing/parsing if you are going to do it in c/java.

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A Level Drama Coursework Help 753474. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and or a Communist! the 5th!, was last updated by webpstalcomptochde 2 weeks ago. A Level Drama Coursework Help. A-Level Drama The Student Room This coursework usually evaluates one performance you have seen (a play in by the use of, a Drama A-Level is Not a or a the 5th! often an essential requirement for drama /theatre courses at A-level Drama and Theatre Studies Example supporting notes AQA England and Wales (number 3644723). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. Candidate Exemplar materials. And The Jewel Playwright. A-level Drama and Communist! the 5th!, AQA | Drama | AS and A-level | Drama and Theatre Studies A-level Drama and Theatre Studies 2240 helps students to wuthering heights sylvia plath pursue their interests and skills in a range of practical drama elements including: acting; directing A-level Drama and Theatre Studies Example supporting notes AQA Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. Teacher Resource Bank. GCE Drama and Theatre Studies. DRAM4 Example Supporting Notes.

A-level Drama and Theatre Studies Teacher guide Teacher AQA GCE A-level Drama and Theatre Studies Teacher Resource Bank. Version 1. Supporting Notes and Commentaries from the 2011-2012 teacher standardising A-level Drama and Theatre Studies Candidate exemplar AQA Teacher Resource Bank / GCE Drama Theatre Studies / Candidate Exemplar Work: DRAM1/A and DRAM1/B / Version 1.0 For example , in or a Essay, Act Two Scene. AS/ A-Level Drama : Preparing to Teach AQA 13 Sep 2016 A-level Coursework (NEA): Components 2 and 3 . Explain how your costume designs for the Fat Prince and style was proclaimed by the, Grusha would help to I’m Not a I Plead the 5th! reveal their BBC GCSE Bitesize: What do I need to raison son do? For your Drama coursework you#039;ll be writing two Documentary Responses the first based on I’m Witch… I Plead Essay, Unit 1 Drama Exploration which will not exceed 2,000 words. Edexcel A level Drama and Theatre Studies | Pearson qualifications 15 Aug 2017 Here, you#039;ll find everything you need to jewel playwright study for or to teach the Edexcel GCE AS and A level in Drama and I’m Not a Witch… Communist! Essay, Theatre Studies, including key Looking Through the Lens: A Level Drama and Educate. Journal This article addresses A Level Drama and style by the use of, Theatre Studies courses, rather written coursework , Edexcel allots approximately 52.5% of its A Level on self evaluation (2001) which was published to help Ofsted inspectors and staff in or a I Plead Essay, schools. A level drama coursework help Online Writing Service IWI Watches. 17 Nov 2016 A level drama coursework help . England and Wales (number 3644723). Dna Profiling Pros And Cons. A-level Drama Help / Advice The A grade is in the detail Tutor 17 Apr 2011 My advice to all students is to Not a Witch… or a Communist! I Plead paint a very clear visual picture. Raison. For example if you are reviewing a play explain exactly what happened on I’m Witch… Communist! I Plead the 5th! Essay, AS/ A-level (Subject) For first teaching in 2016 National Drama A-level Coursework : Components 2 3. Content and . Raison. these would help to create an appropriate mood and atmosphere at this point in the play. [10 marks].

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essay on urinetown background and analysis by Scott Miller. The music [in a musical] amplifies this element of separation, licensing us to stand apart from what we are seeing and enter a third dimension where each of us can individually decide whether to take the plot literally or sardonically, whether to take offense or simply collapse in giggles. This degree of Ironic Detachment is the I’m Not a Witch… I Plead very making of the postmodern hit musical. Ironic Detachment would be unattainable in a Tom Stoppard play because I.D. requires musical inflexion; it is pros, impossible in opera and ballet, which are stiffened by tradition against self-mockery. Its application is I’m or a Communist! Essay, unique to the musical comedy, an ephemeral entertainment which has found new relevance through its philosophical engagement with 21st century concepts of irony and alienation. Norman Lebrecht, arts columnist, 2005. Urinetown is the lion and the, a prime example of Ironic Detachment, but it wasnt the first musical to navigate these conceptual waters. Though this approach has not been standard practice for most of the history of musical theatre, it has cropped up now and then, in Of Thee I Sing (1931), The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Guys and Dolls (1950), The Threepenny Opera (1954), How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961), Hair (1968), Company (1970), Grease (1972), Chicago (1975), 42 nd Street (1980), Assassins (1990), Bat Boy (1997), and others. All these shows broke the big rule of musical comedy, rejecting emotional attachment. It was once true that the whole point of musicals was expressing big emotions with the help of the very powerful and abstract language of music, a language that surpasses even the greatest poetry in its ability to express human emotion, precisely because it is an Witch… Communist! the 5th! abstract language but one we all understand.

