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Injury can result from violence Essay

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14. Writing a Grant Application for Funding. This toolkit supports the work of preparing a successful grant proposal. Outline for Writing a Grant Application for Funding. In this Toolkit, you will find supports for writing a grant application for funding. Part I gives a step-by-step overview of the Injury from, grantwriting process. Anxiety Definition! Part II provides a general template for writing a grant application. Completing Part II will give you a solid proposal that can be adapted to can result from, meet specific grant opportunities and review criteria for examples of archetypes, specific funders. Additional tools can be found at the end of the Injury violence, section. Part I. OVERVIEW OF THE GRANTWRITING PROCESS. Better Mental Outcomes For Young Essay! Before writing the grant application: Identify the problem/ goal area for which funds will be sought. Develop relationships with grantmakers when possible.

Communicate with grantmakers about your work periodically, even when you are not in the process of submitting an application. This may help you learn about Injury violence, future funding prospects, as well as increase your chances for a successful proposal. Thoroughly search for relevant grant opportunities. See Additional Resources for a list of poison grantmakers or potential funders. Consider the following types of funders: Government agencies (e.g., federal, state/province, or local) Private foundations or donors Corporate foundations or businesses. Consider the proposed project/goals fit with the identified funder(s). Learn the funder's grantmaking philosophy, program interests, and criteria.

Does the funder make grants that meet your needs? Check the purpose of grants offered: Seed money (not ongoing operating expenses)? Direct Service? Other? Check the size of grants offered, including minimum and maximum awards. Injury Violence! Determine whether you will need to apply for multiple grants and investigate whether this is allowable under the guidelines of each funder. Check out the definition, timeline for violence, submission, and the funding cycle. Neurotic Anxiety Definition! Check other restrictions (e.g., geographic preferences, priority issues, type of organization that can apply), and make sure you meet the funders requirements. Injury Can Result Essay! In the case of federal or state grants, these may include certification or pre-approval, which may have to be completed well before the grant's application deadline. Look at the number and kind of past awards given by two personalities the funder and determine whether your odds of receiving funding warrant the effort it takes to prepare a competitive grant proposal. Check to violence, see if there is organizational fit between your group/ projects mission and that of the funded.

How does your groups work reflect the funders values and goals? How does the Mental Health Essay, proposal advance the funders mission while staying within your groups mission? Check to see if you meet the eligibility criteria. If the grant requires partnering, consider whether you have a history of sharing responsibilities and resources with other organizations. Is there a potential partner for Injury can result violence Essay, this grant?

Are matching funds required (in which your group commits money/resources)? Before beginning, determine if you have the Essay Prefab Company, needed time, energy, and other resources to prepare an can result Essay effective grant application. Learn the funder's preferred method of examples of archetypes initial contact (e.g., e-mail, phone, face-to-face meeting). Check to violence Essay, see if the funder offers a conference call or web conference briefing session if so, attending may be well worth your time. Check to see if the of archetypes in literature, funder offers Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on their website, and review these in detail. The FAQs may be updated periodically. If you see value in a pre-application meeting, and violence Essay, if the funders guidelines dont tell you otherwise, consider requesting a meeting with the grantmaking agency.

Or, consider having others make contacts with the two personalities, funding agency for you especially if someone who knows you and your work already has a relationship with someone in the funding agency. This may be in your best interest if you are new to grant-writing, know few people in foundations or funding agencies, or dont have much of a track record in this area. Review the literature to find out what approaches might work in your situation. Learn about the problems and goals of the community, and work with partners to develop an intervention for addressing them with the proposed funding. Good practice calls for full involvement of the community and other partners in all aspects of this work. Develop an from violence action plan for the intervention. Indicate how you will adapt the intervention or best practice to fit the needs and context of your community (e.g., differences in resources, cultural values, competence, and language).

Identify the two personalities, mode of delivery through which each component and element of the can result Essay, intervention will be delivered in the community (e.g., workshops for skill training). Specify the core components and elements of the intervention. Poison! Identify and assess best practices or evidence-based interventions that could help address the problem or goal in Injury can result Essay, your situation. Set goals and objectives for what success would look like. Analyze the problem or goals to be addressed by examples of archetypes the intervention. Indicate how you will obtain community involvement in Injury can result from Essay, identifying problems and goals to be addressed by the intervention. Describe the prioritized groups to benefit and those implementing the intervention.

Identify other groups and approaches in about Sprout, the community for addressing this problem/ goal. Assess the level of the problem or goal. Identify the community problem/goal to be addressed and what needs to be done. Create (or refine) a logic model or framework for the project outlined in the grant proposal. This will communicate how the activities will lead to the intended results. Outline the vision and Injury can result, mission of your project. Neurotic! State the objectives of from your project or effort. State the context and conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the intended outcomes (e.g., history of the effort, broad cultural and environmental factors, economic conditions). Two Personalities! Identify inputs, resources and barriers include both resources or supports available and constraints or barriers to meeting the initiatives objectives State activities or interventions - what the initiative or program does to bring about change and improvement (e.g., providing information and training skills, enhancing support, modifying access, changing policies). Injury Can Result Violence! State outputs - direct results or products of the groups activities (e.g., number of anxiety definition people trained or activities conducted).

State intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include shorter-term, intermediate, and longer-term effects). Injury Violence Essay! Using the components listed above in items a-g, draft a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of a view from change. Indicate what success will look like for the project or initiative. (e.g., how would the lives of individuals and communities be better?) Identify your criteria or indicators for judging success. From! How will success be measured? Determine who will be responsible for collecting data or accessing data sources. Indicate the role of documentation and evaluation in supporting program improvement and a view the bridge themes, determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts.

Describe the results you expect to achieve by the end of the funding period. Clearly outline the amount of funding requested for violence, each type of funding sought (e.g., amount for salaries, travel, and equipment). Poison In Hamlet! Create a budget justification (i.e., a description of why each type of expense is needed). Consider all forms of potential revenues (e.g., other grants and contracts, local funding, memberships, in-kind support), as well as all forms of expenses (e.g., staff salaries and benefits, consultants, travel, equipment, supplies, rent, insurance), for each year of the proposed project. Identify appropriate matching funds or resources if applicable. Plan for sustainability of the project funders often want to see a plan for how the project or group will be maintained after the grant period. Injury From Essay! Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to sustain the organization or effort. Identify specific tactics to be used to sustain the effort (e.g., sharing positions and a view the bridge themes, resources, becoming a line item in an existing budget).

Follow up to be sure that the proposal arrived. Identify a contact person at the grantmaking agency. Prepare a thank you letter. Follow up with partners or other key stakeholders that contributed to from, the proposal or would support implementation. Securing one grant takes multiple applications. Dont wait to hear about one application before sending out another. Once word has been received from the grantmaking agency about the two personalities, funding (or lack of Injury can result approved funding), debrief with the group to a view from, discuss lessons learned and next steps. Continue efforts to diversify the types of funding and types of funders that support your work. Be persistent.

Part II. WRITING THE GRANT APPLICATION. Can Result Violence Essay! Be sure to include important information (e.g., the RFA or grant name, proposal name, agency name). PROPOSAL NARRATIVE (usually a total of 10-20 pages) After drafting the narrative, have someone with limited knowledge of the proposal give you feedback based on the review criteria. From Themes! Review and critique your draft proposal using the from, scoring criteria used to poison, review proposals.

Review and critique the draft proposal to see if it meets the proposal requirements. Prepare and present the final proposal in a reader-friendly format that will make scoring easy for grant reviewers (e.g., label sections based on proposal outline and criteria, use bold to can result from violence Essay, highlight key points). ABSTRACT/ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The abstract/ executive summary (typically less than one page) should clearly and briefly summarize the proposal. Devote at least one sentence each to the statement of the problem/goal, context, project mission and objectives, organizational and community capacity, methods, evaluation plan, and poison, plan for sustainability. Keep it clear and simple. The abstract should clearly articulate what the proposal is about, and how it fits the funding priorities and criteria. Although this will be the first thing the Injury, reviewer reads, it should typically be written last. Essay Prefab Sprout Company! Prepare the can result, abstract after the rest of the proposal is complete. That way, you wont have to rewrite it as your proposal evolves.

Statement of the poison in hamlet, Community Problem or Goal. State the community problem or goal to be addressed. Describe the active involvement of the community in defining the problems and goals and planning the approach. Document evidence of the problem, including data on the scope or level of the problem. You may use public records of community-level indicators and/or community surveys to communicate the importance of the problem/goal. Describe how you have determined that this project is needed in your community (e.g., community assessments, surveys or public records that support the need for the project). Document evidence of community concern about the issue, including information from people affected by the problem, those responsible for Injury can result from Essay, addressing it, and reports from the examples of archetypes in literature, media. (You may want to can result violence, use public forums and focus groups). If available, attach media reports on Essay about Sprout the issue or problem in this community. State whom the problem or goal most affects and how they are affected by it.

Describe how the Injury from, problem or goal is linked to other related issues in the community. Describe the geographic area that defines the community (e.g., city, town or village, urban neighborhood or rural area), including the location and physical boundaries, total population, and other relevant characteristics (e.g., commercial/residential area, quality of two personalities physical environment, etc.). Describe the intended beneficiaries of the project and their relevant characteristics (i.e., ages of those affected, race/ethnicity, income levels, education levels, etc). State community assets, challenges, and from violence, needs. State other recent and current efforts in the community to address the problem/ goal. II. PROJECT MISSION AND OBJECTIVES, ORGANIZATIONAL AND COMMUNITY CAPACITY. Mission and Objectives of the poison, Project. Violence! State the vision for the project related to of archetypes in literature, the problem or goal identified by the community.

State the mission of the project or initiative. State the overall objective(s) for the community project or initiative State the key behavioral objectives for the community project or initiative (e.g., what are the measurable impacts that could be expected in from, 3 5 years. Describe the Organization's Capacity to Conduct the Project. Include: A brief overview of the organization, including its mission or purpose, and a view from the bridge, its clients or groups that benefit from its work. Process checklist: defining organizational structure and operating mechanisms. Organizational development (how long has it been around, how it has grown, how has capacity been extended). From Essay! If applicable, include information about agency or staff accreditation or licensure. Resources and assets (e.g., people, financial, etc.). Include a summary of key personnel and partners, including their experience and skills, previous work in addressing the problem or goal to two personalities, be addressed, and their anticipated roles in this initiative including percentage of time dedicated to the program. Identify the relationship of the can result from violence Essay, lead contact for of archetypes, the proposal to the Applicant organization.

Describe the Communitys Capacity to Address this Problem/ Goal. Include: Community assets and resources. Level of readiness to engage in this work, including results of any previous assessments of readiness or capacity (if available). Injury Can Result From Violence! Describe support from and collaboration with other organizations. Describe the roles of poison other partners in developing the proposed project, and how the proposed project will involve them in operations. Injury Can Result From! State how you will collaborate with other organizations to address client needs and avoid duplication of poison services.

Attach letters from collaborating organizations. (Letters of support should be on the organizations letterhead and include the name, title, telephone number and e-mail address of the Injury can result from violence Essay, appropriate contact person within the partner organization). Describe the factors or conditions that contribute to the problem or goal. Describe the personal factors (e.g., past history, knowledge, and a view from the bridge themes, skills) and environmental factors (e.g., available support and resources, policies) that may contribute to the problem/goal. Describe the lead agencys previous work addressing the problem/goal. Describe significant accomplishments of the organization and successes with related projects (if new, of members or staff in previous roles). Attach media reports in Appendix A, if available. First, identify the Injury from violence, objectives and strategies for in hamlet, the proposal consistent with the Injury from violence, aims of the RFA. Then, address the following: Intended Beneficiaries and How to Reach Them. Identify primary groups to benefit and other prioritized groups to be reached through the project. Describe the universal approaches to be used to poison, reach many or all of the people in the prioritized group.

Describe the targeted approaches to be used to from, reach those at two personalities, higher risk for the problem or concern. Injury Can Result Violence! Mobilizing Resources and Overcoming Barriers. Describe the people who could potentially help address the neurotic anxiety, problem or goal, the assets they could contribute, and how they will be engaged in can result from Essay, the project. Describe material resources (e.g., money, equipment) which could potentially help address the problem or goal, the assets that could be contributed, and how they will be used. From Themes! Identify the key stakeholders (those who have something to gain or lose by the efforts to address the problem or goal) and how they will be involved in the project. Describe potential sources of violence Essay resistance to the project, the forms it might take, and how resistance could be reduced. Troubleshooting Guide: We are facing opposition or conflict. Describe potential barriers to the project, the forms it might take, and how barriers could be removed or reduced. Troubleshooting Guide for Solving Problems: Common Problems, Reflection Questions, and Links to Sprout Company, Support Tools Proposed Project Activities Logic Model. Include a picture or visual representation of the framework or model of change for your project. Be sure to Injury violence, include: Intended effects - more broadly measured outcomes or results (may include immediate, intermediate, and longer-term effects) Outputs or products of the groups activities Activities or interventions to bring about a view from themes, change andimprovement Inputs, resources and barriers for meeting the initiatives objectives The context and conditions under which the problem or goal exists that may affect the intended outcomes The objectives of your project The vision and mission of your project Intervention and Action Plan complete and include the following: Components of the Intervention (for example) Specific Elements of the Intervention.

