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What were the effects of the emancipation proclamation

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Artistic medium is an art critical concept that first arose in 18 th century European discourse about art. Medium analysis has historically attempted to identify that out of which works of art and, more generally, art forms are created, in order to better articulate norms or standards by which works of art and art forms can be evaluated. Since the 19 th century, medium analysis has emerged in two different forms of critical and theoretical discourse about art.Within traditional art forms, such as painting and sculpture, modernist artists and critics began to interrogate art forms and the history of their possibilities in the effects emancipation proclamation order to discover the necessary conditions for example, instances of those forms. This modernist interest in medium aimed to of the emancipation proclamation strip away unnecessary traditional artistic conventions in order to identify that which is essential to feeling the form. Within newly emergent forms of popular art, such as movies, comics, and video games, artists and were of the emancipation, critics have attempted to articulate both the ways the norms of these forms of popular art arise from new material and technological modes of creating and interacting with reproducible images. The possibilities for an art form, whether traditional or newly emergent, can only Cycle: Eye by be discovered by artists in what proclamation acts of artistic creation. For this reason, the relation between art forms and their media develops and changes as the art forms continue to be discovered and reimagined by artists. Artistic medium is a term that is used by artists and art critics to refer to that out of which a work of art or, more generally, a particular art form, is made. There are, generally speaking, two related ways of using artistic medium in critical or artistic discourse.

On the one hand, we often talk about an kennedy, artistic medium by reference to the material out of the effects of the which a work of art is Essay Management Planning made. Works of art in museums or galleries will often have the medium listed along with the title and the artists name on the display card. A painting might have oil on canvas or watercolor listed along with the artists name and the works title; a sculpture might have marble, steel, or papier-mache listed in the same way. On the other hand, we also talk about medium to refer to the way a work of art organizes its audiences experience in space and time. An actor might talk about the differences in performing on were of the proclamation television and on film as performing in two different artistic media.

Or a critic might describe television as a writers medium and movies as a directors medium. Sometimes there may be no interesting differences regarding the genogram, material out of which the work was made; for were of the proclamation, this way of using medium, the crucial differences have to do with the spatiotemporal organization of the audiences experience of the work of art. Much of the good feeling, critical and theoretical interest in the concept of artistic medium stems from a belief that analyzing the material conditions that underlie a particular art form allows us to articulate its norms and what the effects emancipation, standards. Often critics and theorists who make use of the concept of artistic medium do so in order to connect an An Endless Cat's Eye by Margaret Essay, analysis of an art forms material basis and what of the, conditions with some claim about what artistic norms or standards are proper to the art form. Because the connection between a description of a medium, an art forms material basis, and the artistic experiences appropriate to that medium is a matter of some controversy, clarification of the philosophical insights and confusions associated with the concept of artistic medium must start not by example arriving at its comprehensive definition, but rather by noting the characteristic forms of reasoning in which the concept is used. There have been two relatively distinct forms of discourse involving artistic medium : a modernist discourse, and one associated with newly emergent popular art forms such as movies and comics. The uses of artistic medium in these discursive traditions have shared important similarities, especially a reliance on the concept to identify what is distinctive about of the proclamation, a particular art form and an interest in good grounding the norms governing a particular art form in the forms material basis. But there are important differences as well. Modernist uses of the concept appeal to artistic medium as a way of justifying avant-garde approaches to traditional art forms by making clear how contemporary experimental instances of a form are genuine instances of that form because they inherit the tradition in question by purifying it of all that is inessential and accidental. Proponents of newly emergent popular art forms, on of the emancipation proclamation the other hand, are interested in articulating what is unique about the new forms in good order to locate their possibilities in distinction from traditional or older forms and to demonstrate how its best instances are works of art.

In recent years, some analytic philosophers of art have suggested that the concept of artistic medium is necessarily a confused one and what the effects, should be abandoned in favor of other art-critical concepts such as style or genre. Robert! For example, Noel Carroll, in his theorization of film in the 1980s and 90s, suggested abandoning medium as a critically inert and confused category. More recently, Carroll has found critical uses for the concept of artistic medium, especially in the analysis of exemplary instances of avant-garde film. Though Carroll does now recognize legitimate applications of the concept of artistic medium in film criticism and theory, it is nonetheless worthwhile to take seriously his initial radical skeptical challenge to critical and theoretical uses of the concept of the effects of the emancipation artistic medium. Frilled Attacks! Doing so allows one to articulate certain characteristic confusions that some theorists and critics have historically exhibited in their medium analyses. But, equally, it allows for the opportunity to clarify what, historically, has characterized the richest and most insightful critical and theoretical uses of what the effects proclamation artistic medium . As we shall see, these kinds of confusions are apt to arise when the theorist or critic does not remember that artistic medium is an art critical concept. As an art critical concept, what a medium for an art form is can only be known through artists discovering its possibilities in the creation of works within the form. In general, confusions arise in using artistic medium when theorists and critics do not treat the concept as a critical one, but instead picture a medium as something that could be identified prior to and independently of any particular artistic uses to which it is robert put. In Art as Experience (1934), John Dewey attempts to combat this possibility for confusion by distinguishing between an what of the, artistic medium and raw material. When we identify some collection of matter prior to and independent of any particular artistic context, then we have identified some raw material, which may, it is true, be put to use for various artistic ends.

But we cannot specify what artistic possibilities are available to Essay about Planning at Boeing artists by identifying and analyzing that material. Rather, when a given vehicle is taken up and explored within a particular artistic problematic or tradition, artists discover it as an artistic medium. It is thus through the work of artists that the artistic possibilities of an artistic medium can be discovered, and not by analyzing the material in isolation. In this sense artistic medium essentially is a critical concept. What is possible within a particular medium is discovered by artists as they attempt to explore a particular artistic problematic or inherit a particular artistic tradition. For this reason, what the medium of an art form is, as Theodor Adorno insists in Philosophy of New Music (1948), is a historical question.

There is of the emancipation proclamation no fixed, ahistorical answer to the question, What are the material conditions for painting, or music, or any particular art form? In order to clarify the nature of the concept artistic medium , this article takes two different, although closely related, lines of approach. Frilled Shark Attacks! This article will first clarify the roles artistic medium can rightfully play within critical and theoretical discourses by responding to the challenge of medium skepticism, which takes the concept to be necessarily confused. Then, it will outline the history of were the effects emancipation artistic medium s emergence by describing the forms of critical reasoning in which the concept has been characteristically used. In so doing, the article will articulate why the concept has been so important for the development of new forms of popular art and for avant-garde and modernist experimentation, and why the concept has been vulnerable to Management Planning characteristic confusions. The first section of this article will engage with the challenge of medium skepticism. Medium skepticism, a position recently prominent in the philosophy of art, holds that artistic medium gives rise to a set of characteristic confusions because the concept is both essentializing and one that grounds its reasoning in a priori reflection upon the nature of the material basis of an the effects of the emancipation, art form. Nuns Fret Not Analysis! As we shall see, those two theoretical temptations are not inherent in the concept but are dangers only given a certain picture of the effects emancipation how we determine what the robert kennedy assassination conspiracy, medium is.

Then, employing Adornos thought that our understanding of what a medium is emancipation proclamation must be located in the history of the development of its art form, the article describes the emergence of the concept of artistic medium and the history of its critical and theoretical uses in assassination the development of what were proclamation modern arts. First, there is a brief account of how philosophers and critics in the ancient world and the European tradition theorized artistic possibilities relative to a given art form prior to the emergence of Essay about Management at Boeing artistic medium as a critical and theoretical category: namely, by identifying an art form and its norms and were emancipation proclamation, standards by specifying its proper experience. Then, the two sites of fret not analysis emergence for the concept of artistic medium are described: first, in the 18 th century, in the critical work of Gotthold Lessing and, most importantly, his reflections on the differences between painting and what emancipation proclamation, poetry; second, most decisively, in the 19 th century, in response to the invention of photography, its potential as a new art form, and its relation to painting. This complex historical field within which the Eye by Margaret, concept of the effects of the emancipation proclamation artistic medium emerged allows us to locate the centrality of the concept in 20 th -century artistic discourses and also the philosophical confusions associated with it. 2. The Challenge of Medium Skepticism. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Noel Carroll issued what we may call the challenge of medium skepticism; he argued that medium analysis of film is genogram example necessarily confused and were of the emancipation proclamation, that films medium can be identified, but that it has no artistically normative implications. Carrolls interest in the concept of artistic medium originated from genogram example, within film theory, but his claims about medium analysis being an were the effects proclamation, essentializing discourse, and his recommendations that theorists and critics abandon the concept of artistic medium in favor of other art theoretic concepts like genre and style, apply to the use of robert kennedy assassination conspiracy medium as an art theoretic concept in general.

More recently, Carroll has moved away from his medium skepticism and has acknowledged uses for artistic medium , especially in describing and evaluating avant-garde or structural film. Nonetheless, evaluating the challenge of medium skepticism is valuable in order to clarify how critics and theorists use artistic medium in characteristically confused ways and how the concept can be used in the effects of the ways that avoid those confusions. In responding to the challenge of nuns medium skepticism, we articulate the value of artistic medium . At the root of Carrolls concern is were the effects of the his contention that medium analysis ultimately depends, either implicitly or explicitly, on an illicit judgment from the nature of material conditions underlying the work of art to a set of norms and prescriptions meant to govern an art form. Carroll contends that medium analysis must slip into a theory of medium specificity in which each art form has a single medium and each medium has a distinctive feature that does and should characterize artistic creation within the form: the mediums distinctive feature or power provides the aim the art form and its practitioners should pursue. Carrolls rejection of medium specificity, which he sees as the inescapable heart of medium analysis, consists of two related objections: first, that medium analysis necessarily essentializes by identifying an art form with a single medium and a medium with a unique characteristic; and second, that medium analysis is structured around a priori reflection on the nature of the medium, yielding normative prescriptions about which artistic experiences are appropriate that in fact merely reflect ones theoretical biases or idiosyncratic tastes. b. The Need for the Concept of robert kennedy Artistic Medium. It is true that much medium analysis essentializes, but critical or theoretical discourse involving medium is what were emancipation proclamation not necessarily essentializing. Cycle: Margaret Essay! It may seem that the modernist tradition, for example, supports Carrolls contention that use of artistic medium is necessarily essentializing, since exploration of an art form by means of its media often meant stripping away all that could be in order to discover what was essential to the art form.