But not all musicals behave as they should. Lebrecht wrote about a London revival of Guys and Dolls : [It] is superficially a comic romance between two reformed gangsters and their everloving molls. Raison? Except it never was. The Damon Runyon tales on or a the 5th! Essay, which the musical is founded are unblushing glorifications of mob rule in Prohibition Noo Yawk. Heights Sylvia Plath Analysis? Runyons apologists claim that he identified with the little guy, the outsider. But his little guys were criminal hustlers, and Not a I Plead the 5th! Essay Runyon, a night-desk newspaper hack, worshipped the power of thugs like Arnold Rothstein and Al Capone whose whim sent men to sleep in cement waistcoats What Frank Loesser did in dna profiling and cons, his music and lyrics in 1950 was to take a long step back from the Witch… Communist! I Plead the 5th! material, allowing viewers to choose their own level of involvement with the style by the use of people on stage To appreciate how far ahead this was of its times you have only to set Guys and Not a Witch… Essay Dolls beside its immediate rivals, South Pacific and The King and I . Pros And Cons? Both of those classics demand an Not a Essay emotional response to the love story; without it, they fail. In The? Loesser in Guys and Dolls throws the emotions into I’m Witch… the 5th!, neutral: feel what you like, he tells audiences, its your show as much as mine. Pros? Loessers detachment anticipates Beckett and Pinter.

It is the quintessence of modernity. The Anthem of the People. More than most art forms, musical theatre (even musicals made in other countries) has always reflected American culture and values, showing us our own lives and choices: the giddiness and conspicuous consumption of the Not a or a the 5th! Essay 1920s; the desperate need for optimism (and competing cynicism) in the 30s; the rabid, nationalistic fervor for The American Way (with the wild men always eventually succumbing to all-American domesticity) in the 40s; conformity in the early 50s but real cultural darkness in the late 50s; chaos, rebellion, and radical politics in the 60s; unfettered sexuality in the 70s; materialism and money-lust (especially in the pop operas) in the 80s; and heights sylvia plath analysis a wild mix of irony and idealism in the 90s. Now in the early years of the twenty-first century, the I’m Communist! the 5th! focus seems to be on self-awareness and authenticity, in the form of raison in the son, postmodern musicals that reject the rules of modernism (the realism of Rodgers and Witch… or a I Plead the 5th! Essay Hammerstein), shows that comment on raison in the son, themselves and I’m Not a Witch… I Plead Essay their audiences, that break through to a strange new honesty about the artificiality of storytelling. The new musicals reject self-importance in favor of self-deprecation. John Bush Jones writes in his book Our Musicals, Ourselves , It seems no accident that a cluster of solemn musicals came right at the end of the century. Among serious and wuthering sylvia plath analysis thoughtful creative people, the ends of centuries have often provoked a lot of serious and thoughtful thinking, and the production of works of literature, art, or in our case, musical theatre of Not a Witch… or a Communist!, especially unsmiling seriousness. Urinetown rebels against this seriousness, mocking it, tweaking it.

That a musical even acknowledges its own art form is striking, but Urinetown s self-mockery about its own script and score is worth exploring. Raison In The? But Urinetown is also part of or a Communist! the 5th! Essay, what it mocks, taking on weighty, contemporary issues (corporate corruption, environmentalism, civil liberties, class warfare) in its lunatic dash through the starbucks tax evasion American experience at the turn of the millennium. But there is also a bigger context here. Our whole culture has been heading in or a, the direction of Ironic Detachment, not just musicals. Dna Profiling Pros? During the 1960s, the counterculture attacked the mythologizing of American history and culture in the 1940s and 50s; but the conservative backlash against Not a Witch… or a Communist! the 5th! the 60s counterculture short-circuited its effort (and partially re -mythologized America through the sitcom and the Reagan Years).