Providing Information and Enhancing Skills. (e.g., workshops to train skills on) Enhancing Services and Injury from, Support. Modifying Access, Barriers, and poison in hamlet, Opportunities. Changing the Consequences (e.g., incentives) Modifying Policies and Broader Systems. Other (be specific): Action Plan for Injury can result, Implementation. Element of the Intervention (e.g., workshop) What needs to be done: It may be appropriate to include an implementation timeline (sometimes, this is appropriate to include in the appendix). In Hamlet! Indicate the Injury can result from Essay, role of documentation/evaluation and feedback in supporting program improvement and determining effectiveness, along with your plan for documentation/ monitoring your efforts. Describe the results you expect to achieve by of archetypes the end of the funding period. Indicate what success will look like for the project or initiative. Describe your criteria or indicators for judging success.

How will success be measured? Indicate how evidence will be gathered about whether the project as conducted was consistent with the plan. Injury Can Result! Note how this information will be used to improve functioning of the neurotic definition, initiative. Indicate how evidence will be gathered about the contribution of the intervention to the outcomes of the project. Note how this information will be used to improve functioning of the can result Essay, initiative. Indicate how information will be gathered to support the in hamlet, objectives of the can result, funders. Describe how the performance measures identified by the funder (especially for state or federal grants) will be collected and measured.

Indicate how information about Essay Prefab Company, satisfaction of stakeholders and collaborators with the from violence Essay, project will be gathered regularly. Note how this information will be gathered and used to enhance functioning of the neurotic, initiative. Indicate how community-level indicators (e.g., children immunized; incidence of drinking and driving or related injuries; percentage of people who are overweight) will be used to determine whether the effort made a difference with the community problem or goal. Indicate how the behaviors (or products of behavior) of prioritized groups will be measured to Injury can result from violence Essay, determine whether the initiative had an effect on key behaviors (e.g., percentage of people reporting regular physical activity or being overweight.) Indicate how community and Better for Young Foster Essay, system change (e.g., new or modified programs, policies, or practices) will be documented to determine whether the environment has changed related to the mission. Indicate how other things occurring in can result violence, the community during the initiative will be documented to determine how they may have contributed to the observed effects (or lack of effects). Anxiety Definition! Create a business plan to anticipate what resources will be necessary to sustain the organization or effort. This should include a description of the activities, services or products to be offered.

Generate an annual budget, including: All projected expenses (e.g., salaries, office expenses, rent, utilities, phone and computer expenses, equipment, travel, etc) All projected income - based on current sources of funding and other in-kind resources. Use the anticipated budget to: Evaluate the Injury can result from violence Essay, financial resources needed to sustain the programs and services of the initiative. Identify ways to Better Mental Outcomes Children, generate resources other than money (e.g., time, materials) to meet some of the anticipated expenses. Indicate how you will use potential tactics for financial sustainability, including: Sharing positions and resources Becoming a line item in an existing budget of another organization Incorporating the initiatives activities or services into another organization with a similar mission Applying for grants Outline a specific action plan for sustaining the organization or effort (i.e., who will do what, by when to implement chosen tactics for sustainability) Include appropriate supplemental items in the Appendix. Can Result! The appendix should not include any information essential for anxiety, the review of the application since the review of the can result from violence, appendix is often optional for the reviewer. Include appropriate Letters of Support (LOS). Establish relationships and be sure to request letters well in advance of the submission deadline. Anxiety! Review all prepared materials carefully prior to submission. Review the checklist for following funders' guidelines for practical tips to Essay, maximize chances for success.

Example 1: Grant application to examples, The Vicki Scott Foundation to Injury from Essay, improve healthcare access for Hispanics. Two Personalities! 2506 Crestline Circle. Lawrence, KS 66047. People for Universal Health Care. September 22, 2000. Kansas State Health Department. Attn: Grant Committee. 618 N. Bay Country. Topeka, KS 67525. Dear Sir or Madam: The mission of our organization is to improve the health and well-being of Injury Essay children in definition, Marshall County, Kansas through education and improved community programs. We would like to raise the immunization rates of Injury from violence Essay Marshall County to the national goal of 90%, from their current levels of 69%, in the next five years.

We are interested in immunization rates in Marshall County because there is poison, little or no system to ensure that the children of that community receive proper immunizations. Too few children receive proper immunizations by the age of two years, even though childhood vaccinations have been acknowledged as the most cost-effective way to prevent certain infectious diseases. Therefore our goal is to increase the rate of children, particularly those at the age of two or younger, having been adequately vaccinated in Marshall County. We believe that we have the Injury can result, capacity to carry out this initiative because we have a strong history of success in child and youth services, as well as health and wellness services. Our members include employees of Latvia Memorial Hospital, such as nurses, technicians, and a member of the business office. Our organization also includes a member of the local United Way, the community health department, and two personalities, several community members who serve various functions within the county. Our organization has a variety of resources for funding, including donations of needed supplies by the local hospitals and clinics. The County Health Department and Injury can result violence, local health organizations, including the United Way, also contribute to our funds with annual donations. Finally, our organization receives financial assistance through fundraising by local businesses. We are requesting additional funding from the Kansas State Health Department to help start this initiative. We chose to approach you because we feel that our organizations have similar missions: to improve the health and well-being of Kansans.

We are targeting one particular population of Kansans at this time: the children of Marshall County. Thank you for your time and consideration. I. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM AND CONTEXT. STATEMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM OR CONCERN. State the community problem or concern to be addressed. About Company! We are concerned about the Injury from violence, growing number of uninsured/underinsured Hispanic workers in the Durham, NC community.

This community has issues of access related to language barriers, the lack of health insurance, and two personalities, the lack of transportation to the clinics currently available in the area. It is also noted that many area clinics such as the Lincoln Community Health Center are overwhelmed by the increasing number of Hispanics in need of health care services. Document evidence of the problem, including data on the scope or level of the can result, problem. Poison In Hamlet! You may use existing public records of from community level indicators and/or community surveys. Document evidence of community concern about the issue, including information from people affected by the problem, those responsible for Better Outcomes Children Essay, addressing it, and can result Essay, reports from the media. State who is affected by the problem or concern and how they are affected by it. The immigrant population is primarily affected by the problem of lack of access to adequate health care. The area health clinics and hospitals are overwhelmed by neurotic definition the influx of the Injury violence Essay, growing Hispanic population and are finding it difficult to meet the in hamlet, needs of this community.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMMUNITY. Can Result Violence Essay! Describe the geographic area that defines the community including the location and in hamlet, physical boundaries, total population, and other relevant characteristics. Injury Can Result Essay! Durham, North Carolina is a medium-sized city, and (along with Raleigh and Chapel Hill), it is one of the three towns comprising what is commonly known as The Research Triangle. Known as the City of Medicine, Durham is perhaps best known by outsiders for two personalities, the Durham Bulls minor league baseball team and for Duke University and Medical Center. Durham is also home to violence, two other colleges, North Carolina Central University (the nation's first publicly supported liberal arts college for African-Americans), and Durham Technical Community College. The town is very diverse, already boasting the same racial diversity that America will have in 2050. It is also a city that is growing very rapidly. In 1999, the estimated population of poison in hamlet Durham was 204,097; that figure represents over from violence Essay, a 10% increase from the estimated population in 1990 (181,835 people). While the town was founded primarily with money from tobacco over a hundred years ago, it is a view from the bridge themes, now a major center for research and development, with major corporations such as IBM and Glaxo Wellcome having a home in Research Triangle Park, most of which is a part of the city of Durham.

Indeed, trying to cope with the booming growth that has hit the can result from Essay, area is one of the largest challenges facing area planners. Describe the community people who are the intended beneficiaries of the project and their relevant characteristics. Neurotic Anxiety! Our project is Injury can result from violence Essay, being developed to serve the needs of Hispanic residents of Durham County, including those who have come to this country illegally. In 1996, the official figure published by the Census Bureau for Hispanics was a population of 3,466, or 1.8% of the population. However, local Hispanic advocates estimate the true figure is poison in hamlet, closer to from violence Essay, 8,000 residents. Examples! As Katie Pomerans, the Hispanic ombudsman in the Office of Citizen Services puts it, [The Census figures definitely don't] have anything to do with reality. They're grossly undercounting, and it makes no sense. Can Result Essay! Any way you count it, the Mental Health Outcomes Foster, number of Hispanics in the county is on the rise.

The Census Bureau states that the Hispanic population of Durham grew by 11% from 1995 -- 1996, and the number of Hispanic children in schools jumped by 25% during the Injury from, same time period. This increase in Mental Health Essay, population has been noticed in the medical community as well. Lincoln Community Health Center, a low-cost clinic that charges a sliding scale, is seeing its Hispanic clientele grow markedly. For example, in just the two years from 1994 and Injury violence, 1996, the examples of archetypes in literature, percentage of the patient population that was Hispanic tripled, from 2.7% to 7.1% of the clinic's visitors. This increase shows no signs of slowing down, and is severely straining the clinic's resources. As a whole, Hispanics in the United States have a myriad of problems that make them less likely to seek and obtain health care. Injury Can Result From Violence! Nationwide, only Mental Outcomes for Young Foster, 11% of can result violence Essay Hispanics have at least a Bachelor's degree, as compared to 28% of non-Hispanic whites.

They are three times more likely to live in poverty than non-Hispanic whites (26% vs. Two Personalities! 8%); 34% of Hispanic children live in poverty. From Violence Essay! Hispanics are also much less likely to have health insurance, even if they do have full-time jobs. A recent study done by The Commonwealth Fund found that 37% of two personalities Hispanics who work full-time are not covered by can result violence Essay insurance, compared with 20% of blacks and 12% of whites. The Hispanic community in Durham, as is the case with Hispanics throughout the country, have unique health care needs.

Not the least of these is actually having the resources to get them in the door of a medical office. As The News and neurotic anxiety, Observer, one of the from Essay, local newspapers, reported last summer, The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is of archetypes in literature, growing, but several barriers -- including a language gap and lack of transportation -- haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office. Even in the face of adequate medical care, Hispanics still, as a whole, are affected by Injury can result from violence many medical problems to a much greater extent than are members of other racial or ethnic groups. For example, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and tuberculosis are all health concerns which occur in Hispanics more frequently than in other populations. Sprout Company! The recent rubella epidemic among area Hispanics is another example of the need for can result from, culturally appropriate health care in our community. Clearly, this population needs more medical assistance than it is currently receiving in Durham. ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OR SITUATION.

Identify the basic conditions or root causes that may contribute to the problem or concern. Include which behaviors of in hamlet whom need to Injury can result Essay, change to address the problem or concern. It is ironic that in the City of Medicine there are residents who cannot get adequate health care. Unfortunately, that irony exists; and of archetypes in literature, it is growing to Injury from violence Essay, such an extent that this irony is quickly becoming a tragedy. The booming Hispanic population is at the root of this problem. The rate of immigration, both legal and illegal, into neurotic anxiety definition, the city is unprecedented in can result from, the area's history. Existing resources, including the Public Health Department and Lincoln Community Health Center, are being strained beyond capacity. And quite simply, in many cases Hispanics in two personalities, our community cannot afford to go anywhere else.

In Durham in 1990, for example, 285 households headed by Hispanics had incomes below $24, 999; and 157 had incomes below $14,999. In addition, in many cases, barriers of language and knowledge are difficult to can result from, overcome. Two Personalities! While some clinics have Spanish-speaking personnel or interpreters, many do not. Additionally, the very people who do not regularly seek medical care in the community are the same people who are unaware of the resources already available in the community (for example, STD hotlines in Spanish and disaster assistance). ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY TO CONDUCT THE PROJECT.

Describe the nature, depth and continuity of the organization's leadership. Our board of directors is Injury can result violence, made up of dedicated, passionate medical and non-medical personnel. They have shown continuous dedication to their community through past fundraising and volunteer efforts. Our current Board is made up of physicians, physician assistants, nurses, pharmacists, social workers and community leaders, including members of the Latino community. Poison In Hamlet! Important posts in Injury can result from, the clinic will be filled as follows. Medical Director: MD Executive Director: PA-C Clinical Manager: RN (paid position?) Describe other resources and assets of the organization. We have already 50 volunteers offering at least two hours per month to two personalities, staff the clinic as follows, per night: Volunteers will be scheduled regularly as first Wednesday or second Wednesday, etc. From! Describe the organization's past history of success related to the proposed work. While we are new as a group, our many years of service to Mental Health Outcomes Children Essay, the community will prove invaluable in this endeavor. Members of our board have over 75 years combined experience in medicine and over 100 years experience working in the Hispanic community.

We have chosen board members based on their experience, proven dedication and commitment to Injury can result from violence, this cause. Describe support from and collaboration with other relevant organizations. Our networking capabilities extend into local, state and national professional organizations such as the American Medical Association, American Academy of Physician Assistants, American Nurses Association, and anxiety, American Pharmacists Association. We are working with some of the local professional groups and other local charitable groups to form partnerships for the clinic. Partnerships could include financial and Injury from, in-kind support, dedicated volunteer hours, and leadership and administrative support. We also receive guidance and support from Volunteers in Healthcare, the Public Health Foundation and the Free Clinic Foundation. II.

PROJECT VISION, MISSION, AND OBJECTIVES. State the positive vision for the community related to the problem or concern. Helping the Latino community will pay for itself many times over in the future. A community is only as successful and productive as each of its citizens. By helping some, we're helping all. State the mission of the project or initiative. To provide culturally-appropriate free primary health care services to individuals who lack access to in hamlet, care, especially those of Hispanic origin.

This will be accomplished through a culturally-diverse, volunteer-based organization with emphasis on from Essay education and outreach. State the overall objective(s) for the community project or initiative. The overall objective of this project is to Mental Health Outcomes, improve the health of the from Essay, Hispanic population of Durham. III. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION/ METHODS OF INTERVENTION.

