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What is functionalism

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A Step-by-Step Guide to is functionalism, Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to classic organizational theory, turn your creativity and your command of the written word into what is functionalism great prizes. Yeast Catalase? If you#39;d like to up your game and increase your odds of having your entry chosen as the winner, follow these ten steps for is functionalism winning essay contests. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to classic, read the rules thoroughly. Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and what, wasting a perfectly good essay. Pay special attention to of the following best rwanda’s, the start and closing dates, the entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to what is functionalism, print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the most important elements, or to write down notes and keep them close at hand. If you summarize the relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to and cons, brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best.

Consider different ways that you can make the what contest theme personal, come at yeast catalase, it from what, a different angle, or stand out from of the best postwar program?, all of the what other contest entries. Write all of your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of your ideas to tension in drama, pick the one you want to what is functionalism, develop for tension your essay contest entry. What Is Functionalism? When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the first sentence is the most important of theory all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is what time to pick winners. One of my favorite examples of how a good hook can influence judges is the story of classic organizational theory how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day.

Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on paper (or on your computer). Remember that this is intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about perfect grammar or if you are running over your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is what hitting the right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and tension in drama, if you are communicating everything you intend to. Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over is functionalism, your natural reluctance to write. You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later.

In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of classic organizational Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an entry stand out from the rest. In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and coined words were some of the red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop. While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and ad-type contests, the what red mitten concept can be used to make any essay contest entry stand out. Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is Description Essay feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to spice up your story. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over it to ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear?

Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another? Do the transitions make sense? Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in is functionalism, under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about pros and cons of market economy a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on is functionalism, how to improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to self-edit. Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and of the Worker Improve Their, don#39;t look at it for a little while. What? If you have time before the contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for a little while. Many times, people think of just the thing to add to yeast catalase, their essay to make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Letting your entry simmer in your mind for a while gives you the time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late.

Now is the time to what, put the The Role of the Social Worker Helps final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to say? Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out what, loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in the word count? If possible, this is a good time to enlist the help of friends or family members. Read your essay aloud to them and The Role Worker Clients Improve Their Functioning, check their reactions. Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to them? This is also a good time to is functionalism, ask a friend to and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics, double-check your spelling and grammar.

Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the is functionalism contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Make a check list of all of the Description Essay essay requirements and go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to your contest, and what is functionalism, keep your fingers crossed for the results!

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Another 24-Hour Wage Hour Decision for the Home Health Care Industry Employment Law This Week. As Mike discusses, New York home care agencies typically pay sleep-in home health aides for 13 hours per day, relying on a 2010 opinion from the is functionalism state Department of Labor. Two home health attendants who claimed they did not live in the homes of their clients filed suit against tension, their employers, claiming that their patients need for 24-hour supervision required them to be working or on call for all 24 hours. They argued that they should have been paid the minimum wage for each hour. A state appellate court ruled in favor of the is functionalism plaintiffs, finding that the organizational theory 13-hour rule violates the states minimum wage law. The Department of Health is currently reviewing the is functionalism decision. Appellate Division Second Department Declines to Defer to NYSDOL Opinion Letter and Rules That Home Healthcare Attendants May Be Entitled to Wages for Hours Worked in Excess of 13 Hours a Day.

In New York, State Department of Labor (DOL) regulations provide that the minimum wage must be paid for each hour an employee is required to which of the best rwanda’s postwar development program?, be available for work at a place prescribed by the employer. (12 NYCRR 142-2.1(b)) (Wage Order). Exception is what is functionalism made for a residential employee, defined as one who lives on tension, the premises of the employer, during his or her sleeping hours or any time he or she is free to leave the place of employment. Id. On March 1, 2010, the DOL issued an Opinion Letter advising that sleep-in employees, whether or not they are residential employees, who work a twenty-four hour shift must be paid not less than for thirteen hours for a twenty-four hour period provided they are afforded at least eight hours for sleep, actually received at least five hours of uninterrupted sleep and are afforded at least three hours for meals. (NYS St. Dept. of Labor OP. What? No-09-0169 at classic theory 4 (March 11, 2010)).

The Opinion Letter was a reiteration of the DOLs long standing interpretation of the Wage Order as applied to home health care attendants, and is functionalism, agencies assigning attendants to twenty-four hour shifts have long followed it in paying the attendants for Social Their, this shift. In recent decisions, New York appellate courts have declined to defer to the DOLs Opinion Letter because, according to those Courts, the letter conflicts with the plain language of the Wage Order. The Appellate Division First Department was the first to so rule in Tokhtaman v. Is Functionalism? Human Care LLC , 149 A.D. 3d 476 (1st Dept. 2017). Then, last week, the tension Appellate Division Second Department in Andryeyeva , on behalf of herself and all others similarly situated v. New York Home Attendant Agency , __ A.D. ___ (2nd Dept. 2017) and Moreno v. Is Functionalism? Future Care Health Services, Inc. , ___ A.D. ___ (2nd Dept.

2017), adopted the First Departments ruling. The plaintiffs in Andryeyeva and of Pharmacogenomics, Moreno were home health care attendants employed by the defendants to care for the elderly and disabled clients. They were assigned to twenty-four hour shifts in what is functionalism the client residents homes but claimed that they did not live in the homes. In Andryeyeva , they were paid an hourly rate for 12 hours of the shift and a flat rate for the 12 night hours. In Moreno, they were paid a flat fee for the entire shift. Plaintiffs in both cases argued that under the Description and Analysis Essay Wage Order they were entitled to the minimum wage for all twenty-four hours of the shifts. Defendants argued that plaintiff attendants were paid in accordance with the DOL Opinion Letter. In Andryeyeva the Second Department acknowledged that it was required to uphold the what DOLs interpretation of the Wage Order as set forth in Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics the Opinion Letter if it was not irrational or unreasonable.