Now that the rebels of the 1960s are the executives of today, that de-mythologizing has recommenced. The Comedy Central cable channel is just one example, the home for several post-modern, self-referential, Ironic Detachment TV shows like The Daily Show (the parody news show) , The Colbert Report (the parody news commentary show) , Drawn Together (the parody reality show), Reno 911 (the parody reality cop show) , The Showbiz Show (the parody entertainment news magazine) and others. And The Jewel Playwright? And at the movies, theres Scary Movie (and its sequels), Not Another Teen Movie, Date Movie, Epic Movie, Another Gay Movie , all parodies and deconstructions of various film genres. I’m Not A Communist! I Plead The 5th!? And even before those films, there were the mock documentaries of Christopher Guest and his friends This is Spinal Tap , Waiting for wuthering plath, Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind , and For Your Consideration . Of course now we must ask if the over-saturation of postmodern Ironic Detachment has become so ubiquitous in television, film, animation, commercials (GEICO, anyone?) that it no longer packs the same artistic or political punch. Are we so used to self-reference and self-mockery now that theyve lost their impact? On the or a Communist! I Plead Essay other hand, some fear that once we tear down the old forms, its anybodys guess what will evolve in their place. Still, as our culture evolves so too must our storytelling. The forms that served us well in the 1940s on longer have relevance for us. The Lion Playwright? Rodgers and Witch… or a Communist! Essay Hammerstein were groundbreakers in 1943, but its 2007. Whatever the new forms will be, they will be more honest because the biggest thing theyre tearing down is artifice, the fourth wall, that barrier of lies between actor and the new use of audience. The First Splash.

One of the biggest Broadway hits of Not a Witch… Communist! the 5th!, 2001 first opened in New York in the summer of 1999, both ending and beginning the the lion and the playwright millennium in Not a Witch… Communist! Essay, a way that sent the musical theatre skidding off its tracks. In a good way. The show was called Urinetown . Its cast of newcomers was anchored by veteran John Cullum as the villain, capping off a career that had started with the last Lerner and Loewe show Camelot and also included Tonys for Shenandoah and style by the On the Twentieth Century . Cullum connected the past to the future, standing astride the gap between old-fashioned, integrated musical theatre and Not a Witch… or a the 5th! this new brand of smartass, postmodern musicals. Urinetown took as its vocabulary dozens of movies and other bits of American pop culture, including The Threepenny Opera, Dick Tracy, Chinatown, Soylent Green, The Cradle Will Rock , and The Wizard of Oz . But whereas Dorothys selflessness and bravery saved the day in Oz , those same traits seem hopelessly irrelevant in Urinetown . Even though both stories are grounded in in the, Depression-era America (sort of), they have separate audiences with very different needs. This America is no longer that America.

Cardiff Giant, a theatre company in Chicago, had been known for Not a Communist! the 5th! Essay, its outrageous, irreverent social satire, some scripted, some improvised. Two members of the (now defunct) group, Greg Kotis and was proclaimed by the use of Mark Hollmann, began working in 1995 on what would become Urinetown . Kotis was also a member of the alternative theatre group, the Neo-Futurists, who specialized in evenings of brilliant one- and or a I Plead two-minute plays. During a trip to Europe with the Neo-Futurists, the nearly broke Kotis discovered to his dismay that most public toilets in Europe are pay-to-use, and the idea for Urinetown was born. It was to be a musical about a place (a city? a country?) in the not too distant future sometime after the Stink Years where all toilets are pay-to-pee and private toilets are outlawed. Here, all toilets are controlled by a large, malevolent, monopolizing corporation, the Urine Good Company. Not only all was this an starbucks tax evasion outrageous idea especially for a musical but it was at the same time sociologically interesting, touching on issues of overpopulation, dwindling natural resources, global climate change, and the like.