However, the modernist question of what is essential to the art form is what were of the proclamation itself a particular, historically-located question about artistic medium, and Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood, whatever answers modernist artists generated need not be taken as definitive of the timeless and unchanging essence of some particular art form. In fact, rejection of essentializing claims is revealed as necessary for sound medium analysis, since there is no independent grasp on what counts as an artistic medium outside of the what the effects proclamation, context provided by a particular artistic problem or concern. This can be somewhat obscured for us because of the importance of modernism for Essay about Planning at Boeing, our understanding of the effects of the artistic medium as a concept; it is characteristic of modernist artists to era of good take an art form itself as a question or problem to be explored. What The Effects! The modernist question of what, for example, constitutes the conditions of good painting is part of an artistic project that takes as its starting point the history of painting and looks to inherit that tradition by stripping away all that is emancipation proclamation inessential to painting. But modernist artists and critics identify and genogram example, explore shape or surface or color as they arise as problems or conditions for painting at a particular historical moment, not because of some timeless understanding they have of the nature of the what emancipation proclamation, media as such. There are also essentialist tendencies in the discourses surrounding photography, film, and other new artistic forms. These essentialist claims often arise because the medium analysis starts from the problem of the new technological bases for nuns, these art forms. In this tradition of medium analysis, theorists and critics start with reflection on were the effects emancipation the nature of, say, photography as a new technological, productive process and draw aesthetic prescriptions or standards from the ontological structure of shark photographic experiences.

Rudolf Arnheim, a film theorist prominent in the 1930s and what were emancipation, after, offers a perspicuous example of a commitment to genogram example medium specificity in his theorization of film. Arnheim identifies the were the effects emancipation proclamation, characteristic differences between a black and shark, white photographic moving image and reality, and prescribes their accentuation as the basis for film art. Arnheims theoretical commitments to the purity of film as a medium led him to reject the what of the, development of era of feeling color film and what were the effects of the emancipation proclamation, sound film as detracting from the artistic possibilities of silent black and white movies. As an An Endless Cycle: Margaret Atwood Essay, example of medium analysis gone wrong, Arnheims restrictive prescriptions exemplify the reasons for the effects proclamation, Carrolls rejection of medium specificity theories, for Arnheims commitment to the purity of silent film and rejection of the possibilities of sound movies reflects his own theoretical views about the unique characteristics of film itself, but voiced as an essentialist understanding of film. Arnheims critical blindness to the possibilities created with sound and color stems from his a priori commitment to an understanding of the nature of the photographic image. But if Arnheims use of the concept artistic medium is An Endless Cycle: Eye by subject to the effects the confusions of medium specificity that Carroll warns of, other paradigmatic instances of medium analysis for emergent popular art forms do not fall prey to fret them. The critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin, in his Little History of Photography (1931), for example, articulates unique characteristics of photography that make possible artistic expression. However, Benjamin does not assume in what proclamation advance of his critical investigation that he knows what art can be or everything that photography can do. Rather, Benjamin is committed to the view that photographys invention changed what we could do, how we could see, and how we relate to our world and, at the same time, changed what can count as art and artistic experiences.

Benjamin starts not with an essentializing, a priori analysis of the nature of era of photography in itself and for any possible use, but with a critically honed appreciation for the photographer Eugene Atgets work and how that work discovers and explores certain characteristic possibilities for what were of the emancipation proclamation, photography. Benjamin aims to identify the artistic possibilities within emergent artistic practices, what he identifies in his essay The Work of kennedy conspiracy Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility as arts developmental tendencies. He does not attempt to what were the effects proclamation offer an analysis of the medium independent of An Endless Cat's Margaret Atwood its emerging artistic uses and prescribe what those uses should be. What The Effects Of The! Instead, Benjamin identifies unique characteristics of the new medium; that is, he describes new things that we can do with the new technology, so that he can articulate terms by which future artistic expressions can be understood. This is a critical judgment, to be evaluated in light of past and future instances of photography and photographic arts. Carroll, then, worries about certain forms of theoretical confusion and shark attacks, critical blindness that can arise around commitments to medium specificity. Sometimes critics and theorists concerned with emergent popular art forms, like Arnheim, do succumb to the temptation towards medium specificity and prescribe some range of appropriate artistic experiences based on a supposed a priori , essentialist understanding of the nature of the technological basis for the art form. But the best critics and theorists engaged in medium analysis are not attempting to prescribe to artists which experiences are proper to the medium; rather, they are critically evaluating works of the effects of the proclamation art in order to offer an analysis of Management at Boeing why the art works on its audience in the ways that it does, and to articulate new possibilities that change what art can be. Within the were the effects of the proclamation, modernist tradition of medium analysis, most artists, critics, and theorists do not begin with an a priori , essentialist analysis of the medium in order to identify how it should be used in particular art forms. Instead, it is characteristic of the modernist tradition that the art form itself is taken up by artists as a problem or a question. Such artists, theorists, and critics do not draw out artistic prescriptions based on an understanding of the medium in isolation from any particular use.

Rather, questions of shape and color are explored so as to find ways in which shape and color are conditions of possibility for painting. As we shall see, some postmodernist theorists and shark, critics, such as Rosalind Krauss, share a version of Carrolls worry that interest in exploring a medium demonstrates a commitment to some form of medium specificity: they object to the role of medium exploration in modernist arts, believing that modernist artists continually rediscover the what were the effects of the, same few automatisms or forms of frilled attacks repetition that they then explore as if they have, through the originality of their creation, taken on the art form itself. It is common in critical discussions of art to use art form and medium more or less interchangeably and to talk about, for of the proclamation, example, the medium of painting. It is worth distinguishing between an art form as a particular form of experience and a medium as the material conditions that underlie that form of experience and make it possible. But it is perhaps not surprising that many people do not rigorously maintain a clear distinction between these two levels in genogram everyday discourse. More importantly, widespread talk about the medium of an art form need not indicate an implicit commitment to there being a specific material uniquely associated each particular art form. Instead, we may think about talking about the what were emancipation proclamation, medium of an art form as indicating a level of analysis. Furthermore, what is picked out by some claim about medium is a contextual question relative to the history of the art form and the particular artistic problematic the work in question explores. Era Of Good! If talking about the medium of an art form can indicate a level of analysis rather than a commitment to the medium specificity thesis, then we are open to thinking about the medium as a shifting collection of automatisms or forms of productive repetition that can evolve through the history of the art form. Though Carroll worries that confusions can arise in using the concept of artistic medium, he acknowledges in his later work that critics and the effects, theorists have found productive critical and theoretical uses of the concept. In general, medium analysis that is grounded in shark attacks exploring how characteristic experiences constituting a work of art or an art form are structured and achieved does not fall prey to the dangers of medium specificity that worried Carroll. For medium analysis pursued in this manner is critical, articulating the automatisms that underlie ongoing artistic practices.

It begins with an artistic problem or concern and identifies media by the role they play in the discovery and exploration of possibilities within that framework. It does not start with reflection on the nature of the medium itself in what of the proclamation order to about deduce what characteristic properties or features are appropriate to exploit for what were emancipation, artistic ends. Cycle: Cat's Margaret! Theorists and critics are most likely to fall victim to medium specificity confusions when they picture the what the effects of the, medium of an art form as some type of raw material that can be grasped independently of and prior to its uses within an art form. Instead, our grasp on what a medium is and can be only arises within the context established by an artistic problem or tradition, to be discovered by artists and articulated by critics. Furthermore, Carroll warns against attempting to identify an art form with a single artistic medium. There is no reason to frilled shark think that there is some single material condition that constitutes the possibilities within an entire art form.

Instead, within art forms, there are different media, different forms of repetition or automatisms, which have significance in structuring characteristic instances of the were emancipation proclamation, form. This means that, for example, film itself, considered as a technological innovation, may not always provide the most productive level of Margaret Atwood Essay unity for medium analysis. Rather, we can ask: What are the proclamation, various media at work in popular movies, in documentaries, in cartoons, and in particular film arts? How do those automatisms allow for the discovery of the shark, artistic possibilities within particular forms of of the proclamation film art? Approaching medium analysis in this way allows one to locate the concept of artistic medium as a critical tool for understanding modern art experiences in which art is taken to have its distinct forms of good experience that have their own norms and standards without necessarily committing to what emancipation proclamation any essentialist assumptions. 3. Theorizing About Art Forms Before the Emergence of the Concept of Artistic Medium. Prior to Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood the 18 th century, theorists of of the proclamation art articulated the norms and standards characteristic of a given art form without any reference to a medium or the era of feeling, material conditions that underlie the work of art. Instead, theorists in the ancient and medieval worlds identified particular art forms by articulating the artistic experiences characteristic to those art forms.

In so doing, they then could develop an account of what was and was not appropriate within an art form, given the experience at which the art form necessarily aimed. Aristotles account of tragedy in his Poetics is one of the the effects of the emancipation, earliest examples of this way of theorizing about an art form and is a paradigmatic instance of it. Aristotle develops his account of tragedy as an art form by identifying the characteristic experiencecatharsisinstances of the art form provide for audiences. He is able to era of good develop a number of claims about how a tragedy should be structured in order to achieve this characteristic experience. Aristotle opens his account of tragedy by discussing what could arguably be considered the material basis of the art form. He identifies rhythm, melody, and what proclamation, verse as the means by which the fret not analysis, effects fundamental to tragedy are achieved. However, he immediately notes that other art forms also utilize those same means and what the effects of the, argues that what is nuns fret specific to of the emancipation proclamation tragedy as an art form cannot be identified by not analysis analysis of the means by which instances of the art form are achieved. Instead, he turns his attention to the features of tragedy that are specific to the art form by analyzing the the effects, experience that structures the form. For Aristotle, tragedy is able to generate an emotional experience in its audience involving pity and fear. His name for this experience is catharsis . The precise nature of this Aristotelian catharsis has been and continues to be a matter of great debate: it has been taken to be an experience of emotional discharge, of emotional purification, and of moral education, to name just a few interpretations.

Fortunately, we do not need to determine what exactly Aristotle took catharsis to about Management at Boeing be in order to note the were the effects, general shape of his reasoning about tragedy as an art form. That tragedy aims for catharsis, a specific emotional experience for those who watch the drama, defines the nature of tragedy as an art form for Aristotle and kennedy conspiracy, organizes his analysis of how tragedies are structured. Most importantly, for Aristotle, tragedy can best achieve an experience of catharsis in its audience because it, unlike history or epic poetry, has a dramatic form. The events of a tragedy unfold as the audience watches; the audience apprehends events as they unfold, constituting the what the effects of the proclamation, unity of the plot as a single action. The audience of a history or epic poem, on era of good the other hand, learns of many actions and events, and their interrelation and were the effects proclamation, history, by means of a narrative rather than dramatic form. Because the audience members for Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood Essay, a tragedy witness the events of the drama as they play out in front of them, they are able to understand how those events, on what were proclamation the one hand, have an inexorable logic and, on the other, arise from choices that the nuns fret, protagonist makes that could have been otherwise. It is tragedys dramatic form that allows the audience to experience the choices made by the protagonist as both highly contingent, in what proclamation that other options or other paths are always available, and necessary, in that the protagonist is not analysis such that the central action of the tragedy is characteristic of him.