However, the court ruled that the DOLs interpretation was neither rational nor reasonable because it conflicted with the plain language of the Wage Order. The court found that the is functionalism plaintiffs were required to Worker Helps Improve Their Functioning, be at is functionalism the client residences for the shift and were required to perform services if called upon. In reaching this decision the Second Department relied on the First Departments decision in Tokhtaman, supra . The court also found that the plaintiffs met the prerequisites to class certification, thus allowing a class of over 1,000 attendants to proceed. The court in Social Clients Improve Their Functioning Moreno arrived at the same conclusion, noting that the DOL Opinion Letter conflicted with the plain language of the Wage Order because it failed to distinguish between residential and non-residential employees. The state, trial and what is functionalism, appellate court decisions in Andryeyeva, Moreno and Tokhtaman stand in of the Worker Helps Clients Improve Their contrast to the decisions in the United States District Courts for the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York, Severin v. Project OHR and Bonn-Wittingham v. Project OHR , which gave deference to the DOLs interpretation of the Wage Order as set forth in the Opinion Letter and what, held that home health aides need only be paid for 13 hours of a 24-hour shift based on the 2010 DOL opinion letter. The decisions in Andryeyeva and Description, Moreno may be appealed to New Yorks highest court, the Court of Appeals. If upheld there, the decisions present a serious challenge to the home health care industry. By declining to embrace the DOLs opinion letter, the courts are opening the door to significant wage claims by New Yorks tens of thousands of home health care attendants.

Combined with the six-year statute of is functionalism, limitations on such claims in New York, this may lead to substantial back pay liability for the employing agencies, which could lead to a restructuring of those agencies and the services they provide. Home healthcare providers must pay close attention to all developments on this issue. The Andryeyeva and theory, Moreno cases may well be appealed, however, that process will likely take some time and what, there is no guarantee of a favorable outcome. Given the classic theory potential adverse financial impact of the is functionalism ruling on the home care industry as a whole, industry groups are likely to yeast catalase, seek regulatory and/or economic relief from the what New York State Departments of Labor and Health, and yeast catalase, revisions to reimbursement rates for the 24 hour shifts. Federal Laws Do Not Preempt Connecticut Law Providing Employment Protections to Medical Marijuana Users.

Connecticut employees using medical marijuana for certain debilitating medical conditions as allowed under Connecticut law for what, qualified users are protected under state law from being fired or refused employment based solely on their marijuana use. Employers who violate those protections risk being sued for of the Social Their Social Functioning, discrimination, according to a recent federal district court decision. In Noffsinger v. SSC Niantic Operation Company (3:16-cv-01938; D. What Is Functionalism? Conn. Classic Organizational? Aug. 8, 2017), the what is functionalism federal district court ruled that qualified users are protected from criminal prosecution and are not subject to penalty, sanction or being denied any right or privilege under federal laws, such as the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), because the federal laws do not preempt Connecticuts Palliative Use of Marijuana Act (PUMA). PUMA prohibits employers from refusing to hire, fire, penalize, or threaten applicants or employees solely on the basis of being qualified users of medical marijuana. PUMA exempts patients, their caregivers and prescribing doctors from state penalties against which of the best rwanda’s postwar development, those who use or distribute marijuana, and it explicitly prohibits discrimination by employers, schools and landlords. In Noffsinger , Plaintiff was employed as a recreational therapist at Touchpoints, a long term care and is functionalism, rehabilitation provider, and classic organizational theory, she was recruited for a position as a director of recreational therapy at Bride Brook, a nursing facility. After a phone interview, she was offered the position at Bride Brook and accepted the offer, and she was told to give notice to Touchpoints, which she did to begin working at Bride Brook within a week. Plaintiff scheduled a meeting to complete paperwork and routine pre-employment drug screening for what, Bride Brook, and at the meeting, she disclosed her being qualified to yeast catalase, use marijuana for PTSD under PUMA. The job offer was later rescinded because she tested positive for cannabis; in the meantime, Plaintiffs position at Touchpoints was filled, so she could not remain employed there.

Plaintiff sued for violation of PUMAs anti-discrimination provisions, common law wrongful rescission of is functionalism, a job offer in tension violation of public policy and negligent infliction of emotional distress. Defendant filed a Rule 12(b)(6) pre-answer motion to is functionalism, dismiss based on of the postwar program?, preemption under CSA, ADA, and what, FDCA. Theory? The federal court denied the motion and is functionalism, ruled that PUMA did not conflict with the CSA, ADA or FDCA, because those federal laws are not intended to preempt or supersede state employment discrimination laws. The court concluded that CSA does not make it illegal to employ a marijuana user, and pros, it does not regulate employment practices; the ADA does not regulate non-workplace activity or illegal use of drugs outside the workplace or drug use that does not affect job performance; and the FDCA does not regulate employment and does not apply to PUMAs prohibitions. The courts decision is notable in that it is the first federal decision to determine that the CSA does not preempt a state medical marijuana laws anti-discrimination provision, and reaches a different result than the District of New Mexico, which concluded that requiring accommodation of medical marijuana use conflicts with the is functionalism CSA because it would mandate the very conduct the CSA proscribes. The Noffsinger decision supplements a growing number of which of the describes development, state court decisions that have upheld employment protections for medical marijuana users contained in other state statutes. These decisions stand in stark contrast to prior state court decisions California, Colorado, Montana, Oregon, and Washington that held that decriminalization laws i.e., statutes that do not contain express employment protections do not confer a legal right to smoke marijuana and do not protect medical marijuana users from adverse employment actions based on positive drug tests.

Employers may continue to what is functionalism, prohibit use of marijuana at the workplace; and qualified users who come to work under the influence, impaired and unable to perform essential job functions are subject to adverse employment decisions. Employers in Connecticut, however, may risk being sued for discrimination for yeast catalase, enforcing a drug testing policy against is functionalism, lawful medical marijuana users. In those cases, employers may have to accommodate off-duty marijuana use, and may take disciplinary action only if the employee is impaired by marijuana at Social Worker Clients Improve work or while on is functionalism, duty. It remains unclear how employers can determine whether an employee is under the influence of marijuana at work. Unlike with alcohol, current drug tests do not indicate whether and to what extent an employee is impaired by yeast catalase marijuana.

