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When did louis xvi die

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Cadwalader Wickersham Interview Questions. Xvi Die. Interviews for Top Jobs at Cadwalader Wickersham. Your trust is our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. I applied through a staffing agency. Internal. The process took 1 day.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (Washington, DC). Interviewed by two staff members from Human Resources. The interview questions were pretty average. They mostly focused on my previous experience working in when did louis xvi die, a law firm. The firm used a staffing agency to hire me directly.

After the interview, I had to take a typing test and a grammar test. Describe a time when you had to solve an issue at work. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. The process took 4 weeks.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). Process was very easy and relaxed, the people who interviewed me were very enthusiastic and/or nice. I had my initial interview with 2 paralegal managers, each about 3 minutes long. I had another interview the next week with 5 different partners and attorneys, then with a group of the paralegals. Describe your organizational skills. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. The process took 2 weeks.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in December 2016. I met with a paralegal recruiter, who conducted the how to write interview alone. When Xvi Die. I described my job history, answered a few questions and we spoke about the position and the department they were interviewing for. About Is A Common. The interview process lasted about 40 minutes. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a staffing agency.

The process took 2 weeks. Did Louis Xvi Die. I interviewed at conflicts Cadwalader Wickersham. The hiring process was pretty easy. When Did Louis Xvi Die. I met with the HR manager and an assistant. Essay About Depression But Serious Illness. I explained to them that I was also a student and when xvi die was not flexible for overtime. Free Sonic. They were pretty understanding and assured me that I would not be required to work overtime. Xvi Die. Most of the questions were geared towards my past experiences working at how to velocity other firms. Answer Question.

Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through college or university. The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in when did louis xvi die, April 2016. Went in to meet with 2 heads of corporate paralegals, had meeting in beautiful office with an amazing view.

Both very nice and easy to talk, asking basic resume questions regarding previous experience in law and similar types of positions. Interested in previous experience with high-stress situations and working with a team. Accepted another offer before moving on to second round, which I was told would consist of meeting with several attorneys and conflicts internal other legal assistants. Did Louis. What experience do you with Excel? Answer Question. And External. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied online.

The process took 1 day. Did Louis Xvi Die. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (Charlotte, NC) in September 2015. Typical law interview call back, but all interviews were in internal and external, the same room and the attorneys come to did louis you. All interviews were one on one with 2 partners/Sr. Essay. Counsel and 2 associates. Each interview was 30 minutes each. Applied via school online board and received a callback directly without a phone screener. What#039;s the most boring thing you#039;ve ever done? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response.

I applied through college or university. The process took 3 days. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. Interviewed through school, and talked to them in a hospitality suite. Two attorneys bragged about their questionable role in the mortgage market failure. Left an extremely bad taste in my mouth. Strikes me as a terrible place to work. Asked me about interests on my resume. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. Capital Markets Paralegal/Financial Services Paralegal Interview.

I applied through college or university. The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). There are first and when second round interviews. The first round, I met with a senior paralegal and a recruiter. The interview lasted about an hour, and internal and external most of it was them describing the job in did louis, great detail. How Does Iago Roderigo. The only when did louis interviewing we really did was them asking me about various things on my resume. No hard ball questions or anything. The second round was much more intense - I met with 11 different people total: 5 current paralegals and iago manipulate 6 different attorneys.

The paralegals asked basic resume questions, but the attorneys were the ones more likely to throw out questions a little bit tougher. However, everyone was incredibly nice, conversational, and easy to connect with. When. Talk me through your resume. Answer Question What are your strengths and weaknesses? Answer Question Why are you interested in law? Answer Question Describe a situation in which you encountered a problem and had to resolve it. Answer Question What gets you up in velocity, the morning? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through college or university. Did Louis. The process took 5 days.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in July 2015. The interview was set up by about Common Illness, my school. It was a brief twenty five or thirty minute interview. I was interviewed by a relatively new associate from the firm. The school had requested that a graduate from our school conduct the interview. This particular interview was similar to when xvi die a speed date in the sense that it was a really basic interview with the Is a Common but Serious Illness objective of when just getting to know the candidate. What was one challenge that you faced in your first year of law school? 1 Answer.

Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied online. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. I spoke to what one of the paralegal managers over the phone, we discussed my background and inferest in when did louis, law. We then scheduled a time for me to come in and meet with her and the manager for the department the position was in. Pretty straightforward interview, no unexpected questions. I didn#039;t learn very much about the position or the how does day to day work, however I was told that if I made it to xvi die the next round, I would be meeting with the partners of the firm. Where do you see youself in 5 years? Answer Question. Free Sonic. Cadwalader Wickersham Response.

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Qualitative Research in Information Systems: References on Case Study Research. This is a list of references on case study research. After a brief introduction which suggests those works which are essential reading for newcomers to the field, the list is organized into when did louis two parts: the first part lists citations related to the approach in Information Systems, the free sonic, second lists citations related to the approach in other disciplines. Please note that this list contains a few suggestions only and is not intended to be comprehensive. I encourage you to when search Google Scholar, the Essay about Depression Is a, AIS e-library and/or some other bibliographic database for a more complete and up-to-date list. A standard text for anyone wanting to do case study research is the book by Yin (2002). Three important methodological articles on did louis, the case study method in the IS field are those by Benbasat et al. Iago Roderigo. (1987), Dube and Pare (2003) and when did louis, Lee (1989).

One of the most cited empirical examples of how does iago roderigo case study research in Information Systems is the when, article by Markus (1983). For interpretive case studies, Walsham's (1993) book is excellent. Two empirical examples of the interpretive case study method in IS are the articles by Myers (1994) and how to write velocity, Walsham and Waema (1994). Baskerville, R., Pentland, B.T. and Walsham, G. A Workshop on Two Techniques for Qualitative Analysis: Interviewing and Evaluation, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Information Systems , 1994, p. 503-4. Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D.K. and Mead, M. The Case Research Strategy in when xvi die Studies of Information Systems, MIS Quarterly (11:3) 1987, pp. 369-386. Beynon-Davies, P. Information Management in the British National Health Service: The Pragmatics of Strategic Data Planning, International Journal of Information Management , 14 , 1994, pp. And External. 84-94.

Abstract: The UK National Health Service (NHS) has been conducting an open exercise in global data modelling for the past 12 years and therefore constitutes a unique resource for the student of information management. This article aims to did louis xvi die document some of the history of this exercise as well as placing this corporate data modelling within the social, political and economic context of the NHS, thereby explaining some of its current shape. Finally, using the case of the NHS we make some comments about the success, or otherwise, of conducting data modelling on the corporate scale. Comment: This paper illustrates how data can be collected from a variety of free sonic sources in order to understand the history and context of the xvi die, unit of analysis in the case study. It leads to a number of important lessons for both researchers and practitioners (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Shanks). Boland, R. The process and product of system design, Management Science (28:9), 1978, pp. 887-898. Boland, R. Control, causality and information system requirements, Accounting, Organizations and Society (4:4), 1979, pp. Oil Case: Conflict. 259272. Broadbent, M. and Weill, P. Improving business and information strategy alignment: Learning from the banking industry, IBM Systems Journal , (32:1), 1993, pp.

162-179. Abstract: Four large Australian banks provided the when, setting for Depression Is a but Serious, an empirical study exploring business and information strategy alignment in an information-intense and competitive environment. The aim of the study which firms had information and IT-based advantages and to identify organizational practices that contributed to xvi die and enhanced alignment. Using a multiple case approach, multiple sources of evidence were collected from each firm, including written and free sonic, interview-based information from executive business and IT managers and did louis xvi die, strategic planning and is the of lord of the flies, other internal documentation. The firm-wide strategy formation processes of the banks, rather than their IS methodology was central to the nature and level of alignment. The interdependence of firm-wide processes and IS factors are emphasized in a strategic alignment model that summarizes the findings of the did louis xvi die, study. The papaer concludes with a discussion of the management implications and requirements for action in both firm-wide strategy and IS areas. Comment: This is an theme of lord, example of an when did louis, early empirical study of the nature of business and IS alignment. It draws heavily on senior business and IT managers as key informants and the use of free sonic confidential firm documentation. This paper illustrates how a case paper can be written and results communicated while maintaining the confidentiality of when did louis xvi die participant firms and managers (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Shanks).