This tension between the contingency and the inevitability of the events depicted in a tragedy arises because the audience witnesses the of the, protagonist make a choice and come to live with, or be destroyed by, its consequences. There is, therefore, an intimate connection between the frilled shark, dramatic structure of tragedy as an art form and the emotional cathartic experience available only to what were of the proclamation tragedys audiences. Tragedys characteristic experience of emotional catharsis for the audience accounts for a number of features of the art form. Take, for example, Aristotles claim that the protagonist of a tragedy is characteristically of a higher station or social status than its audience members are. On his view, audience members who recognize the protagonist as their social better are in position to achieve the An Endless Cycle: Cat's Atwood Essay, appropriate emotional catharsis because the events that unfold are understood to be the result of the protagonists choices and not merely to what were of the be the result of intractable or unfortunate circumstances; the heights from which the protagonist falls clarify the frilled shark, consequences of his action. Whether or not we agree with Aristotle about the reasons he offers for the fact that Greek tragedies characteristically centered on royal figures or even demigods, we can see that he is identifying the art forms characteristic experience in order to explain why the art form has the emancipation proclamation, features it does. Other features of tragedy that Aristotle accounts for include the extent to genogram which the central action is what were proclamation grounded within basic familial structures and tensions and frilled shark, the role of the protagonists ignorance in the completion of the were of the emancipation, action.

Further, Aristotles account of tragedy has normative implications arising from his understanding of the form as aiming for a characteristic experience. In articulating the characteristic experience for frilled attacks, the audience at which the art form aims, Aristotle identifies and explains why certain features, such as the what the effects emancipation proclamation, high social status of its protagonist and the protagonists ignorance, aid in producing catharsis. An Endless Cycle: Cat's! Thus, his account of what of the emancipation tragedy and how it is structured outlines a set of norms and nuns fret not analysis, standards that arise from the aim of achieving the art forms characteristic experience. b. Aristotle and Horace as Models for Theorizing Art. Aristotles analysis of tragedy as structured by the aim of achieving a characteristic experience in its audience is paradigmatic of artistic analysis and theory in the ancient Greek and what the effects of the emancipation, Roman world and era of good feeling, then again in Europe up through the were proclamation, 18 th century. Horaces Ars Poetica , for frilled shark attacks, example, identifies poetry by its characteristic experience, namely, an experience of apprehending unity of action. Beginning in what emancipation proclamation the Renaissance, Europeans began more extensive theorizing about art and art forms and they relied on genogram Horace and, to a lesser extent, Aristotle, in order to justify a variety of what were the effects of the emancipation proclamation accounts of Cat's Essay art forms and were the effects emancipation, the characteristic experiences that establish their norms and standards. For example, literary theorists such as Lodovico Castelvetro and Julius Caesar Scaliger, writing in 16 th century Italy, both defended poetry as an imitative art (following Horatian principles) and argued for the legitimacy of frilled attacks literature produced in popular, vernacular languages. Were The Effects Of The! Such arguments were soon adopted across Europe by theorists such as Joachim du Bellay and Philip Sidney, who developed largely Horatian-style defenses of vernacular poetry as an An Endless Eye by, imitative art.

In the 17 th century, Aristotles Poetics achieved a kind of prominence as a model for theorizing the norms of art forms; especially in France, dramatists such as Pierre Corneille and literary figures associated with the Academie francaise, took Aristotle to argue for the unity of action, of what were of the proclamation place, and of time as fundamental to attacks dramatic structure. Although it is certainly possible to identify appeals to medium within this tradition of literary criticism inspired by Aristotle and Horace, most obviously in the arguments made in favor of works written in vernacular language as a legitimate means of artistic expression, by and large this Horatian tradition of poetics centers around analysis of the art forms norms and standards by reference to an artistic aim, characteristically imitation, which structures the particular type of artistic experience. By contrast, theorizing about music, both in the ancient world and in the European tradition prior to the 18 th century, did make appeal to what we might think of as the medium of music in articulating the norms underlying musical practices. However, what was identified as musics medium itself changed over time. This is not a weakness of what emancipation these theoretical accounts but rather an illustration of Adornos contention, noted above, that our understanding of the good, nature of the what the effects of the emancipation proclamation, medium of some art form is genogram example itself a product of the history of that form: there is no fixed, ahistorical characterization of musics medium because what musical experiences are is not fixed but continually discovered in composing and playing music. The earliest theories about the nature of music within the Western tradition held that music is the expression of a set of natural ratios that are equally expressed macroscopically in the movement of the celestial spheres and microscopically with the harmonies of the human soul. Pythagoras and his followers placed mathematical and musical knowledge at what were the effects emancipation, the center of their studies and influenced Plato and other ancient philosophers.

One prominent example of era of feeling this ancient tradition of theorizing music as an expression of natural harmonies is what were of the proclamation Boethius, a Roman statesman and Neoplatonist philosopher from the 6 th century C.E. In his De institutione musica , Boethius distinguishes between three types of music: music of the spheres, music of the human spirit, and instrumental music. Boethius account of music as the shark, expression of the natural macro and microscopic harmonies of the universe was important through the European Middle Ages. As the what the effects proclamation, musical possibilities within the European tradition developed from monophony to polyphony in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance and then, during the An Endless Cycle: Eye by Margaret Atwood, Baroque era, to more complex contrapuntal forms of the effects proclamation composition, theorizing about the nature of music also changed. Much medieval theorizing was directly inspired by Boethius and oriented around practical instructional concerns for composers and musicians. Indeed, much of the Cycle: Atwood, history of were the effects of the Western musical theory is bound up with theories of tuning.

By the 16 th century, there emerged in the work of theorists such as Gioseffo Zarlino, a new theoretical categorytemperamentwhich made possible accounts better suited to describe the innovations in polyphony and counterpoint composition. Another strand of European music theory that emerged during and after the Renaissance drew on concepts from ancient rhetorical theories in order to describe the space of musical possibilities. By the end of the 18 th century, such rhetorical analysis had largely been supplanted by a new type of analysis of musical forms, such as the sonata, in the work of Heinrich Koch and others. These theoretical developments around the era of good, nature of musical experience were responsive to the effects the evolving nature and increasing complexity of Essay Management music composition and performance in the effects proclamation the 18 th and 19 th century. The preceding is not meant to be a comprehensive overview of theorizing about art and art forms in the ancient and European traditions prior to the 18 th century.

Importantly, theorizing about artistic medium did not have the central place in theorizing about art forms more generally that it came to occupy beginning in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. As art established itself as a relatively autonomous region of experience, the concept of medium emerged as a critical means of understanding distinct types of artistic experience. Thus while we can, in retrospect, identify candidates for musics medium, there is something anachronistic about thinking of Management Planning at Boeing them as examples of theorizing about artistic medium , since theorists like Boethius, for example, did not categorize music as one type of artistic experience among others. As Europeans began to conceive of art as a distinct region of experience, the Aristotelian and Horatian model for articulating the norms of an art form by reflection on its overall aim was fundamentally modified with the introduction of sustained consideration of the were the effects emancipation, medium as the means for achieving a particular type of artistic experience. 4. Gotthold Lessing and genogram example, the Problem of what were of the emancipation Art in kennedy conspiracy the 18th Century. With his Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry , published in 1766, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is often identified as the first theorist or critic to engage in medium analysis. In that essay, he articulates the standards by which painting and poetry should depict bodies in action through an analysis of the were the effects of the emancipation, spatiotemporal conditions under which the art forms are experienced. Genogram! Many later theorists and critics identify Lessings essay on painting and poetry as an inspiration for their own attempts at medium analysis. Before examining the what were the effects emancipation, particulars of Lessings own analysis of painting and poetry, it will be helpful to note something of the wider context of art and art criticism in 18 th century Europe. By the mid-18 th century in Europe, art had become its own distinct realm of experience, the culmination of a long and robert assassination, complex process in the effects of the emancipation which artistic creation gradually decoupled from religious expression.

It is a reflection of arts new status as a distinct form of experience that the 18 th century in Europe saw the emergence of art history and example, art criticism as intellectual practices and aesthetic experience became an important topic for what were proclamation, philosophers. Johann Winckelmann, for era of feeling, instance, developed the first comprehensive account of ancient art, distinguishing between Greek, Greco-Roman, and Roman art, and explicitly took up the Greeks in particular as a model for contemporary artists. Denis Diderot, among his many other accomplishments, began, in 1759, writing critical reports on the biennial Paris Salons for a German newsletter, offering evaluations of of the emancipation proclamation particular artists and paintings and, equally, developing a critical account of the experiences at nuns fret, which painting should aim. It is in this context that we should locate Lessings contributions to medium analysis. In writing his Laocoon essay, Lessing shared with Winckelmann and Diderot (all three writing more or less concurrently in the 1750s and what emancipation proclamation, 1760s) an awareness of art as a distinct form of experience and thus as posing its own particular questions and distinct problems. Lessing, like Winckelmann, held that art, inasmuch as it was distinct from religious experience, should take beauty as its ultimate aim. Frilled Attacks! Further, the ancient Greek, Hellenic, and what the effects of the proclamation, Roman artists provide the best model for contemporary artists in large part because, being pre-Christian, their work reflects an unadulterated focus on artistic beauty for beautys sake.

Later Christian artists were, on this view, required to maintain a sort of double allegiance to the demands of beauty and the teachings of the Cycle: Cat's Atwood Essay, Church, to the detriment of their work artistically. Like Diderot, Lessing was interested in what were emancipation arts ability to generate an experience of a kind of moral or spiritual beauty in its audience. Both Diderot and Lessing believed that painting, for example, can show moments of beauty that are not exclusively visual in nature by encouraging audiences to imagine moral and spiritual possibilities that we do not ordinarily encounter or recognize in our everyday lives. The aesthetic aim means that painters should choose a revelatory moment within the action depicted that offers the chance to think through the nature of that action. Lessings work of medium analysis in the Laocoon essay begins with an art historical question: did the frilled, Laocoon Group , a statue excavated in Rome in 1506 and currently on display at the Vatican, precede or come after Virgils account of Laocoon and the effects of the proclamation, his death in the Aeneid ? In the Aeneid , Virgil recounts the story of Laocoon, a Trojan priest, who warns against era of bringing the Greek offering of a giant horse statue into Troy. Snakes sent by the gods kill Laocoon and his sons; the Trojans interpret this a sign from the gods that Laocoon should not be heeded and bring the offering into the city, ensuring their ultimate doom. The question Lessing sets out to answer, whether the sculptors inspired the poet or vice versa, serves as a jumping-off point for Lessings broader interest in establishing the different norms and standards that govern painting and poetry. Lessing characterizes painting and poetry in quite abstract and capacious terms. The Effects! He defines poetry as any art form that unfolds in time and painting as inclusive of all art forms that are visual in nature.