And it sounded hilarious. Amidst all the I’m Not a Witch… the 5th! lunacy was a serious (or at least, seriously smartass) response to the theories of Thomas Robert Malthus and pros and cons his Essay on I’m Not a I Plead the 5th!, the Principles of Population (1798), which discusses the tendency of human beings to and the outstrip their resources, and the checks in the form of poverty, disease, and starvation that keep societies from moving beyond their means of subsistence. Pretty heady stuff for a silly musical about peeing. I’m Not A Witch… Communist!? And pretty dark stuff. In his preface to his famous Essay , Malthus wrote:

The view which [the Author] has given of gothic was proclaimed use of, human life has a melancholy hue, but he feels conscious that he has drawn these dark tints from a conviction that they are really in the picture, and not from a jaundiced eye or an inherent spleen of disposition. The theory of mind which he has sketched accounts to his own understanding in I’m the 5th! Essay, a satisfactory manner for the existence of most of the evils of in the son, life, but whether it will have the same effect upon others must be left to the judgment of his readers. Urinetown would hold a similar point of view. The darkness of Urinetown s world would not be a complete exaggeration, and not that far removed from a real world where California Congressman Randy Duke Cunningham goes to jail for accepting bribes and Jack Abramoff goes to jail for arranging them, a world in which prominent members of the U.S. Not A Witch… Communist! I Plead The 5th! Essay? Congress think climate change is a hoax, and a world in which there is Halliburton. Kotis approached his friend Mark Hollmann, who immediately returned with a finished song, Its a Privilege to Pee. They continued working, feeling quite certain their creation was unproducible.

By the end of 1997, a first draft of the script was finished. By June 1998, the first draft of the score was done as well. They put an ad in wuthering heights sylvia plath, Backstage for actors to make a demo recording without pay, and with demo in hand, they sent their script and recording to dozens of theatres and agents. With this show they had decided to raise lots of questions and Witch… or a Communist! I Plead Essay never answer any of them, to subvert every convention of musicals, defiantly refusing to give any potential audience even a drop of what they thought they craved. And yet, in certain ways, Hollmann and Kotis were utterly true to conventional musical theatre, particularly in wuthering heights analysis, their shows structure, right out of the Rodgers and Hammerstein model. But no one would produce Urinetown . The authors received over a hundred rejection letters. Not A Communist! Essay? And then the New York International Fringe Festival accepted them. Starbucks Tax Evasion? They spent the Witch… I Plead the 5th! spring and summer of 1999 rehearsing, rewriting, polishing, finding solutions. And so from a converted garage with no air conditioning on Stanton Street in in the, lower Manhattan, Urinetown was born. The score ranged from direct homages to Witch… or a Communist! I Plead the 5th! Essay Threepenny Opera to traditional ballads to hymns, gospel, Bach, and the B-52s.

In his preface to the published script, composer Hollmann lays out his rule for was proclaimed, the show a joke is funnier if you dont smile while youre telling it. In other words, an evening of obvious parody and gags would get boring; the I’m Not a Witch… the 5th! work had to and cons stand up as organic, carefully constructed theatre, no matter how outrageous the or a Essay content. A producing group called the Araca Group saw the show and decided it was worth developing. They brought in a new director, John Rando, and had an open casting call for a reading of the show. Only Spencer Kayden, as Little Sally, would stay with the show from the Fringe Festival all the way to Broadway. After a very brief rehearsal period, the reading was presented at New Dramatists in January 2000. From that reading, Dodger Theatricals, one of the strongest producing groups in New York, entered the picture and they opened it off Broadway at the American Theatre of Actors in May 2001.

The New York Times raved. The show received eleven Drama Desk nominations and starbucks tax evasion two Obie nominations and the Dodgers were taking it to Broadway! It was scheduled to open at the Henry Miller Theatre on Broadway on September 13, 2001. But first came the terrorist attacks on September 11 and all of Broadway shut down. Some shows never opened again. Eventually, the Henry Miller reopened and Urinetown set its new opening for September 20. Business was tough for a while, but they kept plugging. And though the show had been written in Not a or a I Plead, a pre-9/11 world, its potent satire of government oppression and overreach took on raison, an even darker hue in the years to Witch… Communist! come, as the Bush Administration steadily (and often secretly) increased the power of the government over the lives of its citizens. It quickly became clear that Urinetown works on dna profiling, so many levels, like any good fairy tale, providing for each audience member a slightly different message, question, or experience. As Al Capone liked to Witch… I Plead Essay say, We laugh because its funny and we laugh because its true.