Burgess, G., Clark, T.D., Hauser Jr., R.D. and Zmud, R.W., The Application of Causal Maps to Develop a Collective Understanding of Complex Organisational Contexts in Requirements Analysis, Accounting, Management and Information Technology , (2:3), 1992, pp. 143-164. Abstract: This article examines causal mapping as a tool to facilitate the requirements analysis process. Although a number of methodologies are available to facilitate the causal mapping process, a major difficulty is that little is and external, empirically known about the appropriate behaviours to did louis be followed when applying causal mapping techniques. The benefits of applying causal mapping to overcome certain human information processing limitations that impede the requirements analysis process are discussed. The effective application of causal mapping as a RA tool is presented and a case study is is the of the, described in which the causal mapping technique was applied to develop a rich understanding of an ill-structured organisational phenomenon. Finally, insights gained from the case study are used to assess the validity of several propositions intended to guide the process. Comment: This paper is particularly rigorous in its design and presentation of evidence leading to the discussion and implications. The results of the case study method are clearly related to outcomes of the literature review (Provided by M. When Did Louis. Broadbent and G. Shanks).

Bussen, Wendy, and Michael D. Myers. 1997. The Pacific Oil Case: Essay. Executive Information Systems Failure: A New Zealand Case Study. Xvi Die. Journal of Information Technology Vol. Is The Of The Flies. 12, No.2, June 1997, pp. 145-153. Cavaye, A.L.M. Case study research: a multi-faceted research approach for did louis xvi die, IS, Information Systems Journal (6:3) 1996, pp. 227-242. Cavaye, A.L.M.

Cragg, P.B. Factors contributing to the success of customer oriented interorganizational systems, Journal of Strategic Information Systems , (4:1), 1995, pp. 13-30. Abstract: Interorganizational systems (IOS) can help firms to become more efficient and more competitive by streamlining operations between companies. To build successful IOS, the Depression Is a Common Illness, development process needs to be well understood.

This paper uses a four-stage model of the IOS development process to examine the experiences of xvi die nine systems that link firms with customers. the data provides considerable support for the model and its numerous factors. Technological awareness by customers was found to have a strong influence on the rate of adoption. Extent of adoption is themajor determinant of ultimate success of the iago manipulate, IOS. Comment: Carefully completed case research on an emerging area of did louis xvi die IS practice. Essay Depression Illness. Good use of tables for cross-case comparison (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Shanks). Curtis, B., Krasner, H. and Iscoe, N. A Field Study of the when did louis xvi die, Software Design Process for Large Systems, Communications of the ACM , (31:11), 1988, pp. 1268-1287. Abstract: The problems of describing large software systems were studied through interviewing personnel from and external 17 large projects. A layered behavioural model is used to analyse how three of these problems - the thin spread of application knowledge, fluctuating and conflicting requirements, and communication bottlenecks and breakdowns - affected software productivity and quality through their impact on cognitive, social, and organisational processes. Comment: This paper presents a rigorous study of the when did louis xvi die, design of large software systems. The research design and flies, data collection are comprehensively described, and the discussion includes comments from when xvi die case study participants as evidence.

The topic of study is important and outcomes from the study are relevant to both the research community and practitioners (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Shanks). Darke, P. and Shanks, G. User Viewpoint Modelling: Understanding and Representing User Viewpoints During Requirements Definition, Information Systems Journal , (7:3), 1997, (forthcoming) Abstract: There has been increasing awareness of the impact of the early stages of how does manipulate roderigo systems development on the quality of information systems. A critical early activity is requirements definition, when the did louis xvi die, requirements for an information system are determined. Traditional requirements capture techniques do not support the internal, collaborative nature of requirements definition or the emergent nature of requirements themselves.

This paper focuses on viewpoint development as a means of when did louis xvi die resolving some of the difficulties of requirements definition. It proposes a user viewpoint model for capturing and representing the viewpoints of users during requirements acquisition. The model can facilitate communication and Essay, interaction between analysts and users and help build a shared understanding of when did louis xvi die requirements. Oil Case: Essay. It can be used to structure the requirements acquisition process. The model provides for did louis, evaluation of velocity requirements acquisition techniques to guide the selection of appropriate techniques for developing user viewpoint models. The paper reports a multiple case study of requirements definition efforts which examined user viewpoint development in practice and used the cases to empirically validate the concepts of the user viewpoint model.

The implications of the case study findings for requirements definition practice are discussed, and some areas for when did louis, future research are identified. Comment: This paper shows how case study research can be used in theory testing. A model of roderigo user viewpoint development is when did louis, proposed and then concepts in the model are validated using three case studies of requirements definition (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Free Sonic. Shanks). Darke, P., Shanks, G. and Broadbent, M. Successfully completing case study research: combining rigour, relevance and pragmatism, Information Systems Journal (8:4), 1998, pp. 273-289.

Davies, L., Newman, M. and Kaplan, B. A Workshop on Two Techniques for Qualitative Analysis: Interviewing and Evaluation, Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Information Systems , 1993, p. When Xvi Die. 399. Dube, L., and write, Pare, G. Rigor in Information Systems Positivist Case Research: Current Practices, Trends, and Recommendations, MIS Quarterly (27:4) 2003, pp 597-636. Earl, M.J. Experiences in Strategic Information Systems Planning, MIS Quarterly (17:1), 1993, pp. 1-24. Abstract: Strategic information systems planning (SISP) remains a top concern among many organisations. Did Louis. Accordingly, researchers have investigated SISP practice and proposed both formal methods and principles of good practice.

SISP cannot be understood by considering formal methods alone. The processes of planning and the implementation of conflicts plans are equally important. However, there have been very few field investigations of these phenomena. This study examines SISP experiences in 27 companies and, unusually, relies on when did louis xvi die, interviews not only with IS managers but also with general managers and line managers. By adopting this broader perspective, the investigation reveals companies were using five different SISP approaches: Business-Led, Method-Driven, Administrative, Technological, and internal and external, Organisational. Xvi Die. Each approach has different characteristics and, therefore, a different likelihood of success. The results show that the Organisational approach appears to be the most effective. The taxonomy of the five approaches potentially provides a diagnostic tool for analysing and evaluating an organisation's experience with SISP. Comment: Earl's paper provides a good example of how to present the results of case study research.

The introduction establishes the write velocity, importance of the topic and the research method section explains clearly how the case study was undertaken. The implications discussed in the paper are important for both researchers and practitioners (Provided by M. Broadbent and did louis, G. Shanks). Gable, G. How To Velocity. Integrating Case Study and did louis, Survey Research Methods: An Example in Information Systems, European Journal of Information Systems , Volume 3, Number 2, 1994, pp. The Pacific Oil Case: Conflict Management. 112-126. Gerson, E.M. and Star, S.L.

Analyzing Due Process in the Workplace, ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems (4:3), July 1986, pp. 257-270. Goodhue, D., Kirsch, L.J., Quillard, J.A. and Wybo, M.D. Strategic Data Planning: Lessons from the Field, MIS Quarterly , (16:1) ,1992, pp. 11-34. Abstract: In spite of strong conceptual arguments for the value of strategic data planning as a means to increase data integration in when did louis xvi die large organisations, empirical research has found more evidence of problems than of success. In this paper, four detailed case studies of SDP efforts, along with summaries of five previously reported efforts, are analysed. Conflicts. Fifteen specific propositions are offered, with two overall conclusions. The first conclusion is did louis xvi die, that SDP, though conceived of as a generally appropriate method, may not be the best planning approach in all situations. The second conclusion is that the conflicts internal and external, SDP method of analysing business functions and their data requirements may not be the best way to develop a Odata architectureO, given the required level of commitment of talented individuals, the cost, the potential errors, and the high level of abstraction of the result. These lessons can aid practitioners in deciding when t use SDP and guide them as they begin the process of rethinking and modifying the SDP to be more effective.

Comment: A very well framed paper, which develops a number of xvi die propositions as the outcome of the analysis of case study data. Conflicts. The literature review provides the xvi die, necessary motivation for the case study and the research method is well described. The two main conclusions are highly relevant to both researchers and practitioners (Provided by The Pacific Conflict, M. Broadbent and did louis xvi die, G. Shanks). Hewitt, C. Offices are Open Systems, Transactions on Office Information Systems (4:3), 1986, pp. 271-287. Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study, MIS Quarterly (12:4) 1988, pp.

571-587. Larsen, M. and Myers, M.D. 1999. When success turns into failure: a package-driven business process re-engineering project in the financial services industry, Journal of conflicts and external Strategic Information Systems , Vol. When Did Louis. 8, No. 4, December 1999, pp. 395-417. Lee, A.S.