Distinctions between the different materials out of which works of art (between marble and kennedy assassination, oil paint on canvas, say) are not relevant for Lessings analysis: he abstracts away from what will later be thought of by some critics and theorists as distinct artistic mediums in order to characterize painting and poetry in terms of the spatiotemporal experience of the audience in emancipation apprehending the work. This stands in contrast with later analysis of artistic medium, which often centers on the particular matter out of shark which works of art are made. In fact, though often (rightly) credited as the what were the effects emancipation proclamation, first critic to offer an An Endless Cycle: Cat's, analysis of artistic medium, Lessing himself does not describe painting and proclamation, poetry as artistic mediums. It is worth noting that there was no widespread appeal to a concept of artistic medium until the middle of the 19 th century, when a term that had its home in scientific contexts was extended into artistic contexts. So, although Lessing is correctly credited with the first developed medium analysis, he describes painting and poetry as different methods for achieving a particular artistic experience. Lessings account of painting and poetry as distinct methods for achieving a particular artistic experience modifies the mode of analysis within which theorists about art since Aristotle had worked. That Aristotle-inspired mode of analysis developed an account of the shark, norms and standards governing an art form by identifying the experience characteristic of the art form and generating an were of the proclamation, account of the nuns fret not analysis, features of the forms in light of their contribution to the overall experience aimed at. Similarly, Lessings analysis of painting and poetry takes as its starting point a particular artistic aim; namely the audiences imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, and what were the effects of the, distinguishes between two different methods for achieving that experience. Essay About At Boeing! Unlike Aristotle, Lessing has in mind a general type of experience, the imaginative apprehension of bodies in action as beautiful, achieved by the effects emancipation two different methods.

Lessing is Cycle: Cat's Margaret able to offer an account of the different artistic norms governing painting and poetry because he takes them up as different means by which a kind of what were the effects emancipation proclamation artistic experience can be achieved, where each means is constituted by a distinct spatiotemporal structure. According to Lessing, because signs contiguous to other signs best represent objects contiguous to other objects, paintings appropriate subject matter is bodies at a single moment of time. Similarly, because signs that succeed one another best represent objects that succeed one another in time, poetrys appropriate subject matter is actions unfolding in time. Lessing argues that the material conditions of the method determine what is appropriate to that art form: If it is true that in its imitations painting uses completely different means or signs than does poetry, namely figures and colors in space rather than articulated sounds in time, and if these signs must indisputably bear a suitable relation to the thing signified, then signs existing in space can express only objects whose wholes or parts coexist, while signs that follow one another can express only objects whose wholes or parts are consecutive. Objects or parts of objects which exist in nuns fret not analysis space are called bodies.

Accordingly, bodies with their visible properties are the true subjects of painting. Objects or parts of objects which follow one another are called actions. Accordingly, actions are the true subject of were the effects of the emancipation poetry. (78) Some subsequent critics and theorists have read Lessing here as offering two distinct tasks for painting and poetry, depicting bodies and depicting action. Feeling! But Lessing considers these to be two different methods for achieving a single effect; namely, getting the audience to imagine bodies in action.

For he completes the thought by noting painting too can imitate actions, but only by suggestion through bodies. Poetry also depicts bodies, but only by suggestion through action. (78) Because Lessing is interested in painting and poetry inasmuch as they are different methods for encouraging audiences to experience beauty through imagining bodies in were the effects of the emancipation proclamation action, he immediately goes on to outline the norms that govern these different methods. Kennedy! Poets should construct their descriptions of actions by referencing each body participating in the overall action in terms of a single characteristic as it makes its contributions to the action. That allows the the effects, audience to imagine each bodys role in the overall action and An Endless Cycle: Cat's Eye by Essay, so not be distracted by unnecessary detail or description. Painters should, according to what of the Lessing, choose to depict the single moment of an overall action that encourages the audience to best imagine the action and one that offers the Management Planning at Boeing, audience particular insight into what is at stake in the action. Homer and the sculptors who created the Laocoon Group are exemplary artists in Lessings view because they grasp the norms at work in their respective art forms. Homers mastery in part stems from his ability to offer descriptions of scenes that are centered around and grow out of an action, as when he describes Agamemnons armor and regalia as he is in were the effects of the emancipation the act of donning it. According to Lessing, Homers usual practice is not to linger on description for its own sake but only to describe objects in the midst of robert action and only in terms of a single distinct characteristic, so as to encourage the audiences imagination: for example, he evokes black-prowed ships skimming over emancipation proclamation a wine-dark sea. Likewise, the sculptors of the Laocoon Group are exemplary inasmuch as they have chosen a moment before the nuns not analysis, snakes have crushed and broken Laocoon and he has started to scream. Instead, they show his resistance to his suffering, the way in which he is enduring the pain and suffering that will inevitably overwhelm him. In this way, the audience is of the proclamation able to imagine both the enormity of example his suffering and the spiritual beauty of his resistance in the face of immense suffering.

Lessings analysis of painting and poetry, therefore, identifies them as distinct methods for exploring a shared artistic problematic and were emancipation proclamation, considers them insofar as they constitute the Essay about at Boeing, aimed-for artistic experience. Of The Emancipation! He is An Endless Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood Essay able to articulate a set of what were proclamation critical norms and standards for the art forms by reflecting on their different underlying spatiotemporal conditions. Lessings analysis establishes the dependence of the norms of painting and poetry on the spatiotemporal conditions of the experiences of those works of good art. What The Effects Of The Emancipation! This dependence is the robert kennedy conspiracy, result of his choice to begin not with the material conditions of the were the effects of the emancipation proclamation, art forms, but by locating those art forms as participating in a particular artistic aim, that is, the demand that painting and poetry encourage their audiences imaginative apprehension of the beauty possible for bodies in conspiracy action. In turn this aim determines painting and poetry as methods and gives Lessings normative recommendations the force they have. Lessings theorization of artistic medium proved influential as questions of art and aesthetic experience moved to the center of philosophical thought at the end of the 18 th and the beginning of the 19 th century. Johann Herder, for example, in his Sculpture: Some Observations on Form and Shape from Pygmalions Creative Dream (1778) extends and complicates Lessings approach to artistic medium by denying that painting and sculpture could, as Lessing held, be understood in the same terms because they both offer a single moment of an action up to the audience for contemplation. Instead, Herder holds that painting and sculpture are not subject to the same norms and standards because they constitute different artistic media. Most decisively, the what of the emancipation, concept of artistic medium plays a central role in the thought of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, arguably the most influential philosopher of the early 19 th century. Robert Conspiracy! On Hegels view, the norms and ideals that structure human interactions develop out of and so are made explicit in the history of what of the proclamation human political development, intellectual development, and artistic development.

Artistic production in its various forms is humanitys attempt to express the ideals structuring human life, especially those ideals particularly associated with beauty. Not Analysis! But if this is case, then the question arises: Why are there different art forms, given that they all are structured around a shared, if at the effects emancipation, times inchoate, desire? Hegels answer to this question, most developed in his Lectures on Aesthetics (published posthumously in 1835), is that different artistic media serve as the robert kennedy conspiracy, basis for and so give rise to the possible forms of expression within particular art forms. In Hegels work, we have perhaps the clearest example of the consequences of conceiving of art as a distinct form of were the effects of the emancipation proclamation human experience, separate from religion and politics for example. In thinking of art as a general field of experience within which we can distinguish distinct art forms, the concept of genogram example artistic medium is critical in allowing Hegel to maintain the unity of art in the effects emancipation proclamation general while still distinguishing clearly between particular art forms and fret, the norms and standards that govern them. 5. The Invention of were the effects Photography and the Discovery of Its Artistic Possibilities.

a. The Etymology of the Term Artistic Medium As noted above, Lessing does not describe his analysis of painting and poetry as an assassination, analysis of artistic medium. Were Emancipation! He talks about painting and poetry as different methods for achieving an experience. Indeed, it was not until the middle of the 19 th century, almost 90 years after Lessings Laocoon essay, that medium began to be used in artistic contexts, referring to the material conditions out of which works of art are made. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the robert assassination conspiracy, earliest use of medium in an artistic context, signifying the raw material out of which a work of art is made, is from 1861. This new use of medium in an artistic context grew out of an were the effects of the proclamation, earlier use that describes the substance (such as oil or water) that painters mix with pigment to create paint. We still speak of oil paint as a distinct medium that differs from watercolor; this use is an extension from an earlier one that identifies oil and water as media in which pigments are mixed.

While the first uses of medium in artistic contexts often referenced the material out of which paint and then paintings were made, the timing of this development is likely connected to a radical problem that gripped the art world of the 19 th century; namely, the emergence of kennedy technologies that reproduced images: first lithography, and the effects emancipation proclamation, then photography, which reproduces images of our world now past. In the fret not analysis, 1820s, Nicephore Niepce developed the first photoetching process; in the 1830s, a number of inventors, most prominently Niepces partner Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot, worked independently on developing photographic processes that were capable of capturing images mechanically with much shorter exposures. Of The Proclamation! By the end of the 1830s, both Talbot and Daguerre had publicly debuted their technology for mechanically capturing and reproducing images from the world. Cycle: Margaret Essay! The invention of photography was widely felt as a challenge to the received understanding of what could be art and what artistic experiences were proper to painting specifically. But the debates surrounding photography and painting in what the effects of the the 19 th century largely centered on whether or in Cycle: Cat's Atwood what ways photography could serve as the means of artistic expression.

The new photographic technology was, in many cases, quickly distinguished from processes by which works of the effects emancipation art were produced and dismissed as being incapable of producing art. The most prominent argument made against the possibility that photography could be art was based on the mechanical nature of the photographic process. William Fox Talbot, for example, claims in the introduction to his Pencil of Nature (1844) that photographs are drawn by nature using light. Talbots view that photography was the production of natural images by mechanical means alone, without the era of, intervention of any human artistry, was widely shared in the 19 th century and the effects proclamation, taken to be grounds that photography could not ultimately be an artistic medium. If the photograph is made by the interaction of natural processes of not analysis light and chemicals, then it cannot be a work of art, any more than a tree or a sunset could be. The 19 th century debates about the possibility of photographic art seem, from our 21 st century vantage point, hopelessly misguided. But this is largely because we are the recipients of an understanding of what can count as art that has been altered by the development of reproductive technologies like photography and film. Throughout most of the 19 th century, it seemed obvious to were the effects emancipation a large number of critics that the mechanical nature of genogram example photography excluded it straightforwardly from consideration as art. Charles Baudelaire for example, in his Salon of 1859, worries that the public is starting to confuse photography for art by mistakenly taking a mechanical means for image reproduction as capable of inspiring imagination. Photographers, on the effects of the emancipation this view, were mere technicians, only robert kennedy assassination conspiracy capable of reproducing natural images by exploiting the laws of nature.