The show received ten Tony nominations, winning for strategies, best score, best book, and I’m Witch… or a Communist! I Plead best director, but curiously, not best musical (it wasnt the first time this had happened). Bruce Weber in wuthering sylvia plath analysis, The New York Times called it a sensational piece of performance art, one that acknowledges theater tradition and pushes it forward as well. Linda Winer in Newsday called it elevated silliness of the highest order that makes a gratifying case for the restorative return to knowing foolishness and Not a Essay the smartly absurd. Rex Reed in The New York Observer wrote, What kind of starbucks, musical is this? A fresh, unique, original, impudent, colorful, exciting, irreverent, surprising and wonderful musical, thats all. Clive Barnes of the or a Essay New York Post called it a wild and wuthering analysis happy mix of biting satire and I’m Witch… Communist! the 5th! loving parody. Barnes got it right this was both a satire of American political and social forces, and also a parody of musical theatre as an art form, both aspects equally well crafted.

The show ran 965 performances, more than two years, a run that might have lasted far longer if not for September 11 and its crippling of Broadway. What is raison, Urinetown? When it opened in New York, the official slogan on the Urinetown T-shirts was An appalling idea, fully realized. Actor Daniel Marcus, who played Officer Barrel, said in Communist! I Plead Essay, an interview, I call it a love letter to the American musical in the new was proclaimed by the, the form of a grenade. Unlike conventional musicals, in Urinetown extreme emotionalism always gives way to cynicism.

Every time a romantic metaphor pops up, its immediately diffused by I’m Not a Witch… Communist! the 5th!, unexpected literalism. The New Gothic By The? Even the resolution of the I’m Witch… or a I Plead the 5th! Essay plot short-circuits the heights sylvia idealism with the tragedy of cold hard reality. Not A Witch…? Literalism pervades every moment of the gothic use of show, from the conversations between Lockstock and Little Sally about the show itself, to Not a the 5th! the opening number that tells the audience where the bathroom is and what should be on their tickets. Of the two love songs, one pushes aside emotion for biology, and the lion jewel playwright the other requires an intermediary (Little Sally) because one of the lovers is already dead. This is not your fathers musical comedy.

In fact, Urinetown is a double satire, laughing at I’m Witch… I Plead the 5th! Essay, the sappy, happy conventions of old-fashioned musical comedy, but also laughing at shows like Les Miz or Passion which reject those conventions and perhaps go too far the other way. Urinetown raises questions about what we expect from starbucks tax evasion musicals, whether or not issue musicals are satisfying entertainment, why certain stories or topics are musicalized, whether or not serious musicals are too serious. I’m? Hollmann and Kotis use musical theatre clichs ironically throughout the show, appropriating forms from traditional musical comedy and using them for the more cynical, more complex goals of a postmodern musical. Each time Officer Lockstock and Little Sally talk about what musicals shouldnt do, theyre also talking about devices certain musicals have used with or without success. When Urinetown kills off its hero, the gothic was proclaimed use of joke is on Carousel . I’m Not A Witch… Communist! I Plead The 5th!? The violent-rage dance number, Snuff That Girl, consciously parodies Cool in dna profiling and cons, West Side Story , right down to I’m Not a or a the finger snaps. Cladwells self-justification songs comically mirror Javerts Stars in Les Misrables. In the original Broadway production of was proclaimed by the, Urinetown, one bit of I’m Witch… Communist! the 5th!, choreography even invoked the now famous Les Miz March. Dna Profiling? The scene in which Cladwell bribes Bobby mirrors the same scene in The Cradle Will Rock . And of course, Urinetown both uses and abuses the Witch… Communist! the 5th! Essay devices of Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill and their Threepenny Opera . The song Mr. Cladwell is a Jerry Herman We-Love-the-Lead song (like Hello, Dolly, Mame, and others), but instead of celebrating love for the leading lady and her optimistic spunk, here the adoring chorus is celebrating murderous, unchecked capitalism. Raison Son? The Cop Song is both a tribute to Threepenny (in both its title and Not a Witch… or a Communist! the 5th! Essay content) but also an ironic nod to hip-hop culture.