A Scientific Methodology for MIS Case Studies, MIS Quarterly (13:1), 1989, pp. 33-52. Lee, A.S. What Is The Of The Flies. Case Studies as Natural Experiments, Human Relations , (42:2), 1989, pp. Did Louis Xvi Die. 117-137. Lee, A. S. Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research, Organization Science, (2), 1991, pp. 342-365. Lee, A.S. Electronic Mail as a Medium for Rich Communication: An Empirical Investigation Using Hermeneutic Interpretation, MIS Quarterly (18:2), June 1994, pp.

143-157. Lee, A.S., Baskerville, R.L. and Davies, L. A Workshop on Two Techniques for Qualitative Data Analysis: Action Research and Ethnography, Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Information Systems , 1992, p. 305-306. Levine, H.G. and Rossmore, D. Diagnosing the Human Threats to Information Technology Implementation: A Missing Factor in Systems Analysis Illustrated in a Case Study, Journal of Management Information Systems , (10:2), Fall 1993, pp. 55-73. Madsen, K.H. Breakthrough by free sonic, Breakdown, in Information Systems Development for when, Human Progress in Organizations , H.K. Klein and K. How Does. Kumar (eds.), 1989, pp. 41-53.

Manning, P.K. Information Technology in did louis xvi die the Police Context: The Sailor Phone, Information Systems Research (7:1), 1996, pp. 52-62. Markus, M.L. Manipulate. Power, Politics and MIS Implementation, Communications of the ACM , 26, 1983, pp. 430-444.

Abstract: Theories of when did louis xvi die resistance to management information systems (MIS) are important because they guide the Conflict and Negotiation, implementation strategies and tactics chosen by implementors. Three basic theories of the causes of resistance underlie many prescriptions and rules for MIS implementation. Simply stated, people resist MIS because of their own internal factors, because of poor system design, and because the interaction of specific system design features with aspects of the did louis xvi die, organisational context of system use. These theories differ in their basic assumptions about systems, organisations, and resistance; they also differ in predictions that can be derived from them and in their implications for how to write velocity, the implementation process. These differences are described and the task of evaluating the theories on the bases of the differences is begun. Data from a case study are used to illustrate the theories and to demonstrate the superiority, for implementors, of the interaction theory. Comment: A very well known example of case study research which clearly shows the importance of organisational context for the implementation of information systems (Provided by when, M. Broadbent and G. Oil Case: Management. Shanks). Note: This classic article was discussed in a panel session chaired by Allen S. Lee at ICIS 2000. The various presentations are available. Markus, M.L.

Case Selection in a Disconfirmatory Case Study in The Information Systems Research Challenge , Harvard Business School Research Colloquium, Boston: Harvard Business School, 1989, pp. 20- 26. Markus, M.L. Finding a Happy Medium: Explaining the Negative Effects of Electronic Communication on Social Life at Work, ACM Transactions on when did louis, Information Systems , 12,2, April 1994, pp. 119-149.

Markus, M.L., Electronic Mail as the what is the of lord of the, Medium of Managerial Choice, Organization Science , Volume 5, Number 4, 1994, pp. 502-527. Myers, M.D. A disaster for when did louis, everyone to see: an interpretive analysis of a failed IS project, Accounting, Management and Information Technologies (4:4), 1994, pp. 185-201. Abstract: The New Zealand Education Department attempted to implement a centralised payroll system in 1989. The difficulties that the department experienced were broadcast on conflicts internal, national radio and television and publicised on when xvi die, the front page of The New Zealand Herald . What Is The Flies. In the when did louis xvi die, end, the centralised payroll system was scrapped by the government. This paper examines this case study using the critical hermeneutics of Gadamer and Ricoeur. Write. Critical hermeneutics, as an integrative theoretical framework, combines both interpretive and when, critical elements, and addresses those social and organisational issues, which are key to the successful implementation of information systems. This paper suggests critical hermeneutics as a conceptual foundation for information systems implementation research. Comments: This paper shows how critical hermeneutics can be used in the interpretation of case study data.

The case study is presented in a way which clearly explains the changing perspectives of the various stakeholders in free sonic the information system implementation (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Shanks). Myers, M. D. Quality in Qualitative Research in Information Systems, Proceedings of the 5th Australasian Conference on Information Systems , 1994, pp. 763-766. Myers, M.D. Dialectical hermeneutics: a theoretical framework for the implementation of information systems, Information Systems Journal (5:1), 1995, pp. 51-70. Orlikowski, W.J. CASE Tools as Organizational Change: Investigating Incremental and Radical Changes in Systems Development, MIS Quarterly (17:3), September 1993, pp. 309-340.

Orlikowski, W.J. Xvi Die. Improvising Organizational Transformation Over Time: A Situated Change Perspective, Information Systems Research (7:1), 1996, pp. Essay Is A Common. 63-92. Orlikowski, W.J., Markus, M.L. and Lee, A.S. When Did Louis Xvi Die. A Workshop on Two Techniques for Qualitative Data Analysis: Analytic Induction and Hermeneutics, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Information Systems , 1991, p. 390-1. Pare, G. Investigating Information Systems with Positivist Case Study Research, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (13:1), 2004, pp.

233-264. Abstract: This paper offers a rigorous step-by-step methodology for developing theories and about Illness, contains specific and detailed guidelines for when xvi die, IS researchers to follow in conflicts carrying out positivist case studies. When. The methodology is largely inspired by the work of Yin [2003], Eisenhardt [1989], Miles and Huberman [1994] and several others who are strong proponents of and have wide experience in this research approach. Free Sonic. It also relies on when did louis, previous key contributions to the positivist case research method in IS [Benbasat et al., 1987; Lee, 1989; Dube and Pare, 2003]. We illustrate how this methodology can be applied in our field to help find new perspectives and empirical insights. In addition, the desired qualities associated with several of the proposed concepts and the techniques and tools included in the methodology are presented.

We believe that the how does, two detailed case studies presented in this paper represent highly rigorous, yet different applications of the positivist case research method and, hence, we strongly encourage IS researchers to follow their respective approaches. Pare, G. and Elam, J.J. Using Case Study Research to Build Theories of IT Implementation, in Information Systems and Qualitative Research , A.S. Lee, J. Liebenau and J.I. DeGross (eds.), Chapman and Hall, London, 1997, pp. 542-568. Robey, D. and Sahay, S. Transforming Work through Information Technology: A Comparative Case Study of Geographic Information Systems in County Government, Information Systems Research (7:1), 1996, pp. 93-110.

Romm, C.T. and Pliskin, N. Playing Politics with E-mail: A Longitudinal Conflict-Based Analysis, in Information Systems and Qualitative Research , A.S. When. Lee, J. Liebenau and J.I. DeGross (eds.), Chapman and Hall, London, 1997, pp. 362-388. Sauer, C. Why Information Systems Fail: A Case Study Approach , Alfred Waller Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, 1993. Shanks, G. The Challenges of Strategic Data Planning: an Interpretive Case Study, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 6, 1997, pp. 69-90. Abstract: Many organisations have had great difficulty with strategic data planning despite strong arguments about its value.

A number of Essay Common Illness empirical studies of strategic data planning have identified various factors important to its success but few have presented detailed contextual explanations. This paper reports an when did louis, in-depth, interpretive case study which examines the strategic data planning process in a large Australian bank. The paper explains why strategic data planning is such a difficult undertaking and is the theme of lord of the, suggests three important implications for practitioners. Did Louis. First, both business managers and information systems staff find the Essay Depression Is a Illness, output data architecture difficult to understand, and improved representations and explanations of the did louis, data architecture should be used. Second, strategic data planning is a complex social activity and an understanding of the organisational context within which it takes place is crucial to its success. Third, strategic data planning may not be the best way to build a data architecture, and other approaches which facilitate participation should be considered.

Comments: This paper provides a useful example of how to report a large case study within the limits of a journal length paper. The research approach is described in detail and the case study analysis is clearly linked back to how to write velocity the literature review. The results are expressed in the form of three implications which are relevant to practitioners and also form the basis of future research (Provided by M. Broadbent and G. Did Louis. Shanks). Sillince, J.A.A. and Mouakket, S. Free Sonic. Varieties of Political Process During Systems Development, Information Systems Research (8:4), December 1997, pp. 368-397. Walsham, G. Interpreting Information Systems in when did louis Organizations , Wiley, Chichester, 1993. Walsham, G. Interpretive case studies in IS research: nature and method, European Journal of Information Systems (4), 1995, pp. 74-81. Walsham, G. and Waema, T. Oil Case: Essay. Information Systems Strategy and did louis xvi die, Implementation: A Case Study of a Building Society, ACM Transactions on Information Systems (12:2), April 1994, pp. 150-173. Young, M.-L., Kuo, F.-y., and Myers, M.D.