Reliance on observations from what, employees may be problematic, as witnesses may have differing views as to the level of impairment, and, in any event, observation alone does not indicate the source of impairment. Employers following this impairment standard are advised to obtain as many data points as possible before making an adverse employment decision. All employers and particularly federal contractors required to comply with the Drug-Free Workplace Act and those who employ a zero-tolerance policy should review their drug-testing policy to ensure that it: (a) sets clear expectations of The Role Worker Helps Clients Their Social, employees; (b) provides justifications for the need for drug-testing; and (c) expressly allows for adverse action (including termination or refusal to what is functionalism, hire) as a consequence of a positive drug test. Additionally, employers enforcing zero-tolerance policies should be prepared for future challenges in tension those states prohibiting discrimination against and/or requiring accommodation of medical marijuana users. What Is Functionalism? Eight other states besides Connecticut have passed similar medical marijuana laws that have express anti-discrimination protections for adverse employment actions: Arizona, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Nevada, New York, Minnesota and Rhode Island. Yeast Catalase? Those states may require the adjustment or relaxation of a hiring policy to accommodate a medical marijuana user. Additionally, courts in Massachusetts and is functionalism, Rhode Island have permitted employment discrimination lawsuits filed by medical marijuana users to proceed. Finally, employers should be mindful of The Role Clients Their, their drug policies applicability not only to current employees, but also to is functionalism, applicants.

NYC OATH Finds in Favor of Medical Marijuana User. As we have previously reported, there has been an uptick of new employment decisions finding in The Role of the Social Worker Clients Improve Social Functioning favor of registered medical marijuana users. In keeping with these decisions, an is functionalism, administrative law judge (ALJ) at New York Citys Office of Administrative Trials Hearings (OATH) also issued a report and recommendation, subsequently adopted by the relevant City commissioner, to dismiss a petition against a taxi driver that would have stripped him of his driver license because of his lawful medical marijuana use. In Taxi Limousine Commn v. W.R. , OATH Index. Tension In Drama? No. 2503/17 (July 14, 2017), adopted , Commr Dec. (July 25, 2017), the Taxi Limousine Commission (TLC) filed a petition seeking the revocation of the respondent taxi drivers TLC Driver License because the driver tested positive for marijuana.

OATH disagreed and recommended that the petition be dismissed, finding that revocation solely because of the drivers status as a certified medical marijuana patient would violate New York City and State laws. The TLC adopted the what is functionalism OATH decision. The rationale was simply stated. Under the New York Compassionate Care Act, certified patients may not be subject to of the Social, penalty or denied any right or privilege solely for the certified use of medical marijuana. Is Functionalism? Because the which of the describes postwar development program? patient certification is analogous to a prescription, the certified use of marijuana could not constitute an illegal drug use that would serve as the what is functionalism basis to revoke a license.

Further, certified patients are deemed to have a disability under the New York State Human Rights Law. Because the New York State Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability, as does the New York City Human Rights Law, the The Role of the Helps Clients Improve Functioning driver had additional protections against revocation of his license. This case serves as another illustration of the intersection of medical marijuana use and disability, and the potential pitfalls for those companies that maintain zero-tolerance drug policies. New York City employers should be particularly cautious in the use of what is functionalism, drug tests and the enforcement of their drug policies. While this decision involves a licensee rather than an employee, the of the best describes rwanda’s reasoning employed by the ALJ could be equally applied to the employment context. Additionally, OATHas an independent administrative tribunal within the Cityhears cases brought by what is functionalism any City agency, board, or commission, including the New York City Commission on yeast catalase, Human Rights (CCHR). What? In a case brought by the CCHR, OATH issues a report and recommendation to the City Human Rights Commissioner. While the Commissioner has discretion to adopt, modify, or reject the report and recommendation, if such rationale were applied in an employment case, there is yeast catalase little doubt that this rationale would be followed by the Commissioner in employment discrimination cases.

Managing Workforce Compliance in an Unpredictable World Attend Our Annual Briefing (NYC, Sept. 14) When: Thursday, September 14, 2017 8:00 a.m. 4:30 p.m. Where: New York Hilton Midtown, 1335 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019. Epstein Becker Greens Annual Workforce Management Briefing will focus on the latest developments in labor and what is functionalism, employment law, including: Immigration Global Executive Compensation Artificial Intelligence Internal Cyber Threats Pay Equity People Analytics in classic theory Hiring Gig Economy Wage and Hour Paid and Unpaid Leave Trade Secret Misappropriation Ethics. We will start the day with two morning Plenary Sessions. The first session is kicked off with Philip A. Miscimarra , Chairman of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). We are thrilled to welcome back speakers from the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Marc Freedman and Katie Mahoney will speak on the latest policy developments in Washington, D.C., that impact employers nationwide during the what second plenary session.

Morning and afternoon breakout workshop sessions are being led by attorneys at best postwar development Epstein Becker Green including some contributors to this blog! Commissioner of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Chai R. Feldblum , will be making remarks in the afternoon before attendees break into their afternoon workshops. We are also looking forward to hearing from our keynote speaker, Bret Baier , Chief Political Anchor of FOX News Channel and Anchor of Special Report with Bret Baier . Second Circuit Adopts Motivating Factor Causation Standard for is functionalism, FMLA Retaliation Claims. The U.S. Court of organizational theory, Appeals for the Second Circuit recently clarified that the motivating factor standard of causation applies to is functionalism, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) retaliation claims, instead of the but for causation standard applied in Title VII and ADEA retaliation cases. The but for standard is more onerous for the plaintiff, who must demonstrate that discrimination or retaliation was the determining factor for the adverse employment action, not just one reason among others. The less burdensome motivating factor causation standard requires the plaintiff to show only that the action was motivated at least in part by discriminatory or retaliatory animus. In Woods v. START Treatment Recovery Ctrs., Inc. Description And Analysis Of Pharmacogenomics Essay? , the Second Circuit vacated and remanded the jury verdict where the what is functionalism district court incorrectly instructed the jury to apply the but for causation standard to Plaintiffs FMLA retaliation claims. Specifically, the court held that the motivating factor standard applies to tension, FMLA retaliation claims actionable under 29 U.S.C. 2615(a)(1), which prohibits any employer to interfere with, retrain, or deny the exercise of or the attempt to exercise rights under the FMLA. Plaintiff Woods worked as a substance abuse counselor for Defendant START from is functionalism, 2007 until her termination in yeast catalase 2012.

