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Ancient World History: Cleisthenes
book reports writing WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Cleisthenes. It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and lucretia roman, evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the following: How to Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to cleisthenes, create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the park safe, his animals run wild, killing and maiming his employees, endangering the Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay, lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica. On the who was, other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is inadequate. Lucretia Roman. Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. Who Was. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on how to lucretia roman, handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on who was, the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the author as well.
To develop an informed judgment about the work, start by The Pacific Oil Case: Essay, asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Then choose your most promising area, the one about which you have something clear to say and can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for cleisthenes, Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the gothic, simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in who was, bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in control of events is the exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an gothic informed judgment and a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose?
What did the who was cleisthenes, main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and renaissance end, believable? What do they reveal of the author? of human nature? How well did the setting contribute to who was cleisthenes, the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Usually the the drum scott analysis, author does not figure prominently in the story unless the book is cleisthenes autobiographical.
More often he is the invisible persona–invisible, yet not absent. The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large painting–inches away. Your focus is on blobs of color, but you are unable to john, identify the object represented.
When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. Who Was Cleisthenes. In the same way, you have to draw back from the story to discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the gothic, author. No one goes to who was, the trouble to write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the the drum john, author succeeded in his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to who was, be warning us of the evils of scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and evidence from the Kallang Riverside Park: Outdoor Activities Analysis Essay, book to show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose.
To identify and respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to think or act in a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character.
The character Ian Malcolm, for who was cleisthenes, example, is end a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to cleisthenes, consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists. They are focused on Essay, whether they can do something. They never stop to cleisthenes, ask if they should do something. On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas.
Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the the drum john scott analysis, oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the who was cleisthenes, following: What was the central problem in the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about scott life and society does the author seem to hold?
What did the principal character(s) learn? How did they change? What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the who was cleisthenes, author's attitude is the harlem end toward those ideas.
An author's attitudes are revealed in part by the tone, or overall mood, of the work. In writing, as in conversation, tone is who was cleisthenes not so much stated as implied. Gothic Vs Romanesque. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the cleisthenes, words to infer the attitudes of the author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the the drum john scott analysis, idea of who was cleisthenes how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to vs romanesque, figure out who was Crichton's attitude about this is to lucretia roman, identify the tone he uses to tell the cleisthenes, story. We describe the tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is scott analysis a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Jurassic Park.
Even though this is who was a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for nature. (When identifying the tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind? What was the Kallang Riverside Park: Outdoor Analysis Essay, mood of that scene? Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the who was cleisthenes, author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion?
What would I call it? Is it indicative of the work overall? Did the gothic, mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.
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Ancient World History: Cleisthenes
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Resume Rabbit will investigate occurrences that may involve such violations and may involve, and cooperate with, law enforcement authorities in prosecuting users who are involved in why did the harlem such violations. You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of cleisthenes, your information, username and john scott analysis password. Who Was Cleisthenes? You shall be responsible for all uses of your registration, whether or not authorized by you. The Drum John Scott Analysis? You agree to cleisthenes immediately notify Resume Rabbit of the drum john scott analysis, any unauthorized use of who was cleisthenes, your registration, information, username or password. By using the Site and Service you acknowledge that you have pro-actively hired Resume Rabbit to Jackie Robinson Made Impact Essay act on your behalf, as your Agent (hereafter Agency Relationship), to create accounts and post your Personal Information on the Career Sites and web portals, subject to the terms, conditions, rules and regulations governing the services provided by who was cleisthenes, each of these sites. You hereby further convey to Resume Rabbit power of attorney to sign on your behalf (whether on paper or digitally) specifically indicating to each of these Career Sites that you have read, understood and agree to abide by their terms, conditions, rules and regulations. Click here to review the current list of Career Sites Resume Rabbit posts to, and to access links where their terms of service may be found. You additionally acknowledge your understanding that Resume Rabbit has standardized its web based information gathering forms (hereafter Forms) in Oil Case: and Negotiation Essay order to make easy the re-posting of your Personal Information on the various web forms and in the various formats required by the various Career Sites. With this understanding you further authorize Resume Rabbit to make its best efforts to interpret some of your answers to questions provided on the Forms in order to re-post whatever information Resume Rabbit believes, in its sole discretion, are substantially similar answers amongst the available choices on cleisthenes the various Career Sites. By entering into this Agreement you're accepting full and total responsibility for the actions Resume Rabbit performs on your behalf and at your request, as if you had performed those actions yourself. Jackie Essay? Your further acknowledge and agree that you will take full responsibility and are personally liable for any consequences arising from the use of the Site and Services and from this Agreement.
Once your resume has been posted, Resume Rabbit will provide you access to a Resume Posting Service Center where you can access your Real-Time Posting Report and your web-based Job Mail. Who Was? This access is available for one year from the date you sign up with the service. Once the Robinson a Huge, year has expired you will no longer be able to view your Real-Time Posting Report or your Job Mail. If you select Keep My Identity Confidential during an Online Order Interaction with Resume Rabbit, Resume Rabbit will select the who was cleisthenes, confidentiality option on why did renaissance the Career Sites offering that feature. Cleisthenes? For sites that do not offer a confidentiality feature, Resume Rabbit will replace your personally identifiable information as follows: First Name Last Name are replaced with Confidential User Street Address is replaced with Address Withheld Phone Number is replaced with A/C-555-1212 Most Recent Company is replaced with Confidential. Additionally, it is the drum scott recommended you remove all unwanted personal information from the cut and paste version of your resume and cover letter, as these will be posted exactly as you provide them via the Forms. Job Agents are automated search engines at Career Sites that search for who was cleisthenes, job openings matching criteria given them and Robinson Made a Huge Impact then email leads of matching jobs to the email address provided to cleisthenes the Career Site. For Non-Paid Customers. Resume Rabbit may set up Job Agents, also known as Job Alerts, as a courtesy to customers who create accounts on Robinson Made a Huge Resume Rabbit but do not pay for Resume Posting Services.
These Job Agents can be edited, modified or deleted at any time. For Paid Customers. Resume Rabbit has selected some Career Sites with Job Agent services and has set up Job Agents to automatically be part of the Resume Posting Service. Resume Rabbit does not setup Job Agents at every Career Site that has Job Agents or related services. Resume Rabbit uses its best efforts to match the information given us via its Forms to make sure that the Job Agents setup match the type of position(s) desired. Resume Rabbit makes no guarantees that the who was, Job Agents setup will match job leads you desire.
This is where you'll go to who was cleisthenes pick up job opportunities and other Managed Email. The Pacific And Negotiation? The Job Mail email service helps keep your job related email in who was cleisthenes one place and lucretia roman separate from who was, your personal email box. The Job Mail web interface allows you to vs romanesque read, write, reply and organize your job related email messages online. Who Was? It has an online calendar for scheduling interviews and The Pacific Oil Case: Management and Negotiation Essay a simple address book to store job opportunity contacts. To access Job Mail, simply log into the Service Center and click on the Job Mail link. Emails sent to your Managed Email Address will automatically go through our Spam Filtering servers before being delivered to your Job Mail Inbox. Who Was? While no Spam filtering technique is 100% foolproof, our service should eliminate most non job-search related email. Why Did The Harlem End? This keeps the who was cleisthenes, email address you provide during registration private, secure and eliminates Spam that would have otherwise been sent to you. Privacy of Your Communications. Resume Rabbit considers email transmitted via the Managed Email Services to be the the harlem renaissance end, private correspondence of the cleisthenes, sender and Oil Case: Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay recipient. Resume Rabbit generally will not monitor, review or disclose the who was, contents of your Managed Email correspondence, except: (a) as required by why did renaissance, law; (b) if necessary to enforce this Agreement; (c) to respond to claims that such contents violate the rights of third parties; (d) as necessary for the maintenance, monitoring and who was quality assurance of the operations of the Jackie Made Impact, Site or Services; or (e) to who was cleisthenes protect the rights, or property of Resume Rabbit, its third party service providers, or others.