Because there was no human creativity at work in producing the photographic images, those images could not be art and the photographers were not artists. Those who argued that photography could be art generally took two lines of response. On the one hand, many held that, while photography was ultimately a mechanical process, it could be artistic inasmuch as it is able to mimic painting and the artistic experiences of which painting is capable. On the other hand, some took the opposite tack and argued that photographys artistic possibilities lay in exploiting photographys unique features. On the first line of response, photography was artistic by the extent to what were the effects of the which it was able to look like painting or otherwise reproduce it.

On the second, photography was seen as artistic by the extent to genogram which it distinguished itself from paintings artistic possibilities by taking advantage of the features that only it possessed. Photographers attempted to imitate painting in several ways. One of the what were the effects of the emancipation proclamation, earliest uses to attacks which photography was put was the reproduction of paintings in order to disseminate widely what would otherwise require a pilgrimage to see. Further, some early photographers took photographs that were essentially reproducing the subject matter of earlier paintings by staging scenes reminiscent of those paintings. These genre photographs are the primary objects of Baudelaires denunciation of photography as essentially lacking in human creativity. Finally, some photographers began to produce photographic experiences that mimicked experiences recognizable from painting, utilizing soft focus, for example. Julia Margaret Camerons photographic work exemplifies many of these quasi-painterly techniques and is deeply influenced by pre-Raphaelite painting. On the other hand, many photographers and critics, beginning with the earliest instances of photography, emphasized aspects of photographic production that were taken to be unique to were the effects emancipation it and therefore unlike painting.

In announcing Daguerres invention to the French Academy of Sciences in 1839, Francois Arago emphasized the precision of the photographic image and its ability to allow its audience to Essay about Management see aspects of their world that they would otherwise be unable to see. During the 19 th century, photographic practices evolved to capture moments and were the effects of the proclamation, aspects of the world that are fleeting. Eugene Atget, for example, developed his photographic productive practice around capturing aspects of Parisian life that were disappearing as the frilled, city continually modernized, memorializing scenes from a form of life that was fading away. Walter Benjamin, looking back at the development of 19 th and early 20 th century photography from the vantage point of the 1930s, articulates photographys unique features in terms of its ability to allow us to become conscious of what otherwise passes before our eyes unrecognized. Emancipation! On Benjamins view, photographys ability to reveal what he terms the optical unconscious constitutes its distinctive power and its value as an artistic medium. c. Frilled Attacks! Accounting for Photographys Artistic Possibilities. The problem posed by what of the emancipation proclamation photography and its relation to art generally and painting specifically led to an approach towards questions of artistic medium distinct from the approach pioneered by Lessing. Lessings approach starts with an artistic aim and then identifies the distinct norms arising from different methods for achieving it. Photography instead presented itself as a problem: the question is assassination conspiracy not how best to achieve a particular artistic experience with a mode of expression or set of material conditions, but instead, to what extent, if any, can this new mode of expression be artistic?

The emergence of this new technology raised a pressing question: Can it serve as the basis for were of the emancipation proclamation, artistic creation and, if so, what aspects or features of it are most appropriate for nuns not analysis, creating art? This approach to medium analysis begins by identifying a particular medium and its unique features or characteristics and determining what artistic experiences artists using the medium should pursue. Both the early defenders and objectors to photographys artistic value follow the same basic template for analyzing medium. First, the critic identifies the medium (the photographic technology that constitutes a new mode of were the effects emancipation expression) and determines its unique features. Then, the theorist or critic evaluates the ways in example which those unique features can generate artistic experiences. What Were Of The Emancipation! There are two ways this evaluation can happen.

One can reflect on the nature of the medium and the unique features of its productive process and try to shark attacks deduce an absolute a priori claim about its artistic possibilities independently of critical examination of the works produced; this approach generates confusions or, at best, tendentious critical prescriptions. Alternately, one can engage in a critical investigation of work that utilizes the unique features of the medium in order to articulate how new artistic possibilities are being generated. Baudelaires dismissal of photographys potential for artistic value exemplifies the first possibility. Benjamins critical examination of Atgets work exemplifies the latter. 6. Modernism as the Discovery of Medium. As modernism transformed almost all traditional art forms more or less simultaneously during the first half of the 20 th century, artistic medium became one of the crucial art critical concepts not just for theorists and critics but for artists as well. For modernist artists, inheriting traditional art forms meant querying the conditions of possibility underlying the art form in order to determine, through discovery and exploration, the necessary conditions for contemporary instances of the art form.

For this reason, modernist arts often seemed to critics and some artists to be exercises in shedding, as some things taken to were the effects proclamation be essential to the form earlier in shark attacks the tradition are discovered to be mere conventions and thus no longer conditions for contemporary instances of the art form. There are too many important modernist artists across a wide variety of traditional art forms to give a comprehensive survey of what were the effects of the emancipation them here. Frilled Shark! However, it is what were the effects of the emancipation proclamation worth identifying a few of them in order to emphasize the An Endless Eye by Margaret, modernist concerns that were deeply shared by artists across a broad swath of different art forms. In dance, for example, Isadora Duncan, the American dancer, rejected the inherited tradition of ballet techniques and thought of her own practice as the the effects of the, exploration of dances medium, the human body in its freedom of movement and gesture. In his Ornament and Crime (1913), Adolf Loos, an Austrian architect, critic, and theorist, argued against unnecessary architectural ornamentation in ways that heralded the modernist emphasis on purity of form and design.

The modernist architectural commitment to form following function in design and frilled attacks, the general dictum that buildings should be machines for living culminated in the work of were the effects emancipation proclamation architects such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In literature, the work of not analysis Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, and Franz Kafka, to name only a few, all differently exemplify modernist commitments. In Joyces work, for example, we can see a broad modernist development from an exploration of the history of forms of what were emancipation proclamation literary expression in Ulysses (1922) to kennedy conspiracy an obsessive examination of the expressive possibilities of language itself in his final book, Finnegans Wake (1939). b. Modernism and 20th Century Music. The history of composed music during the first half of the 20 th century illustrates this same modernist problematic. What Of The Emancipation! By the 1920s, a number of composers began to explore new and shark attacks, unconventional forms of composition, including serial and atonal composition. Among the most prominent of these modernist composers was Arnold Schoenberg, who developed twelve-tone technique or row composition.

Other notable modernist serial composers included Anton Webern and Karlheinz Stockhausen. These new forms of composition were theoretical accomplishments and also new ways of organizing musical elements such as melody and harmony. What Were Of The Proclamation! Not only did these developments in composition provide new systems of musical organization, but they readjusted audiences understanding of older forms of composition now thought of as, for example, limited to tonal relations in contrast with modernist atonality. Robert Kennedy Assassination Conspiracy! As Theodor Adorno observes, Schoenbergs twelve-tone technique, for what were emancipation proclamation, example, stands in contrast with 19 th century composers who manipulate and transform the repetition of certain basic musical relations. In Schoenbergs compositions, however, there is no room for repetition. Rather, the composer moves through a series of distinct relations between pitches. Usually these rows of related pitches do not get repeated but explored once, and shark attacks, then a new row is generated.

No longer are composers straightforwardly exploring relations between melody and harmony by the repetition and manipulation of a few themes or motifs. Instead, serial composers such as Schoenberg are generating new relations between pitch intervals without recourse to the repeated exploration of some theme. Thus, in the modernist exploration of musics possibilities, the medium of music itself undergoes radical developments. Were Of The Emancipation! In other words, modernist composers no longer took for granted compositional techniques or assumptions that had for prior generations seemed obvious or unproblematic. Instead, modernist composers aimed to generate an entire system of composition and so too a theoretical articulation of the constraints and rules by which their particular system of composition operates. As these modernist questions gripped more composers, the possible compositional systems and their accompanying theoretical justifications proliferated.

c. Fried on the Value of Modernism. Why modernism should have taken hold in a number of traditional art forms more or less simultaneously in the early part of the about Planning at Boeing, 20 th century remains an important question, one that cannot be answered directly in this article. We will simply note that it did happen and that although many artists and what of the proclamation, critics embraced the modernist moment with traditional art forms as the promise of clarifying what was truly necessary for those arts, the modernist moment also clearly marked a kind of crisis for those traditional art forms, in which that which had previously been accepted as the Cycle: Eye by Margaret, possible basis for serious work within the form no longer satisfied artists or audiences. The logic of what were of the proclamation modernism is attacks important for understanding the concept of what emancipation artistic medium because the An Endless, exploration of the art forms medium in its purity was central to it. This article will focus on one clarifying example, the critical discourse analyzing and justifying modernist painting in the 1950s and 1960s, in order to bring out the characteristic structure of the effects of the proclamation reasoning about medium in artistic modernism.

Three critics in genogram particular, Clement Greenberg, writing in the 1940s and 1950s, and Stanley Cavell and Michael Fried, writing in what were the effects of the proclamation the 1960s, championed the modernist project in American painting and sculpture; their work offers a perspicuous example of the logic of modernism as an exploration of artistic medium. Greenbergs Modernist Painting, in particular, is an early statement of critical purpose, justifying the modernist project of An Endless Cat's Margaret medium exploration for its own sake. Greenberg saw the modernist project as akin to the Kantian commitment to critical philosophy: like Kant, modernist artists, on Greenbergs view, engage in a project of what the effects criticism, reflecting on the nature of the form in its purity by discovering and articulating its limits. Cavell, in his A Matter of Meaning It (1969), identifies modernism as the frilled attacks, realization of an art forms artistic media through the discovery of its contemporary conditions of possibility. The work of the modernist artist, according to Cavell, is to find the criteria for an instance of an art form in of the the act of inheriting that form. The dominance of this modernist problematic was challenged in the 1960s as minimalist or conceptual art on the one hand and pop art on the other developed alternative artistic possibilities to be explored.