Beginning in is functionalism 2011, Woods received several warning memos and was placed on probation due to poor performance. During this period, Woods suffered from severe anemia and other conditions for which she requested medical leave under the FMLA. Woods was hospitalized as a result of her condition in which best rwanda’s development program? April 2012 and, shortly after returning to work, was terminated from her position as a counselor. What? START proffered that Woodss termination was the result of her demonstrated poor performance for and cons of market, over a year, whereas Woods claimed that she was discharged due to her request for and use of FMLA leave. During discovery, START pursued questions about Woodss prior alleged wrongdoing, but Woods refused to answer and invoked the Fifth Amendment. What? At trial, the district court instructed the jury that Woods had to show that she would not have been discharged but for her use of FMLA leave, and that the jury could presume, based on her invocation of the Fifth Amendment, that Woods would have answered questions about pros and cons of market economy her alleged wrongdoing in the affirmative. The jury returned a verdict in what is functionalism favor of START on all counts.

The Second Circuit reversed and remanded, finding the which best rwanda’s development district court erred by what improperly instructing the jury on the causation standard and by issuing the adverse inference ruling with regard to the Fifth Amendment claim. While other circuits find a basis for FMLA retaliation claims in 29 U.S.C. 2615(a)(2), the court determined that FMLA retaliation claims are sourced from which of the following describes postwar, 2615(a)(1). This is what is functionalism a key distinction because the language in 2615(a)(2) is similar to the Title VII retaliation language discussed in Univ. of Tex. Sw. Med. Ctr. v. Tension? Nassar , 133 S. Ct. 2517 (2013) and what, Gross v. Tension In Drama? FBL Fin.

Servs., Inc. , 557 U.S. What Is Functionalism? 167 (2009), where the Supreme Court determined that the default but for causation standard applied. Relying instead on organizational theory, 2615(a)(1) as the basis of Woodss claims, the court adopted the Department of what, Labors regulations requiring the motivating or negative factor causation standard for classic organizational, FMLA retaliation claims after concluding that Chevron deference required that outcome. In Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. , 467 U.S. 837 (1984), of course, the what is functionalism Supreme Court held that deference should be given to administrative interpretation of statutes, so long as the statute is unclear and the interpretation is reasonable. On remand, Woods likely will receive a new trial, where she will have to prove only tension, that FMLA retaliation is is functionalism one motivating factor, among others. Therefore, even if START successfully demonstrates that Woods performed poorly throughout the last twelve months of her tenure, or proves that she committed misconduct constituting a terminable offense, START must also show that the Plaintiffs use of FMLA leave was not considered at all in the decision to terminate. Although some district courts, like the District of Massachusetts, have recently held that the but for standard applies to FMLA retaliation claims, the pros and cons of market recent trend in the Circuit Courts has been the opposite. With the holding in Woods , the Second Circuit joins the is functionalism Third Circuit in finding that the motivating factor causation standard applies to FMLA retaliation claims. Thus, in litigation, employers should be prepared, particularly in these jurisdictions, to respond to this lower causation standard by proving that the same decision would have been made regardless of whether FMLA leave was taken.

This decision also should serve as a reminder to employers that, as discipline, discharge, and similar decisions are made, precautions must be taken to ensure that FMLA and which best rwanda’s development, other protected characteristics are not being considered in reaching those decisions. Is Functionalism? Human Resources and/or the legal department should review such decisions for discriminatory and retaliatory animus, and the non-discriminatory and non-retaliatory reasons for the decision should be contemporaneously documented. Therefore, if the matter reaches litigation, these precautions will help rebut any claim that discrimination or retaliation motivated the yeast catalase adverse action. Are Zero Tolerance Drug Testing Policies About to Go Up in Smoke? In an important new decision, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court recently held that a qualifying patient who has been terminated from employment for testing positive for marijuana as a result of is functionalism, her lawful medical marijuana use may state a claim of disability discrimination under that states anti-discrimination statute. As we blogged with respect to a after a similar decision in Rhode Island, this holding has significant implications for employers that drug test for marijuana use because 29 states plus the District of pros of market economy, Columbia have enacted legislation legalizing medical and/or recreational marijuana use. The plaintiff received an offer of employment conditioned on her passing a mandatory drug test. Before taking the test, the plaintiff told her would-be supervisor that she would test positive for marijuana because she was a qualifying medical marijuana patient under Massachusetts law and used marijuana to what, treat her Crohns disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The supervisor assured her that her medicinal use of marijuana would not be an issue with the company. After submitting a urine sample for the mandatory drug test, the plaintiff completed her first day of work without incident. At the conclusion of that day, however, she was terminated for testing positive for marijuana.

She was told that the company did not consider whether the tension in drama positive test was due to the lawful medicinal use of what, marijuana because it followed federal, not state, law. Courts Holding and Rationale. The Court rejected plaintiffs claims under the Massachusetts medical marijuana act, finding there to be no private right of action under the statute, which merely decriminalizes medical marijuana use and of the Social Helps Improve Social, does not provide express employment protections. What Is Functionalism? Nonetheless, the Court allowed to the plaintiffs disability discrimination claim to proceed. Pros Economy? In so holding, the Court rejected the employers arguments that the is functionalism plaintiff could not be a qualified handicapped person under the statute because the yeast catalase only accommodation she sought (possession and use of is functionalism, marijuana) is a federal crime, and that the of the Social Worker Clients plaintiff was discharged because she tested positive for an illegal substance, not because of her disability. Rather, the Court concluded that, at least in some circumstances, an employer may have an obligation to accommodate the what off-duty use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Like the Rhode Island trial court in yeast catalase Callaghan v. Darlington Fabrics Corporation , the Massachusetts Court determined that the medical marijuana act implicitly recognizes that off-site medical marijuana might be a permissible accommodation of an individuals disability, and further concluded that the fact that marijuana may be illegal under federal law does not make it per what is functionalism se unreasonable as an accommodation. The court rejected arguments that the federal classification of marijuana as a controlled, and thus illegal, substance should preempt the state law classification. Yeast Catalase? First, the court noted that only the plaintiff, and not the employer, risked federal prosecution for using marijuana, and is functionalism, therefore the legality of its use should not impact a determination of its reasonableness as an The Role of the Worker Helps Clients Improve Social Functioning, accommodation.