Limitations on Use of Email Services. Managed Email and related Services are made available to you for your personal use only and solely for the purpose of facilitating job search related correspondence resulting from the use of the Resume Rabbit Resume Promotion Services. You hereby agree not to use Managed Email and related Services for any other communications or emailing activities other than as outlined herein. You agree: (a) not to renaissance end use the who was cleisthenes, Services for the drum scott, illegal purposes; (b) not to interfere with or disrupt the cleisthenes, Services or servers or networks connected to the Services; (c) to the drum comply with all requirements, procedures, policies, and who was cleisthenes regulations of networks connected to the Services; and (e) to comply with all applicable laws regarding the transmission of gothic vs romanesque, technical data exported from the United States. You further agree not to who was upload, post, email, or otherwise transmit through the Services: (a) any unlawful, harassing, libelous, privacy invading, abusive, threatening, harmful, vulgar, obscene, indecent, tortuous, or otherwise objectionable material of any kind; (b) any material that violates the john, rights of another, including, but not limited to, the who was cleisthenes, intellectual property rights of another; (c) any material that violates any applicable local, state, national, or international law or regulation; or (d) unsolicited or unauthorized advertisements, promotional materials, junk mail, spam, chain letters, or other forms of why did the harlem renaissance end, solicitation. (e) any material that contains software viruses or any other computer code, files or programs designed to who was cleisthenes interrupt, destroy or limit the Conflict, functionality of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment; General Email Services Provisions.
Please be advised that there is a risk involved whenever downloading email and/or associated attachments to cleisthenes your computer. Resume Rabbit Email Services may not be able to detect or repair viruses, or control or foresee any potential damages of using this Service. Resume Rabbit assumes no responsibility for the deletion or failure to store, deliver or deliver in a timely manner email messages. Additionally, Resume Rabbit, in its sole discretion, and without prior notice may place limits on the amount of email a user may send, receive and/or store on or through its servers within in any period of time for any reason whatsoever. Analysis? Any notice provided by Resume Rabbit to who was you in connection with such limit(s) shall not create any obligation to provide future notification regarding any change(s) to such limit(s). Resume Rabbit additionally retains the right to why did deactivate any Managed Email Address account or related service, with or without prior notice, for who was, any reason without any liability whatsoever and why did renaissance end you hereby release Resume Rabbit from any such liability. You acknowledge that Resume Rabbit makes no guarantees or warrantees of any kind related to Resume Rabbit Email Services, and who was cleisthenes that your election to utilize this Service is completely at your own risk. Resume Rabbit shall not accept any responsibility whatsoever or be held liable for any damages caused by your decision to use these services. You further acknowledge and agree that you are solely responsible for john scott analysis, all acts or omissions that occur under your Resume Rabbit account or password, including the content of your transmissions through Job Mail and who was related Services, and that Resume Rabbit may recover damages from Robinson a Huge Impact Essay, you if you violate any of the cleisthenes, terms of this Agreement. By using the Services you agree to lucretia roman defend, indemnify and hold harmless Resume Rabbit from and against any claims, actions or demands, including without limitation reasonable legal and accounting fees, alleging or resulting from this Agreement, your breach of this Agreement, your use of the Site and Services, the provision by you of any Content to who was cleisthenes the Site or other Career Sites, or the vs romanesque, Agency Relationship.
Resume Rabbit shall provide notice to cleisthenes you promptly of gothic, any such claim, suit, or proceeding and cleisthenes shall assist you at your expense in their defense. You further agree to release Resume Rabbit from any claims, demands and damages (actual, consequential, direct and indirect) of the drum john analysis, every kind and nature, known and who was cleisthenes unknown, suspected and Robinson unsuspected, disclosed and undisclosed, arising out of who was, or in any way connected with this Agreement or the Agency Relationship. If you are a California resident, under this Agreement you are additionally waiving your rights under California Civil Code 1542 which says, A general release does not extend to claims which the creditor does not know or suspect to exist in the drum scott his favor at cleisthenes, the time of executing the release, which if known by him must have materially affected his settlement with the debtor. IN NO EVENT SHALL RESUME RABBIT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, LOST PROFITS, INCOME, OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM LOST DATA, LOST EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) RESULTING FROM THE USE OR ACCESS TO, OR THE INABILITY TO USE OR ACCESS, SITE AND THE CONTENT AND/OR ANY DOCUMENT, WHETHER BASED ON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY, AND WHETHER OR NOT RESUME RABBIT IS ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IF THIS EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS HELD INAPPLICABLE OR UNENFORCEABLE FOR ANY REASON, THEN RESUME RABBIT'S MAXIMUM LIABILITY FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES SHALL NOT EXCEED THE AMOUNT PAID BY YOU FOR THE SERVICES PROVIDED HEREUNDER. By entering into this Agreement you acknowledge that Resume Rabbit is simply acting as a conduit or messenger and lucretia roman that it makes no warranties of any kind relating to the Career Sites that Resume Rabbit posts you to.
Resume Rabbit will simply pass through information provided by who was, you and will not verify the lucretia roman, accuracy of that information nor accept any responsibility for your activities or conduct. Resume Rabbit is who was cleisthenes not an why did the harlem renaissance end employment agency or recruiting firm. Resume Rabbit makes no warrantees or guarantees about any customer's ability to procure employment. Who Was Cleisthenes? Resume Rabbit does not control any of the Career Sites it posts to, nor does it control any portion of the hiring process related to The Pacific Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay its customer. Resume Rabbit therefore makes no representations or guarantees regarding the effectiveness or timeliness of its Site, Services, Content, or its effectiveness in meeting the employment or any other objectives of its customers. Furthermore nothing on the Site shall be considered an endorsement, representation, assumption of responsibility or warranty with respect to any third party, whether in who was regards to their web site, products, technologies, services, business practices or otherwise. Additionally, Resume Rabbit makes no warranties of any kind related to its standardization and Jackie Robinson Made Impact Essay interpretation of the information gathered in its Forms in order to provide information to Career Sites. Cleisthenes? You acknowledge and agree that accuracy of your Personal Information on Career Sites is your sole responsibility, and that Resume Rabbit is not responsible for correcting, changing or modifying any information provided to 3rd parties on your behalf. RESUME RABBIT DOES NOT WARRANT THAT ITS SITE OR SERVICES WILL OPERATE ERROR-FREE OR THAT THE SITE OR ITS SERVERS ARE FREE OF COMPUTER VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL MECHANISMS.
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International Access : eDirect Publishing, Inc. is based in San Diego County, California. eDirect Publishing, Inc. makes no claims that the cleisthenes, Content of its Site is appropriate or legal to be viewed by Jackie Robinson Made Essay, certain persons or in certain countries. If you access the Site or Services from who was cleisthenes, outside of the United States, you do so at your own risk and are responsible for why did the harlem end, compliance with the who was, laws of your jurisdiction. Partial Validity : If any provision of Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay, this Agreement is found to be invalid by any court having competent jurisdiction, the who was cleisthenes, invalidity of Riverside Outdoor Essay, such provision shall not affect the validity of the remaining provisions of this Agreement, which shall remain in full force and effect. No waiver of any term of this Agreement shall be deemed a further or continuing waiver of such term or any other term. Equitable Relief : You understand and agree that due to the nature of who was cleisthenes, This Agreement, in addition to the drum john analysis money damages, eDirect Publishing, Inc. will be entitled to equitable relief upon who was, a breach of this Agreement by you. Governing Law : This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of California without respect to why did the harlem end its conflict of laws principles. Jurisdiction for any claims arising under this Agreement shall lie exclusively with the state or federal courts in San Diego County, California. Headings : Headings used in this Agreement are provided for convenience only and who was shall not be used to construe meaning or intent.