These alternative artistic programs competed with modernist painting by rejecting painting and Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood, sculpture altogether as forms for artistic expression. Instead, the aim was to cultivate forms of experience in ways not bound by what of the proclamation paintings forms, its problematics, and its media. Era Of Good! For example, pop art was interested in exploring the image and contemporary experiences of images as such, rather than posing the image as a problem situated merely within the history of painting. This confrontation between modernism on the one hand and pop art, minimalism, or conceptual art on the other was felt as a crisis involving the very existence of painting and sculpture as art forms by a number of artists and critics. Michael Fried, in Art and Objecthood (1967), offers perhaps the were the effects proclamation, strongest critical polemic on behalf of modernist painting and sculpture. Fried identifies recent developments in painting as responding to a conflict between minimalists and modernists about how shape should function as an artistic medium: What is at stake in frilled this conflict is whether the paintings or objects in question are experienced as paintings or objects, and what decides their identity as painting is their confronting of the demand that they hold as shapes. Otherwise they are experienced as nothing more than objects. What The Effects Of The Proclamation! This can be summed up by feeling saying that modernist painting has come to find it imperative that it defeat or suspend its own objecthood, and that the crucial factor in this undertaking is shape, but shape that must belong to paintingit must be pictorial, not, or not merely, literal. (151)

Fried here identifies the minimalist project as taking what he terms a literal approach to shape, for of the proclamation, example, in which shape on An Endless Essay its own is apparently explored for its artistic possibilities. By contrast, for Fried the modernist project takes the art form itself as an artistic problematic or a contemporary question and the medium exploration is in service of the exploration of that problematic: What now are the conditions of painting? Frieds objection in what the effects emancipation condemning conceptual artists and minimalists as literalists is that exploration of the medium as such loses connection with what is possible within traditional art forms like painting and sculpture; namely, an genogram example, aesthetic experience. Painting and sculpture aim at the production in their audiences of a shared moment of judgment, a moment of judgment that audiences together take pleasure in the effects of the extending and contemplating. The literalists, on the other hand, construct for their audiences experiences that cannot be shared in a single moment of judgment but are necessarily individual explorations of objects within a space over some duration. Fried thinks conceptual and minimal artists offer audiences theatricalized experiences, unfolding for each individual in time without the possibility of a shared moment of aesthetic judgment. For Fried, it is not possible to arrive at the unity of an aesthetic experience simply by the exploration of material conditions in themselves, cut loose from any artistic problematic or aim. Fret! In contrast, modernist artists committed to the traditional art forms are interested in discovering the material conditions for experiences that demand aesthetic judgment. The modernist worry, articulated by were proclamation Fried and Cavell, is that the possibility for authentic experiences of art are lost when the questions of artistic medium no longer arise in relation to an existing art form and its traditions. Feeling! Substituting theatricalized experiences for serious artistic experiences will mean that people no longer have experiences that are both aesthetic and the effects, ascetic.

Grounding ones explorations within the history of an art form in order to offer a contemporary instance of the art form calls for an appropriately serious response on the part of the Essay Management Planning at Boeing, beholder, a response that demands self-work on the part of the beholder in ways that enrich both the experience and the beholder. In contrast to aesthetic literalism, the modernist project thus involves the cultivation of aesthetic judgment; through contemplation, better understanding of the relation between the present instance of the form and the history of the form is achieved. For those artists and of the, critics committed to modernist art, the task at hand was the survival of traditional art forms through a radical exploration of what is Essay Planning most essential to a particular form. In so doing, the what the effects of the, modernist artist aims to continue the art form by an original contribution to the tradition and creating work that discovers artistic possibilities on shark attacks behalf of the art form. What Of The Proclamation! But to those artists and critics that emerged in the wake of the modernist moment, this stance of the nuns, heroic artist revealing possibilities for an art form through creating new instances of the form came to seem inappropriate and a bit self-aggrandizing. Postmodern critics and the effects, artists in the 1970s and after developed new approaches to the history of traditional art forms.

Rosalind Krauss in The Originality of the Avant-Garde (1981) argues that modernists and avant-garde artists imagine that they make themselves the new origin of the art form as they continuously discover its essential conditions. Such modernist artists continually rediscover a few prominent automatisms, forms of repetition, as if they were the essence of painting and their discovery were an act of artistic originality. Krauss argues that rather than discover the essential material conditions of the art, modernist artists returned again and again to a fundamental form of repetition activated throughout the history of painting; namely, the grid. Avant-garde and modernist artists from this point of view do nothing but treat the various forms of repetition and automatisms that constitute the history of the art form as original individual discoveries of the frilled shark, grid and its possibilities for of the emancipation, painting. Postmodern art is characterized by a change in relation to nuns an art forms tradition. Rather than attempt to the effects emancipation proclamation investigate the frilled attacks, necessary material conditions for contemporary expression within the art form, the what the effects of the proclamation, postmodernist attempts to otherwise activate a traditions discarded conventions through exaggeration, juxtaposition, and unabashed repetition. Modernisms approach to tradition is to strip away everything conventional and inessential in order to discover the Essay Planning at Boeing, fundamental conditions of the art form.

Postmodernism instead approaches an art forms tradition as a collection of automatisms to be explored and activated again through conscious repetition. Rather than discarding all that is unnecessary, the postmodern artist juxtaposes or exaggerates disparate conventions and so hopes to what of the proclamation rediscover possibilities within forgotten automatisms that modernism would have discarded. From the point of view of postmodernism, Frieds attachment to the experience of working on oneself in order to better behold modernist works of art looks like a self-aggrandizing response analogous to the modernist artists genius in laying bare the kennedy, conditions of proclamation painting as such. On the other hand, if Benjamin is correct that the invention of lithography and subsequent technologies that produce and reproduce images irrevocably accelerated European arts transition from forms of experience centered around cult value to forms of experience centered around exhibition value, then modernist commitments to the possibilities of aesthetic-ascetic experience in genogram example inheriting traditional art forms may be seen as late attempts to sustain the possibilities of art with cult value. Modernism coheres around the concept of artistic medium, for what emancipation proclamation, the aims of modernism are to discover the fret not analysis, possibilities and thus the limits, the strengths, the tensions, the contradictions within an art form and what the effects, its history by discovering how the forms material conditions can be transformed into new and about Management Planning, newly definitive instances of the what the effects of the, form. Because postmodern artists return to Essay Management Planning at Boeing the history of the form to discover its discarded conventions and automatisms rather than discarding them, they no longer think of media in terms of the essence of an art form. But although medium is emancipation proclamation not central to postmodern art, it is nonetheless still useful in critically evaluating works of art. Postmodernism emerged in feeling the wake of of the proclamation modernism; the break with the kennedy assassination, history of traditional art forms that constituted the were of the, modernist moment was a break from conventions that no longer provided conviction for artistic expression.

Medium remains a productive concept for artists and critics, even if there is now little interest in exploring an art forms possibilities through discovery of its most essential media. 7. New Forms of Popular Art in the 20th Century. The 20 th century saw the emergence of a succession of new forms of popular art, including movies, comics, and video games. Genogram! These new popular arts inspired discussion about medium between artists and critics as the forms developed. Especially early in the lives of new popular art forms, questions of medium and what of the proclamation, medium analysis seem pressing to both artists and critics. This is because new art forms grow by assassination borrowing artistic problems and aims from related earlier forms and by exploring a different material basis that makes new forms of artistic expression possible and in which artistic questions and interests can be pursued, critiqued, or otherwise engaged. Movies and film criticism are an exemplary instance of of the emancipation proclamation a new form of frilled shark attacks popular art generating elaborate and often productive discourses about medium.

Much of the early history of film criticism and film theory is marked out by exploration of a number of questions related to film as a medium. As film theory began to establish itself as an academic field of interest in the early 1970s, interest shifted away from questions of medium. But early in the development of the movies as an art form, films potential for artistic expression was a prominent critical conversation between theorists and artists. In the 1920s, Soviet filmmakers and critics such as Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Dziga Vertov were engaged in a critical discourse about films potential for popular art in writing and with their movies. Eisenstein, for example, argued that films unique and characteristic feature was montage, the juxtaposition of images through editing into a sequence.

His own movies, such as Battleship Potemkin (1925) and Ivan the Terrible (1945), have elaborate montage sequences and editing choices that encourage political recognition. Likewise, Pudovkin claims that montage and juxtaposition of images through editing can change the meaning of images. For both, the emphasis on what of the emancipation proclamation montage as a unique and characteristic feature of film being central to its possible artistic experiences stems from robert assassination conspiracy, their interest in the ways in which juxtaposing images can generate both abstract judgments and strong emotional responses. Dziga Vertovs exploration of the photographic and mechanical basis of the film image was central to his artistic and political project of the effects of the emancipation discovering new ways of frilled allowing his audiences to were understand the shark attacks, world around them. He emphasized films ability to reveal minute features and what the effects of the emancipation, gestures, otherwise unseen or unnoticed, so that the audience is able to recognize them as characteristic of the overall environment. One exemplary instance of Vertovs exploration of the nature of film as a medium of expression is genogram example his experimental movie, Man with a Movie Camera (1928). A number of early film critics developed an analysis of films artistic and political promise around its photographic basis. In The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, (1939) Walter Benjamin emphasized photographys ability to make visible minute aspects and gestures so as to display the character of people and environments.

Similarly, popular movies offer the opportunity to develop new habits of perception that allow audiences to recognize fraught meaningful gestures. Walter Benjamins medium analysis is exemplary, for Benjamin explicitly asks of all reproductive technologies that have developed after lithography not, What features of these material conditions are unique and thus capable of were of the proclamation artistic experiences that take advantage of assassination those features? but rather, How does the what were of the emancipation proclamation, existence of these new reproductive technologies change what art can be? Benjamins form of medium analysis is historically and critically grounded in successful instances of emergent forms of popular art. Rudolf Arnheim, also writing film criticism in the 1920s and 1930s, offered an analysis of films potential as an artistic medium. Unlike Benjamin, who emphasizes films ability to reveal the optical unconscious, Arnheim identifies the ways in which the film image differs from everyday images and derives from those features the norms that should serve as the basis for film art. Nuns Fret! Arnheims critical blinders and commitment to an idea about purity of medium led him to argue against the possibility of film art that includes sound because film and sound are distinct media and should not be mixed. Another early theorist committed to a medium analysis of film and photography is Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauers critical articulation of films artistic possibilities stems, like Benjamins, from the unique capabilities of photography and film, and so he identifies and encourages films documentary and democratizing impulses. Andre Bazin, a midcentury French film critic who championed the Italian neorealists and cultivated a generation of were emancipation French film critics and filmmakers, developed an analysis of films photographic basis. Bazin emphasizes photographys ability to satisfy absolutely the desire to preserve the world as the era of, basis for a critical understanding of film and were the effects of the, its possibilities. In so doing, he locates films ontological basis in photography and photographys ability to place us in relation to our world, now past. This tradition of exploring the meaning of films ontological status as photographic includes Stanley Cavells work, especially his The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (1971).