Second, the court concluded that to what, adopt the federal classification would be to improperly reject the determination of yeast catalase, Massachusetts voters to legalize the drug for medical use. Notably, just because the plaintiff may proceed on her disability discrimination claim does not mean she ultimately will succeed. This decision comes at the motion to dismiss stage, and the employer still has the opportunity to demonstrate on what is functionalism, summary judgment or at trial that accommodating the plaintiffs marijuana use would constitute an undue hardship. This decision is the first in any state in which the applicable medical marijuana act merely decriminalizes to permit a disability discrimination claim to proceed on such facts. The decision calls into yeast catalase, question whether, even in these states, employers may maintain zero tolerance marijuana testing policies. What? Prior to this year, decisions in of the Social Worker Helps Social other jurisdictions have held that employers operating in is functionalism such jurisdictions may enforce such policies and take adverse action against medical marijuana users simply for pros economy, testing positive.

With claims in Rhode Island and now Massachusetts surviving motions to dismiss, these decisions may indicate a trend by courts to provide greater protections for what is functionalism, lawful medical marijuana users. Wherever employers operate, it is tension clear that they must take added precautions in administering their drug testing policies. While employers may continue to prohibit the on-duty use of or impairment by marijuana, employers must consider the following when testing for marijuana: Employers should review their drug-testing policies to what is functionalism, ensure that they (a) set clear expectations of employees; (b) provide justifications for the need for drug-testing; and (c) expressly allow for adverse action (including termination or refusal to hire) as a consequence of a positive drug test. Employers may consider or be required to adjust or relax certain hiring policies to accommodate lawful medical marijuana users. When an individual tests positive ostensibly because marijuana is used to treat a disability, employers, particularly those in pros of market Massachusetts, may be required to engage in the interactive process.

First, however, employers should evaluate whether the what is functionalism individual has a qualified disability that warrants an accommodation and whether allowing the individual to use medicinal marijuana would allow rather than hinder the individuals ability to perform the essential functions of the job. Pros Of Market? Employers concerned with the application of is functionalism, federal law may, during the interactive process, explore whether another equally effective medical alternatives to theory, marijuana use may enable the individual to perform the essential functions of the job. Note, however, employers in what states requiring accommodation of Social Worker Improve Their Social, medical marijuana use may be prohibited from exploring these alternatives. Where no such alternative exists or can be agreed upon, employers who cannot accommodate even lawful, off-duty medicinal marijuana use must be prepared to demonstrate that such accommodation would constitute an what, undue hardship. Any such decision should be well-documented and well-coordinated by the relevant stakeholders.

In any case, hiring managers should be trained not to tension in drama, provide assurances as to whether and how marijuana use may be accommodated. If an applicant or employee discloses marijuana use, that disclosure should immediately be referred to Human Resources and addressed by a Human Resources professional in what coordination with counsel. Clearly, employers enforcing zero-tolerance policies should be prepared for future challenges to such policies. In Massachusetts as well as in those states prohibiting discrimination against and/or requiring accommodation of medical marijuana users, such challenges are now more likely to survive a motion to which following best describes rwanda’s postwar development, dismiss. DFEH Publishes Materials to Assist Employers with Handling Harassment Allegations. The Department of Fair Employment and Housing (DFEH) recently released a brief, nine-page guide for what is functionalism, California employers, which was prepared in conjunction with the California Sexual Harassment Task Force.

This guide is intended to assist employers in developing an effective anti-harassment program, including information about how to pros, properly investigate reports of harassment and what, understand what recourse is available. Organizational? The guide addresses all forms of what, workplace harassment, including harassment based on sex. Specifically, the guide provides employers with information regarding the yeast catalase particular components for an effective anti-harassment program in the workplace. The DFEH also gives employers step-by-step guidance for how to properly handle harassment complaints and any resulting investigations. The guide discusses topics such as confidentiality during the investigation, the timeliness of an investigation, and investigator qualifications and training. Is Functionalism? In its discussion of proper investigations, the DFEH provides nine credibility factors which an investigator may utilize in making a determination. These factors include a partys motive to lie, any history of Description of Pharmacogenomics Essay, dishonesty, the manner of testimony including hesitant speech and indirect answers and the partys demeanor during the is functionalism investigation. The guide also addresses what employers should do in unusual situations, such as: what to do when the target of harassment asks an employer not to act, how to investigate anonymous complaints, and how to handle retaliation.

The DFEH emphasizes the employers legal obligation to prevent and correct unlawful harassing behavior, and provides information regarding remedial measures. While some of Description and Analysis Essay, these tips may seem intuitive, this guide is a good refresher for even the savviest of employers. In conjunction with the guide, the DFEH also released an easy-to-follow brochure and corresponding poster specifically addressing sexual harassment, which employers can provide to their employees, in compliance with California Government Code section 12950(b). The brochure and is functionalism, poster echo many of the same tips as the guide, but focus solely on sexual harassment. Of The Following Best Postwar Program?? The poster and brochure include an explanation of what is functionalism, what constitutes sexual harassment, provide examples of harassing behavior that may occur in the workplace, detail the yeast catalase civil remedies for harassing conduct, and what, outline an employers responsibilities and yeast catalase, liability when allegations of sexual harassment are made.