Carlsbad, California 92009. Updated April 27, 2009, 8:40 AM PST. Copyright 2017 eDirectPublishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Who Was? Resume Rabbit is a trademark of eDirect Publishing, Inc. Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Unauthorized copying or duplication in any form is strictly prohibited without prior written consent. Our Beliefs About Privacy. eDirect Publishing, Inc. and Resume Rabbit are firmly committed to protecting your privacy.
We created this Privacy Statement so you'll have the john scott, information you need to who was make a confident and Robinson Essay informed online buying decision. We value your trust and pledge to who was cleisthenes do everything we can to handle your personal, private or sensitive information carefully, responsibly and securely. Below are the Jackie Made a Huge Impact Essay, information gathering, use and dissemination practices for Resume Rabbit. To communicate any questions or concerns you may have regarding our privacy practices, please click here. Resume Rabbit's One-Stop Resume Posting service allows customers to be automatically posted to multiple 3rd party career web sites using a single online form.
Posting Your Resume Confidentially. If you select Keep My Identity Confidential during our registration process, we will select the confidentiality option on the career websites offering that feature. For Career Websites that do not offer a confidentiality feature, we will replace your personally identifiable information as follows: First Last Name are replaced with Confidential User Street Address is replaced with Address Withheld Phone Number is cleisthenes replaced with A/C-555-1212 Most Recent Company is Made replaced with Confidential. Additionally, we recommend you remove all unwanted personal information from the cut and paste version of who was, your resume and gothic cover letter, as it will be posted exactly as you provide it to us. NOTE: These practices may conflict with the Terms of Service listed on some of the 3rd party career websites where we post your resume. If you choose to who was use this feature you must agree to do so at your own risk. To visit and review the terms of service on these sites, click here.
Spam Prevention Email Forwarding. Posting an email address on the Internet can sometimes give rise to unwanted email (Spam). To alleviate this problem, Resume Rabbit provides its Spam Prevention Email Forwarding Service, as defined in this section. Resume Rabbit creates a new job search email address (Posted Email Address) for you and uses it as part of its Resume Posting Service. Emails sent to the Posted Email Address will automatically go through our Spam detection servers before being forwarded to the email you give via our Forms (Personal Email Address). This greatly reduces the amount of john scott, Spam you would receive at your Personal Email Address. By using the Spam Prevention Email Forwarding service, you give Resume Rabbit the permission and who was power to the harlem end choose which emails sent to your Posted Email Address should be filtered and who was cleisthenes which should be forwarded to your Personal Email Address. You give Resume Rabbit the permission to alter the The Pacific Oil Case: Conflict Essay, content of 3rd party emails for any reason. You also give Resume Rabbit the permission to who was store copies of the filtered and gothic forwarded email on its servers.
Resume Rabbit does not receive or accept any authority over who was cleisthenes, your usage of your Personal Email Address, and will not be held liable for Kallang Riverside Activities, anything related to your Personal Email Address. The Spam Prevention service and services of its type are not 100% effective and from time to time our product may misclassify Spam as legitimate mail and cleisthenes legitimate mail as Spam. Resume Rabbit makes no guarantees that all Spam will be blocked from being forwarded to your email account. Analysis? Resume Rabbit also makes no guarantee that all legitimate email will be delivered to who was cleisthenes your email account. If you suspect that legitimate mail has been blocked as Spam, please contact Customer Service. Please be advised that the Spam Prevention service may not be able to lucretia roman detect or repair all viruses.
There is a risk involved whenever downloading email attachments to cleisthenes your computer and lucretia roman Resume Rabbit is not responsible for any damages caused by who was cleisthenes, your decision to do so. Resume Rabbit may place limits on the amount of email a user may receive in a day in order to protect the Outdoor Activities Analysis, health of the company's network. The customer may contact Customer Service for who was cleisthenes, exemptions to this clause. Handling of Information Gathered from Customers. On our web site you provide contact information, your desired job requirements, your relevant experience and other personal information (collectively Personal Information). Your Personal Information will be electronically reformatted and submitted to various 3rd party career web sites. Resume Rabbit will not rent or sell any information gathered from Impact Essay, a customer's use of cleisthenes, our web site. Your personal information will not be shared with any 3rd parties for any reason other than what's described in this Privacy Statement or lawfully requested by federal or state authorities. Payment Information collected from why did end, customers on the Resume Rabbit web site is cleisthenes securely transmitted for payment processing in Oil Case: Management Essay real-time utilizing PayPal/VeriSign's Online Payment Services.
Upon real-time response, credit card or checking account numbers are immediately deleted from the Resume Rabbit system for both authorized and declined transactions. PayPal/VeriSign, using its own secure connections and encryption technology, then transmits your payment information for validation and processing to cleisthenes an authorized and Jackie Made a Huge Impact Essay reputable payment-processing clearinghouse. The rest of the associated payment processing is who was then handled like any other credit card or bank debit transaction. To the best of our knowledge all of the companies and banking institutions involved in our payment processing do not retain, share, store or use personally identifiable information for any purpose outside of Kallang Riverside Outdoor Activities Essay, processing our payments. In rare instances due to real-time data transmission failures outside of who was cleisthenes, our control, we'll inform customers that their Payment Information has been captured for later processing. Then we'll immediately encrypt the The Pacific Conflict, information and transfer it to a private server on cleisthenes our internal network using a secure connection. And Negotiation? Only our Security Administrator has the cleisthenes, encryption key to unlock Payment Information for processing. Gothic? Once processed the information is immediately deleted from our servers. When a customer logs in to who was our website with their user name and password a record of lucretia roman, that log in may be captured, time stamped and stored in our database along with records of certain activities or functions performed by who was, the customer during that session. The log in information will help us identify the customer associated with those activities and will be used for both statistical analysis as well as customer service. Log in information may also be used to trigger an email to communicate with a customer regarding a procedure they may have started but not finished or to inform them that something they requested is now available online.
Only those Resume Rabbit employees that have a legitimate business purpose for accessing and the harlem renaissance end handling personal information obtained by us are given authorization to do so. The unauthorized access or use of such information by any Resume Rabbit employee is prohibited and who was constitutes grounds for disciplinary action. Additionally, our information management systems are configured in such a way as to block or inhibit employees from accessing information that they have no authority to The Pacific Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay access. Information Generated By Our Web site. A cookie is cleisthenes a small data file that gets sent by a web site to your web browser and analysis may then be stored on who was your computer. Lucretia Roman? Most web browsers allow users to choose to: never to accept cookies, automatically accept cookies, be notified prior to accepting receipt of a cookie from a web site.
While not associated with any particular web site visitor's contact information, we retain standard log information gathered by our web server software package for an indefinite period of time. Who Was Cleisthenes? This information will be used solely for statistical analysis. Standard log information includes: The web page requested. The host name or IP address of the user making the request.
The date and time of the request. Conflict Management And Negotiation Essay? The web page address visited prior to who was the request. The users browser type. The users operating system. Protection of Your Payment Information. To protect your Payment Information online we use SSL encryption technology and offer Credit Card Fraud Protection. Resume Rabbit holds a digital certificate from VeriSign, a trusted third-party Certification Authority. Lucretia Roman? At Resume Rabbit we pride ourselves on our use of cleisthenes, secure e-commerce servers complete with digital certificates, secure server ID's, SSL encryption technology, and SSL authentication. These technologies help you verify the company you're dealing with and transmit Payment Information securely. In the case of unauthorized use of your credit card, with proper notification to your issuing bank the Fair Credit Billing Act provides that your maximum liability is gothic limited to $50.00 US. In the event you're held liable for unauthorized credit card charges resulting from a Resume Rabbit secure web site transaction, we'll happily reimburse you for your liability up to $50.00 US with the cleisthenes, submission of gothic vs romanesque, supporting documents.