TARGETS OF CHANGE AND HOW REACH THEM. Identify primary targets of change. All members of the Latino community of Durham, regardless of age, religion, country of Better Health Outcomes for Young Essay origin, immigration status or ability to pay. Indicate how targets will be reached by the intervention. Our primary means of reaching the Hispanic population will be through the local Spanish-language media. On a secondary level, board members will be expected to from violence, meet monthly, and receive feedback from community leaders quarterly. Information received from these meetings will be evaluated and examples of archetypes in literature, acted upon accordingly. MOBILIZING HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES. Describe the people who could potentially help address the problem or concern, the assets they could contribute, and how they might be engaged in addressing the problem.

Any members of the can result from Essay, community who are willing to donate their time and help improve the health status of the Latino community. This volunteer pool can include community and religious leaders, trained healthcare workers, administrative personnel and members of the media. Describe material resources which could potentially help address the problem or concern, the two personalities, assets that could be contributed, and how they might be used to Injury from violence, address the problem. Examples Of Archetypes! We will be looking for in-kind donations of new and Injury can result violence, used medical equipment including exam tables, medical supplies and pharmaceuticals. We will also be in need of office and record-keeping materials.

The local media will be called upon to donate advertising space and general support. Identify the key stakeholders and how they will be involved in the project. There are many people who will be affected by this project. Those most affected of in literature course will be the recipients of the clinic's services, primarily the Hispanic population. We are anticipating they will have better access to basic health care services and their overall state of health will improve through this increased access. They will be involved not only as patients of the Injury can result from, clinic but also through their feedback they will help to organize and plan services. We are hopeful that these same patients will become advocates of good health practices and peer educators in neurotic definition, their community. Another large group which will be affected through the from, institution of this project are the local hospitals and clinics which serve this same population.

These institutions are overwhelmed with the large influx of this population in the area and will certainly benefit from a number of their patients receiving basic health services in our clinic. This will free up more time and resources for about Prefab Sprout, them to deal with the can result from, more complex cases. They are also involved heavily as many of the volunteers for our clinic will come from these same health institutions. Finally the local community churches which serve this same population will also be affected by this project. We have collaborated with these organizations for some time now and poison, they also are involved with the organizing, planning, and Injury from Essay, outreach educational services. The also serve as a valuable source of volunteers as well as patients and a view from, our collaboration is a key to the success of this clinic. TARGETS, BEHAVIORS, AND STRATEGIES FOR INTERVENTION. Outline the key targets of change, key behaviors that need to change, and the strategies or intervention components to Injury can result Essay, be used to change behavior. There are several groups we see as key targets of change. Definition! Broadly, the Durham health care community needs to address this overwhelming problem of the can result from Essay, migrant Hispanic populations difficult access to healthcare as a separate and more comprehensive issue.

Though each individual institution has taken steps to poison in hamlet, address the issues on an individual level, the numbers of these patients are becoming overwhelming and Injury, need to be addressed on the community level. A View From The Bridge Themes! Our clinic offers a wonderful opportunity for this issue to be addressed on a community level. Also this clinic tackles the issues of language barriers, the lack of health insurance, and the lack of transportation to the other health services currently available in from Essay, the area. These institutions can address some of a view from the bridge themes these issues through outreach programs at our clinic as well as serving as volunteers and addressing the issue at a personal level. Secondly, the Hispanic migrant community itself must change. With improved access to healthcare comes the individual responsibility to take advantage of these services in can result from Essay, not only the treatment of two personalities illness but also in Injury, the prevention of illness.

Many health issues can be not only prevented through immunizations, education, and lifestyle changes but can also be arrested in the earlier stages of neurotic definition illness if addressed at an earlier time. These issues can also be addressed throughout clinic, however the true work here must begin at the community level. Injury Can Result Violence Essay! Through individuals as well as the community churches those in the Hispanic migrant community must educate each other about Mental for Young Foster, healthcare maintenance preventative issues. Can Result From Essay! This can be addressed in a continual education and outreach network working closely with the Mental Health Outcomes for Young Foster Children Essay, clinic and in Injury violence, the local churches and surrounding community. Describe what success will look like for the project or initiative. Success can be defined as serving a desired volume of patients or by making an impact on one individual patient. It will take about in hamlet, six to eight weeks to reach the anticipated patient volume, but a positive individual impact can be seen on the first night. We expect to see 500 patients in the first six months. As we are a new project, our original goals for success are modest. As we continue and grow as an organization, we hope to expand our focus, and to measure the effect of our project on the overall health of Hispanics in Durham. More specifically increased rates of Injury from immunizations and increased screening and treatment of; tuberculosis, diabetes, and hypertension.

We are also planning to address many basic primary care concerns such as upper respiratory infections and ear infections in children. What indicators or benchmarks can help detect improvements in the problem or concern. Outcomes! As addressed above one simple indicator we can follow in order to evaluate the success of our program is the immunization rates of both children and adults. It is Injury can result from Essay, also possible to measure or compare screening rates for tuberculosis, diabetes, and hypertension through percentages within those at risk in the patient population. Better Mental Outcomes For Young Foster! Even more specifically we can track the follow up visits for from violence, the treatment of those with these same diseases. We also must ask for the community leaders and churches to address their community for evaluation and possible improvement of poison in hamlet our services.

Indicate how implementation of the intervention will be monitored. Note how this information will be fed back to from violence, improve functioning of the the bridge themes, initiative. The indicators mentioned above will be monitored on a monthly basis. Also monitored will be the number of new and return patients. These measures of performance will be recorded by Injury the nurses and providers in the patients charts at the time as reason for the visit and will be collected and recorded in a master document by the non-medical assistants helping that same evening.

For at least the first year following the implementation of the project the Board will meet monthly to discuss any problems as well as the progress of the clinic. Outcomes Foster Children Essay! The community leaders will be asked on a quarterly basis to hold meetings within the community either at churches or at local gatherings. This will be for both informing the people of the services available to Injury can result from violence, them as well as requesting feedback from the community, which will be presented at in hamlet, monthly Board meetings for evaluation and possible implementation. Can Result From! During the hours of operations, technical and/or administrative problems will first be fielded by the Clinic Manager, to be followed-up by the Executive Director when necessary. Indicate how information about satisfaction of key stakeholders and with the project will be gathered regularly and used to enhance functioning of the initiative. As discussed above there will be monthly Board meetings to discuss any problems encountered as well as progress of the clinic on a view from the bridge themes a monthly basis for at Injury from violence Essay, least the first year of two personalities operation.

The community leaders will also be asked to reach out into Injury can result from, their communities on in literature at least a quarterly basis to both inform the community of the services available and any changes implemented. From! Here they will primarily ask the community for any input they have concerning the clinics operations. This information will be presented to the Board at the monthly meetings. Additionally, as patients leave, we will ask them to take part in an informal, oral interview that will remain anonymous (e.g., their names will not be attached to their answers). Those surveyed will be asked a short list of Essay Prefab Sprout Company open-ended questions that have been reviewed by an expert in Hispanic studies and an epidemiologist. NB: Although an oral interview is not ideal, due to the possibility of bias (e.g., a desire to please the interviewer), we believe it is necessitated by the large percentage of Injury from our population who may be illiterate. Indicate how possible (negative) side effects of the project or initiative will be detected and remedied. Note how this information will be used to minimize those side effects?

Negative side effects of this project will be detected at several levels. The most essential level that will be monitored as to about Sprout, side effects is the community, especially the patient population. Information from these oral interviews mentioned above, both positive and negative, will be reviewed by our Board of Directors on a monthly basis, and adjustments will be made accordingly. This will also happen through the help of community leaders and churches. Here the population will be asked to give their feedback concerning the clinic and improvements or changes that need to be made. This information will be channeled back to the Board, which will try to from, implement as many changes as possible to improve services. Another important group to be monitored will be that of the volunteer base which will help to Essay about Prefab Sprout Company, run the clinic. The volunteers will be encouraged to express their concerns and ideas to both the Clinic Manager and the Executive Director who will express these concerns at the monthly Board meetings. Injury Can Result From Essay! We will also use suggestion boxes for volunteers who wish to make anonymous comments. These will be evaluated first by the Clinic Manager and presented at poison in hamlet, the monthly Board meetings for discussion. Indicate how community-level indicators will be used to determine whether the effort made a difference with the Injury from violence, community problem or concern.

Most of our indicators of success will be in the day to Essay Prefab, day numbers of how many patients were seen daily. We will also track specific major public health issues, such as: The number of children immunized at our clinic The number of Injury can result from violence women receiving well-woman exams The number of a view the bridge patients screened/treated/educated for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases The number of patients receiving screening and/or treatment for diabetes, hypertension and tuberculosis The number of prenatal referrals that occur at our clinic. We will also work with other community health centers, most notably Lincoln Community Health Center and the Durham Public Health department, and attempt to determine if there is a difference in their utilization due to our clinic. In the future, we hope to correlate the numbers from our clinic with statistics from can result from our community of Better Outcomes for Young Foster Children overall health (e.g., the can result from violence, rate of STD's; the rate of immunization in about Company, the community, et cetera). However, this information and work is outside of the domain of this original grant proposal. V. PLAN FOR FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY.

List strategies that will be used to sustain the from Essay, initiative and/or its successful components after this grant ends. While the startup grant which we are applying for Essay Sprout Company, today is crucial to can result from, get our program on our feet, it is our goal that the program will eventually be entirely sustained through the use of local resources. To that end, our financial sustainability plan includes all of the following: United Way funding. We are currently in negotiations with the United Way of Durham County to receive a small stipend from their annual budget. Funding from local churches. Our Lady of Guadeloupe, a local Catholic parish with a large Hispanic population, has pledged a small donation of $750 annually to of archetypes in literature, help pay for some services. In-kind donations. Can Result Essay! We are lucky that the Better Outcomes, Triangle is home to several major pharmaceutical companies.

We are currently in negotiations with several companies to have donations of medications and other medical equipment brought to our clinic on a semi-regular basis. Private, individual donations will be used to develop a core funding source to help the violence Essay, center run in perpetuity. We will also seek further grants from poison both public and private foundations to further our work. VI. OVERALL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROSPECTS FOR SUCCESS. In one paragraph, state WHY this project should be done: a) at can result violence, all, b) in this community, c) at this time, and d) by this organization.

The need for free, culturally sensitive health care for poison, the burgeoning Hispanic population in Durham County, North Carolina is great. By all accounts, it will grow substantially in the coming decade. The recent rubella outbreak among area Hispanics offers us only Injury can result from Essay, a small taste of what the future could bring. By acting now, our proposal offers a chance for a group of seasoned, dedicated professionals to two personalities, start a clinic that will be able to grow with the growing Hispanic population. We hope our clinic will contribute to a thriving, diverse, healthy community , and from violence Essay, ask that you seriously consider our proposal. Thank you.

Appendix A: Attach Letters of Essay about Sprout Support and Commitment from Collaborating Organizations. Injury Can Result From! Father Mark O'Reilly. Our Lady of Guadeloupe Catholic Church. Durham, North Carolina 27704. Telephone (919) 477-6789.

I am writing this letter in support of the new free Hispanic health care center that has been proposed in our community. I have been a priest in examples of archetypes, Durham for the past 15 years, and in my time here, I have seen my parish grow tremendously, primarily due to the large influx of Hispanic immigrants who continue to become our neighbors here in town. As a priest, I am privy to many of their difficulties, and it strikes me time and again how many of these problems are due to a lack of adequate health care. Many do not have money to go to the doctor. Of those who do, many are afraid to do so because of Injury from their immigration status, or because their English is not adequate to understand a clinician's directions or even explain their problems.

Many of Essay about these people I have accompanied to local clinics and served as their translator; but if I did this for every person who needed this in my parish, I would no longer have time for anything else. I understand this letter will go to violence Essay, support a grant application, and will be read by those unfamiliar with this problem, with our community. Please understand that while you see words on a page, I am watching children die because they did not receive the care that was necessary. The need is urgent, and the time to act upon the bridge themes it is now. I have the highest confidence in those who are running this new clinic. They are extremely competent clinicians who are well respected by this community.

They can get things done. Most importantly, they are passionately dedicated to this cause. I have total faith in their abilities to get things done, and can result from violence, I and anxiety definition, my parish are supporting their work completely. We have offered them a modest stipend of $750 annually (the amount our parish could afford), and many of our parishioners will be volunteering at the clinic. I urge you to support their efforts as well. If I can be of any further service, please do not hesitate to let me know. Yours in Christ, Human Relations Department. Big Drug Corporation. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27707. To Whom It May Concern: We are writing in can result, support of the new free clinic that is being proposed in our area. As one of the nation's leading pharmaceutical providers, we believe it is important that the community in poison in hamlet, which we are based be one of the healthiest in our nation.

It is to that end that we have pledged our support to this new clinic. From Essay! It is two personalities, part of our mission to give something back to the community that graciously houses us. Although we have not yet finalized the specifics of Injury can result our donation to the new clinic, we hope to be a regular benefactor, probably through donations of our products. We believe the clinic will do outstanding work and fill a necessary niche in our community. Poison! We hope that you will join us in supporting this worthy endeavor. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact our office at (919) 383-1234. Julie R. Injury Can Result From Violence Essay! Nielson. Human Relations Associate. Big Drug Corporation. Appendix B: Documentation of the growing Hispanic population in Durham.

December 21, 1997. The News Observer. Anxiety Definition! Estimate alarms Hispanic advocates. By NED GLASCOCK; STAFF WRITER. RALEIGH -- The U.S. Census Bureau says North Carolina's Hispanic population continues to Injury violence, multiply. But Hispanic advocates say Uncle Sam still hasn't figured out how to count. Children Essay! New population estimates continue to underestimate the true scope of North Carolina's recent wave of Hispanic immigration, advocates say.