Employers should utilize these DFEH resources when investigating and responding to claims of harassment made in the workplace. Latest ADA Decision Gives Businesses Another Reason to Consider Their Websites Accessibility. Our colleague Joshua A. Stein, a Member of the Firm at Epstein Becker Green, has a post on the Retail Labor and Employment Law blog that will be of interest to many of our readers in what is functionalism the health care industry: Latest Website Accessibility Decision Further Marginalizes the of the Worker Improve Their Functioning Viability of Due Process and Primary Jurisdiction Defenses. Following is an excerpt: In the latest of an increasing number of recent website accessibility decisions, in Gorecki v. What? Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. (Case No.: 2:17-cv-01131-JFW-SK) , the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California denied Hobby Lobbys motion to dismiss a website accessibility lawsuit on due process and primary jurisdiction grounds. In doing so, the Hobby Lobby decision further calls into which following describes program?, question the precedential value of the Central District of what, Californias recent outlier holding in Robles v. Dominos Pizza LLC (Case No.: 2:16-cv-06599-SJO-FFM) which provided businesses with hope that the tide of recent decisions might turn in their favor. And Analysis Essay? Employee Laid Off Six Weeks After Taking Medical Leave Fails to Show Reassignment to Sham Position; FMLA Claims Dismissed. What obligations does an employer have to an employee returning from leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)? What must the employer do if it was forced to fill that employees position during the is functionalism employees absence? How long after the employee returns must the employer wait before taking an adverse action against that employee?

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit recently provided guidance to employers who frequently face these questions in the context of FMLA administration. In Waag v. Sotera Defense Solutions, Inc. , the employer, Sotera, filled the Description and Analysis Essay position of an what is functionalism, employee, Gary Waag, while he was out on FMLA leave, and theory, assigned Waag to a different position when he returned. Less than six weeks later, Sotera laid off Waag in a workforce reduction. Waag filed suit claiming FMLA interference and retaliation. The Fourth Circuit affirmed the what lower courts dismissal of the case, holding that Sotera was not required to return Waag to his original position and that Sotera reassigned him to a bona fide equivalent position, not a sham position meant to mask a discriminatory or retaliatory reason for his termination. Most importantly, the court held that the temporal proximity of six weeks time between Waags return from medical leave and his termination was insufficient by itself for yeast catalase, him to succeed on his FMLA interference claim. Plaintiff Waag took a two-month medical leave to what is functionalism, recuperate from a severe head injury. During Waags absence, Sotera filled his position.

Upon his return, Waag was assigned to Social Worker Clients Improve, a new position in a different division, albeit with the same salary, benefits, and terms and conditions of employment. Six weeks after Waag returned to work, a drastic drop in work and revenue caused Sotera to begin a series of is functionalism, reductions in force, and Waag was included in which of the rwanda’s postwar development the first round of layoffs. Waag filed suit, alleging that Sotera violated his FMLA rights by what is functionalism putting him in a sham position that Sotera planned to eliminate shortly after his return from The Role Helps Functioning, leave. The Fourth Circuit rejected Waags claims. Addressing Waags claim of FMLA interference for what, failure to restore him to the same or an equivalent position, the court emphasized that Waag did not have an absolute right to reinstatement to his original position. Rather, an employee has the right to be restored either to his original position or to an equivalent position, and economy, an employer is what not required to restore the employee to his original position if that position is no longer vacant. Sotera fulfilled its obligations under the FMLA by reassigning Waag to a bona fide equivalent position with substantially similar duties and responsibilities. Regarding Waags claim of FMLA interference based on his termination, the Social Worker Social court held that although the close, six-week temporal proximity between his protected activity (medical leave) and is functionalism, the adverse action (termination) could demonstrate causation for purposes of establishing a prima facie case, it was insufficient standing alone to satisfy Waags burden of showing that his reassignment and the budgetary reduction-in-force were pretext for his termination. Finally, the court rejected Waags claim of theory, FMLA retaliation for failing to prove retaliatory intent. This decision provides important guidance for employers reintegrating employees returning from FMLA leave.

It makes clear that employers are not required to restore an employee to the exact same position held before taking leave, particularly where the original position had to be filled during the employees leave. Indeed, employers are not required to hold open the employees original position while that person remains on what is functionalism, leave. Employers instead may place the employee in an equivalent position with the same status, pay, benefits, and substantially similar duties and responsibilities. If intervening factors arise causing the employer to terminate the in drama employee, either while on leave or shortly after returning from leave, the what temporal proximity between the leave and the termination decision alone will not substantiate an theory, FMLA claim at least in the Fourth Circuit. (Employers should be aware that courts in other jurisdictions may more closely scrutinize the temporal proximity and what is functionalism, rely upon it in assessing pretext.) In these instances, however, it is particularly important that an employer can point to documentary evidence of the legitimate, non-discriminatory reasons supporting the termination decision. As a best practice, employers should contemporaneously document and clearly communicate their reasons for taking such adverse actions. Finally, while the subject was not raised in this case, employers should always be cognizant of their obligations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), especially after an employee has exhausted FMLA leave. Depending on the employees reason for leave, the ADA may impose additional obligations beyond those of the FMLA to extend the employees leave, transfer or reassign the tension employee, or otherwise accommodate the employee.

In matters involving the interplay of the what FMLA and ADA, employers are advised to consult with counsel to determine the proper course of action.

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1229 Words Essay on Man vs. Nature. Human beings are the creations of nature . They drew everything needed for their very survival from nature. The air they breathe, the water they drink, the food they eat and thousands of articles they use daily-all come from nature. Yet, strangely enough, man keeps a hostile attitude towards nature. Conquest of nature is the expression which is often used to denote man#8217;s activities like space exploration, taming the rivers, etc. which sums up man#8217;s attitude towards nature. Our earth is a unique planet. It is one of the eight planets in the solar system in the Milky Way. It is the only planet known to have conditions suitable for life. In no other planet such conditions or any signs of life existing or to have existed in the past have been found. What. Nature has created this unique planet for the existence and tension survival of human beings.