2012. To Share or Not to Share: A Critical Research Perspective on what theme, Knowledge Management Systems, European Journal of Information Systems (21:5), pp. 496-511. Campbell, D. 'Degrees of Freedom' and the Case Study, Comparative Political Studies , Volume 8, Number 2, 1975, pp. 178-193. Dukes, W. N=1, Psychological Bulletin , Volume 64, 1965, pp. 74-79.

Dyer, W.G. Jr. and Wilkins, A.L. Better Stories, Not Better Constructs, to when Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt, Academy of Management Review (16:3), 1991, pp. 613-619. Eisenhardt, K.M. Building Theories from Case Study Research, Academy of Management Review (14:4), 1989, pp. 532-550. Eisenhardt, K.M. Better Stories and Better Constructs: The Case for Rigor and Comparative Logic, Academy of Management Review (16:3), 1991, pp. 620-627.

Hamel, J. Iago. Case study method , Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1993. Luthans, F. and Davis, T.R.V. An Idiographic Approach to Organizational Behavior Research: The Use of Single Case Experimental Designs and Direct Measures, Academy of Management Review (7:3), July 1982, pp. 380-391. McCutcheon, D. and did louis, Meredith, J., Conducting Case Study Research in Operations Management, Journal of Operations Management , Volume 11, 1993, pp. Free Sonic. 239-256. Nardulli, P.F.

The Courtroom Elite: An Organizational Perspective on Criminal Justice , Ballinger Press, Cambridge, MA, 1978. Ragin, Charles C. and Becker, Howard S., What Is a Case?: Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992. Stake, Robert E. The Art of Case Study Research . Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1995. Whyte, W.F. Street Corner Society: The social structure of an Italian slum , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1943. Yin, R. K. The Case Study Crisis: Some Answers, Administrative Science Quarterly (26), 1981, pp. When Did Louis Xvi Die. 58-65. Yin, R. Conflicts. K. The Case Study as a Serious Research Strategy, Knowledge (3), 1981, pp. 97-114. Yin, R. K. Case Study Research, Design and Methods, 3rd ed.

Newbury Park, Sage Publications, 2002. Yin, R. K. Enhancing the Quality of Case Studies in Health Services Research, Health Services Research (34:5-part 2), 1999, pp. 1209-1224. Yin, R. Xvi Die. K. and Heald, K. A. Using The Case Survey Method To Analyse Policy Studies, Administrative Science Quarterly (20), 1975, pp. 371-381.

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PHYS 211 :: Physics Illinois :: University of when xvi die, Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Welcome to Physics 211, Introduction to Classical Mechanics! In this course we will discuss the basic laws describing forces and Essay about Is a Common Illness, motion and we will develop the mathematical framework needed to understand these in some detail. When! These topics are important, not only because they are extremely interesting in their own right, but also because they form the foundation upon free sonic, which most physics and engineering is built. It is our goal that at when, the end of this course you will understand the free sonic main concepts of xvi die, mechanics, be able to apply them quantitatively for free sonic solving relevant problems, and appreciate qualitatively how they play a role in many aspects of our lives. The road to understanding is not a particularly easy one, but the when xvi die journey is well worth the effort. About! In order to help you, we have devised a multifaceted approach intended to maximize your conceptual understanding and xvi die, ability to solve practical problems. The basic philosophy of Physics 211 can be summarized as follows: Introduction and first chance to think about conflicts internal it (prelectures and checkpoints) Untangle it (lectures) Challenge yourself (homework) Play with it (labs) Close the when did louis loop (discussion) The order of the above items is very important.

The first exposure you will have to the material will be in the prelecture (1). These are research-based multimedia presentations designed to introduce the key ideas/concepts of the write velocity lecture. Did Louis! You will do these on your own prior to each lecture. This first step should be taken very seriously, as all of the following items depend on this pre-exposure. To get the most out of lecture your participation is required both prior to Oil Case: Management Essay, and during each lecture! Before every lecture you will be required to work through a brief checkpoint on the Web. Each checkpoint will probe your understanding of the prelecture material for that lecture, and must be completed by 6am on the day of the when lecture to receive credit. How To Velocity! There are no bad checkpoint answers.

You will receive full credit if you give it your best shot and answer all the questions. The lecture (2) will take the concepts you have read about and expand/explain them, usually with the when aid of demonstrations. The lectures themselves will be interactive, and your participation is Essay about Depression Illness, strongly recommended. Student questions and comments in class are encouraged, especially related to did louis, concepts and problems you found difficult in the checkpoints. You will participate using the iclicker and will get full credit if you give your best shot. You can also earn extra-credit for the questions you answer correct. The Web-based homework (3) covering each week's material is what of the flies, due the following week. When Did Louis Xvi Die! This means you will have the what of lord flies background of working through the prelecture and checkpoint of two lectures to guide you in finishing each weekly homework assignment. Homework problems are designed to when did louis xvi die, test your understanding of the concepts as well as developing problem-solving skills. The weekly lab cycle (4) is designed to give you the opportunity to how does iago roderigo, explore the concepts you have encountered in did louis xvi die, lecture. To cap things off, a 2-hour weekly Discussion section (5) will go over theme of lord, the concepts you have learned about in the previous week's lectures, lab and homework.

Also there will be open office hours every week to give you one-on-one assistance if you need more help; do not be bashful about taking advantage of these! In order to when xvi die, succeed in Physics 211, you must not fall behind! This course covers a large amount of new material, and velocity, the understanding of new topics usually requires mastery of previous material. Prelectures+checkpoints: You are required to complete a web-based prelecture and checkpoint prior to each lecture. The prelectures are web-based multimedia learning activities that include embedded questions.

You may attempt each question several times, however you must get the questions correct to complete the when xvi die activity. You will receive 2 points for each prelecture you complete. How Does Manipulate! Once you have completed the prelecture, the checkpoint will be available. While we don't expect you to get correct answers to all of the checkpoint questions, they will be checked for a good faith effort. Each completed checkpoint is when, worth 1 point. About Depression Is A But Serious! There is no late credit for prelectures or checkpoints. When Xvi Die! You can miss up to three unexcused prelectures and checkpoints without penalty. Lectures: Since you will already have been exposed to the basic concepts through the prelecture, the lectures will spend relatively little time in the traditional lecture format.

The primary focus of the lecture will be on expanding your understanding of the internal and external material based on your checkpoint responses. This will take the form of xvi die, interACTive learning segments (ACTs) . During these segments students will work in groups on a specific assigned problem and iago manipulate roderigo, can discuss the results with other students and did louis, with the lecturer. This will allow the instructor to pinpoint problems in understanding and deal with them before moving on. The purpose is to help you understand, and your participation is critical. In order to provide an environment more conducive to participation and Depression Is a, interaction, each student will have an iclicker with which to when xvi die, answer various questions during lecture.

You will receive one point based on Oil Case: Management and Negotiation Essay your participation in each lecture. When Xvi Die! You may also earn up to one additional bonus point for each lecture based on how to velocity the fraction of the ACTs you answer correctly. These bonus points will be directly added to your Homework/Quiz final score. For example, if you get 50% of the ACTs correct in each of the 26 lectures, you would earn 13 bonus points that would directly increase your Homework+Discussion score. The notes from each lecture will be posted on the course webpage. You can miss up to three unexcused lectures without penalty.

Homework: Each week you are responsible for did louis xvi die completing a computer-based homework assignment. These assignments are graded and are an important part of the course. Is The Of Lord Of The Flies! The only way to really understand these topics is to work lots of problems. To start work on xvi die a homework assignment, click once on the smartPhysics link on the Physics 211 homepage and then click on the assignment you wish to do. You should try to Essay about Depression Is a Common but Serious, finish each homework assignment before the when did louis xvi die deadline since this is the only way to earn full credit, but you can still get 80% credit for finishing a problem up to one week after its deadline. You may work a problem or part of a problem as many times as you like. Lab Session: The laboratory portion of Physics 211 will consist of eight 2-hour laboratories, each involving a series of activities, including (i) setting up simple experiments to investigate topics you've studied in class, (ii) making predictions about the free sonic outcome of your experiments, (iii) performing measurements of different phenomena you've studied in lecture, (iv) analyzing your experimental results, and did louis xvi die, (v) answering questions concerning your results and predictions. You will complete the lab write-ups during the lab section and hand them in at the end of the lab section. Additionally, all labs (except the Laboratory Orientation) will require completion of pre-labs which are to be handed in at the beginning of the relevant lab section. Your total laboratory score will be worth 15% of your grade. Of the 20 points allotted for each laboratory, 15 points will be awarded for participating in and completing the what is the of lord of the laboratory, and answering questions in the lab write-up and when did louis, up to 5 points will be awarded based on the answers to questions in the prelab.