They worry that the can result Essay, apparent underestimation could mislead policy-makers about the level of state and local resources needed to address the influx. Two Personalities! The Census Bureau estimates that 134,384 Hispanics lived in the state in July 1996, an can result from Essay 11 percent increase over 1995 and 73 percent more than in the 1990 census. However, the new figure falls far below the estimate of 205,000 made by state health officials in 1996, said Katie Pomerans, Hispanic ombudsman in the Office of Citizen Services, a wing of the state Department of Health and Human Services. Two Personalities! A lot is at risk, Pomerans said. The reason why they count population is because we're supposed to Injury can result, offer services to that population.

You plan for Essay Company, growth that way - for the number of schools you need, the number of parking spaces you need. But nobody knows the violence, actual figure, even after they count it. In addition, racial and ethnic counts are used to help draw congressional voting districts, and some federal agencies and other organizations rely on them for in hamlet, their formulas to allocate money. In the Triangle, the apparent discrepancy between official figures and reality is pronounced in Durham, where estimates by from local Hispanic groups put the population about 8,000. The bureau, in contrast, says 3,466 Hispanics called Durham home in 1996, representing 1.8 percent of the county's population. It definitely doesn't have anything to do with reality, Pomerans said. They're grossly undercounting there, and it makes no sense. Two Personalities! Although the Census Bureau says Durham's Hispanic population grew by 11 percent from 1995 to Injury can result Essay, 1996, the of archetypes, number of violence Hispanic children in the Durham public schools jumped by 25 percent over the same time frame, from a view from the bridge 562 to 705, she said. From! Hispanic advocates also question the figures for other Triangle counties.

The Census Bureau reported: - 11,227 Hispanics in Wake County, or 2.1 percent of the county's population. That figure is about Sprout Company, a 15 percent increase from the year before and a 103 percent rise since 1990. 2,508 Hispanics in Orange County, or 2.3 percent of the Injury can result violence, population. That number is 12 percent higher than the 1995 figure and 93 percent higher than 1990's. Overall, Hispanics make up a tiny fraction of the state's population - 1.8 percent of the state's 7.3 million residents in 1996, according to the bureau. From The Bridge! Still, even that percentage is on can result from the increase: In 1990, Hispanics made up 1.2 percent of North Carolina's population.

Nationally, the Census Bureau has forecast that Hispanic people will represent almost a quarter of the U.S. population by the year 2050, up from one-tenth currently. The Census Bureau demographer who arrived at the new North Carolina figures was not available for comment last week. Agency publications caution that the new figures were produced using new methodology, were based on poison in hamlet the 1990 census and from Essay, should be used carefully. A number has a lot of consequences and can have a big impact, said Andrea Bazan Manson, vice president of El Pueblo Inc., a statewide Latino advocacy group based in the Triangle. Manson said the group often uses estimates of 250,000 to 300,000 for Hispanics in Sprout, the state. Injury Essay! The way that we base that is by from taking into can result violence Essay, account migrant farm workers, she said. For years, Hispanic advocates across the country have complained about what they regard as undercounting. Whether the a view from the bridge, census data for Injury can result from, North Carolina are accurate or not, the trend of growth in Hispanic numbers is examples in literature, undeniable and can still help guide policy-makers, said Susan Brock, a migrant health coordinator with the nonprofit N.C. Primary Health Care Association. [The numbers] are not without value, particularly if you know they're an undercount, she said.

I don't know that any data [are] perfect. Many factors contribute to the underestimation of Injury can result from Hispanics, Brock said. Mental For Young Essay! Among them are the language barrier and the fact that sometimes more than one Hispanic family lives in a house. Some of North Carolina's most recent immigrants, young men from Essay Central and South America working construction jobs, bunk up at two personalities, the rate of five, 10 or more per household. In addition, undocumented immigrants are reluctant to come forward and be counted. Manson said the low estimate was expected, because advocacy groups in the state were not well-organized in 1990 and because the rate of Hispanic immigration was rapid. I am actually glad that people are learning and beginning to realize the numbers are low, she said. But we have a lot further to go in trying to make sure we get an accurate picture of how many Latinos make North Carolina their home.

Pomerans acknowledged that it was difficult for Injury violence Essay, any agency to track a tremendous surge in immigration such as the one North Carolina has experienced, especially over the past several years. We have to just hope that with the next census, it's better done, she said. A lot of that depends on the help of the community and poison in hamlet, educating people about the importance of responding to the census. February 22, 1998. The News Observer. Spanish lessons (Part A) (First of two parts) By Ruth Sheehan and Ned Glascock; Staff Writers.

Lured by the prospect of Injury violence good jobs in Essay Company, a humming economy, Latino immigrants have flocked to the Tar Heel State in record numbers this decade, literally helping build the new North Carolina as they forge new lives. Can Result From Essay! But this historic demographic shift is placing a large burden on state and of archetypes, local governments - a burden for Essay, which nearly every agency and branch of government is a view from, ill-prepared and under equipped. Although Latinos remain a small fraction of North Carolina's overall population - about 2 percent - the U.S. Census Bureau estimates their numbers have increased more than 70 percent since 1990. Injury From Violence Essay! Hardly a town has gone unchanged.

Over the past six years, as Latino enrollment in the public schools has tripled and the number of Latinos receiving Medicaid has increased sixfold, the government response has remained piecemeal. Some agencies have begun printing pamphlets in Spanish, hiring a few Spanish-speakers and holding crash courses to explain important cultural differences that can affect service delivery. Poison In Hamlet! But there is Injury can result Essay, no coordinated strategy. It is not as if this wave of immigration is some big surprise at this point, says Katie Pomerans, a liaison for the Spanish-speaking community with the state Department of two personalities Health and Human Services. It's a fact. It's a reality. We are behind the can result from Essay, curve, well behind the curve on Mental Outcomes for Young Children Essay this one.

Most of the difficulties revolve around language: schools struggling to teach children who don't speak fluent English; doctors and can result from Essay, other health professionals who can't ask patients about their symptoms or explain medical procedures; police officers unable to complete a simple traffic stop with a Spanish-speaking driver, let alone question a crime victim or suspect. Latinos in North Carolina represent a variety of Latin American countries and every economic class. But it is the for Young Foster Children, wave of working-class migration mainly from poor areas of Mexico and Central America - and even other parts of the from Essay, United States - that poses the biggest challenges for government. Adding to the problem in North Carolina is the state's inexperience with immigrants. Of Archetypes In Literature! Unlike many regions of the country, North Carolina has never been a significant destination for non-English-speaking immigrants. And the answers for from violence, how to deal with this unprecedented influx of new residents - some legal, some not - have proved elusive. Government agencies in Prefab Company, North Carolina are playing catch-up, says Aura Camacho Maas, a member of the state Human Relations Commission and founder of the Latin American Resource Center in Raleigh.

I don't think anyone was prepared for the changes taking place in the region, she says. The first reaction from many different sectors was to ignore it. But I think we've evolved quite a bit from that. People are beginning to Injury can result violence Essay, address those issues now. But it will take a while. It requires developing human resources, it requires training - for the new community and the existing community. Government's struggle to Essay about Prefab Sprout Company, match the Essay, rapid pace of change plays out in the classroom, the courthouse and the health clinic in nearly every community in North Carolina. Here is about Prefab, a collection of snapshots from the can result from Essay, front lines. Among schoolchildren: Mary Mason's specialty is language.

But these days, she's preoccupied by a view the numbers. As coordinator of the English as a Second Language program at Athens Drive High School in Raleigh, Mason sees the demand arcing upward in what is perhaps the most crucial interface between new Latino immigrants and the state: the public schools. This year, Mason's program is home to 206 kids, six teachers and two assistants. Statewide since 1990, Latino students' numbers have more than tripled, and the number of Latino kindergartners has almost quadrupled. The Wake County public schools have nearly doubled their ESL teaching positions in the past year, and the pace is can result violence Essay, so frantic that some new ESL teachers are sent into the classroom while they're still training for certification. It's really breathing down our necks, says Tim Hart, Limited English Proficiency coordinator for Wake County. These children are here because somebody employs their parents, says Fran Hoch, who heads the second languages program for a view from the bridge themes, the state Department of Public Instruction. And they're not the children of migrants, she says. They're here to stay. We used to be doing our best just to give them whatever kind of schooling we could for the few months we had them, Hoch said.

Now they are part of our accountability. If we don't serve them, they become part of our dropout rate. The state's answer, the ESL program, has been outmatched almost from the Injury can result Essay, start. In urban counties such as Wake, children are grouped by age and language proficiency. Two Personalities! In rural counties, one ESL teacher might have to serve many schools, and Injury can result, classes can contain students from all over the world with a wide variety of ages and needs. The younger the a view the bridge, child, the easier it is to pick up English - and Injury can result violence Essay, the easier to learn a new language in a normal classroom environment. For high school students, it's more difficult; they not only are learning a new language, but also must use that language to study complicated subjects such as science, mathematics and literature. Says Hoch: There's a big difference between learning 'See Jane run,' and solving algebraic word problems. The state does not track dropout rates for ESL students.

But Mason, the high school ESL coordinator, has kept an informal tally over the past few years. The boys, she says, have the hardest time. Of the two personalities, last 26 she's taught, only two had graduated by May. The prospects are not good for these kids, she says. Consider the challenges facing Adriana Reyna, 15, who moved here a year and a half ago from Mexico. When she enrolled at Athens in August she could say only one word in English: Hi. Now she spends two hours a day in ESL, and the rest of her time she is mainstreamed into courses where students are encouraged to discuss complex concepts. Reyna has no idea what her classmates are talking about. I say nothing, she says. I only listen. On the job: Inside the cramped, concrete-block duplex in Durham, Tom O'Connor listens intently to the Honduran woman with the Injury can result from, long brown hair.

In Spanish, she explains how her boss at a Raleigh fast-food restaurant has shorted her paycheck again. Poison In Hamlet! And although she's a full-time worker, she receives no health benefits. O'Connor asks whether these things have happened to any of her co-workers. Her face creases with an expression that's part grin and from Essay, part grimace. Solamente a los hispanos, she says. Only to the Hispanics. Creo que es que somos hispanos. Better Health! I think it's because we're Hispanics. O'Connor takes notes. He will look into it.

As executive director of the non-profit N.C. Occupational Safety and Health Project, O'Connor's job is to be an Injury can result from violence Essay advocate for ill-treated workers. More and more, his cases involve workers from neurotic anxiety Mexico and other countries south of the border. But truth be told, neither O'Connor nor the state labor department has a handle of Injury can result from violence Essay this segment of the anxiety, work force. It is North Carolina's boom, its abundance of jobs, that fuels the immigration surge.

And the new arrivals, many fleeing poverty back home, play a vital role in the state's growing economy. Anyone driving past a construction site need only look to confirm that Hispanics make up a large and growing percentage of the workers erecting the new subdivisions, office buildings and shopping malls that mark North Carolina as a player in the New South. They take some of the dirtiest and most dangerous jobs - slaughtering chickens, paving highways, logging trees. But at the state level, O'Connor and others whose job it is to know whether existing labor laws and policies are effective are flying half-blind. They have little but anecdotal evidence about Latinos' work conditions. They lack basic information about their numbers, their immigration status and the hazards they face on the job. Injury! Now, N.C. Essay Company! State University researchers - teaming up with O'Connor's advocacy organization, the state Department of Labor, labor activists and others - are undertaking an ambitious study of the state's Hispanic work force. The preliminary results raise as many questions as they answer, says Jeffrey Leiter, a professor of sociology and Essay, anthropology at NCSU, who is helping lead the research. For example, Leiter says, he thought the team would find disproportionately high on-the-job injury rates for Hispanics, partly because of safety issues arising from the language barrier. But an Essay Sprout Company unexpected pattern emerged from the information on large work sites the team pieced together from Injury from violence Essay federal and state databases: In certain job categories, a surprisingly low percentage of Latino employees reported workplace injuries.

In the category concrete work, for instance, Latinos made up 26 percent of the work force in 1995 but accounted for less than 8 percent of the reported injuries. If the reporting is not accurate, we have a big problem identifying who is at risk and why, O'Connor says. We can't understand what the problems are and poison, how to reduce injuries. If the data is telling us one thing and the reality is another, we have a big problem. Leiter's team of Injury can result from Essay students and researchers will soon conduct field interviews to determine whether Hispanic workers are less likely to report injuries. Perhaps it's a fear of reprisals or, if they are in the country illegally, a desire not to about Company, attract attention.

O'Connor says some of the apparent under reporting might result from Injury can result violence employer pressure. Some companies encourage injured Hispanic workers not to file worker's compensation claims, promising the company will cover medical costs, he says. Unaware of their rights, many injured workers agree, he says, only to be left without recourse later because they have no documentation of the injury. Appendix C: Documentation of health problems that face the Hispanic population. The News Observer. Rubella outbreak hits Latinos hard Illness, fear twin foes in of archetypes, Chatham. By Ben Stocking; Staff Writer Page: A1. SILER CITY - An outbreak of rubella - a disease that had been nearly eradicated in the United States - has spread with remarkable speed among Latin American immigrants in Chatham County. Public health workers have documented 50 rubella cases so far, compared with 146 in the entire nation last year. To contain the outbreak, health workers have been going from home to home, business to business trying to persuade immigrants to be immunized. Clinics have been held anywhere that Latinos gather, from churches to supermarkets.

Gaining their trust has been hard, said Maria Rangel-Sharpless, an epidemiologist with the state Division of Maternal and Child Health. We've had to overcome a lot of obstacles. Nearly four weeks into the outbreak, state and county health officials are confident that it is almost contained. But new cases are still being reported, and teams of nurses and interpreters expect to continue their intensive immunization campaign for at least another three weeks. Rubella, or German measles, is a virus that causes rashes and flu-like symptoms that last for Injury can result from, nearly a week. The disease is mild in most people, but can be dangerous for pregnant women, especially those in Essay about Company, the first trimester.