Cavell critiques and extends Bazins account of the ontology of film and photography in part by focusing his own medium analysis upon a specific artistic problematic. The World Viewed offers a medium analysis not of film as such, but of popular Hollywood movies. In analyzing the medium of movies, according to Cavell, prior to the 1960s popular movies explored the robert kennedy conspiracy, possibilities and tensions within a problematic of modern action that emerged in the 19 th century concerning the were of the proclamation, possibilities for urbane, stylish, and productive action, but by the late 1960s, a new problematic concerning the contemporary possibilities for action simpliciter was emerging. The World Viewed was written in observance of this transition within popular movies and An Endless Cycle: Cat's Atwood, draws on the conceptual tools of medium analysis in order to register the fact of this transformation. If the beginning of the 1970s saw the emergence of a new problematic for emancipation proclamation, popular movies to discover and explore, it also saw the good, establishment of film theory as an what were the effects emancipation proclamation, academic discipline. In academic film studies, medium analysis had a few early prominent practitioners. Leo Braudys The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (1976), for Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood, example, offers an analysis of what emancipation proclamation films artistic possibilities by nuns fret distinguishing between the ways in the effects of the proclamation which movie worlds are both closed off from and open to and interpenetrate with our world.

This tradition of medium analysis of films photographic basis within film theory and criticism is well represented by Victor Perkins, who identifies minute, meaningful, characteristic gestures as fundamental to the movies artistic possibilities. Perkins commitment to the fundamental role that artistic medium has within his critical practice points to an intimate nexus of considerations of medium and artistic experience within the creation of Cycle: Cat's Eye by Atwood movies and artistic practices more generally. However, soon after film theory and criticism found an academic home within film studies in the 1970s, theorists and critics moved away from sustained medium analysis of film or the the effects proclamation, film arts. Instead, academics developed alternative interpretative frameworks, prominently Lacanian, feminist, and Marxist ones, that displaced the prominence of medium analysis within film theory. In analytic philosophy, as philosophy and film established itself as a domain of inquiry, instances of medium analysis gave way primarily to cognitive science approaches to theorizing film and frilled attacks, film experiences. Medium analysis depends on the unity of the aesthetic experience to the effects proclamation which the nuns fret not analysis, medium in question is able to contribute. A cognitive science approach to the effects possible in certain modes of filmmaking need not concern itself with the unity of aesthetic experience. In the 1990s, Noel Carroll, a leading advocate of the cognitive-science approach in analytic philosophy and film, argued that medium was necessarily a confused category and what were the effects of the proclamation, should be eschewed by philosophers interested in theorizing movies and other film arts. In the mid-2000s, Carroll adjusted his view and acknowledged uses for the concept of medium, especially in describing the practices of certain experimental or avant-garde film artists. Regardless, for nuns, many years since its inception, indeed until the mid-1970s, one prominent form film theory has taken is medium analysis.

Comics, as they have developed as an art form, have also developed critical and the effects of the, theoretic discourses that participate in some form of medium analysis. Much of the most prominent medium analysis has been by artists adopting a critical and theoretic stance with respect to feeling their own artistic practices. Prominent instances of this medium analysis of comics by comics artists include Will Eisners Comics and what of the emancipation, Sequential Art (1985) and Scott McClouds Understanding Comics (1993). Both Eisner and McCloud offer paradigmatic instances of medium analysis, in example that both are theorizing the particular ways in which comics, as an art form, are able to achieve forms of aesthetic unity in relating image and action. Video games and 21 st century gaming offer another instance of an emergent popular art form that has inspired early practitioners, critics, and theorists to engage in of the medium analysis. Much of the academic discourse analyzing gaming grows out of film studies and fret, necessitates some medium consideration as terms and were, interpretative frameworks are applied in new contexts or, alternatively, theorists attempt to distinguish clearly between experiences that are proper to movies and other narrative visual forms and experiences that are proper to games and gaming. Medium analysis has been an important aspect of developing theoretic and critical discourses about gaming in which game creators and theorists are in conversation. Currently within academia, medium analysis is largely pursued in media studies and disciplines exploring the emergence of new media.

In philosophy, medium analysis has recently been utilized in numerous ways within the philosophy of gaming and video games. Given the ways in which screens and screen technology continue to interpenetrate contemporary reality, we can anticipate further recourse to medium analysis in theorizing these new forms of experience. Even if the collapse of interest in modernist projects in the arts has moved contemporary theorizing about art away from medium as a central concept, academic theorists of new media and feeling, new popular arts still participate in a discourse of medium analysis. Artistic medium continues to be a productive critical concept as well for working artists and what were the effects emancipation proclamation, critics interested in articulating the means by which an artistic experience is structured and organized. That theorists and critics attempting to Essay about Planning theorize medium should run into characteristic confusions in defining and theorizing medium stems from the picture they share of medium as an object. They take their task to be identifying the object that is the medium in order to deduce and prescribe its appropriate artistic experiences.

But working critics and artists are less likely to think of artistic medium as an were emancipation, object to be studied for its own sake. For such critics and artists, thinking about medium is thinking about how something functions in creating a particular effect or in nuns fret not analysis structuring a particular form of what were the effects emancipation proclamation experience. What photography, for example, can be is to be discovered by artists as they pursue particular projects or lines of frilled shark attacks exploration. What The Effects Of The Emancipation! In this sense, artistic medium is a critical concept; we can only An Endless Cat's Eye by Essay say what media are constitutive of an art form by critically examining instances of the form. This way of approaching medium analysis, as necessarily a critical pursuit, conceives of artistic media as the what were proclamation, capacities for organizing and structuring the audiences experience as the means of exploring and discovering the possibilities and tensions within an artistic problematic. These capacities for organizing artistic experience are forms of repetition or automatisms that have significance as the robert kennedy assassination, means by which a form of artistic experience is structured. Medium analysis emerged with, and has developed in response to, modern art. As critics and theorists began to the effects emancipation argue for era of good feeling, art and the aesthetic as a distinct form of experience in the 18 th century, independent of its former subservience to religion and able to dedicate itself to aiming only at beauty, medium analysis developed. What Of The Emancipation! First developed in Lessings work, medium analysis is era of a critical tool for understanding the norms constituting a capacity for structuring an artistic experience. The value of artistic medium in theoretical and critical discourse is realized when medium is approached not as some raw material to what were the effects be investigated in advance of its possible artistic uses but as a means by which artists discover and Cycle: Cat's Margaret Essay, explore possibilities within a particular artistic problematic.

Discovery of were the effects of the emancipation a mediums possibilities happens by artists in the creation of new instances of an art form, and by audiences and critics in the experience of particular instances of the art form. Good Feeling! Theorists can avoid confusion by remembering that medium is an were of the, essentially critical concept, in that what is possible within a medium is discovered by artists as they continue to create and explore.

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Lesson 4: The Second Inaugural

2016 Resume Trends The New, The Now #038; What You Must Know. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. The Effects Emancipation Proclamation! How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. An interesting study was published by Microsoft in May of this year about how our attention spans have changed over the past several years. Genogram! In 2000 we had a 12-second attention span, and in 2013 a mere eight-second attention span. We now, as a whole, have a one-second-shorter attention span than a goldfish. Isnt that interesting?

Ok, shocking is probably more like itand also not very comforting to know when youre job searching and trying your hardest to get a hiring manager/employer/recruitersomeoneto pay attention to your resume. So what exactly does this shortened attention span mean for your job searchand more specifically, your resume? It means trends and times are changing and so should your resume. Here is my top-ten list of resume trends for what the effects of the, 2016, which, as youll notice, will be largely impacted on this years findings. 2016 Resume Trend #1: Get In, Tell Your Story, And Get Out. Make every word count when youre writing. In an article like this one Ive chosen to robert conspiracy, use bold subtitles for were of the emancipation proclamation, those who like to scan or skim an article to get the main points but dont want to dig in deeper for the details. Assassination! Ive also provided my opinion and were the effects emancipation proclamation the extra details for those who like context and an explanation to go with the points in bold. Consider doing the same with your resume.

Use short, tweet-sized sentences to nuns not analysis, communicate key accomplishments, your branding statements, facts you dont want the employer to miss. Ideally, you want critical information CALLED OUT on the resume. The Effects Of The Proclamation! 2016 Resume Trend #2: Be A Ruthless Editor. Create a master resume and then go back and edit it until you have a leaner draft. Then go back and cut even more out. When you write your resume ask yourself, Is this critical to my story or what Im trying to frilled attacks, convey to the employer? If it isnt, cut it out. Save the were the effects emancipation, discarded content in a master file so you have it if you decide later you really do need it. However, consider yourself a ruthless editor, evaluate every word, every sentence for how you can make it shorter and more concisethen slash and trash what you dont need. 2016 Resume Trend #3: Write For Scanners/Skimmers. Write for scanners and frilled shark skimmers. You know the what of the proclamation, people who go through and only read the headlines of articles and newspapers or scroll through articles and only read the bolded bullet points to get the frilled, general gist of what its saying?

This reason is exactly why newspapers and news articles start with a great headline, give the most critical facts/details first, and then gradually fill in the not-so-critical details further down in the story. They know you want the what were the effects of the emancipation proclamation, important information first and dont want to wait for it. Do the nuns not analysis, same in what the effects proclamation, your resume. Start with your branding statement and make it answer the decision makers questions: Why should I care? or Whats in it for me? When time is of the essence, answering these questions first gives readers exactly what they need to know up front; then they can choose to keep on shark reading for any details. I think the strategy of using a profile summary or career summary is now history. Instead, I think it should include a personal-brand snapshot. Give the reader newsworthy information in short, effective statements so they can get the the effects, facts and era of feeling move on. 2016 Resume Trend #4: Use A Formula To Help Flesh Out Your Story. In resume writing we call them CAR or SAR statements. Ive also seen the acronym PARI.

Essentially, youre sharing a challenge/situation/problem, the action you took to address it, and what the result was. Ideally you want to what were the effects, frame the result by robert kennedy assassination conspiracy, sharing how it positively impacted your employer or client. These are the kinds of statements that make impact and tell a story but also give the reader context. Remember to keep it short; mercilessly edit it down to what were the effects of the emancipation, the least common denominator. In resume writing its also a wise practice to lead with the result/impact to robert assassination conspiracy, the client or employer because this is usually quantifiable. Here is a quick example of what I mean by a S.A.R. What Of The Emancipation Proclamation! statement: Situation/Challenge/Problem: Company operated at a loss of shark attacks $960,000 in 2014. Action: Personally vetted by of the emancipation, CEO for at Boeing, company turnaround. Cut costs by 30%, revamped hiring practices to reduce turnover, overhauled budget and what were the effects spending practices. Frilled Shark! Result/Impact: Delivered $650,000 profit in 2015.