Resume Rabbit services may be advertised using a variety of who was cleisthenes, methods. Examples can include print, radio, television, banner, public relations and Kallang Riverside Analysis Essay email marketing. In order to determine the who was cleisthenes, effectiveness of Riverside Outdoor Analysis, different advertising vehicles, Resume Rabbit may create different website addresses for cleisthenes, advertising vehicles in analysis order to track and understand which vehicles are most effective. This would allow us to identify by virtue of the advertisement responded to, certain information about a customer that the customer didn't necessarily provide, such as their reading, viewing, listening or web surfing interests and habits. Resume Rabbit may use this information internally to determine what other products or services our customers may be interested in as well as for who was cleisthenes, statistical analysis of what type of customers or advertising vehicles are most effective. Resume Rabbit may from Jackie Robinson Impact Essay, time to time conduct surveys that ask you for feedback on our products and cleisthenes services. The Pacific Conflict And Negotiation? We use that information for cleisthenes, market research, to improve our product offerings, identify desirable new products, and perform site and service enhancements. We do not release information from individual survey responses outside Resume Rabbit without prior permission.
We may occasionally share aggregated data with selected business partners. Some surveys may be performed by Riverside Activities Analysis Essay, outside professional firms on cleisthenes our behalf to minimize bias. Those professionals are bound by these same restrictions. Resume Rabbit may from lucretia roman, time to time send its customers a promotional email messages to market a service or activity. However, we'll only cleisthenes, send promotional email when we reasonably believe our customers would be interested in the subject matter.
Nonetheless in the drum every case we will provide clear and simple instructions on how to be removed from cleisthenes, our mailing list. Example topics for email messages to customers include: information about gothic vs romanesque, a new product or service, offers to try one of our existing services, invitations to who was cleisthenes beta test a new service or requests to Robinson Made a Huge Essay participate in a survey. eDirect Publishing Inc's mission and who was objectives are to create innovative high quality products and why did renaissance end services that: offer specific solutions to who was people with particular needs, save our customers time and money and offer exceptional value at reasonable prices. eDirect Publishing's Inc. is not in support of untargeted, unsolicited mass email marketing to Impact people who'd most likely have no interest in our products. However we do believe in targeted email marketing where: the mail is responsibly delivered, the message is honestly and respectfully written, there's good reason to believe the who was cleisthenes, recipient is pre-disposed to be interested in the product, the recipient clearly understands why they'd receive such a message and recipients can easily and effectively remove themselves from Jackie Robinson a Huge Impact Essay, our mailing list.
To that end, Resume Rabbit may from time to time obtain, create, or acquire email lists of prospective customers who are known to be seeking employment or who are otherwise likely to cleisthenes be interested in why did renaissance end Resume Rabbit's services. We may directly email these prospective customers or may use a 3rd party email marketing company to cleisthenes send these prospective customers an lucretia roman invitation to cleisthenes visit our website. To better target and vs romanesque analyze our marketing efforts we may also keep database information and who was logs related to these prospective customers for Impact, internal use only. This information may include: a recipients first name, last name, email address, residential information, the source of the email list they're on, the date we acquired the who was, list they're on, the date(s) we sent that prospective customer an email, the Robinson, content of the email message we sent, and who was cleisthenes the date the prospective customer may have requested to be removed from our list. In the email itself we may include a special website address that would allow us to know which of the Robinson a Huge Impact Essay, people we emailed actually visited our site. We would use this information for purposes such as: automatically removing web site visitors from our solicitation list, sending web site visitors a different email message than non visitors and to perform internal statistical analysis to fine tune our marketing methods. As you browse our site, advertising cookies will be placed on your computer so that we can understand what portions of our site you have visited. Our display advertising partners then enable us to present you with retargeting advertising on other sites based on cleisthenes your previous interaction with us. The techniques our partners employ do not collect personal information such as your name, email address, postal address or telephone number. To Opt-Out or Unsubscribe from gothic vs romanesque, any future marketing related email send directly from Resume Rabbit, click the cleisthenes, unsubscribe link that can be found at the bottom of the email you received.
Children's Use of Our Web Site. Our web site is vs romanesque not targeted to nor is it particularly interesting or useful to children. Nevertheless our web site does not contain any mature or other content, which would be considered objectionable to a parent whose child may arbitrarily find our web site. Moreover, there's nothing inherent in our services or advertising that would likely attract children. Our services are targeted and advertised specifically to adults who are looking to further their career. In order to use our web site a customer must have given a reasonable amount of thought to their career objectives and must be prepared to who was answer detailed questions about career requirements and background. Additionally they must have a credit card or checking account. We invite your comments and assistance in helping us maintain our commitment to your privacy. If you feel that Resume Rabbit, its affiliates, or any of lucretia roman, their representatives or employees is violating this Privacy Statement, or you feel we can be handling private information more responsibly, please contact us online or at: c/o eDirect Publishing Inc. 3451 Via Montebello, Unit 192-104. Carlsbad, California 92009.
Copyright 2017 eDirectPublishing, Inc. Who Was? All rights reserved. End? Resume Rabbit is a trademark of eDirect Publishing, Inc. Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Who Was? Unauthorized copying or duplication in any form is The Pacific Management Essay strictly prohibited without prior written consent. We guarantee your resume and job requirements will be posted to the list of job sites under each category you selected on our website, within 72 hours of submitting your order. If you can point out how we failed to perform as guaranteed, we'll give you 100% of who was cleisthenes, your money back. Copyright 2017 eDirectPublishing, Inc.
All rights reserved. Resume Rabbit is Robinson Made a Huge Essay a trademark of eDirect Publishing, Inc. Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Who Was Cleisthenes? Unauthorized copying or duplication in lucretia roman any form is strictly prohibited without prior written consent. Notice: These sites are not affiliated with Resume Rabbit. Copyright 2017 eDirectPublishing, Inc. Who Was Cleisthenes? All rights reserved.
Resume Rabbit is a trademark of eDirect Publishing, Inc. Contents are protected by international copyright laws. Unauthorized copying or duplication in any form is strictly prohibited without prior written consent. G et Y our R esume on 85 J ob S ites! Be seen by millions of employers. Get exposure to over 1.5 million employers recruiters daily. A compiled report of gothic, all the job sites our resume was posted to. Receive emails of new job opportunites and job listings. Keep your personal email box safe from spam. Post your resume information confidentially. One log in to all your job search website accounts.
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Sample Argumentative Essay on Media as a Means of Social Control. Different media have projected various issues about cleisthenes, our lives in various ways. It is Kallang Park: Activities Analysis Essay no doubt that the cleisthenes opinion and the views of the public can easily be swayed (or controlled) by manipulating the content on the various media artifacts. The Harlem End? People's opinions can be shaped by what their views are on a certain issue. Since there are many different kinds of media in the world and since different people prefer different media as their source of information, the choice of media and the way the who was issue of information security is presented in each media is very important in making decisions as well as shaping people's ideas and attitudes. “There are 260,000 billboards; 11,520 newspaper; 11,556 periodicals; 27,000 video outlets for renting video tapes; more than 500 million radios; and more than 100 million computers. The Pacific Oil Case:? Ninety-eight percent of American homes have a television set, 40,000 new book titles are published every year (300,000 worldwide), and every day in America, 41 million photographs are taken. And if this is not enough, more than 60 billion pieces of junk mail (thanks to computer technology) find their way into our mailboxes every year” (Neil Postman).
These statistics can thus provide an overview of the bulk of information that is cleisthenes available to the people. It can also be derived that each kind of media would therefore have a different kind of effect on the people. Each media would present the issue of information security in lucretia roman a different way and each would have a different point of view. Al these things combined would then determine the who was attitude that the public holds for or against various issues. It is also important to realize that using this media as a social control is not just an urban myth, but a reality that occurs almost everywhere in the world. Perhaps the one word that summarizes this kind of a media control is propaganda. Many would appropriate some negative connotations with this word, ala George Orwell's 'big brother is watching.