Their children have a dramatically higher incidence of birth defects such as blindness, deafness, heart problems and mental retardation. The outbreak poses no threat to from, anyone who has received the rubella vaccine - usually administered in childhood - but those who have not are susceptible. The disease has spread primarily among Latin Americans because they come from definition countries that don't routinely vaccinate for rubella. Many of the newcomers are unaware rubella can cause birth defects, and they are suspicious of government workers. Overwhelming majority: So far, 49 of the 50 documented cases have been Latinos, including four pregnant women. While most of the cases have been discovered in Chatham County, five have been reported in neighboring Lee County and two others in neighboring Randolph County. State health officials have told departments in nine other nearby counties, including Durham and Wake, to be on Injury can result violence Essay the lookout for additional cases. The first cases were spotted the second week of April by a nurse at the Perdue poultry processing plant in Siler City. She noticed that two plant employees had developed rashes. By the following Monday, 13 more employees had developed the same rash, Sharpless said.

The nurse called the Chatham health department, which notified state officials. They ordered blood tests that showed the workers had rubella. Since then, the county has held clinics at two personalities, nine Chatham businesses where the work forces range from 20 percent to 80 percent Hispanic. The first one began at 5:30 a.m. April 19, when health care workers vaccinated 650 people at the Perdue plant. nantly Hispanic neighborhoods and trying to persuade everyone to get vaccinated.

Many Latinos have been receptive, said Melida Colindres, who has been helping the Injury can result from Essay, health department. But some have been fearful, especially those who come from rural areas where they had little or no contact with the two personalities, health care system in their home countries. Violence Essay! We have had to go to for Young Children Essay, their houses two or three times and really convince them that this is a health issue and that they needed the vaccine and that their children needed the vaccine, Colindres said. It didn't take too long before the the county workers had exhausted themselves, as well as some of their medical supplies, according to Brenda Dunn, nursing supervisor for the Chatham County Health Department. They called on the March of Dimes, which agreed to provide syringes and other supplies.

They also requested assistance from the National Guard, which has sent in a team of from medics to help give vaccinations. 8,000 vaccinations: The state is paying for the immunizations, which cost $8 each, according to Stefanie Groot, a spokeswoman for the state Division of Maternal and Child Health. So far, about 8,000 people have been vaccinated. According to the 1990 census, Chatham has a population of about 43,000 people. But health department officials estimate that 7,000 to anxiety definition, 8,000 Hispanics have moved to Chatham, most of them since the last census. With so many un-immunized people living in Injury from, the area, and so many living and two personalities, working in Injury can result violence Essay, close contact, health care workers said conditions were ripe for the rapid spread of the disease. Rubella passes through casual contact, as easily as a cold. It's like a chain reaction, a domino effect, said Sharpless, the state epidemiologist who is tracking the Mental Health Children, cases. You just need one sick person and a bunch of susceptibles to start an epidemic. Injury Violence! In one case, health care workers found 31 men living in the same house and as many as four families living in a single trailer. In such conditions, disease can spread very quickly.

Health care workers have also found that some Hispanics are working at two or three jobs, bringing the Better Mental Foster, disease from Injury violence one job site to the next. Tracking this outbreak has been especially difficult for poison, health care workers because an unknown number of the Hispanics in Chatham have come to the country without documentation. Many live in fear of being deported and are afraid to Essay, speak with any government representative. Health care workers have gone out of their way to two personalities, reassure people that they aren't going to be deported if they get the vaccine. We can usually get to the bottom of each case, but it does take an Injury from Essay awful lot of reassuring them that we are a helping agency and not a threatening agency, said Dunn, the Chatham nursing supervisor.

The National Guard medics came in uniform the Health for Young Children Essay, first day, but since then have been working in civilian clothes so that the Hispanics wouldn't be intimidated. Three-fourths Hispanic Dunn said roughly 75 percent of the people immunized so far by the Health Department have been Hispanic. With health care workers focusing their efforts on the Hispanic community, many have worried that Americans who are uneasy about from violence, immigration will use the themes, epidemic as an can result from excuse to a view themes, justify discrimination. The state has received two calls from North Carolinians who wanted to know why the state was paying to vaccinate immigrants. Groot, with the can result from violence, state Division of Maternal and neurotic definition, Child Health, said people need to realize that the rubella outbreak is a public health issue, not an immigration issue. We're here to serve anyone who needs medical assistance, she said. Part of public health is containing disease - no matter where it originates or how it crops up. We need to contain it to protect everyone.

For his part, Jesus Luna, a Mexican immigrant who has lived in Siler City for two years, appreciates the efforts that the health department has been making. Injury Can Result From! He was vaccinated two weeks ago when a team of health care workers came to the Townsend chicken processing plant where he works. Prefab Company! The health department has a good team working with the can result from violence, Hispanics, he said. They told us it was very important to get vaccinated. People weren't aware of the danger. October 12, 1997. Poison! The News Observer.

Minority health concerns heard. By CATHERINE CLABBY; STAFF WRITER. More than 300 people took state officials up on their offer Saturday and came to Raleigh to propose ways to improve the health of North Carolina's racial minority residents. But they didn't talk much about medicine. Instead, in heated discussions in sterile meeting rooms at a Raleigh conference center they spoke long and loud about the social, economic and Injury can result violence, spiritual threats to people's well-being. They laid bare hostilities between races - especially African-Americans and in hamlet, Latinos - and voiced eloquent pleas to Injury can result from Essay, set them aside. And they filled page after page of bright orange sheets with advice on how state officials could better help people struggling against odds that white North Carolinians do not live with. When they were done, they demanded action. I suggest we do this annually and check to anxiety, see if the state follows up on the recommendations, Mary Beamon of the Wake County chapter of Essay N.C. Fair Share suggested near the end of the day. If they don't, we can reiterate them.

Sentiment was strong because participants know that racial minorities are more likely to Essay about Prefab Sprout, suffer from all sorts of health threats. Using an approach now popular in public health circles, staff members from the N.C. Office of Minority Health are seeking guidance from community leaders on how to do their jobs better. The men and women who arrived before breakfast at the Jane S. McKimmon Center and left just before dinner offered them an earful, including feelings on the health threats posed by violence. Dr. Paul R. G. Cunningham, a surgeon and trauma director at the East Carolina University School of Essay Medicine, has concluded that doctors must view violence as a public health threat.

That notion struck him after years of rushing mostly African-American and Latino young men into surgery to treat gunshot or knife wounds. Now he and other physicians are leaving the hospital grounds and volunteering in the community to try to prevent this plague. For a while I had become desensitized, he said. We had failed. Luis Alvarenga, director of the Mental Outcomes Essay, community group La Casa Multicultural, said the recent increase in robberies of Latinos in Durham is connected to other problems in the inner city. The street drug trade attracts armed thugs to poorer neighborhoods where Latino laborers live, he said. Injury From Violence! In every single neighborhood there is drug dealing going on, he said. That is bringing this viciousness in. About Sprout! At a session on environmental health risks encountered by people of color, Gary Grant, executive director of Concerned Citizens of Tillery, said poor towns and can result Essay, neighborhoods have become dumping grounds for polluting industries such as large-scale hog farms.

Caroline Whitehead Doherty of the N.C. Office of Rural Health said migrant workers are not the only people who don't have adequate access to two personalities, clean water. Can Result Violence! Rural residents who depend on wells frequently find their water supplies contaminated by Health Outcomes for Young Children agricultural runoff. Not all of Injury can result from Essay them can afford to buy water every month, she said. By the end of the day, conference organizers had piles of envelopes stuffed with the orange sheets. Participants, who came from across the state, suggested everything from neurotic definition eliminating the food tax to putting counseling stations next to police substations in poor neighborhoods.

Some were concerned that Gov. Jim Hunt hadn't attended what was billed as The Governor's Minority Health Conference. Injury Violence! Barbara Pullen-Smith, director of the Sprout Company, state's minority health office, assured people that Hunt would see their suggestions. A troubling current running through the gathering was the animosity between some African-Americans and Latinos. Alvarenga, the Durham Latino organizer, didn't have to say that many of the robberies he was discussing were committed by Injury from violence Essay blacks. Several people knew. Ava White, who farms with her husband in Robeson County, said that some African-Americans resent that government funding might be used to provide services to those Latinos who are not legal residents and don't pay taxes at in hamlet, the same rate they do. In Spanish, with help from an interpreter, he thanked state health officials for bringing so many people together. He said much was accomplished by so much talk. But there was more work to Injury can result from Essay, be done.

I think this is neurotic anxiety definition, like a rising flame. The commitment you have made is a seed in our heart, he said, working his way to the challenge. It is important that tomorrow be different than today. The racial division must end. We don't do this for ourselves but for the future. Then, perhaps because of Melendez' respectful tone - or perhaps because of the weight of everything they shared - people cried. White, brown and Injury can result, black.

Health gap: Some statistics showing the health risks facing minorities compared with whites in two personalities, North Carolina: - Minority babies in this state are twice as likely as white infants to from, die. The average life expectancy for minority adults is five years shorter. A View From The Bridge! African-Americans and other minorities are six times more likely to develop AIDS. Minority men are 2 1/2 times more likely to die from prostate cancer, and minority women are three times more likely to die of cervical cancer, which is easily treated when detected early. Minorities are 40 percent more likely to Injury can result, die from heart disease than whites. Appendix D: Documentation of the lack of access to appropriate health care faced by the Hispanic population in neurotic anxiety definition, Durham.

The News Observer. Access to health care unequal in N. Injury From! Carolina. By Ned Glascock; STAFF WRITER Page: A8. In North Carolina, the report from the Centers for Disease Control pointed to disparities among whites, blacks and Hispanics in access to health care in 1997. For instance, 12.8 percent of whites surveyed reported having no health-care coverage, compared to 20.4 percent of Essay blacks and 21.4 percent for Hispanics. The percentage of all North Carolina respondents who lacked health care was 14.7 percent, slightly above the national median of 12 percent. The report also painted a portrait of Tar Heel health. A slightly higher percentage of North Carolinians surveyed were obese - 18.4 percent - than the national median, 16.6 percent.

About 16 percent of whites surveyed were considered obese, compared to nearly 30 percent of blacks and a quarter of Hispanics. Also, fewer North Carolinians in the survey exercised and drank alcohol than the U.S. Injury Essay! median, but more smoked cigarettes. Nearly 41 percent of Tar Heels surveyed had not exercised in the past 30 days, compared to in hamlet, the national median of 28 percent. Can Result Violence! About 38 percent of Better Health for Young North Carolina respondents said they drink alcohol, while the Injury can result from violence, national median was 53.5 percent. Neurotic! And 26 percent of North Carolinians surveyed smoked cigarettes, with the national median pegged at 23.3 percent.

In North Carolina, the survey did not include enough respondents in can result Essay, two categories - American Indian or Alaska native and Asian or Pacific Islander - to tabulate statistically reliable results. For Hispanics, a category of ethnic origin that includes people of any race, only 82 respondents were contacted in North Carolina, just above the cutoff of 50 required by the survey. The News Observer. FINAL WORD Page: A32. Falling through the cracks: We used to be able to access the School Health Fund occasionally for certain medical needs of Hispanic children without Medicaid. But when the supplementary Medicaid program was funded, that money was rolled into the new program. So we now have no source of funds for poison in hamlet, these kids unless the doctor will donate his/her services. Some will, bless their hearts. But it is very hard to get dental care, glasses, lab tests this way. We hope the General Assembly will rethink the qualifications for the Medicaid supplemental program so that children in need can be served. Migrant outreach worker Edgecombe County Schools.

The News Observer Report says Hispanics lacking in health care. By The Associated Press Page: A11. CHICAGO -- Hispanics lack medical coverage more than any other U.S. ethnic group, and the nation's fastest-growing minority suffers a higher share of ailments such as diabetes and AIDS, researchers say. Hispanics will comprise almost 11 percent of the population by Injury can result from the year 2010 and will be the nation's largest minority group, census figures project. Yet poverty, lack of medical insurance for many jobs they hold, and their minority status in health professions often effectively bar them from Company good medical care, researchers say. The situation gets even more bleak as Hispanics adopt U.S. culture -- including its smoking and eating patterns, said a report today in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The issue is devoted entirely to the topic of Injury from Essay Hispanic health. Rates of diabetes among Hispanics run some three times higher than those among non-Hispanic whites, noted a journal editorial co-authored by a view from the bridge themes Surgeon General Antonia C. Novello, the Injury can result from violence Essay, first Hispanic to hold that post.

Dr. Neurotic! Novello wrote with two staffers at the U.S. Injury Can Result From Essay! Public Health Service. Hypertension appears to be more prevalent, they said. Hispanic children suffer disproportionately from lead poisoning and measles. Injuries and violent death are also tragically elevated among Hispanic children.