It is important to come to your lab section on time. If you arrive more than 10 minutes late your will get zero on how to velocity the lab. Since there are only 9 labs during the whole semester (including Lab 0 which is an orientation), you can not miss more than 3 of these. After 3 excused labs, any additional missed lab will receive zero, even if you have an when xvi die excuse. Discussion Sessions: Each week you will attend a two-hour discussion section conducted by a TA. These sections will be active learning sessions in which you will work in small groups solving problems provided to you by your TA. And Negotiation! Discussion sessions are designed to aid you in the understanding of the course material. You will find them beneficial in when xvi die, preparation for the hour exams. During the discussion sessions we often do one of the exercises in Tutorials in Introductory Physics.

It is important that you bring this book to each discussion session. At the Essay about but Serious Illness end of each discussion session, your TA will administer a short quiz (usually about 20 minutes in length) based on past material. The quiz covers the did louis previous weeks discussion material, or, when following an exam week, the last two weeks material.This quiz will be graded and recorded in the gradebook. It is important to bring your calculators to each discussion session. It is important to come to your discussion section on time. If you arrive more than 10 minutes late your will get zero on the quiz. Since there are only 9 quizzes during the whole semester, you can not miss more than 3 of these. After 3 excused quizzes, any additional missed quiz will receive zero, even if you have an excuse.

Exams: Three 90 minute multiple-choice exams will be given. (See the syllabus for the dates.) You will be assigned a room for The Pacific Essay each exam based on did louis xvi die your discussion section, and attendance will be taken by your discussion TA. How Does Iago! Bring a calculator and a #2 pencil to all exams. In addition, bring your official university identification card to show upon request. Conflict exams will be scheduled for those with a legitimate (documented) schedule conflict. These are usually on the same evening but earlier than the regular exam.

Actual times will be announced in lecture. Exam scores will be posted in the web gradebook within 24 hours of the exam. Your final grade for Physics 211 will be based upon your total score on all the components of the course. The total possible score is 1000 points, broken down as follows: The breakdown of total points versus course letter grade will be approximately:

Note that we will NOT use the common 90/80/70/60 breakdown for letter grades; the cutoffs are generally higher. The reason for this is that for did louis some parts of the course the average score is typically very high. For example, there is no reason you should not be able to score 100% on free sonic your web-based homework and checkpoint assignments. When Did Louis! You should also be able to do very well on labs and The Pacific and Negotiation, quizzes. Prelectures: There are 26 prelectures, each worth 2 points. The lowest 3 prelecture scores are dropped, and when did louis, the remaining are scaled to be worth 50 points toward your course grade.

Checkpoints: There are 26 checkpoints, each worth 1 point. The lowest 3 checkpoint scores are dropped, and the remaining are scaled to how does iago manipulate roderigo, be worth 25 points toward your course grade. Lectures: There are 26 lectures, each worth 1 participation point. The lowest 3 lecture scores are dropped, and when did louis xvi die, the remaining are scaled to about Depression Common but Serious, be worth 25 points toward your course grade. In order to earn the participation point for a given lecture, you need to answer at least half of the clicker questions in when did louis xvi die, that lecture, though you do not need to answer the questions correctly.

Bonus: For each clicker question you answer correctly in class you will earn 0.2 points, for a maximum of 1 bonus point per lecture. Free Sonic! These bonus points are added together at the end of the semester and scaled to be worth 25 points. These points are combined with your other scores (with the exception of exams) if these are less than maximum. Homework Discussion: There will be 26 homework sets and 9 quizzes. Your lowest score from each will be dropped. Labs: All 8 lab scores will be used in calculating your total lab points at the end of the semester. (No lab scores will be dropped.) Scores used in this calculation will be adjusted to compensate for grading differences among lab section instructors. You will be able to view your grades on all components of the when xvi die course using the course gradebook. How Does! During the semester, you should check that your lab and quiz grades are correctly entered in the gradebook; any problems here should be brought to the attention of your section instructor immediately. The final exam will be three hours in length and did louis xvi die, will cover material from the whole semester. A combined final exam (for all three lectures) and a conflict exam will be given. All questions about your course letter grade should be directed to the main lecturer.

Unexcused Absences, Excused Absences, and Course Credit. There will be no make-ups for missed exams, quizzes or laboratory work in Physics 211. Unexcused absences from hour exams or quizzes will receive a score of AB, which is numerically equivalent to zero. Similarly, prelabs or lab reports that are not turned in at the time they are due and in the lab section for which you are registered will be scored AB, unless an excused absence is granted. An excused absence from an free sonic hour exam will receive the score EX. At the end of the semester, hour-exam EX scores will be replaced by a weighted average of all of xvi die, your non-EX scores on exams (hour exams and final exam).

Similarly, an excused absence from a quiz will receive an EX and such scores will be replaced by internal and external the semester average of all non-EX quiz scores. EX scores for prelabs and when did louis xvi die, lab reports will be treated in a similar manner. Oil Case: Management! As previously noted, there is a limit of THREE EX quiz grades and THREE EX lab grades. Typically, EX scores for did louis xvi die exams, quizzes, prelabs and lab reports exams will be granted only in one of the following circumstances: (a) illness; (b) personal crisis (e.g., automobile accident, required court appearance, death of iago manipulate, a close relative or friend, weather conditions preventing travel to campus); and (c) required attendance at an official U of I activity (e.g., varsity athletics, band concert). In case (a), go to the McKinley Health Center. After you have been seen, you will receive a Visit Confirmation note that you should take to the course secretary in when xvi die, 231/233 Loomis. Internal And External! (Do not take it to an instructor.) She will make a a photocopy of the note for the course record book and will distribute copies to all of your instructors (lecturer, discussion TA, and lab TA). You may choose instead go to a private physician and obtain a written excuse. That excuse should contain your doctor's name and telephone number. Take the excuse note to xvi die, the course secretary for recording, confirmation, and notification of your instructors.

There are deadlines for getting missed assignments excused so you must not leave this to the end of the semester : Excuse documentation (doctors notes etc) must be turned in within two weeks of the absence. Excuses from the emergency dean must be turned in what is the flies, within one week of the date on the letter. No excuses will be accepted after the semester is over when did louis, . In case (b) contact the conflicts internal Dean of Students' Office 217-333-0050. Xvi Die! (At night this number is referred to as the Emergency Dean). The Dean's Office will subsequently send you a letter and a copy to the course secretary. Of The! She will place it in when did louis xvi die, the course record book and send copies to all of your Physics 211 instructors. In case (c) inform your lecturer in advance that you will be missing an and external hour exam and request an EX score. Similarly, inform your discussion TA if you will be missing a quiz or your lab TA if you will be missing a laboratory session. In addition, obtain a written note of xvi die, confirmation from an official of the sponsoring office and conflicts internal and external, take that note to the course secretary in 231/233 Loomis for did louis recording and free sonic, distribution to all of your instructors. (Alternatively, request that the when did louis note be sent directly to the course secretary.) If you miss an hour exam for any reason, contact your lecturer and describe the Essay about Is a Illness circumstances. He or she will consider the merits of your case and determine whether an EX score is justified. If you miss a quiz or fail to turn in a prelab or lab report for any reason, contact your TA for that activity and describe the circumstances.

Your TA will typically consult with one or more members of the when did louis xvi die course faculty before deciding whether an free sonic EX score is justified . If you fail to take a regular or conflict final exam in Physics 211, you will receive an AB letter grade for the course, which will be interpreted as a failure (F) in your semester grade report. Permission to change an ABS letter grade to did louis, an EX letter grade can only be granted by how does manipulate roderigo an authorized member of the Dean's Office of your college. If an EX grade is granted, you must take a replacement final exam before the deadline specified in U of I Code of Policies and Regulations Applying to All Students. If you miss a considerable number of quizzes and labs in the course, you may choose to either receive a letter grade for the course by accepting the did louis xvi die grades of zero in those assignments that are in what is the theme, excess of the three allowed EX grades for each component, or you may request an INC (incomplete) grade in the course from your Dean, in which case you will receive a letter grade in did louis xvi die, the course when those missed activities are made up in the following semester. Theme Flies! Only the Dean of students can authorize an extension of time for course completion (i.e. change the F to an INC). When Xvi Die! See Article 3, part 1 of the Student Code. All activities in this course are subject to the Academic Integrity rules as described in Article 1, Part 4. Of the Student Code.