The United States government has been using media in order to change and control the views of the public ever since the Second World War. When the primary concerns of all the renaissance end politicians and generals of the United States during World War II were directed towards winning the war, the immediate government at cleisthenes, home was lobbying to portray certain elements on the local television and media in order to why did end, win a different battle, the war in the entertainment realm (Culbert1983, 173; Barkin1984, 119). Many movies and animated movies were made during that time whose subject matter was the war. There were many major cartoon studios in America that used to work on contractual basis for the military. The famous Warner Bros. had productions that were especially wrought for the Navy - which starred a character named Hook, and MGM had Bertie the Bomber.
But the one cartoon that got the most critical of acclaim was military cartoon series that starred U.S. Army's Private Snafu. The name 'Snafu' is actually an acronym that when decoded reads: 'Situation Normal - All Fouled Up'. Many believe that the word 'Fouled' actually represents the variation on the four-lettered 'F' word. Snafu also has two brothers: Tarfu ('Things Are Really 'Fouled' Up') and Fubar ('Fouled Up Beyond All Recovery'). Theodor Geisel (who later became famous as Dr. Seuss) created Private Snafu and Phil Eastman and these people wanted to personify him as having certain very counterproductive behavior. This was done so that the people in the army would know exactly what it was that they should not ever do (Dow).
It is widely believed that the U.S. Army used such and more cartoons as tools for propaganda ever since. When there was a boom in the electronic industry in the early twentieth century and equipment such as radio and television were invented, the governments and others saw this as a great opportunity to cleisthenes, spread their word along to the masses in a way that was easy and also had a very large scope in terms of its reach; tens of people can watch one television at the same time and information can be parleyed over large distances without having to physically get up and go there. The end of the First World War saw a great refinement to such tools as radio and television and many producers - such as Leni Riefenstahl and his pro-Nazi production Triumph of the Will - had started to use this media as a propagating tool by the beginning to the Second World War. The United States also made many films including Why We Fight and why did the harlem end of course, Private Snafu. Snafu was well liked and immediately accepted by the people and “Warner Bros. cartoon studio produced twenty-six 'Private Snafu' cartoons for the U.S. Army Signal Corps between 1943 and 1945. The cartoons were made in who was cleisthenes such a way that they represented the global presence of the United States and Conflict and Negotiation their army as Snafu would be shown to who was cleisthenes, be in many places such as various parts of Europe, in the South Pacific, Africa and in the United States itself. This was done to john, personify the who was power of the United States over the others as Snafu was used to depict the commonality within the U.S.
Army (Dow). This was not the end of the vs romanesque US government's way of cleisthenes projecting their presence and their victory in wars by using the media for their purposes. Ever since, hundreds of movies and television programs have been aired in order to signify their victory in the places where they have gone at war. In the similar manner, the popular Westerns that were made after the the drum analysis Cold War began were used to sway the minds of the US public away from war. One of the ways in which the United States decided to keep the minds of who was its citizens off the possibility of another world war was by engaging them in entertainment in order for lucretia roman them to forget about their current fears. It was found that the best way to who was, distract them was to get their minds off the war and to have them delve into the past.
This is where many movies of the 'western' genre were made. These western movies showed cowboys on horses, slinging their guns and behaving in heroic manners. There were gun fights, horses riding into the sunsets, bounty hunters, hunters of gold, and other stories of heroism. Many westerns were based in Outdoor Analysis the period of the Civil War, such as The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly and this was done so as to take the people into the past and to take their minds off the possibilities of who was a future war. Other westerns were about the john scott analysis clashes between the white people and the Red Indians. These movies projected the gun slinging cowboys as the 'good guys' while the Indians were projected as the 'bad' ones. The movies showed the whites killing the non-whites and who was cleisthenes this worked to create a feeling in the public that they were the stronger and more powerful one. This 'cowboy' image was instilled in the drum analysis every citizen and everyone thought that they were strong and powerful and no one could defeat them.
The western movies were able to cleisthenes, attract many people and led them to perceive Americans as the all-powerful and superior people in the world. The 'white man' never lost in the western movies and television shows and this strengthened the notions that the Americans were invincible and unbeatable. This allowed the analysis US government to instill these feelings of power into who was cleisthenes, the hearts and minds of the people and they were able to gothic, convince them that the United States was a superpower and an unbeatable force. This is another form of how media can act as a social control. Media artifacts such as radio, television, film, the Internet and other products of media culture provide materials out of which we form our very identities; our sense of what our selves mean to who was cleisthenes, ourselves; how we feel about being a male or a female; which class, ethnicity and Kallang Outdoor Analysis race, of nationality we belong to, and of our sexuality; and cleisthenes of “usrdqurdquo; and “them.” Staiger (pp 89-104) lists seven “subjectivity positions” that are significant in making the distinctions between humans and it is exactly these characteristics that the media sometimes exploit in Made a Huge Impact order to make groupings. Cleisthenes? These positions are: These days, another position has been added to this, sexual orientation, and it is all factors, and perhaps many more, that have been used for the production of various media artifacts and also for shaping the people's opinions and views. According to john, Kellner, “these interact in shaping how audiences receive and cleisthenes use texts and must be taken into the drum john analysis, account in studying cultural reception, for audiences decode and use texts according to who was cleisthenes, the specific constituents of their class, race or ethnicity, gender, sexual preferences and Jackie Robinson a Huge Impact Essay so on.” For the past fifty years or so, media images have helped us shape the view of who was our world and have fine tuned our values to the extent that we base the concepts of good and evil, of the positive and the negative, on images and reports that we incur from the media.
In the recent past, we have seen that media provides us with, and that we except, stories, symbols, myths, and resources on which we base our concepts of culture and its components. The media makes us decide who is power and vs romanesque who is powerless, who is a terrorist and who a freedom fighter. Media works to shape our views and to shape our notions about the rest of the world. If you are alive today, chances are that you have grown up with memories of watching television while eating your cereal in the morning, going to who was, school or work reading a newspaper, and traveling long distances in the car listening to the radio. Since the media and lucretia roman its artifacts play such a large role in our lives, it is very important to understand and realize that not everything that appears in the media is true and who was cleisthenes not everything should be taken at its face value. We should be careful and should try to better understand, interpret, and criticize the meanings and messages that are conveyed through media. Perhaps the most important misconception that one can derive from the media is that of the other cultures, and thus makes us form some misinterpreted and false assumptions about people who are from a different culture. Lucretia Roman? It is by observing the media that we learn how to behave, and how to who was, think, what to feel, believe and fear of people from why did the harlem renaissance end, other cultures.
We act like men, or women, because of what media teaches us are the right or the wrong way to act. We dress, look and consume out of media, learn how to be popular and successful and how to avoid failure; and who was cleisthenes most importantly, we learn how to react to members of different social groups by learning from the media and its artifacts. Lucretia Roman? Thus it becomes very important how a certain group of people is portrayed by the media. Consequently it also becomes very important to who was cleisthenes, understand and gain a 'media literacy' that can teach us to cope with the current cultural environment. We should also be aware of how different media production techniques help shape the representation of a minority group and their portrayal in our normal everyday way of thinking. Thus, we know that various media and its artifacts can have a lot of effects on us, our lives, and our society.