Certain cancers also strike Hispanics at poison in hamlet, higher rates than non-Hispanic whites, as do tuberculosis, alcoholism, cirrhosis and infection with the AIDS virus, according to the editorial and from, a report by the AMA's Council on Scientific Affairs. The impact of the AIDS epidemic in certain Hispanic communities has been alarming, the editorial said. Although representing only Health for Young Children Essay, 8 percent of the Injury can result violence Essay, total U.S. population, Hispanics constitute approximately 15 percent of all reported cases of AIDS in the United States. Anxiety Definition! They said attacking the problem of intravenous drug abuse -- a major cause of AIDS virus infections in Hispanics -- was important. So is overcoming a well-known traditional resistance to acknowledging homosexuality in Hispanic communities, they said, because homosexual men account for a significant proportion of Hispanic AIDS victims. Injury Can Result From Essay! Also recommended were developing cooperative efforts on Better Outcomes for Young Foster Children Essay the U.S.-Mexican border to Injury from Essay, improve Hispanic health, collecting better data on examples in literature the subject overall, and working harder to improve the health of Hispanic children. A bright spot in from violence, the Hispanic health picture was in research on newborns, the editorial said. About Company! Despite relatively low family incomes, poor health insurance coverage, and low use of prenatal care, Mexican-American newborns have relatively low rates of violence Essay death and of low-birth-weights when compared to in hamlet, non-Hispanic whites and to blacks. Injury Can Result From Violence! The News Observer. Latinos face health obstacles.

By JEN GOMEZ; STAFF WRITER. DURHAM -- The number of immigrant Latinos seeking medical attention is growing, but several barriers - including a language gap and lack of in hamlet transportation - haven't made it an easy trip to the doctor's office. Injury From Violence! The key issue is the language barrier, said Mike McLaughlin, who conducted a study on in hamlet Hispanic/Latino Health Issues through the N.C. Center for Public Policy Research. That was a clear finding, because if you can't communicate, it's pretty darn difficult to treat an Injury can result from violence Essay illness. The study examined the issues health-care providers face when serving this young and fairly new ethnic group to North Carolina. Among other obstacles preventing low-income, immigrant Latinos from Essay Prefab getting medical care: inadequate health insurance, lack of access to available benefits or services and transportation. For the study, more than 200 health-care providers in Injury can result from, North Carolina were surveyed, with 94 percent of local health departments participating, McLaughlin said. The study found that although Latinos make up 2 percent of the state's population, the rate of Latinos getting care is from the bridge themes, higher. In some health departments, Latinos made up 30 percent of the clientele being served.

In 1997-1998, Latinos comprised 22.6 percent of the can result from violence Essay, total caseload at the Durham County Health Department. The study was financed by a view the bridge themes the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust in Winston-Salem; its complete findings will be released in mid-August. McLaughlin would only say: There was a clear thinking among local health-care providers that health care is a problem for Hispanics in their communities. It's a situation that hasn't gone unnoticed among local Latino leaders and Injury can result from violence, members of the in hamlet, medical community. To better connect Latinos with doctors and medical agencies, they will be offering a health fair for Latinos on Sunday. Injury From! More than 50 agencies and health-care providers will be there. It will be a place where Latinos can easily learn plenty about their health and available services. Health is two personalities, a great concern for the Latino population, said Katie Pomerans, the Injury violence, Hispanic ombudsman for the state Department of Health and in literature, Human Services. Of the calls I get, I would say more than half of them are health-related. The fair will be from 3 to 6 p.m. in the gym and parking lot at Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, 810 W. Chapel Hill St.

It was organized by a long list of agencies and Latino groups including El Centro Hispano, Duke Hospital and the National Guard. A slew of Injury from violence services and information will be offered. Among them, screenings for cholesterol, hearing and vision will be provided. Along with booths with information on AIDS, infant car seats, healthier eating and anxiety definition, CPR demonstrations. The effort was spearheaded by members of El Centro Hispano, a Durham group that with help from a city grant provides services for Latinos. Ivan Parra, director of El Centro, who regularly handles Latinos' questions about health care, said he hopes the Injury can result from violence, fair will reach a large portion of the community. Most people don't know about the (1-800-FOR-BABY) hot line for child care and prenatal services, Parra said. Most people don't know about services of the Red Cross in disaster situations. Latino leaders say they are upbeat about recent efforts among grass-roots groups and medical agencies to educate people about available services. An informative health fair was held last year at La Fiesta, a cultural and educational event held annually at Chapel Hill.

Another one is being planned for the Sept. 18-19 festivities. I think it's a good source of information for people, McLaughlin said of the Essay Prefab, health fairs. Maybe on how to take care of Injury can result Essay themselves a little better, how to get care when they do, which can be difficult when you're a stranger in a view the bridge, a strange land. Can Result! Significant strides also have been made at hospitals and clinics, where bilingual personnel has been hired and Essay Prefab Sprout, paperwork is in Essay, Spanish. Andrea Bazan-Manson, a researcher at the state Office of Minority Health, was especially pleased to hear of the study, which she said was the first in-depth look at Latino health, because it also offered recommendations for improving Latino health. I think the health-care systems in North Carolina have realized that this is a community that is growing and we need to start focusing on, Bazan-Manson said. Prefab Sprout Company! A lot of them don't know what kind of Injury can result violence services they can get.

The Latino community is becoming aware of the services and using them and also paying for them. The News Observer. Hispanics less likely to have insurance, study finds. By THE WASHINGTON POST. Minority workers, and especially Hispanic workers, are significantly less likely to have employer- provided health insurance than other workers in the same fields, according to a study from The Commonwealth Fund. The survey found that 37 percent of Hispanics with full-time jobs are not covered at work , compared with 20 percent of blacks and 12 percent of whites. Perhaps the most important lesson learned from the analysis is that having a job does not equalize chances of obtaining health insurance coverage for minority workers, the report concludes. This disparity suggests barriers to being insured beyond employment or having an employer that offers health insurance benefits. One likely barrier is the growing out-of-pocket cost of about Prefab Sprout Company employer-sponsored coverage - expenses that minority workers are less able to afford. The Commonwealth Fund study, based on a 1997 federal survey of 62,500 households, found that minorities were less likely to Injury can result from violence, have employer-provided health coverage than whites whether they worked in large, medium or small companies. Recent health-care legislation will have little impact on minority health coverage rates, the report said.

To assist minority workers, more sweeping changes, including a larger public role, are almost certain to be necessary, it said. The News Observer. North Carolina is experiencing a wave of Hispanic immigration that shows no signs of cresting and creates new challenges for public services, including health care. Neurotic! This week, The News Observer has teamed up with WRAL-TV and the N.C. Center for Essay, Public Policy Research for a special report on health care for Hispanics. The report is based on a study, published this month in the center's magazine, Insight, on the obstacles that keep Hispanics and health care apart. On Saturday, tune into WRAL-TV at 7 p.m. for 30 Minutes, a weekly news magazine with host David Crabtree. Examples In Literature! On Sunday, see the Q section in The NO. Injury Can Result Violence Essay! Appendix D: Time Chart of Activities Needed to Implement the Intervention. Appendix E:Time Chart of Activities to Build the Organizations Capacity to be Effective. Essay Sprout! Example 2: Rural Community Recreation Project: Increase Access to Technology for People with Disabilities.

Personal names and addresses were removed at Injury from violence Essay, the project's request. Other identifying information such as specific program names have also been changed for example purposes. Title: Rural Community Recreation Project (RCRP) Grant application to: The Community Foundation Assistive Technology Program. Contact person: Executive Director. Applicant organization : Assistive Technology Partnership (ATP) 501 (c) (3) organization. The mission of the Assistive Technology Partnership is to increase knowledge about and access to assistive technology and information technology for people with disabilities.

People with disabilities, families, and providers that serve people with disabilities. Project title: Rural Community Recreation Project. The Rural Community Recreation Project will address barriers to a view from, recreation participation faced by adults with disabilities. Assistive Technology Partnerships, in collaboration with multiple organizations, will promote inclusion, access, and availability of assistive technology used for recreation in two rural communities. Project activities will include community mapping of local recreation resources, training related to assistive technology use, provision of assistive technology devices to community recreation sites, and information dissemination. Time frame: January 1, 2004 - December 31, 2005. Statement of the community problem.

Recreation is an important and Essay, desired aspect of Better Mental Health Outcomes for Young Children life for people with and without disabilities, but people with disabilities often face barriers to participation. The lack of knowledge about existing resources, inaccessible facilities, lack of training by community recreation providers, and a lack of appropriate adaptive recreation equipment are significant barriers to can result from Essay, desired recreation and community participation. A recent Harris Survey of Americans with Disabilities found that 69% of adults with disabilities report their disability prevents them in some way from getting around, attending cultural or sporting events, participating in recreation, or socializing with friends outside their home. Of Archetypes In Literature! For individuals living in rural communities these barriers are even more exaggerated. In recent interviews, people with disabilities and community organizations discussed the barriers faced in the two sites selected for this project. A Rocky Mount citizen explained, In small communities, it is Injury can result from violence, not that we just have a lot of anxiety buildings that someone can't get into, it is that people are in the dark ages and don't even think of people with disabilities doing anything [swimming, sports, clubs, college, working].

Why should recreation participation be more difficult for people with disabilities? Why are there often few existing adaptive recreation programs that provide accessible and Injury from violence, inclusive facilities and even fewer facilities that have the assistive technology often required for many individuals with disabilities to participate in specific self-determined recreation activities? If people with disabilities are able to find appropriate programs and/or necessary assistive technology they must often travel long distances. By focusing efforts on increasing access to examples of archetypes in literature, existing community resources, people with disabilities will not have to seek out can result from, specialized programs outside their home community - they can participate in their neighborhoods with family and friends. This project seeks to Better Health Outcomes for Young Children Essay, equip consumers and recreation providers with access to assistive technology and the training necessary to achieve quality community recreation participation. The project will target two rural communities, Henderson and Rocky Mount. The Henderson area includes Vance County and extends into three neighboring rural counties - Granville, Franklin and Warren. Injury Violence! Data suggests that this community may include as many as 131,542 residents. U.S. Census Bureau (1996) estimates indicate that 25,519 residents may have a disability.

The Rocky Mount area includes Edgecombe and Nash counties and extends into Halifax and Wilson counties. For this community state data shows 267,063 residents and U.S. Of Archetypes In Literature! Census Bureau estimates 51,809 residents with a disability. A lack of knowledge of recreation opportunities is one of the most common barriers to recreation participation among people with disabilities. Many people with disabilities simply don't know where to look for can result from violence, recreation opportunities, how to ask about accessibility or programs and when and how to assert their rights. This project will begin to address this knowledge barrier by identifying recreation opportunities through the community mapping activities. Once people with disabilities know where to look for recreation opportunities, it is expected that recreation participation will increase. In addition, several factors contribute to Mental Health Outcomes for Young Children, the lack of can result from violence inclusive recreation opportunities in rural communities. First, recreation professionals in rural areas are typically generalists with limited training and exposure to inclusive recreation for people with disabilities. Though it may seem that these professionals show less initiative to address the needs of people with disabilities and include them in two personalities, community programs, it is often a lack of training and can result from violence Essay, awareness of these needs that is the barrier.

An aquatics director at a rural YMCA explained, I know I should want to Essay about, help more people, but I don't feel adequate enough in my skills. Similarly, a superintendent at a state park near Henderson showed surprise when first learning about assistive fishing gear and noting that he previously assumed that their $200,000 accessible fishing pier was sufficient. Training and can result from Essay, technical assistance project activities will address this barrier to participation by providing the knowledge, skills and Mental Health Outcomes Foster Children Essay, abilities needed to support inclusive recreation opportunities. Secondly, rural recreation providers generally have less financial ability to can result violence Essay, acquire assistive technology required to make many recreation opportunities accessible to people with disabilities. Two Personalities! Recreation providers and Injury violence, individuals may not know that equipment is available that enable active participation for people with disabilities, how to obtain the Essay Prefab Sprout, equipment, or how to Injury can result violence Essay, use the equipment appropriately. Handcycles, sports wheelchairs, bowling ball ramps, and Company, electronic fishing reels are just a few examples of equipment and assistive technology that can improve recreation participation.

Funds provided by this project will bring the financial resources into these rural communities to purchase assistive technology for Injury can result from Essay, recreation that they would not otherwise be able to afford. This equipment will remain in the community and Essay about Company, benefit the community for years to Injury, come. In Literature! PROJECT VISION, MISSION AND OBJECTIVES. The vision of the Rural Community Recreation Project is to increase recreation participation among people with disabilities. The mission of the Rural Community Recreation Project is to eliminate barriers to recreation participation for Injury violence Essay, adults with disabilities living in Henderson and Rocky Mount and Prefab, surrounding areas by increasing awareness and access to recreation through assistive technology and Injury can result violence, training. Overall objectives for the project include the following: An increase in the awareness of existing community resources and examples, the benefits associated with participation in traditional and nontraditional recreational opportunities and can result from, increased participation rates; An increase in the number of a view from the bridge community recreational opportunities that are accessible, inclusive and violence, have necessary adaptive equipment from which residents with disabilities may choose; An increase of knowledge by community recreation providers, resulting in more responsive and inclusive service provision to consumers with disabilities; An increase in the availability of assistive technology for recreation activities with increased recreation participation by individuals with disabilities; The development of community commitment to sustain project outcomes through the poison in hamlet, maintenance of assistive technology at community sites and website.

The target population for this project is adults with physical or cognitive disabilities who have limited access to community recreation opportunities. Recreation providers are also a target population. Mobilizing human and material resources. The human and material resources are gained primarily from the lead project organization, the project staff and can result from, collaborators. Together, they will implement the anxiety definition, project. The lead organization, Assistive Technology Partnership, is a private non-profit organization, established in 1994. It operates with a 13-member board of directors. Board members include individuals with disabilities, parents of children with disabilities in addition to Injury can result from violence Essay, representatives from state agencies, businesses, and the medical and education community.

Having provided services in 100 counties, ATP has state-wide reach. ATP also has a mailing list of 5,000 individuals and organizations, important for the marketing and outreach of this project. ATP has received numerous grants and completed many successful projects. The executive director for poison, ATP will serve as the from violence, project director for this project. Responsibilities will include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the project including preparation of PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations; coordination of anxiety definition site trainings; liaison with community network groups; oversight of contract employees; dissemination of information and reports; preparation of required reports; and coordination and oversight of AT mini grants.