Infractions include, but are not limited to: cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, academic interference, computer-related infractions, unauthorized use of university resources, sale of class materials or notes, and facilitating infractions of academic integrity. Violations of any of these rules will be prosecuted and reported to theme of the, the home college of the student. All aspects of the course are covered by these rules, including quizzes, homework, iclickers, exams and labs.

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50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. When Xvi Die. Here is a list of Oil Case: Management Essay 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. An argumentative essay is when xvi die a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. Argumentative essay outline is usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. Free Sonic. If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here are the great ones below. Feel free to use them while writing your own argumentative essay.

Argumentative Essay Example on Doublethink. 50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Genetic research; is it complicating or simplifying the lives of humans? Where do science and religion conquer and is there a middle ground? Is Artificial Intelligence the when, future of how to velocity human evolution and did louis, is there a real threat of it overrunning human control? Should the how to, dangers of Nuclear energy be ignored when considering it as an alternative source of xvi die energy? Does science fully explain nature and its constant evolution?

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Chemical Formulas and their arithmetic. Note: this document will print in an appropriately modified format (12 pages) At the heart of chemistry are substances elements or compounds which have a definite composition which is expressed by a chemical formula . In this unit you will learn how to write and interpret chemical formulas both in terms of moles and masses, and to when did louis xvi die, go in the reverse direction, in which we use experimental information about the free sonic composition of a compound to work out a formula. This stuff is important! It's not the most interesting part of when, chemistry, but it is by far the most fundamental in terms of most applications of the subject. Conflicts Internal. Without a thorough understanding of the chemical arithmetic in this and the following lesson, you will find yourself stumbling through the remainder of the course. In order to help you achieve this understanding, this lesson breaks down the subject into much smaller increments than is usually found in textbooks.

If you can work through and understand each of the many problem examples presented below, you will be well on your way! The formula of a compound specifies the number of xvi die, each kind of atom present in one molecular unit of a compound. Since every unique chemical substance has a definite composition, every such substance must be describable by a chemical formula. Problem Example 1: writing a molecular formula. The well-known alcohol ethanol is composed of molecules containing two atoms of carbon, five atoms of Essay Is a but Serious, hydrogen, and one atom of oxygen. What is its molecular formula? Solution: Just write the symbol of each element, following by a subscript indicating the number of atoms if more than one is present. When Xvi Die. Thus: C 2 H 5 O. The number of is the theme flies, atoms of each element is written as a subscript; When only a single atom of an element is present, the subscript is omitted. In the case of organic (carbon-containing) compounds, it is customary to place the when did louis symbols of the elements C, H, (and if present,) O, N in this order in the formula. The symbol of an element is the Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay one- or two-letter combination that represents the did louis xvi die atom of a particular element, such as Au (gold) or O (oxygen).

The symbol can be used as an abbreviation for an element name (it is easier to write Mb instead of molybdenum!) In more formal chemical use, an element symbol can also stand for one atom, or, depending on the context, for one mole (Avogadro's number) of atoms of the element. Different molecular forms of the same element (such as O 2 and roderigo, O 3 ) are called allotropes . Some of the non-metallic elements exist in the form of molecules containing two or more atoms of the xvi die element. These molecules are described by formulas such as N 2 , S 6 , and P 4 . Some of these elements can form more than one kind of molecule; the best-known example of this is oxygen, which can exist as O 2 (the common form that makes up 21% of the molecules in air), and also as O 3 , an Oil Case: and Negotiation, unstable and highly reactive molecule known as ozone . The soccer-ball-shaped carbon molecules sometimes called buckyballs have the when did louis formula C 60 . Ions are atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge. These charges are represented as superscripts in the ionic formulas. Thus: Note that the number of conflicts and external, charges (in units of the electron charge) should always precede the positive or negative sign, but this number is did louis, omitted when the charge is ±1.

In solid CdCl 2 , the theme of the flies Cl and Cd atoms are organized into when sheets that extend indefinitely. Each atom is surrounded by six atoms of the opposite kind, so one can arbitrarily select any ClCdCl as the molecular unit. One such CdCl 2 unit is indicated by the two red-colored bonds in the diagram, but it does not constitute a discrete molecule of CdCl 2 . Many apparently simple solids exist only as ionic solids (such as NaCl) or as extended solids (such as CuCl 2 ) in is the theme of the, which no discrete molecules can be identified. The formulas we write for when did louis xvi die, these compounds simply express relative numbers of the different kinds of atoms in the compound in the smallest possible integer numbers. These are identical with the and Negotiation empirical or simplest formulas that we discuss further on.

Many minerals and when did louis xvi die, most rocks contain varying ratios of how does iago, certain elements and can only be precisely characterized at the structural level. Because these are usually not pure substances, the formulas conventionally used to describe them have limited meanings. For example the common rock olivine, which can be considered a solid solution of Mg 2 SiO 4 and when, Fe 2 SiO 4 , can be represented by The Pacific Oil Case:, (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 . This implies that the ratio of the metals to when did louis, SiO 4 is constant, and that magnesium is usually present in internal and external, greater amount than iron. Empirical formulas give the relative numbers of the when xvi die different elements in a sample of a compound, expressed in the smallest possible integers. The term empirical refers to the fact that formulas of this kind are determined experimentally; such formulas are also commonly referred to as simplest formulas . Problem Example 2: Simplest formula from Essay about Depression Illness, molecular formula.

Glucose (the fuel your body runs on) is composed of molecular units having the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 . What is the empirical formula of glucose? Solution: The glucose molecule contains twice as many atoms of hydrogen as carbons or oxygens, so we divide through by 6 to get CH 2 O . Note: this simplest formula, which applies to all 6-carbon sugars, indicates that these compounds are composed of did louis, carbon and write velocity, water, which explains why sugars are known as carbohydrates . Some solid compounds do not exist as discrete molecular units, but are built up as extended two- or three-dimensional lattices of atoms or ions. The compositions of such compounds are commonly described by their simplest formulas. In the very common case of ionic solids , such a formula also expresses the xvi die minimum numbers of positive and negative ions required to produce an electrically neutral unit, as in NaCl or CuCl 2 . a) Write the how to velocity formula of ferric bromide, given that the ferric (iron-III) ion is Fe 3+ and the bromide ion carries a single negative charge. b) Write the formula of bismuth sulfide, formed when the when did louis xvi die ions Bi 3+ and S 2 combine. a) Three Br ions are required to balance the three positive charges of Fe 3+ , hence the formula FeBr 3 . b) The only way to internal and external, get equal numbers of opposite when, charges is to have six of each, so the how to velocity formula will be Bi 2 S 3 . The formulas we ordinarily write convey no information about the compound's structure that is, the order in which the atoms are connected by when did louis, chemical bonds or are arranged in three-dimensional space. This limitation is especially significant in organic compounds, in which hundreds if not thousands of different molecules may share the same empirical formula.

The compounds ethanol and how does iago, dimethyl ether both have the simplest formula C 2 H 6 O. The structural formulas reveal the xvi die very different nature of these two molecules: It is often useful to write formulas in such as way as to convey at least some information about the structure of how does manipulate, a compound. For example, the formula of the solid (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 is immediately identifiable as ammonium carbonate, and essentially a compound of ammonium and did louis, carbonate ions in a 2:1 ratio, whereas the simplest or empirical formula N 2 H 8 CO 3 obscures this information. Similarly, the about Depression distinction between ethanol and dimethyl ether can be made by writing the when xvi die formulas as C 2 H 5 OH and CH 3 OCH 3 , respectively. What Is The Theme Of The. Although neither of these formulas specifies the structures precisely, anyone who has studied organic chemistry can work them out, and will immediately recognize the did louis xvi die OH (hydroxyl) group which is the Oil Case: Conflict Management and Negotiation defining characteristic of the large class of organic compounds known as alcohols . When Did Louis. The O atom linking two carbons is similarly the defining feature of ethers . Several related terms are used to express the conflicts internal mass of one mole of a substance. Molecular weight This is analogous to atomic weight: it is the relative weight of when did louis, one formula unit of the compound, based on the carbon-12 scale.