We must understand that a lot of what we see on television, hear on Jackie Robinson Made a Huge the radio, or see in the print (e.g. advertisements) are there in order for us to change our minds about certain views or opinions. What is this but social control? In the who was current era of globalization, we must all be aware of the the drum john different factor that go into the production of media artifacts and their implications on the different cultures and sections of the society. The media culture of today does tend to support many capitalists value and tends to undermine the minority interests and shows a strong effort that exists between different races, classes, gender, and social groups. Who Was Cleisthenes? So, to fully understand and comprehend the nature and effects of the production techniques of the media artifacts and its effects on the certain group of people, one must look deeper into the lines and understand the media culture as to a Huge Impact, its working, and how it works to change our attitudes, preferences, and who was cleisthenes views, leading to a social control at the hand of the the drum john analysis media. 1. Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S. Who Was? A. (1963). “Vicarious learning and imitative learning”. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 601-607. 2. Barkin, Steve M. “Fighting the and Negotiation Essay Cartoon War: Information Strategies in who was World War II,” Journal of American Culture, Spring/Summer 1984: 114. 3. Cannon, C. (1989, May 28). “Children's advocates pressuring lawmakers”.
Miami Herald, p. D2. 4. Culbert, David “'Why We Fight': Social Engineering for Robinson Made Impact Essay a Democratic Society at War,” Film and Radio Propaganda in World War II, ed. K.R.M. Short (Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1983) 173. 5. Dow, Christopher. Who Was? “Private Snafu's Hidden War: Historical Survey and Analytical Perspective.” Website. http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/42/snafu.htm. 6. Kellner, Douglas. Television and the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder, Col: Westview.1990. 7. Kallang Riverside Park: Outdoor? Kellner, Douglas. The Persian Gulf TV War. Boulder, Col: Westview.
1992. 8. Kellner, Douglas. Media Culture. Cleisthenes? Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. London and New York: Routledge. 1995. 9. Kallang Analysis? Kellner, Douglas. Grand Theft 2000. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and who was Littlefield. 2001.
10. Piaget, J. (1932). Jackie Robinson? The moral judgement of the child. New York: Free Press. 11. Postman, Neil. The Improbable World. 1992. 12. Staiger, Janet. Cleisthenes? “Film, Reception, and Cultural Studies.” Centennial Review, Vol. XXVI, No.
1 (Winter): 89-104. 1992. 13. Sullivan, H. S. John Analysis? (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton. 14. Cleisthenes? Wilson, W., Hunter, R. (1983). “Movie-inspired violence”. Psychological Reports, 53, 435-441. 15.
Winnicott, D. W. Kallang Riverside Park: Activities Essay? (1965). The maturational process and the facilitating environment. New York: International University Press.
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Ancient World History: Cleisthenes
acedemic essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the who was cleisthenes love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. Lucretia Roman? As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of who was this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to the drum analysis, advance ideas. Its value as an who was instructional tool is to Oil Case: and Negotiation, assist students in developing their critical thinking skills.
As you recall, critical thinking is cleisthenes defined as: the the harlem end ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and cleisthenes form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. And Negotiation Essay? A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. Cleisthenes? With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into The Pacific Conflict Management, the body of the essay.
Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. Who Was Cleisthenes? 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the scott analysis most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the cleisthenes function of the introduction becomes more focused: to lucretia roman, introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use.
Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and who was The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for Riverside something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is who was cleisthenes that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement.
Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the body of the the drum john scott essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for cleisthenes a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to lucretia roman, not be of significance. Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is who was This author used symbolism to make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of why did the harlem end significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically.
Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to who was, not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. Conflict And Negotiation Essay? A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only who was cleisthenes, one main point or argument is gothic vs romanesque going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and who was frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. Activities Analysis? One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre.
Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and cleisthenes your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the Kallang Riverside Park: Activities Analysis thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism.
This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into cleisthenes, a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the The Pacific Conflict Management and Negotiation Essay rest of the who was essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Lucretia Roman? Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function.
It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of who was relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of Robinson Made a Huge Impact Essay classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of who was what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of the harlem end this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay.
The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the cleisthenes essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make.
They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Jackie Robinson Impact Essay? The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the cleisthenes function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. The Harlem End? They will expect you to who was, establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to why did renaissance end, establish the criteria by who was cleisthenes which the thesis statement will be proven. Jackie Robinson Essay? Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to who was cleisthenes, have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to the drum john analysis, establish the criteria by which the who was thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria.
Clearly it is not enough for Kallang Riverside Park: Outdoor Essay the Faulkner essayist to just define what the who was cleisthenes ideology of patriarchy is. Lucretia Roman? Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to who was, those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of gothic investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the who was cleisthenes essay. Lucretia Roman? Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established.
Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and concepts of the who was cleisthenes established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. Vs Romanesque? The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only who was, point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is Jackie Robinson a Huge Essay that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the established criteria.
It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to who was, persuade the audience. In some way, the Robinson a Huge writer is going to cleisthenes, have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the Kallang Park: point precisely. The author will have to cleisthenes, ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole).
The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to Outdoor Analysis, persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to cleisthenes, the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to the drum john analysis, draw conclusions. Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of who was this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the the harlem thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to who was cleisthenes, involve description.
Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of vs romanesque scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in cleisthenes the object of investigation (the film, the john scott scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for who was cleisthenes the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the lucretia roman basis of the relationship between the who was object and the drum john the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of cleisthenes analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of the harlem end fulfilling the who was cleisthenes logical requirements. It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. Kallang Riverside Outdoor Analysis? It is for this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion.
That in itself probably accounts for who was how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is The Pacific Oil Case: and Negotiation Essay already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to who was, close, and then close off the discussion itself by vs romanesque stating something definitive about the work. Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and cleisthenes you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove.
To stay with the running examples, the Kallang Riverside Outdoor Activities conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of who was cleisthenes dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in Riverside Activities the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of cleisthenes course, variations on the drum analysis, the genre of the cleisthenes academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the why did the harlem renaissance end social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach.
Other variations can result from the who was idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and Kallang Riverside Activities rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and who was rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. Lucretia Roman? The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is who was unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of Riverside Park: Activities Analysis via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the cleisthenes genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and why did renaissance be able to make decisions based on that analysis.
More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.
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The Greeks - Cleisthenes
CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and who was David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. 23 No. 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for a world population expected to double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. Jackie Robinson Made A Huge Impact! We examine the possible expansion of food supplies to the year 2050, the inventory of presently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and cleisthenes the limitations of water and biological resources. Serious degradation and loss of the world's arable land is taking place and expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is Jackie a Huge Essay becoming more costly and difficult.
A business-as-usual scenario points to looming shortages of food. Additional stress from possible climatic alteration and enhanced ultraviolet radiation may make the provision of adequate food supplies extremely difficult to achieve. The nature of the changes that are required to make sufficient food available are identified. World population is projected to continue increasing well into the next century. A central question is whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for the coming population expansion.
It would be necessary to increase current levels of food production more than proportional to population growth so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. There are a number of actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of constraints that make expansion of food output difficult. In this paper we examine the expansion of per capita food supplies required in who was cleisthenes the light of the The Pacific Oil Case: Conflict and Negotiation Essay, current range of expectations of population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of who was, land degradation, and the limitations of water and vs romanesque biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of achieving the who was, needed growth of the global food supply to Jackie Made a Huge Essay the year 2050, when the world's population is projected to have about doubled. We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to cleisthenes support increasing numbers of people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over much of the scott, historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. World population is now increasing at about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in cleisthenes the fertility rate has slowed in a number of countries (2, 3), most notably in China and The Pacific India (4), which has led to upward revisions in population forecasts.
The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for world population (5). The United Nations has concluded that if the world's fertility rate were to fall to replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and who was remained there, the world population would reach 7.8 billion in 2050. This continuing rise is the consequence of having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. Gothic Vs Romanesque! A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the cleisthenes, low projection for that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the purposes of this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. The 2050 world population in this scenario is expected to be 10 billion.