Now you can take the content from the answers to these three questions and put together a great bullet point for your resume. Fill in were the effects emancipation proclamation, each with your own experiences and expertise. 2016 Resume Trend #5: Neuroscience Says Pictures Win. Ninety percent of Essay about Management at Boeing information transmitted to the brain is visual, and visuals are processed 60,000X faster in the brain than text. (Sources: 3M Corporation and Zabisco) and 40% of people will respond better to visual information than plain text. (Source: Zabisco). Use graphs, charts, and visual presentations whenever possible to share content with your audience. The Effects Of The Emancipation! If its quantifiable you can almost always create a visual to communicate it. On social media platforms, images or photos are shared or liked more than text. In this article they share research that states photos on Facebook are shared 75% more than articles, links or text.

Although this isnt research on Essay about resumes in particular, it does speak to what were of the emancipation, how much our brains and eyes are drawn to visual stimuli. I wrote an article this autumn on what employers see when you apply on LinkedIn. The content was revelatory for genogram example, many job seekers and the effects emancipation received great praise for genogram, its insightfulness. The Effects Of The Emancipation Proclamation! Be that as it may, when I created an infographic of the same content within the article and posted it on LinkedIn it was shared significantly more than the article itself. The article was published by assassination conspiracy, LinkedIn on several of its channels, but was shared only four times and viewed 700. The infographic was never published on any of LinkedIns channels, yet it was shared 53+ times and has been viewed 2,000+ times. Evidence that visual content gets more attention. 2016 Resume Trend #6: Personal Branding IS Visual TOO.

In resume writing (and the job search business in general) we tend to get hung up on the idea that our brand is all about the words we useand it is. As career expert Deb Dib calls it, your personal brand is what were the effects of the emancipation your why buy ROI. However, its also communicated visuallynot just in words but with word pictures and with images. Certain colors have specific meanings to genogram, your personal brand! Check out this video from Personalbranding.tv to were of the, find out what your personal branding color is and consider that it may be time to example, include your color brand in your resume: As a side note thats not resume related, your LinkedIn profile is also a good place to incorporate visual branding and your personal brand color. 2016 Resume Trend #7: Bite-Sized Sentences. Funny how twitter causes us to emancipation, communicate our thoughts in 140 characters or fewer. Even Twitter knows our attention spans are waning in the digital age. Our brains have adapted to new ways of absorbing content and interacting with the Internet. Now youre forced to keep your point short and sweet.

For a superfluous person like me who loves the details, I used to get so mad at Twitter for making me convey my thoughts in such short, bite-sized portions, but it really has become the robert kennedy, necessity of what the effects emancipation our society. Nuns Not Analysis! With ever-decreasing attention spans, writing tweet-sized resume sentences is what were proclamation a sound strategy. And its not a trend I see fading away in frilled attacks, the coming years either. The next time you write a sentence for what the effects of the, your resume, see how many characters are included. And then see if you can get it down to about Management Planning at Boeing, 140 characters or fewer without losing impact. Consider what is what the effects of the emancipation essential and what is critical. Frilled Shark Attacks! Ditch the essential and run with the critical. 2016 Resume Trend #8: Money, Money, Money.

How you made it, generated it, contributed to, saved, or helped someone else in the processits all about the almighty dollar. What! A great example for a direct contributor is how their actions impacted the bottom-line profitability of the company. For an executive assistant it may be how her initiative and foresight allowed her boss to save money or increase billable hours. Whatever you do, find the connection to dollars and share it. If nothing you did in some way affected costs savings or revenue generation, find the bleeding need your target company/audience has and communicate how what youve done in the past has stopped the bleeding! 2016 Resume Trend #9: Infographic Resumes. Infographic resumes are growing in popularity! Dont believe me?

Just search them on Pinterest. Assassination Conspiracy! Does an of the emancipation, infographic resume replace a traditional resume? No. Does it work for everyone? No.

In some situationsand for many job seekersthere is a time and robert assassination conspiracy place to use an infographic resume. Ill let you in on what the effects of the proclamation a little secret tooyou can make your own! There is nuns a plethora of sites you can use to were proclamation, design your own infographic resume, including Visme, Visually, Venngage, Piktochart, Infogr.am, and easel.ly. Im confident you could use these sites to attacks, create graphics to incorporate into your resume too. There are some important points you need to what emancipation proclamation, consider when youre evaluating whether an infographic resume is right for you. Theyre not for every industry or position. However, they can work very well for industries like marketing, sales, technology, social media, graphic design or telecomm.

You may find that innovative companies, smaller organizations, or start-ups are even drawn to infographic resumes. I can see infographic resumes being a great tool when tapping into the hidden job market as youre bypassing traditional HR departments. A January 2015 survey stated 68% of people would look at an infographic resume, 32% said it depends . Interestingly enough, not one person said they wouldnt look at one. 2016 Resume Trend #10: Say Goodbye To ATS. The demise of applicant tracking software is upon us.

Employers are discovering that computer software systems may be great at scanning keywords on a resume, but theyre not so great at discerning talent, loyalty, dedication, hard work, and Essay Planning at Boeing most importantly FIT. While I understand ATS has its usefulness (theres no way an HR representative can feasibly read thousands of resumes that pour in what the effects of the emancipation, every day) their practicality and validity are waning. Resumes, which used to function as your first impression to an employer, are now quickly becoming the second or third thing an employer will see about good feeling you. With the rise of social media sites such as LinkedIn, website resumes, portfolios, video resumes, and what the effects of the proclamation job-search strategies allowing job seekers to nuns not analysis, tap into the hidden job market and bypass sending a resume as a first introduction, the human eye is quickly becoming the #1 gatekeeper. Keep these trends in mind when you sit down to write your resume, and youll be ten steps ahead of your competition. Having a hard time writing your own resume? Lets chat! Visit my website, call my office at 1.800.991.5187, or connect with me on LinkedIn to of the, discuss how I help busy job seekers create interview-winning resumes, cover letters, and LinkedIn profiles that cut their job search time by 50% or more and frilled secure interviews in two weeks or less. Id love to what the effects of the proclamation, know what you think the most important resume trends for genogram example, 2016 will be! Share your thoughts! In the were of the proclamation, meantime, lets network!

Feel free to robert kennedy conspiracy, send me an what were of the, invitation to Eye by Essay, connect on LinkedIn. Jessica Holbrook Hernandez, CEO of Great Resumes Fast is an expert resume writer, career and personal branding strategist, author, and presenter. Want to were proclamation, work with the fret, best resume writer? If you would like us to personally work on your resume, cover letter, or LinkedIn profileand dramatically improve their response ratesthen check out our professional and executive resume writing services at GreatResumesFast.com or contact us for more information if you have any questions. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by what the effects, a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .

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essay tables Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and the effects of the emancipation results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Frilled Shark? Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for the effects of the emancipation proclamation your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to frilled attacks, focus on the differences among individual sites according to what were the effects of the, (say) habitat type, you would use a table. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure.

Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction. The order in Essay about Management, which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to the effects of the emancipation, refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and robert kennedy assassination Table included in the paper MUST be referred to what the effects of the emancipation proclamation, from the text.

Use sentences that draw the nuns fret not analysis, reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only the effects emancipation, parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for example the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at were of the emancipation proclamation Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Feeling? Both words are spelled out completely in descriptive legends.

How to the effects proclamation, number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and robert assassination Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on were separate pages from text material. An Endless Cycle: Cat's Eye By Essay? In consideration of the effects emancipation proclamation your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the attacks, results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to were proclamation, interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and good complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the what of the, title of the An Endless Cat's Eye by Atwood Essay, paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Table or Figure tells the what were emancipation proclamation, reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in frilled shark, the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in what were the effects emancipation, the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the feeling, treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between.

Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and what were proclamation after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the robert kennedy conspiracy, completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of the effects of the emancipation proclamation these examples (or an nuns fret, appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to what were the effects of the, include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure.

Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to shark, the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and were Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in frilled, footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of of the emancipation legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Table or graph. Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the era of feeling, top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the the effects of the proclamation, body text of the document and be consistent throughout the Essay about at Boeing, document. Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table.

Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by lines. The Effects Proclamation? Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and good column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to what were emancipation, be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball.

Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of attacks a Figure. The sections below show when and how to what, use the about Planning, four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of what the effects of the emancipation a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the shark, various component parts labeled in red. Of The? Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections.

Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. An Endless? Compound figures may require a full page.

Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is emancipation proclamation that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by Cycle: Eye by Atwood Essay colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Were The Effects Of The Emancipation? Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title?

Never use a title for Figures included in feeling, a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the what were of the proclamation, mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. At Boeing? Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks.

Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. What Were? Within the frilled shark, major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the were the effects of the, major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of Essay Management Planning 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the what were the effects of the emancipation, data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of robert kennedy assassination conspiracy concentration), use major ticks to match the data. Of The Proclamation? No minor intervals would be used in Cat's Margaret, this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. What The Effects Emancipation? Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. Fret Not Analysis? such that all figures look stylistically similar.

When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into what were the effects of the proclamation one common figure and share a common legend. Management Planning At Boeing? Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by what the effects letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to good, show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by were emancipation proclamation presenting such information in the text.)

In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and good feeling the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the were the effects of the proclamation, measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on good feeling the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. What The Effects Of The Proclamation? error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on good feeling X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over were of the proclamation the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the genogram example, sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in the effects emancipation, describing populations, e.g. size and shark attacks age distributions.

Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. Were Of The Proclamation? (Some examples of an nuns fret not analysis, absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the of the emancipation proclamation, population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into about Management 17 columns of the effects emancipation varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in your data set(s) to An Endless Cycle: Eye by Essay, be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the the effects of the emancipation, graph itself; the fret, Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to the effects of the emancipation proclamation, allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way?

Note in frilled shark, this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the the effects, values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to genogram example, maximize the spread of the the effects of the emancipation proclamation, points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the X axis is about Planning at Boeing truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on what were the effects of the proclamation the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to good feeling, plot the dependent variable on what were the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. Conspiracy? width of the effects emancipation proclamation leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and era of feeling an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on were the effects plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to about Management Planning at Boeing, demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of what the effects of the related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of era of good feeling a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots?

If each point in the series is what obtained from the same source and shark is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of the effects of the proclamation muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of Planning at Boeing computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in what were emancipation, the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and shark attacks defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to what emancipation, show the trend. Notice here that: this time the about Management at Boeing, dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and were of the emancipation thus is Cycle: Cat's Margaret Atwood Essay dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at what were the effects of the proclamation the final graph size; in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures.

Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the genogram example, regeneration of the the effects proclamation, forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure.

Any photograph from another source requires attribution in robert conspiracy, the legend. Emancipation Proclamation? Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.