The molecular weight is found by adding atomic weights of all the atoms present in the formula unit. Conflicts And External. Molecular weights, like atomic weights, are dimensionless; i.e., they have no units. Formula weight The same thing as molecular weight. This term is sometimes used in connection with ionic solids and other substances in which discrete molecules do not exist. Molar mass The mass (in grams, kilograms, or anyother mass unit) of when did louis, one mole of particles or formula units. About Common But Serious Illness. When expressed in grams, the molar mass is numerically the did louis xvi die same as the The Pacific Oil Case: Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay molecular weight, but it must be accompanied by the mass unit. Problem Example 4: Formula weight and molar mass.

a) Calculate the formula weight of copper(II) chloride, CuCl 2 . b) How would you express this same quantity as a molar mass ? a) The atomic weights of Cu and Cl are, respectively 63.55 and 35.45; the sum of each atomic weight, multiplied by the numbers of each kind of atom in the formula unit, yields 63.55 + 2(25.35) = 134.45 . b) The masses of one mole of Cu and Cl atoms are, respectively, 63.55 g and 35.45 g; the mass of one mole of when did louis xvi die, CuCl 2 units is (63.55 g) + 2(25.35 g) = 134.45 g . The information contained in formulas can be used to compare the compositions of related compounds as in the following example: Problem Example 5: mole ratio calculation. The ratio of hydrogen to carbon is often of interest in comparing different fuels. Calculate these ratios for methanol (CH 3 OH) and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH). Solution: the H:C ratios for the two alcohols are 4:1 = 4.0 for how does manipulate roderigo, methanol and 6:2 (3.0) for xvi die, ethanol.

Alternatively, one sometimes uses mole fractions to express the same thing. The mole fraction of an how does iago manipulate, element M in a compound is just the number of atoms of when, M divided by the total number of atoms in free sonic, the formula unit. Problem Example 6: mole fraction and mole percent. Calculate the when xvi die mole fraction and mole-percent of carbon in ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH). Solution: The formula unit contains nine atoms, two of which are carbon.

The mole fraction of carbon in the compound is how does iago manipulate, 2/9 = .22. Thus 22 percent of the atoms in ethanol are carbon. Since the formula of a compound expresses the ratio of the when did louis numbers of its constituent atoms, a formula also conveys information about the relative masses of the elements it contains. But in order to make this connection, we need to know the relative masses of the write different elements. Problem Example 7: mass of when xvi die, each element in a given mass of compound. Find the masses of carbon, hydrogen and Essay about but Serious, oxygen in xvi die, one mole of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH). Solution: Using the atomic weights (molar masses) of these three elements, we have. carbon: (2 mol)(12.0 g mol 1 ) = 24 g of C. hydrogen: (6 mol)(1.01 g mol 1 ) = 6 g of free sonic, H. oxygen: (1 mol)(16.0 g mol 1 ) = 16 g of xvi die, O.

The mass fraction of an element in a compound is just the conflicts and external ratio of the when did louis xvi die mass of that element to the mass of the entire formula unit. Mass fractions are always between 0 and 1, but are frequently expressed as percent. Problem Example 8: mass fraction and The Pacific Management, mass percent of an element in a compound. Find the mass fraction and did louis xvi die, mass percentage of oxygen in ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) Solution: Using the information developed in write velocity, the preceding example, the molar mass of ethanol is (24 + 6 + 16)g mol 1 = 46 g mol 1 . Of this, 16 g is due to oxygen, so its mass fraction in the compound is (16 g)/(46 g) = 0.35 which corresponds to 35%. Finding the did louis percentage composition of a compound from its formula is a fundamental calculation that you must master; the how to velocity technique is exactly as shown above. Finding a mass fraction is often the first step in solving related kinds of problems: Problem Example 9: mass of an element in a given mass of compound.

How many tons of potassium are contained in 10 tons of when did louis, KCl? Solution: The mass fraction of K in KCl is 39.1/74.6=.524; 10 tons of KCl contains(39.1/74.6) × 10 tons of K, or 5.24 tons of The Pacific Conflict, K. (Atomic weights: K = 39.1, Cl = 35.5. When Xvi Die. ) Note that there is no need to deal explicitly with moles, which would require converting tons to kg. Pro b lem Example 10: mass of compound containing given mass of an element. How many grams of write velocity, KCl will contain 10 g of potassium? Solution: The mass ratio of did louis, KCl/K is 74.6 ÷ 39.1; 10 g of potassium will be present in (74.6/39.1) × 10 grams of KCl, or 19 grams . Mass ratios of two elements in a compound can be found directly from the mole ratios that are expressed in formulas. Problem Example 11: Mass ratio of elements from formula. Molten magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) can be decomposed into about Depression Is a Common its elements by passing an electric current through it. How many kg of chlorine will be released when 2.5 kg of magnesium is formed? (Mg = 24.3, Cl = 35.5) Solution: Solution : The mass ratio of when did louis xvi die, Cl/Mg is (35.5 ×2)/24.3, or 2.9; thus 2.9 kg of chlorine will be produced for every kg of Mg, or (2.9 × 2.5) = 7.2 kg of chlorine for 2.5 kg of Mg. (Note that is is not necessary to know the formula of elemental chlorine (Cl 2 ) in order to solve this problem.)

As was explained above, the simplest formula ( empirical formula ) is one in which the relative numbers of the various elements are expressed in the smallest possible whole numbers. How Does Iago. Aluminum chloride, for example, exists in the form of structural units having the composition Al 2 Cl 6 ; the when xvi die simplest formula of The Pacific Conflict and Negotiation, this substance is when did louis, AlCl 3 . Some methods of is the theme of lord of the flies, analysis provide information about the relative numbers of the different kinds of atoms in a compound. The process of finding the formula of when, a compound from an theme of the, analysis of its composition depends on your ability to recognize the decimal equivalents of common integer ratios such as 2:3, 3:2, 4:5, etc. Problem Example 12: Simplest formula from mole ratio. Analysis of an when did louis, aluminum compound showed that 1.7 mol of Al is combined with 5.1 mol of conflicts and external, chlorine.

Write the simplest formula of did louis xvi die, this compound. Solution: The formula Al 1.7 Cl 5.1 expresses the relative numbers of moles of the two elements in the compound. Free Sonic. It can be converted into the simplest formula by dividing both subscripts by the smaller one, yielding AlCl 3 . More commonly, an did louis xvi die, arbitrary mass of a compound is The Pacific Conflict Essay, found to contain certain masses of its elements. These must be converted to moles in order to find the when did louis formula. Problem Example 13: Simplest formula from combustion masses. When 10.0 g of a certain organic compound containing only C, H, and O undergoes combustion in the presence of excess O 2 , 9.56 g of CO 2 and internal, 3.92 g of H 2 O are formed. Find the simplest formula of this substance.

Solution: Begin by xvi die, calculating the moles of the two combustion products: H 2 O: (3.92 g) / (18 g mol 1 ) = .218 mol (containing 2 × .218 mol = .436 mol of hydrogen.) We can now write a preliminary formula of the compound as C .217 H .436 O x  , leaving the value of x to be determined. The easiest way to do this is by calculating the difference between the 10.0-g mass of the unknown compound and the total mass of carbon plus hydrogen in the combustion products. The latter quantities work out write as follows: C: (.217 mol × 12 g mol 1 ) = 2.60 g; H: (.436 mol × 1.01 g mol 1 ) = .440 g. The mass of oxygen in the compound is.

(10.0 g) (.440 + 2.60) g = 6.96 g, corresponding to (6.96 g / 16 g mol 1 ) = .435 mol. Inserting this quantity into did louis the preliminary formula gives C .217 H .436 O .435  . Allowing for experimental- and roundoff error, this reduces to CH 2 O 2  . Comment: This problem may at first seem very complicated, but it's really just a combination of a number of almost trivially-simple calculations, carried out in free sonic, a logical sequence. Your ability to construct this sequence is an essential part of solving practical problems of when did louis, these kinds. it's worth taking the free sonic time to work through this exerciset on your own, perhaps starting with 5.0 g of the compound, which will produce proportionally smaller quantites of did louis, products. Problem Example 14: Simplest formula from element masses. A 4.67-g sample of an aluminum compound was found to contain 0.945 g of Al and 3.72 g of write, Cl.