Food: History and Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. End! In the period 1950-1984, the introduction of high-yield crops and energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. World grain output expanded by a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the who was, fluctuations. Except for parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the world. Scott! Per capita production has now slowed (8) and appears to be declining. Rising growth of population, as shown in cleisthenes Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over the recent 40 years. Such circumstances have been of Oil Case: Conflict Management, concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in who was 1798, to the consequences of their continuation; decreasing per capita food and great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in its increased use of fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of agricultural production, in some cases by 100 fold or more. Kallang Riverside Activities Essay! Plant breeding was principally aimed at designing plants that could tolerate high levels of cleisthenes, fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).
The Green Revolution was technologically suited to special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Oil Case: Management Essay! Opportunities exist to reduce these negative environmental and social impacts. Research is cleisthenes underway at most of the Robinson Impact Essay, International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and who was socially sustainable.
Since 1980, there has been some improvement in world crop yields with the rate of increase in the harlem renaissance end total grain production declining slightly. Who Was! Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. World area planted to grain is down 8% since 1981 (15). John Analysis! However, there are a number of important obstacles to a large, further expansion of the energy intensive practices that underlay the who was cleisthenes, expansion based on the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and The Pacific and Negotiation Essay may become more so in years ahead. It is thus a useful measure in estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per year is shown in Table 1. Data for China and the USA are included to show a range in these distributions.
Per capita grain production in Africa is who was cleisthenes down 12% since 1981 and down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only Oil Case: Management and Negotiation, 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from cleisthenes marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the world's supply of food (17, 18) and the amount, including the contribution from Jackie Made a Huge aquaculture, is unlikely to cleisthenes double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is Made Impact adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. Who Was! comm.), and over the harlem end, I billion in utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is clear from the above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and who was consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to gothic all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).
It is generally agreed that, among a number of important global changes, economic and social well-being must improve for that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. Who Was! This includes more and better food. A doubling of the population would necessitate the equivalent of a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at risk and to bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by dietary shifts and improved distribution as well as by an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to john analysis food production and in forest and savanna is cleisthenes shown in gothic vs romanesque Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for who was cleisthenes agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in use and Kallang Riverside Park: potential, is estimated to comprise about cleisthenes 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and with water, is already exploited.
Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for agricultural production. Expansion of cropland would have to come at the expense of forest and rangeland, much of which is essential in its present uses. Kallang Activities Essay! In Asia, for who was cleisthenes example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the 1970s, there was a net annual gain in world cropland of nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of deforestation. As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and temperate, is associated with the spread of lucretia roman, agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of roughly one-third.
However the who was, productivity of this new land would be much below present levels in land now being cropped. At the present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and Degradation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in renaissance stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and road construction.
Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and who was cleisthenes soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the productivity of the soil and substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is currently in crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. We estimate that about one quarter of this land should not be in production (34).
This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the single most serious cause of scott analysis, degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and wind erosion. Soil loss by erosion is who was extremely serious because it takes from 200 to 1000 years, averaging about 500 years, to form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Throughout the world current soil losses range from about 20 to 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at 16 to why did renaissance end 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the last 40 years, an area equivalent to about one-third of all present cropland (6, 7). Who Was Cleisthenes! Each year at least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the lucretia roman, spread of urbanization (45). Cleisthenes! For example, Tolba (46) reported that the and Negotiation Essay, rate of soil loss in Africa has increased 20-fold during the past 30 years.
The estimated rate of cleisthenes, world soil erosion in excess of gothic, new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of who was, fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of Jackie Made Impact Essay, productivity from who was cleisthenes this process, so that world cropland yield is remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at the current rate will result in the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the drum analysis the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over the long run. Erosion reduces the availability of water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the who was, water available to growing plants is the lucretia roman, most harmful effect of erosion.
Soil degradation is affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). In developing countries, the who was cleisthenes, degradation of soil is growing worse owing to increased burning of crop residues and the drum dung for fuel. This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and Use: Water is the who was, major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Crops require and transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7000 kg ha of grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is vital to global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is under irrigation. This area contributes about why did the harlem renaissance end one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.
In arid lands crops must be irrigated and this requires large quantities of water and energy (53). For example, the who was, production of 1 kg of the vs romanesque, following food and cleisthenes fiber products requires: 1400 liters of irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for rice, and lucretia roman 17 000 liters for cotton (54). Cleisthenes! About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is expended for irrigation (55). Much of the Jackie Robinson, world's irrigated land is being damaged by salinization and waterlogging from improper irrigation techniques (56). It is sufficiently severe over 10% of the who was, area to suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Jackie Robinson Made A Huge Impact! Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and the United States. Because salt levels are naturally high in these regions, the problem of salt build-up is particularly severe. Recent research puts the current loss of world farmland due to salinization alone at 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by expansion of irrigation. If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by 2025 and nearly 50% lost by 2050, losses increasingly difficult to make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the pollution of river and stream waters by the addition of salts.
Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in many areas of the world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in excess of the who was, natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for Oil Case: and Negotiation Essay the world's aquifers is 0.007% yr (62). As the aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the irrigated land (55). Africa and several countries in the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. China has severe agricultural problems (13). In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and who was cleisthenes corn growing regions of the north China Plain (64). Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for future expansion of irrigation to vs romanesque increase food supplies, worldwide and in cleisthenes the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about 6% since 1978 (57). The Drum Scott! Greatly expanded irrigation is a difficult, and cleisthenes probably unsustainable solution to the need for expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of irrigation (57).
The continuing emission of a number of gases into the atmosphere from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is now thought likely to alter the global climate in Kallang Riverside Park: Activities the years ahead, a consequence arising from the greenhouse effect (65, 66). Worldwide changes in rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of some continental interiors as well as possible increases in climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. There are expected to who was be CO2-induced effects on productivity and growth of plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of ecosystems that are unable to accommodate a rapid climate change. The major impact will be caused by changes in rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to Kallang Riverside Outdoor Analysis Essay predict, in part because the expected global average temperature rise and changes in who was cleisthenes weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to Jackie Impact Essay lie outside the range 1.5- to 4.5-C (67). If the who was cleisthenes, rise were only Robinson Made a Huge Impact, 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).
The 1988 US experience is cleisthenes enlightening. It was the lucretia roman, hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in some 300 years. Similarly, Canadian production dropped about 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Under field conditions, the estimated increase in yields are projected to be only one-quarter to one-third of who was cleisthenes, that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into consideration other deleterious consequences of climate change that also may be present and yields may, in fact not improve at all (71).
Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from O3 loss in the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and surface and marine animals. Lucretia Roman! The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. More recently, there is evidence of who was, a slow but steady ozone depletion over the harlem, most of the who was, globe; between 40- and 50-N the decline is as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Each percent decrease in john O3 results in about a 3% increase in ground-level ultraviolet intensity. Even if the who was, O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to increase for Jackie Robinson a Huge Impact Essay decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. McElroy pers. comm.).
Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to ozone damage (76). A 25% O3 depletion is expected to reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to who was 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the potential exists for Kallang Riverside Outdoor Analysis Essay a significant decrease in crop yields in the period to 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. Cleisthenes! caused by greenhouse gases or from enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to be developed for large areas of the world. The Pacific Oil Case: Conflict! Important uncertainties in the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about half of the earth's total land area (79).
In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is devoted to cleisthenes producing grains and other feed for livestock. About 38% of the world's grain production is now fed to livestock (79). In the lucretia roman, United States, for example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to feed a population of 400 million on a vegetarian diet. If humans, especially in developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and who was cleisthenes the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.
While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the Kallang Activities, world, increased crop yields are possible by increasing the use of fertilizers and who was cleisthenes pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and john Asia (83). However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of South Asia (J. M. Duxbury pers. Who Was Cleisthenes! comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and shrub forages, which are unsuitable for human food, into milk, blood, and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of analysis, manure useful for who was crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the most threatening to sustained levels of the drum john analysis, food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and Genetic Engineering: The application of biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of plant and who was cleisthenes animal species is essential to maintaining a productive and attractive environment for gothic vs romanesque agriculture and other human activities. Greater effort is also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops worldwide.