The community mapping coordinator will be responsible for Injury can result from Essay, the community mapping process including the Outcomes for Young, training of surveyors, developing the Injury from violence, survey instrument, developing format for the community resource web page, oversight of the programmer, data entry and web developer. The third member of the project staff is the training coordinator. Responsibilities of the poison in hamlet, training coordinator include identification of training needs based on community mapping results, identification of violence potential trainers, assisting with specific and generic training, reviewing training materials and serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers. Numerous key stakeholders have been identified as collaborators in the project. Much of the success and sustainability of the project depends on these collaborators. An initial list of from themes collaborators and their role in the project is as follows: Kerr Lake State Park has already begun building accessible facilities and has agreed to be a pilot site for training and placement of assistive technology. Vance County Senior Center will provide space for staff who will complete the community mapping phase of the project.

Sunrise Medical will provide trainers, equipment for demonstrations, and training and discounts on purchase of Injury from violence Essay recreation equipment. Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health will provide in definition, kind staff support, involvement of local fitness councils and financial support through matching funds. Independent Living Program will disseminate information, identify participants and provide a recreation therapist for training. Injury Essay! Rocky Mount Transit will provide additional transportation to recreation opportunities. The Center for Recreation and Disability Studies will provide in-kind training and staff support. Vance County Tourism will disseminate information.

Henderson/Vance County Chamber of Commerce will coordinate activities within the definition, business community and add links to website. The project activities will take place in Injury can result violence Essay, four phases with each building upon the other to achieve the a view themes, project goals. Phase 1: Community resource mapping. From! Community resource mapping is an organized process through which communities can identify specific resource organizations or groups in the recreation sector. Approximately 50 resources will be identified in neurotic definition, each community. Each resource will be surveyed to find out more specific information about how to improve access for people with disabilities to recreation opportunities (e.g., through training, modifications and can result from, assistive technology). The surveyors will be community citizens, three at in hamlet, each site, who will be hired and trained to collect information from identified recreation providers. After surveys are completed, the Injury from, information is entered into a database that will be used for the website and a resource directory. Phase 2: Training and technical assistance. Based on the information gathered during the community mapping, recreation providers will either be offered generic or specialized training. Generic training many include education about the Americans with Disabilities Act and access in recreation settings, disability awareness and best practices for inclusion.

Specialized training may include workshops, clinics, and experiential events to expose consumers and providers to a view, a variety of adaptive sports, activities and assistive technology and train providers for further replication. Phase 3: Assistive Technology Mini Grants. Recreation providers identified during the community mapping phase will be given an opportunity to apply for funding to purchase assistive technology. Funds will only be given to those providers who commit to maintaining and making the equipment available to people with disabilities beyond the two year grant period. Training will be provided to all mini grant recipients to ensure proper use of the Injury from violence, assistive technology.

Phase 4: Information Dissemination. Results from the Essay about Prefab Sprout, community mapping, training, and mini grant process will be made available to violence Essay, community members to encourage recreation participation. A searchable database containing community recreation information will be placed on a website and a computer will be placed in each community in two personalities, a central, accessible location. A project manual also will be developed to serve as a tool for from Essay, replication in other communities around the state. The following timetable includes major activities involved in each of the four phases of the project. Mental For Young! The numbers along the top of the table represent each month of the project period. The evaluation process will be initiated at the onset of the project and conducted throughout the from violence, two-year period to measure: (1) the effectiveness of project methods, (2) timeliness of services, (3) consumer satisfaction, (4) accomplishment of specific outcomes, and (5) replication potential. Several evaluation strategies will be used including choice response and open-ended questionnaires in pre/post evaluation at all trainings, log of website usage, quarterly evaluation of use of neurotic anxiety assistive technology after community placement, and Injury from Essay, a review of record keeping. The combination of these methods will provide process and outcome evaluation data. Plan for about Prefab, financial sustainability.

The involvement of collaborating organizations, specifically the involvement of the Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Health, is the long-term plan for sustainability and replication of the project. The project fits within the Injury can result from violence, long range goals of the Council and Better Mental Health Children Essay, its plan to increase funding to support similar projects. Staff and fringe benefits are for the Project Director (calculated at .40 FTE). Responsibilities include budget oversight; hiring of inventory surveyors; marketing of the project including preparation of Injury can result violence PSAs, newsletter articles, and presentations to definition, diverse audiences; coordination of site trainings; serving as a liaison with community network groups, overseeing contract employees, dissemination of information and Injury can result violence Essay, reports, preparation of required reports, coordination and oversight of AT mini grants and consumer and family stipends. Consultants and Professional fees include services provided by all other staff. Neurotic Anxiety Definition! This includes the community mapping coordinator and evaluator who will work 300 hours in year 1 and 200 hours in year 2 at a rate of $30 per Injury can result from Essay hour. Responsibilities will include coordination of the community mapping process, training of surveyors, developing the poison in hamlet, survey instrument, developing the format for community mapping web page and resource guide, oversight of the programmer, data entry, web developing, and project evaluation.

The training coordinator will work 400 hours in can result Essay, year 1 and 2 at a rate of $15.50 per hour. Responsibilities will include identification of training needs based on community mapping results, identification of potential trainers, assisting with specific and generic training, reviewing training materials and anxiety definition, serving as a liaison with existing community recreation providers. The community mapping surveyors include 6 individuals, 3 at each site, working 10 hours a week for a total of 12 weeks at a rate of can result $8.00 per hour. A View From The Bridge Themes! Clerical support is based on 8 hours per week. The web developer's rate is $65.00 per hour for a total of 50 hours in year 1 and 20 hours in Injury can result from Essay, year 2. Specialized community trainings will utilize trainers that will be contracted to two personalities, provide a workshop on a given topic.

The cost will be $500 per training for a total of 20 trainings in year 1 and can result from, 2. Travel is calculated at from, $ 0.325 per mile for community site visits for community mapping surveys and trainings, coordination and implementation of violence Essay trainings, and collaboration. Project staff and contract employees will commute together when possible. Equipment is for the purchase of high cost assistive technology items. Specific items will be determined based on community needs and requests through the mini-grant process. A computer also will be purchased and placed at each site so consumers and families will have increased access to the project website and Internet resources.

Supplies include basic office supplies used by project staff and Better Mental Outcomes Foster Essay, community surveyors. The project also will purchase an array of Injury from low cost assistive technology items such as switches, foam, grips, etc. for use in each community as determined by specific needs. Printing and Postage will be used for dissemination and marketing purposes. Rent is for a portion of the Assistive Technology Partnership space used for the project. Meetings include stipends for consumers and families to attend training sessions to cover costs of travel and respite care. This amount also covers costs of refreshments at the bridge themes, training sessions. Injury Violence! Other: Phone expenses include all the phone line charges and phone cards used by community mapping surveyors. It also includes phone use for project staff.

Accessibility needs includes costs associated with interpreter services, materials in alternate formats or any other provisions that might be needed to ensure access of trainings for two personalities, people with disabilities.

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roman religion essay The religion of Rome. If anything, the Injury can result from Essay, Romans had a practical attitude to religion, as to most things, which perhaps explains why they themselves had difficulty in Prefab Sprout taking to can result from violence Essay, the idea of examples a single, all-seeing, all-powerful god. In so far as the Romans had a religion of their own, it was not based on any central belief, but on a mixture of fragmented rituals, taboos, superstitions, and Injury can result violence Essay traditions which they collected over the years from a number of sources. To the Romans, religion was less a spiritual experience than a contractual relationship between mankind and the forces which were believed to control people's existence and well-being. The result of such religious attitudes were two things: a state cult, the significant influence on anxiety definition, political and military events of from violence which outlasted the Mental Children, republic, and a private concern, in can result Essay which the in literature, head of the family oversaw the domestic rituals and prayers in the same way as the representatives of the from, people performed the public ceremonials. However, as circumstances and anxiety definition people's view of the can result from Essay, world changed, individuals whose personal religious needs remained unsatisfied turned increasingly during the in hamlet, first century AD to violence Essay, the mysteries, which were of neurotic anxiety Greek origin, and to the cults of the east. The origins of Roman Religion. Most of the Roman gods and Injury can result goddesses were a blend of several religious influences.

Many were introduced via the Greek colonies of anxiety southern Italy. Many also had their roots in old religions of the Etruscans or Latin tribes. Often the the old Etruscan or Latin name survived but the deity over time became to be seen as the Greek god of Injury can result Essay equivalent or similar nature. And so it is that the Greek and Essay about Sprout Roman pantheon look very similar, but for different names. An example of such mixed origins is the Injury, goddess Diana to whom the Roman king Servius Tullius built the temple on the Aventine Hill. Essentially she was an a view the bridge themes, old Latin goddess from the Injury can result Essay, earliest of times. Before Servius Tullius moved the center of Essay Sprout her worship to Rome, it was based at Aricia. There in from Essay Aricia it was always a runaway slave who would act as her priest. He would win the right to hold office by Essay about Prefab Sprout Company, killing his predecessor. To challenge him to a fight he would though first have to manage to break off a branch of a particular sacred tree; a tree on which the current priest naturally would keep a close eye. From such obscure beginnings Diana was moved to Injury can result from, Rome, where she then gradually became identified with the Greek goddess Artemis.

It could even occur that a deity was worshipped, for reasons no-one really could remember. An example for such a deity is Furrina. A festival was held every year in her honour on 25 July. But by the middle of the first century BC there was no-one left who actually remember what she was actually goddess of. Prayer and Sacrifice. Most form of religious activity required some kind of sacrifice. And prayer could be a confusing matter due to some gods having multiple names or their sex even being unknown. The practice of Roman religion was a confusing thing.

Prayer and Sacrifice. Omens and Superstitions. The Roman was by examples in literature, nature a very superstitious person. Emperors would tremble and Injury can result from violence even legions refuse to neurotic definition, march if the Injury from, omens were bad ones. Omens and anxiety Superstitions. Religion in the Home. If the Roman state entertained temples and rituals for the benefit of the greater gods, then the Romans in the privacy of Injury can result from their own homes also worshipped their domestic deities. Religion in the Home. To the Roman peasant the world around simply abound with gods, spirits and omens. A multitude of festivals were held to appease the gods.

The Religion of the State. The Roman state religion was in Better Mental Foster Children a way much the Injury from Essay, same in essence as that of the individual home, only on a much larger and examples of archetypes more magnificent scale. State religion looked after the home of the Roman people, as compared to the home of an individual household. Just as the wife was supposed to guard the hearth at home, then Rome had the Vestal Virgins guard the holy flame of Rome. And if a family worshipped its lares , then, after the Injury can result from violence Essay, fall of the republic, the Roman state had its deified past Caesars which it paid tribute to. And if the worship of a private household took place under guidance of the father, then the religion of state was in Essay Prefab Sprout control of the pontifex maximus . The High Offices of State Religion. If the pontifex maximus was the head of Roman state religion, then much of its organization rested with four religious colleges, whose members were appointed for life and , with a few exceptions, were selected among distinguished politicians. The highest of these bodies was the Pontifical College, which consisted of the rex sacrorum , pontifices , flamines and the vestal virgins.

Rex sacrorum , the king of from Essay rites, was an office created under the early republic as a substitute for examples in literature royal authority over religious matters. Later he might still have been the highest dignitary at can result from Essay any ritual, even higher than the pontifex maximus , but it became a purely honorary post. Sixteen pontifices (priests) oversaw the organization of religious events. They kept records of proper religious procedures and Essay about Prefab Sprout the dates of festivals and days of special religious significance. The flamines acted as priests to from, individual gods: three for the major gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, and twelve for the lesser ones. These individual experts specialized in the knowledge of prayers and rituals specific to their particular deity. The flamen dialis , the priest of neurotic anxiety definition Jupiter, was the most senior of the flamines . On certain occasions his status was equal to those of the pontifex maximus and from violence the rex sacrorum . Though the life of the flamen dialis was regulated by a whole host of strange rules. He was not allowed to ride a horse. If a person was into the house of the flamen dialis in any form of fetters he was to two personalities, be untied at from once and the shackles pulled up through the Essay about Company, skylight of the house's atrium on to the roof and then carried away. Only a free man was allowed to cut the hair of the can result from violence, flamen dialis . The flamen dialis would neither ever touch, nor mention a goat, uncooked meat, ivy, or beans.

For the the bridge themes, flamen dialis divorce was not possible. His marriage could only be ended by death. Should his wife have died, he was obliged to Injury from, resign. The Vestal Virgins. There were six vestal virgins. All were traditionally chosen from old patrician families at a young age.

They would serve ten years as novices, then ten performing the actual duties, followed by a final ten years of anxiety definition teaching the novices. They lived in a palatial building next to the small temple of can result from violence Vesta at the Roman forum. Their foremost duty was to guard the sacred fire in the temple. Other duties included performing rituals and baking the sacred salt cake to be used at numerous ceremonies in the year. Punishment for vestal virgins was enormously harsh. If they let the flame go out, they would be whipped. And as they had to remain virgins, their punishment for breaking their vow of chastity was to be walled up alive underground. But the honour and privilege surrounding the vestal virgins was enormous. In fact any criminal who was condemned to death and saw a vestal virgin was automatically pardoned.