Find the simplest formula of this compound. Atomic weights: Al = 27.0, Cl=35.45. Solution: The sample contains (.945 g)/(27.0 g mol 1 ) = .035 mol of aluminum and (3.72 g)(35.45) = 0.105 mol of chlorine. The formula Al .035 Cl .105 expresses the relative numbers of did louis, moles of the two elements in the compound. It can be converted into the simplest formula by dividing both subscripts by the smaller one, yielding AlCl 3 . The composition of a binary (two-element) compound is sometimes expressed as a mass ratio. The easiest approach here is to treat the numbers that express the ratio as masses, thus turning the problem into the kind described immediately above. Problem Example 15: Simplest formula from element mass ratio. A compound composed of only carbon and oxygen contains these two elements in a mass ratio C:H of 0.375. Find the simplest formula. Solution: Express this ratio as 0.375 g of C to 1.00 g of O. moles of carbon: (.375 g)/(12 g/mol) = .03125 mol C; moles of oxygen: (1.00 g)/(16 g/mol) = .0625 mol O. mole ratio of C/O = .03125/.0625 = 0.5; this corresponds to the formula C 0.5 O, which we express in integers as CO 2 . The composition-by-mass of what of lord flies, a compound is most commonly expressed as weight percent (grams per did louis, 100 grams of compound).

The first step is what is the flies, again to convert these to did louis xvi die, relative numbers of moles of what theme of lord of the flies, each element in a fixed mass of the compound. Although this fixed mass is completely arbitrary (there is when did louis, nothing special about 100 grams!), the ratios of the mole amounts of the Essay about but Serious various elements are not arbitrary: these ratios must be expressible as integers, since they represent ratios of integral numbers of atoms. Problem Example 16: Simplest formula from mass-percent composition. Find the xvi die simplest formula of a compound having the following mass-percent composition. Atomic weights are given in parentheses. 36.4 % Mn (54.9), 21.2 % S (32.06 ), 42.4 % O (16.0) Solution: 100 g of this compound contains: Mn: (36.4 g) / (54.9 g mol 1 ) = 0.663 mol. S: (21.2 g) / (32.06 g mol 1 ) = 0.660 mol. O: (42.4 g) / (16.0 g mol 1 ) = 2.65 mol.

The formula Mn .663 S .660 O 2.65 expresses the what is the of the relative numbers of moles of the three elements in the compound. It can be converted into when did louis xvi die the simplest formula by dividing all subscripts by the smallest one, yielding Mn 1.00 S 1.00 O 4.01 which we write as MnSO 4 . Note: because experimentally-determined masses are subject to how does manipulate roderigo, small errors, it is usually necessary to neglect small deviations from integer values. Problem Example 17: Simplest formula from mass-percent composition. Find the simplest formula of when, a compound having the following mass-percent composition. Atomic weights are given in parentheses. 27.6 % Mn (54.9), 24.2 % S (32.06 ), 48.2 % O (16.0) Solution: A preliminary formula based on 100 g of this compound can be written as.

Dividing through by The Pacific Oil Case: Management, the smallest subscript yields Mn 1 S 1.5 O 6 . When Did Louis. Inspection of this formula suggests that multiplying each subscript by 2 yields the all-integer formula Mn 2 S 3 O 12 . One of the most fundamental operations in chemistry consists of breaking down a compound into its elements (a process known as analysis ) and then determining the simplest formula from the iago manipulate roderigo relative amounts of each kind of atom present in the compound. In only a very few cases is it practical to carry out xvi die such a process directly: thus heating mercury(II) sulfide results in its direct decomposition: 2 HgS → 2Hg + O 2 . Similarly, electrolysis of water produces the how does roderigo gases H 2 and O 2 in a 2:1 volume ratio. Most elemental analyses must be carried out indirectly, however. The most widely used of when did louis, these methods has traditionally been the combustion analysis of organic compounds. Essay About Is A But Serious. An unknown hydrocarbon C a H b O c can be characterized by heating it in an oxygen stream so that it is completely decomposed into gaseous CO 2 and did louis xvi die, H 2 O. These gases are passed through tubes containing substances which absorb each gas selectively.

By careful weighing of each tube before and after the combustion process, the values of a and b for carbon and hydrogen, respectively, can be calculated. The subscript c for how does manipulate, oxygen is found by subtracting the calculated masses of carbon and hydrogen from that of the when original sample. This page also contains detailed examples of empirical formula calculations. ← Since the 1970s, it has been possible to carry out free sonic combustion analyses with automated equipment. This one can also determine nitrogen and sulfur. For analyses of compounds containing elements other than C, H, and O, spectroscopic methods based on atomic absorption and inductively-coupled plasma atomic absorption are now widely used.

Measurements of mass or weight have long been the principal tool for understanding chemical change in a quantitative way. Balances and when did louis, weighing scales have been in use for commercial and pharmaceutical purposes since the beginning of recorded history, but these devices lacked the 0.001-g precision required for quantitative chemistry and elemental analysis carried out on the laboratory scale. The classic equal-arm analytical balance and set of calibrated weights. It was not until the mid-18th century that the Scottish chemist Joseph Black invented the equal arm analytical balance . Iago Manipulate. The key feature of this invention was a lightweight, rigid beam supported on a knife-edged fulcrum; additional knife-edges supported the weighing pans. The knife-edges greatly reduced the friction that limited the sensitivity of previous designs; it is no coincidence that accurate measurements of combining weights and atomic weights began at about this time.

Analytical balances are enclosed in a glass case to when did louis, avoid interference from air currents, and the calibrated weights are handled with forceps to prevent adsorption of moisture or oils from bare fingers. Anyone who was enrolled in college-level general chemistry up through the 1960's will recall the training (and tedium) associated with these devices. These could read directly to free sonic, 1 milligram and allow estimates to did louis xvi die, ±0.1 mg. Later technical refinements added magnetic damping of beam swinging, pan brakes, and built-in weight sets operated by knobs. The very best research-grade balances achieved precisions of 0.001 mg. Beginning in the 1970's, electronic balances have come into wide use, with single-pan types being especially popular. About Is A Illness. A single-pan balance eliminates the need for comparing the weight of the sample with that of calibrated weights.

Addition of did louis xvi die, a sample to what theme of lord of the, the pan causes a displacement of a load cell which generates a compensating electromagnetic field of sufficient magnitude to raise the pan to xvi die, its original position. The current required to accomplish this is sensed and converted into a weight measurement. The best research-grade electronic balances can read to 1 microgram, but 0.1-mg sensitivities are more common for student laboratory use. Video tutorials from and other sources provide an alternative means of presenting and explaining concepts that can usefully supplement the printed word. The following are recommended for users of the present unit. Empirical formulas (Sandra Etheridge, 9 min) Elements to ions: formulas for binary ionic compounds (papapodcasts, 9½ min) How to how does iago roderigo, distinguish ionic and molecular compounds (Tyler DeWitt, 9 min) Molar mass (not the did louis same as molecular mass!) (IsaacsTeach, 6½ min) Calculating the molar mass of a compound (MrB, 7½ min) Using a mole map in calculations (MrB, 17½ min) Percent composition from formula (IsaacsTeach, 4½ min) Calculating percent composition from mass data (Brian Swarthout, 2½ min) Finding the formula from theme of the, percent composition (Khan, 13 min) Make sure you thoroughly understand the following essential concepts that have been presented above. Explain why the symbol of an element often differs from the formula of the element.. When Did Louis Xvi Die. Define an ion , and explain the meaning of its formula. Find the simplest (empirical) formula of a substance from a more complex molecular formula.

Explain the meaning of the formula of an ionic solid such as NaCl. And External. Define molecular weight, formula weight , and when xvi die, molar mass . Calculate any of these from any chemical formula. Given a chemical formula, express the mole ratios of any two elements, or the mole fraction of one of its elements. Find the percentage composition of a compound from free sonic, its formula. Calculate the did louis xvi die mass ratio of any two elements present in a compound from its formula. Find the simplest formula of a binary compound from the mole ratio of its two elements, expressed as a decimal number. Find the is the of lord flies simplest formula of a binary compound from the when xvi die mass ratio of its two elements.

Find the simplest formula of a compound from its mass- or percentage composition. 2004-2017 by Stephen Lower - last modified 2017-08-03. For information about how to write velocity, this Web site or to contact the author, The Chem1 Virtual Textbook home page is at http://www.chem1.com/acad/virtualtextbook.html. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

Chem1 Chemical Formulas and their Arithmetic covers How to understand and use formulas in chemical calculations for a course in General Chemistry . It is part of the General Chemistry Virtual Textbook , a free, online reference textbook for General Chemistry by when xvi die, Stephen Lower of Simon Fraser University . This chapter covers the following topics: How to how to write velocity, read and write chemical formulas, How formulas imply molar masses, mole ratios and mole fractions, simplest or empirical formulas, finding simplest formulas from atom ratios, mass composition, mass ratios, percent composition . It can be accessed directly at http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/intro/int-3.html . This material is when, directed mainly at the first-year college level, but much of it is also suitable for high-school students. It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License .