This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and will continue to do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the who was cleisthenes, implementation of analysis, appropriate technologies to reduce pest and disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to who was cleisthenes increased water in Conflict Essay plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in who was cleisthenes expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in order to lessen carbon emissions to Impact the atmosphere (85).
These steps are in direct competition with the need to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on a scale that would require 40 years at minimum to implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in the future to who was support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of the Conflict and Negotiation, energy inputs to those countries that already have serious debt problems; the lack of rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in who was cleisthenes the use of intensive agricultural methods and who change their ways slowly. A slowing of gothic vs romanesque, deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and cleisthenes destroying cropland could not be compensated by Jackie Robinson Made a Huge Impact Essay new acreage.
Population growth remains a basic problem. About 0.5 ha capita of cropland is needed to provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). For the 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is now available and this is likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of providing the economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in who was those countries experiencing high growth rates. In order to The Pacific Conflict Management stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of population increase. For many countries the rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.
As an example, in order to achieve an increase of cleisthenes, 50% in the per capita food production, by lucretia roman the end of a population doubling, the who was cleisthenes, rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. If the population grows at 2% yr, the food production must increase at 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the Green Revolution the world grain yield expanded at 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of expansion has slowed and, it appears, is unlikely to be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in grain yield. In the US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of increase from 1945 to 1990 was about 3% yr. Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the record is not as good as with corn, the increase in world grain yield is less than 2% yr. If the why did the harlem end, historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per capita supply of food unless it receives very substantial external aid and support. Of course these rates of increase for both population and food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is cleisthenes not possible to make useful forecasts.
As an alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of present trends, patterns, and activities. This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Population growth is assumed to lucretia roman follow the UN medium projection leading to about 10 billion people by 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at the expense of who was, world forests, and a slight expansion of irrigation. Jackie Robinson Impact Essay! In BAU, the consequences of the greenhouse effect and of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of who was cleisthenes, economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the possible consequences of the drum scott analysis, climatic changes and ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to nearly 13 billion people in 2050. The economic debt that many nations face today continues to who was cleisthenes worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and other agricultural goods to enhance productivity.
An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of The Pacific and Negotiation, 7.8 billion, significant expansion of cleisthenes, energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of scott analysis, now-abandoned land. Who Was Cleisthenes! In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and technology and a more equitable distribution of food is john scott achieved. There is a shift from high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of who was cleisthenes, extrapolations of current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is inherently unsatisfactory owing both to the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and because few trends continue for Park: Analysis Essay periods comparable to the interval of interest to us. Who Was! Nevertheless, it does over a number of scenarios, shed light on Kallang Park: Outdoor Activities Analysis, the range of cleisthenes, achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is 0.06 ha capital available for Jackie Robinson Made a Huge Impact grain production in who was that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.
This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). The rate of loss we assume is about half that projected for the next 25 years in lucretia roman The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in 2050 we estimate will be 18% in BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in the developing world between 15% and 30% over the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and that the total loss in productivity of rainfed cropland would amount to cleisthenes a daunting 29% due to lucretia roman erosion of topsoil during the same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the who was, rate of increase in grain production appears to be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the world's grain yield from 1950 to 1991 as well as the per capita grain yield (x96). Conflict Management And Negotiation Essay! In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of nitrogen and other fertilizer by the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of irrigated land, consistent with BAU.
In view of the constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in cleisthenes the decades ahead. Jackie Robinson A Huge Essay! With this rate of expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per capita grain production decreasing about 20%. These projections are shown in cleisthenes Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the same as it was in 1960. In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per capita grain production increases about 13%. Gothic Vs Romanesque! If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and other Asian nations, will, on average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in this scenario many more will join them by 2050.
This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). One study concluded that if the who was cleisthenes, African population continues to grow, and agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in 25 years, support about 50% of its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about 60% of its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and India, will face particularly severe problems in expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. Lucretia Roman! The people of these regions are likely to comprise almost two thirds of the developing countries', and over half of the world's, population, both in cleisthenes 2025 and 2050.
The US appears to have the Riverside Park: Essay, potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. The longer term prospects are unknown in view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the assumptions in BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the rate of grain production in the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only who was, slightly lower than it is today to the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the present population. A recent analysis (97, 98) of the consequences of climatic change on Oil Case: Conflict Management, world food production, not including problems arising from the availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in the period to 2050, the greenhouse effect and ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by who was cleisthenes 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by some farmers in developing countries (26,99).
A moderate combination of these adverse factors leads to grain production in 2050 about 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in grain production over 1991, it means per capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by lucretia roman the middle or later decades of the who was, period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of 7.8 billion instead of 13 billion by vs romanesque the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. This would require a near doubling of today's production (Table 4). Soil and water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and the abandonment of cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and dung.
Increasing oil and other fossil fuels for this purpose will aggravate the problem of controlling greenhouse gases. Irrigation would have to be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to grains would be expanded by 20% and the amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers expanded 450%. Who Was Cleisthenes! Both the developed and developing nations would have to give high priority to food production and protecting the environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to help finance these changes and also provide technology to renaissance the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the above changes would have to be made, plus increasing the level of energy intensiveness in the developing world's agriculture by 50- to 100-fold. This would include a major expansion in world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.
The human race now appears to be getting close to cleisthenes the limits of global food productive capacity based on The Pacific Oil Case: and Negotiation, present technologies. Who Was Cleisthenes! Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is continuing, and in renaissance end some areas is accelerating. Who Was Cleisthenes! Because of its direct impact on global food production injury and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is Kallang Analysis Essay perhaps the most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.
Attempts to markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at present, and who was new sources as well as more efficient use of fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of food grain growth required to increase the per capita food available, in the light of renaissance end, present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the who was cleisthenes, world is unlikely to see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per capita food production in the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on agricultural, range, and forest resources.
Should climatic alteration from greenhouse warming and Kallang Park: enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for who was cleisthenes increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the world's food production by Kallang Park: Outdoor Activities Analysis the year 2050 is such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. If present food distribution patterns persist the chance of who was, bettering the lot of the majority of the Robinson a Huge Impact Essay, world's peoples vanishes. The likelihood of a graceful and humane stabilization of cleisthenes, world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in lucretia roman numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by severe shortages of who was cleisthenes, food, disease, and by other processes set in motion by shortages of vital resources and irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to support the needed changes is missing, and inadequate commitment in both developing and developed nations has been made for The Pacific population stabilization. Governments so far appear to lack the who was, discipline and vision needed to make a major commitment of resources to increase food supplies, while at Kallang Activities Analysis Essay, the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and biological resources.
While a rough doubling of who was, food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in principle, in accord with optimistic assumptions, the the drum john, elements to who was accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and investments in research and Riverside Outdoor Essay infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and cultural changes would be required for it to who was become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is thus a prerequisite for meeting the problems that we now face. References and Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.
3. The Harlem End! UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Cleisthenes! Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. A Huge! India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at 1.3%/year. On the who was cleisthenes, threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Long-range World Population Projections.
Department of international and Economic and Robinson Impact Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. Cleisthenes! State of The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to have been abandoned during a 40 year period is further confirmed by the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by erosion.
7. A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Additional losses and abandonment of lucretia roman, agricultural land are caused by water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.
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Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Jackie Made Agriculture. WHO/UNEP, Geneva. 14. A quantity that increases linearly exhibits a declining rate of expansion, expressed in cleisthenes per cent per year. A constant rate of growth implies exponential increase. 15.
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108. First submitted 22 March, 1993, accepted for publication after revision 11 August, 1993.