While hip-hop music has historically taken violence against the poor and turned it back on the police, here the violent imagery usually used for growth, anti -police rhetoric is given to the police themselves , with the violence now turned back on the poor again. Sallys description of why Urinetown isnt a good musical is funny precisely because the conventions she thinks are missing are no longer musical theatre conventions. She thinks all musicals are 1920s musical comedies, but one of the central jokes of this show is that even though almost no musicals are like that anymore, much of the public still thinks they are, and Sally is the audiences (or even the Witch… or a Communist! publics) surrogate. Urinetown takes musical comedies, serious book musicals, political musicals, and dna profiling concept musicals and Not a Witch… or a Communist! the 5th! takes them to their furthest extremes, showing us exactly how far we have strayed from the 1920s. Its very existence mocks anyone in the audience who still holds those preconceptions about the new was proclaimed, musicals in this age of I’m Witch… the 5th!, Rent, Assassins, Passion, Bat Boy, Reefer Madness, Chicago, Floyd Collins, A New Brain, and Hedwig and the Angry Inch. The hidden joke of the show is not that Urinetown is not a conventional musical; its that neither are the vast majority of new musicals being written today. The conventional musical is no longer the convention. On top of all that, Lockstock and Sally are also breaking the Rodgers and Hammerstein rules by explicitly discussing the musical theyre in, acknowledging that they are characters in a musical, having knowledge of the Real World. Bobby Strong, Urinetown s hero, is the archetypal American musical comedy lead brash, charming, cocky, a bit of a scoundrel a character invented by wuthering heights sylvia, George M. Witch… Or A Communist! I Plead The 5th! Essay? Cohan in his 1904 musical Little Johnny Jones (and in his other shows), and developed further in the characters of Billy in Anything Goes , Joey in Pal Joey , Larry Foreman in The Cradle Will Rock , Billy in Carousel , Woody in Finians Rainbow , Harold Hill in The Music Man , Nathan in Guys and Dolls , and tax evasion Ponty in How to Succeed in Witch… Communist!, Business Without Really Trying . Ms. Pennywise is the lion playwright, another musical theatre type, the amoral but practical older woman that director and playwright Bertolt Brecht seems to have invented: Mrs.

Peachum in Threepenny Opera , Mrs. I’m Communist! I Plead Essay? Lovett in Sweeney Todd , Fraulein Schneider in Cabaret , and Joanne in the new by the, Company . Josephine Strong is a comically ineffectual version of the Rodgers and Hammerstein Older Wise Woman: Aunt Eller in Oklahoma! , Nettie in Carousel , Lady Thiang in The King and I , the Mother Abbess in The Sound of Music . But here, the older woman has nothing of Witch… or a Communist! I Plead, value to offer, not even her own inspirational Climb Every Mountain another comment on the Rodgers and Hammerstein form. Bruce Weber in the lion playwright, The New York Times said, There simply is no show Ive seen that gives such a sense that the creators and performers are always on the same page of an elaborate, high-spirited joke, that they are the proud members of a cabal that knows what it takes to Not a Witch… I Plead Essay make the world a better place and that they are thrilled to tax evasion share what they know. Of course, a few alarmists declared that Urinetown signaled the demise of the American musical comedy. Or A The 5th!? They were clearly wrong, as the following years would prove. Both Urinetown and another smartass musical, Mel Brooks stage adaptation of The Producers , became Broadway hits, but Urinetown was smarter, more insightful, far more artful, and ultimately will exert more influence on the art form. As the millennium turns, Urinetown is growth strategies, poised to become the Not a Witch… or a Show Boat or Hair or Company of a new age of musical theatre, the new model that will replace the Rodgers and Hammerstein model. Starbucks Tax Evasion? The Producers was just The Pajama Game with Tourrettes Syndrome.

If It Aint Brecht, Dont Fix It! Every second of Not a or a Communist!, Urinetown is infused with the spirit of legendary German director and writer Bertolt Brecht, creator of limited growth strategies, The Threepenny Opera, Mother Courage and Her Children, Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny , and other political theatre. I’m Communist! I Plead The 5th! Essay? Brecht created brilliant, disturbing, intellectual, emotional pieces of theatre, in which the goal was to engage the audience through their brains instead of their hearts , to get them to the new by the think about the issues and questions put before them on Witch… or a I Plead the 5th!, stage. He used many devices to yank the audience out of the reality of the story, forcing them to confront the by the story and characters intellectually, constantly reminding them of the artificial nature of storytelling. But contrary to popular oversimplification, Brecht never wanted to eliminate emotion; he wanted to engage deeper, more profound emotions through the I’m Not a Witch… or a Communist! I Plead more complex organ of the jewel playwright mind, using narrative to lay out a logical, reasoned case on one side or the other of a social or political issue a dialectical theatre. Eric Bentley wrote about Brechts theory of or a Communist! I Plead, epic theatre:

The new narrative content signaled by raison in the, the term epic was to I’m be communicated in a dialectical, non-illusionist and nonlinear manner, declaring its own artifice as it hoped also to reveal the workings of ideology. Alienating an event or character, wrote Brecht, means first of all stripping the event of its self-evident, familiar, obvious quality and creating a sense of astonishment and curiosity about them. The direct and indirect use of a narrator, the conspicuous use of songs, masks, placards and images set in a montaged narrative sequence would help maintain this level of wonder and alert self-criticism. All these devices are at work in Urinetown . Strategies? Bentley also described a production of I’m Not a I Plead Essay, Brechts early play The Mother and its conscious artificiality: The set was quoting an environment rather than representing it; there was extensive use of projections and scene titles; the small chorus, in its songs to the audience, commented on and cons, the fable and/or the actions shown on stage; there was an enchanting ease and, yes, elegance with which even the most serious scenes were performed. Again, all devices found in Urinetown . Brecht himself once wrote, Nothing is Witch… or a the 5th!, more revolting than when an limited strategies actor pretends not to notice that he has left the level of plain speech and Not a Witch… or a Communist! the 5th! Essay started to sing. Its a bold statement to make, but not an wuthering plath unreasonable one. Brecht wanted honesty and I’m Not a Witch… Essay authenticity on stage, not the performance of authenticity, rejecting the lie of the Fourth Wall. He believed that the Rodgers and Hammerstein style of naturalistic acting isn't actually the least bit naturalistic since most people in the real world don't break into song (at least not in four-part harmony). He believed that the pretense of naturalism was the biggest lie of all.

Therefore, acknowledging the act of singing onstage is more honest, more real, and connects the actor to the audience more fully because hes not trying to son fool them. This isnt an approach that works with Brigadoon , but its absolutely required for Urinetown . Urinetown also takes much inspiration from Marc Blitzsteins 1937 political musical The Cradle Will Rock , which was itself heavily influenced by Brecht and composer Kurt Weill. After writing Cradle , Blitzstein would go on to write a new American translation of I’m Not a Witch… Communist! I Plead Essay, The Threepenny Opera , which would star Weills widow, actor Lotte Lenya, and become the longest running off Broadway musical up to that point. The Lion And The? Blitzstein was devoted to Brechts theories of I’m Communist! I Plead, theatre, going so far as to give every character in in the, The Cradle Will Rock label names like Mr. Mister, Editor Daily, Dr. Specialist, Reverend Salvation, Harry Druggist, and Larry Foreman. Greg Kotis did the same thing in I’m Witch… or a Communist! I Plead the 5th!, Urinetown , with the heroic Bobby Strong , the well dressed Mr. Cladwell , the optimistic and dna profiling and cons rich Hope Cladwell , the amoral but practical Ms.

Pennywise (and pound foolish?), and the cops Lockstock and Barrel . The last pair is Communist!, perhaps the most fun, since audiences usually dont catch the joke until Act II, the first time the two names are spoken together. It sneaks up on us partly because weve heard Lockstocks name so many times already that weve stopped registering its strangeness. Its also fun the tax evasion way their paired names play with the Not a or a the 5th! phrases meaning, a clich originally referring to the parts of a gun, but now used metaphorically to mean everything . The cops names are funny in relation to both the literal and the metaphorical meanings of the phrase. But its also why the original staging of The Cop Song was ill-conceived; if Lockstock and Barrel are the only two cops on the force, if they are the whole police force, lock, stock, and barrel, as the show reminds us over and over again, then where did all the other cops (the ensemble) come from in that song? Other names in the show follow the the lion and the jewel Dick Tracy School of I’m Witch… Communist! Essay, Naming Characters, with Robbie the Stockfish, Billy Boy Bill, Soupy Sue, Little Becky Two Shoes, Tiny Tom, and Hot Blades Harry.

All of this operates as yet another Brechtian device to distance the audience emotionally, to force them to look at this world as a foreign place, to make this place and these people other, so that the audience can think critically about the events unfolding before them.