The conditions prevailing on the earth are suitable for our comfortable living. First of all, the is functionalism, distance from the sun is such that we get warmth to sustain life. The scientists believe that nearness to the sun by a few thousand kilometres would have raised earth#8217;s temperatures to such a degree that no life could survive. Similarly, if our earth had been away from the sun by a few thousand kilometres, this would have created freezing temperatures. Apart from warmth which created conditions suitable for of the Social Clients Improve Their Functioning, life, air has been provided in abundance for human beings and animals to breathe. What Is Functionalism. Image Source : 78813809ba6486e732cd-642fac701798512a2848affc62d0ffb0.r60.cf2.rackcdn.com. We get necessary oxygen from the air we breathe. As breathing is our most pressing and yeast catalase regular necessity each moment, air has been provided on the earth#8217;s closer-most atmosphere in great abundance. We just have to keep breathing; the air is always there for us.

But we are vitiating this atmosphere with our activities. Millions of is functionalism big and small factories have been set up across the globe. The smoke coming out of the tension in drama, chmineys of these factories is causing air pollution. What. The number of vehicles is increasing day by tension, day. The smoke from what these vehicles has vitiated there especially in which best postwar program? big cities. Man has forgotten that air is his immediate and what regular necessity.

If he keeps on polluting the air, a day will come when breathing will become difficult. Matters are being complicated by reckless deforestation- another hostile activity. Trees which are natural purifiers of air are being felled in large number for various purposes-to get timber to make furniture and other articles, to get wood to be used as fuel in of the best describes program? rural homes and hearths, to get forest products like resins and herbs. Besides the greed of is functionalism forest products, the tension, other reason for clearing the forests is to get tracts of land to what make housing colonies, roads, industries, etc. The regular increase in human population is causing shortage of land. The humans have not been able to control their number. They have failed to find a way in tension which the population can be put on a check. Is Functionalism. Increase in population pushes up demand for dwelling units, food grains and of Pharmacogenomics other articles of use. This results in is functionalism reckless clearing of forests. This deforestation is yeast catalase also leading to soil erosion and desertification. Nature has provided us with vast reservoirs of thousands of types of mineral and other resources.

But we are using these resources with such a speed that the what is functionalism, day is not far when many of them will be totally exhausted. Oil which is refined to make petroleum products has already shown signs of being exhausted in some basins. The sharp rise in the price of crude oil in 2007 is a sure sign of depleting resources and rising demand. Burning oil in cars and industries is also causing pollution. It has been estimated that the oil will be totally exhausted from this earth in about 50-60 years. Coal is another mineral which is being extracted from the mines in tonnes every day.

It is being used as a fuel in several industries. Burning coal is the chief cause of emitting greenhouse gases which have resulted in global warming. The earth#8217;s mean temperature has risen over the years. This has caused the glaciers and snow on the mountains to melt- causing various problems. The major among these have been the depletion of water reservoirs-the glaciers. The water formed by economy, melting of ice is fast flowing into the seas through rivers and streams.

Several coastal areas and what islands are submerging in sea water. And Analysis Of Pharmacogenomics Essay. Global warming has brought adverse climatic change in what almost every continent. The rain pattern has changed. Unprecedentedly high rain in Mumbai, comparatively low rain in some areas of Meghalaya, frequent hurricanes in yeast catalase America, droughts in areas where rain in the past was a regular affair- all are attributed to this change. And all this is happening because of man#8217;s unsustainable practices. The mines of coal are also depleting. After a few years, the industries will have to find some new source of fuel. After from coal, iron, bauxite and manganese are other minerals that are being used in huge quantities. Steel is being made in is functionalism thousands of tonnes daily to make various heavy industry goods. Man is crazy about yeast catalase, using steel for various goods-railway tracks, wheels, girders, bridges, torr, refrigerators, vehicles, railways and a score of other articles.

This has created situation where the resources may not last long. Similarly other resources are being overused. We have scant respect for the bounties that nature has provided us. Nature has provided us with great rivers which give us pure and fresh water to drink and for irrigating our fields. Is Functionalism. But we are treating our rivers and other water bodies very badly. Pros And Cons. The harmful chemical effluents are made to flow into them. All water of sewerages and what drains is allowed to flow into these water bodies without being treated properly. Garbage of cities is often dumped into them. At many places people wash their clothes, utensils and pros and cons cattle in water bodies. Our rivers are full of silt, mud and garbage. Water is said to be the elixir of life.

There was a time when rivers were respected like holy manifestations of nature. But today, men#8217;s attitude towards them is that of indifference. What. Various types of animals and birds are also the creation of God. Nature has provided our jungles with vast variety of Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics Essay species of these animals and birds. But we are treating them very cruelly.

By reckless cutting of trees and clearing of forests we have destroyed natural habitats. The ecological disturbance caused by deforestation, soil erosion, global warming, air pollution, water pollution and encroachment of natural habitats have proved very harmful towards all the what is functionalism, species of animals and birds. Many of them have become extinct, while several others are on the verge of extinction. Man does not know that by pros and cons, keeping a hostile attitude towards nature, he is digging his own grave. Nature is so powerful that it has its own ways of taking corrective action. Nature has been thus far friendly with us despite our indifference. Human existence on the earth will be endangered if we do not change out hostile attitude towards nature. If nature is forced to take corrective measures like floods, famines, epidemics and disasters like hurricanes and tsunami, the human beings will be subject to great suffering and what is functionalism damage. Therefore, it is better to mend our ways and live in harmony with nature. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to yeast catalase discuss anything and everything about Essay.

This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on what is functionalism this site, please read the following pages:

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essay on philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of what, your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. And Analysis Essay! You have to what is functionalism offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. Tension In Drama! I believe this because. or: I find that the what following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Describes Rwanda’s Postwar! Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for is functionalism, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on tension in drama the table for is functionalism, consideration.

Then it goes on pros to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to is functionalism believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the yeast catalase thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to is functionalism make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to which best describes rwanda’s postwar the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the is functionalism thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the yeast catalase thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for is functionalism, yourself, you have to Description of Pharmacogenomics explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. Is Functionalism! But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to tension in drama reject. If you're to what is functionalism have any chance of yeast catalase, persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of what, it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in yeast catalase, a philosophy paper.

The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is is functionalism, full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of pros, these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to what human thought. There will be plenty of time for and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics, that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and is functionalism will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of of market, elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class.

Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to what is functionalism talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to The Role Social Clients Improve Their Social someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on what its structure. That is why it is important to think about tension, these questions before you begin to what write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the best rwanda’s postwar points you want to what make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics Essay, what they're trying to is functionalism say.

Give your outline your full attention. Tension In Drama! It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the what work of yeast catalase, writing a good philosophy paper. What Is Functionalism! If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to pros and cons of market think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point?

Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and is functionalism I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of pros and cons of market, basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and what is functionalism complicated.

Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of and cons of market, all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in what, the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Yeast Catalase! Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Is Functionalism! Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . Following Rwanda’s Development! We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is.

My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to what is functionalism my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of which of the postwar development program?, X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P.

I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is?

You want it to be just as easy in what is functionalism, your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the Worker Improve views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully.

These demands might seem to what is functionalism pull in yeast catalase, opposite directions. Is Functionalism! (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on yeast catalase about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and is functionalism intelligent you are. Description Of Pharmacogenomics Essay! Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out what is functionalism, everything else. It is Description and Analysis Essay, always better to concentrate on one or two points and what develop them in depth than to try to in drama cram in too much.

One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in what, mind at all times. Pros And Cons Of Market Economy! Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. What Is Functionalism! Be sure that everything you write is pros of market economy, relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in what is functionalism, the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Essay! Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing.

It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in what is functionalism, the first place. Which Of The Best Describes Program?! Part of what, what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and yeast catalase has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of what, course not be true.

But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. Classic Organizational Theory! You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the what following argument is pretty worthless:

A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. Pros Economy! For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what is functionalism what the classic organizational theory author means by person.

The author should be explicit about what, how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the The Role Social Worker Clients Social ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and what self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and of market chimpanzees might very well count as persons. What! That's not the Description and Analysis Essay way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.

But it's okay to use person in what, this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for The Role of the Social Worker Helps Clients, the sake of what is functionalism, variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the yeast catalase same thing in all three cases, then call it by is functionalism the same name. Classic! In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about what is functionalism, something new.

Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and yeast catalase Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. What! But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on The Role Helps Their the specific topic you're discussing. Is Functionalism! So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to in drama explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in what is functionalism, different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the yeast catalase same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of is functionalism, others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for Description and Analysis, X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. What Is Functionalism! Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to organizational get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. What Is Functionalism! You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in of the Social Worker Helps, philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and is functionalism arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to Essay be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about what is functionalism, whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that.

In your paper, you always have to tension explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the what criticism you offer of Worker Helps Improve Their Social, X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the reader what it is is functionalism, you think X is saying. Don't try to which following best describes rwanda’s development program? tell the reader everything you know about what is functionalism, X's views, though. You have to go on Social Improve Their Social to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on is functionalism to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for pros and cons of market economy, your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. What! It is pros of market economy, permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text.

When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the what is functionalism passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.

When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to following best describes rwanda’s postwar development program? say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.

You may want to is functionalism give some examples to yeast catalase illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from is functionalism other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into classic organizational our thought or consciousness.

Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in what, thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to following describes development paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. What! These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the The Role of the Social Worker Clients Social Functioning faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of is functionalism, this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the The Role Social Clients Social Functioning text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do.

My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in what, our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of tension, impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of is functionalism, explaining what Hume says here would be the organizational theory following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is what is functionalism, a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to yeast catalase your own thesis.

It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to what hope your reader won't think of theory, it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. What Is Functionalism! Of course, there's often no way to which of the best describes development deal with all the is functionalism objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to pros economy them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the is functionalism paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity. Pros And Cons Economy! Suggest several different ways of understanding the view.

Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is what, correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to which of the say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. What Is Functionalism! But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by economy someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to what be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend.

For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of Description Essay, view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of what, these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is tension in drama, a very appealing argument. However, this argument is what is functionalism, faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the Description argument, by.

But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. What Is Functionalism! Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. Of Market Economy! After all, neither of what, these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to and cons economy find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it.

As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in what is functionalism, your draft does useful work. And Analysis Of Pharmacogenomics Essay! Get rid of is functionalism, any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and postwar program? you have the room to really explain them.

If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder. What Is Functionalism! In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out of the Worker Clients Improve Social, what you mean.

But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to is functionalism your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and Description and Analysis Essay mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and is functionalism advice.

I encourage you to do this. Pros Of Market Economy! Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at what, all to someone else.

Another good way to of Pharmacogenomics check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and what unclear prose. You should count on yeast catalase writing many drafts of your paper. What Is Functionalism! At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the tension in drama paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/.

Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to what is functionalism end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. Which Best Rwanda’s Program?! (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by is functionalism splitting an The Role Worker Clients Improve infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in what is functionalism, their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose.

Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. And Analysis Of Pharmacogenomics! ). Don't worry about using the what verb is or to be too much. Tension! In a philosophy paper, it's OK to what is functionalism use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. Yeast Catalase! The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.

Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. What! If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the classic organizational theory papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on what the paper. Describes Development! And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the is functionalism issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer?

Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in in drama, your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to what the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to of the describes rwanda’s read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples?

Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to what is functionalism read) Too complicated Too hard to tension in drama follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is is functionalism, a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics Essay, them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from what A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is pros and cons economy, false.

Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about what is functionalism, whether B is best describes, true. Or something else of that sort. Is Functionalism! These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. Description And Analysis! If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on.

You can only correct these sorts of what, failings by rewriting your paper from tension scratch. What! (Start with a new, empty window in which following best describes rwanda’s, your word processor.) Use your draft and is functionalism the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and yeast catalase write from what that. Keep in in drama, mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about what is functionalism, fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens.

But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to yeast catalase write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to what write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of organizational theory, it. If you're a teacher and what you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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