A situation which illustrates high sought after the post of vestal virgin was, is that of emperor Tiberius having to decide between two very evenly matched candidates in AD 19. He chose the from themes, daughter of one Domitius Pollio, instead of the daughter of a certain Fonteius Agrippa, explaining that he had decided so, as the can result from violence, latter father was divorced. However he assured the other girl of a dowry of no less than a million sesterces to console her. Other Religious Offices. The college of definition Augurs consisted of fifteen members. Theirs was the tricky job of interpreting the manifold omens of public life (and no doubt of the private life of the powerful). No doubt these consultants in matters of omens must have been exceptionally diplomatic in the interpretations required from them.

Each of them carried as his insignia a long, crooked staff. With this he would mark a square space on the ground from which he would look out for auspicious omens. The quindecemviri sacris faciundis were the fifteen members of a college for less clearly defined religious duties. Most notably they guarded the Sibylline Books and it was for them to Injury from violence Essay, consult these scriptures and interpret them when requested to do so by the senate. The Sibylline books being evidently understood as something foreign by the Romans, this college also was to oversee the worship of definition any foreign gods which were introduced to Rome. Initially there was three members to the college of epulones (banqueting managers), though later their number was enlarged to seven.

Their college was by can result, far the newest, being founded only in 196 BC. The necessity for such a college obviously arose as the increasingly elaborate festivals required experts to oversee their organization. There was not a month in anxiety definition the Roman calendar which did not have its religious festivals. And the very earliest festivals of the Roman state were already celebrated with games. The consualia (celebrating the festival of Consus and from the famous 'rape of the Sabine women'), which was held on Mental Foster Children Essay, 21 August, also was the main event of the chariot racing year.

It can hence hardly be a coincidence that the underground granary and shrine of Consus, where the opening ceremonies of the festival were held, was accessed from the very center isle of the Circus Maximus. But apart from the Injury can result Essay, consualia August, the sixth month of the old calendar, also had festivals in honour of the gods Hercules, Portunus, Vulcan, Volturnus and Diana. Festivals could be somber, dignified occasions, as well as joyful events. The parentilia in February was a period of nine days in which the families would worship their dead ancestors. During this time, no official business was conducted, all temples were closed and marriages were outlawed. But also in February was the lupercalia , a festival of fertility, most likely connected with the god Faunus. In Literature. Its ancient ritual went back to the more mythical times of Roman origin. Ceremonies began in the cave in which the legendary twins Romulus and Remus were believed to have been suckled by the wolf. In that cave a number of goats and a dog were sacrificed and their blood was daubed onto the faces of Injury can result two young boys of patrician families. Dressed in goatskins and carrying strips of leather in their hands, the boys would then run a traditional course.

Anyone along the way would be whipped with the leather strips. However, these lashings were said to increase fertility. Therefore women who sought to get pregnant would wait along the course, to be whipped by the boys as they passed. The festival of Mars lasted from definition 1 to 19 March. Two separate teams of a dozen men would dress up in armour and helmet of ancient design and would then jump, leap and bound through the streets, beating their shields with their swords, shouting and chanting. The men were known as the salii , the 'jumpers'. Apart from their noisy parade through the can result from violence, streets, they would spend every evening feasting in a different house in the city. The festival of Better Health Outcomes Vesta took place in June and, lasting for a week, it was an altogether calmer affair. No official business took place and the temple of Vesta was opened to married women who could make sacrifices of food to Injury can result from violence, the goddess. Better Mental For Young Foster Children. As a more bizarre part of this festival, all mill-donkeys were given a day of rest on can result from violence, 9 June, as well as being decorated with garlands and loaves of bread.

On 15 June the temple would be closed again, but for the vestal virgins and the Roman state would go about its normal affairs again. The Foreign Cults. The survival of a religious faith depends on a continual renewal and affirmation of its beliefs, and sometimes on adapting its rituals to changes in social conditions and attitudes. To the Romans, the observance of religious rites was a public duty rather than a private impulse. Essay Sprout Company. their beliefs were founded on a variety of unconnected and often inconsistent mythological traditions, many of them derived from the Greek rather than Italian models. Since Roman religion was not founded on some core belief which ruled out other religions, foreign religions found it relatively easy to establish themselves in the imperial capital itself. The first such foreign cult to make its way to Rome was the goddess Cybele around 204 BC. From Egypt the worship of Injury can result from Essay Isis and Osiris came to Rome at the beginning of the first century BC Cults such as those of Cybele or Isis and Bacchus were known as the 'mysteries', having secret rituals which were only known to those initiated into the faith. During the neurotic anxiety definition, reign of Julius Caesar Jews were granted freedom of worship in the city of Rome, in recognition of the Jewish forces which had helped him at Alexandria. Also very well known is the Injury can result violence, cult of the Persian sun god Mythras which reached Rome during the first century AD and Better Outcomes for Young found great following among the army. Traditional Roman religion was further undermined by the growing influence of from Essay Greek philosophy, particularly Stoicism, which suggested the idea of there being a single god. The Beginnings of Christianity.

The beginnings of Christianity are very blurry, as far as historical fact is concerned. The birth date of Jesus himself is uncertain. (The idea of a view from the bridge themes Jesus birth being the year AD 1, is due rather to a judgement made some 500 years after the even took place.) Many point to Injury can result violence Essay, the year 4 BC as the most likely date for Christ's birth, and yet that remains very uncertain. The year of his death is the bridge also not clearly established. It is assumed it took place between AD 26 and AD 36 (most likely though between AD 30 and Injury can result violence AD 36), during the reign of Pontius Pilate as prefect of Judaea. Historically speaking, Jesus of Nazareth was a charismatic Jewish leader, exorcist and religious teacher.To the Christians however he is the Messiah, the human personification of God. Evidence of neurotic anxiety Jesus' life and effect in Palestine is very patchy. He was clearly not one of the militant Jewish zealots, and yet eventually the Roman rulers did perceive him as a security risk. Roman power appointed the priests who were in charge of the religious sites of Palestine. And Jesus openly denounced these priests, so much is known. This indirect threat to Roman power, together with the Roman perception that Jesus was claiming to violence, be the 'King of the Jews', was the reason for his condemnation.

The Roman apparatus saw itself merely dealing with a minor problem which otherwise might have grown into a greater threat to their authority. So in essence, the reason for poison Jesus' crucifixion was politically motivated. However, his death was hardly noticed by can result violence Essay, Roman historians. Jesus' death should have dealt a fatal blow to the memory of his teachings, were it not have been for the determination of of archetypes in literature his followers. The most effective of these followers in spreading the new religious teachings was Paul of Tarsus, generally known as Saint Paul. St Paul, who held Roman citizenship, is Injury violence Essay famed for his missionary voyages which took him from Palestine into the empire (Syria, Turkey, Greece and Italy) to poison in hamlet, spread his new religion to the non-Jews (for until then Christianity was generally understood to be a Jewish sect). Though the actual definite outlines of the new religion of that day is largely unknown. Naturally, the general Christian ideals will have been preached, but few scriptures can possibly have been available. Rome's Relationship with the early Christians. The Roman authorities hesitated for a long time over how to from Essay, deal with this new cult.

They largely appreciated this new religion as subversive and Mental Outcomes for Young Children Essay potentially dangerous. For Christianity, with its insistence on from Essay, only one god, seemed to poison in hamlet, threaten the principle of religious toleration which had guaranteed (religious) peace for so long among the people of the empire. Most of all Christianity clashed with the official state religion of the empire, for Christians refused to perform Caesar worship. Injury. This, in the Roman mindset, demonstrated their disloyalty to their rulers. Persecution of the Christians began with Nero's bloody repression of AD 64. This was only a rash an sporadic repression though it is perhaps the one which remains the most infamous of them all. The first real recognition Christianity other than Nero's slaughter, was an inquiry by emperor Domitian who supposedly, upon hearing that the Christians refused to a view from the bridge, perform Caesar worship, sent investigators to Galilee to Injury from, inquire on his family, about fifty years after the crucifixion. They found some poor smallholders, including the great-nephew of in hamlet Jesus, interrogated them and Injury can result Essay then released them without charge. The fact however that the Roman emperor should take interest in this sect proves that by this time the Christians no longer merely represented an neurotic anxiety definition, obscure little sect.

Towards the end of the first century the Christians appeared to sever all their ties with the from violence, Judaism and established itself independently. Though with this separation form Judaism, Christianity emerged as a largely unknown religion to the Roman authorities. Two Personalities. And Roman ignorance of this new cult bred suspicion. Rumours were abound about secretive Christian rituals; rumours of child sacrifice, incest and cannibalism. Major revolts of the Jews in Judaea in from Essay the early second century led to great resentment of the Jews and of the Christians, who were still largely understood by the Romans to be a Jewish sect. Essay Sprout Company. The repressions which followed for can result from violence Essay both Christians and Jews were severe. During the second century AD Christians were persecuted for their beliefs largely because these did not allow them to give the examples in literature, statutory reverence to the images of the can result from violence Essay, gods and anxiety of the emperor.

Also their act of worship transgressed the edict of Trajan, forbidding meetings of secret societies. Can Result Violence. To the government, it was civil disobedience. The Christians themselves meanwhile thought such edicts suppressed their freedom of in hamlet worship. However, despite such differences, with emperor Trajan a period of toleration appeared to set in. Pliny the Injury can result, Younger, as governor of two personalities Nithynia in AD 111, was so exercised by the troubles with the Christians that he wrote to Trajan asking for guidance on how to deal with them. Trajan, displaying considerable wisdom, replied: ' The actions you have taken, my dear Pliny, in investigating the cases of violence Essay those brought before you as Christians, are correct. It is impossible to lay down a general rule which can apply to particular cases. A View The Bridge. Do not go looking for Christians. If they are brought before you and the charge is proven, they must be punished, provided that if someone denies they are Christian and Injury from violence Essay gives proof of it, by offering reverence to our gods, they shall be acquitted on the grounds of repentance even if they have previously incurred suspicion. Anonymous written accusations shall be disregarded as evidence.

They set a bad example which is contrary to the spirit of our times. ' Christians were not actively sought out by a network of spies. Under his successor Hadrian which policy seemed to continue. Also the fact hat Hadrian actively persecuted the Essay, Jews, but not the Christians shows that by that time the Romans were drawing a clear distinction between the two religions. The great persecutions of AD 165-180 under Marcus Aurelius included the terrible acts committed upon the Christians of Injury from Lyons in Essay about Prefab Sprout AD 177. This period, far more than Nero's earlier rage, was which defined the Christian understanding of martyrdom. Christianity is often portrayed as the religion of the poor and can result from the slaves. Better Health Essay. This is not necessarily a true picture. From the beginning there appeared to have been wealthy and influential figures who at least sympathised with the Christians, even members of court. And it appeared that Christianity maintained its appeal to such highly connected persons.

Marcia, the concubine of the Injury can result, emperor Commodus, for in hamlet example used her influence to achieve the release of Christian prisoners from the mines. The Great Persecution - AD 303. Had Christianity generally grown and established some roots across the empire in the years following the persecution by Marcus Aurelius, then it had especially prospered from about AD 260 onwards enjoying widespread toleration by Injury can result from violence, the Roman authorities. But with the reign of Diocletian things would change. Towards the end of his long reign, Diocletian became ever more concerned about the high positions held by many Christians in Roman society and, particularly, the army. On a visit to the Oracle of Apollo at Didyma near Miletus, he was advised by the pagan oracle to halt the rise of the Christians. And so on 23 February AD 303, on the Roman day of the gods of boundaries, the terminalia , Diocletian enacted what was to become perhaps the greatest persecution of Christians under Roman rule.

Diocletian and, perhaps all the more viciously, his Caesar Galerius launched a serious purge against the sect which they saw as becoming far too powerful and hence, too dangerous. In Rome, Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor (Turkey) the examples of archetypes in literature, Christians suffered most. However, in the west, beyond the immediate grasp of the two persecutors things were far less ferocious. Constantine the Great - Christianization of the Empire. The key moment in the establishment if Christianity as the predominant religion of the from violence Essay, Roman empire, happened in anxiety AD 312 when emperor Constantine on the eve before battle against the rival emperor Maxentius had a vision of the violence Essay, sign of Christ (the so called chi-rho symbol) in a dream. And Constantine was to have the symbol inscribed on his helmet and ordered all his soldiers (or at least those of his bodyguard) to of archetypes, point it on can result from violence Essay, their shields. It was after the crushing victory he inflicted on his opponent against overwhelming odds that Constantine declared he owed his victory to the god of the Christians. However, Constantine's claim to themes, conversion is not without controversy.

There are many who see in his conversion rather the from violence Essay, political realization of the examples, potential power of Christianity instead of any celestial vision. Constantine had inherited a very tolerant attitude towards Christians from his father, but for the years of from his rule previous to that fateful night in AD 312 there was no definite indication of any gradual conversion towards the Christian faith. Although he did already have Christian bishops in his royal entourage before AD 312. But however truthful his conversion might have been, it should change the fate of Christianity for good. In meetings with his rival emperor Licinius, Constantine secured religious tolerance towards Christians all over the empire. Until AD 324 Constantine appeared to on purposely blur the anxiety definition, distinction of which god it was he followed, the Christian god or pagan sun god Sol. Perhaps at this time he truly hadn't made up his mind yet. Perhaps it was just that he felt his power was not yet established enough to can result violence, confront the pagan majority of the empire with a Christian ruler. However, substantial gestures were made toward the Christians very soon after the fateful Battle of the Milvian Bridge in AD 312. Poison In Hamlet. Already in AD 313 tax exemptions were granted to Christian clergy and from violence money was granted to rebuild the major churches in Rome.

Also in Essay Sprout AD 314 Constantine already engaged in a major meeting of bishops at Milan to can result from, deal with problems befalling the church in the 'Donatist schism'. But once Constantine had defeated his last rival emperor Licinius in a view the bridge AD 324, the last of Constantine's restraint disappeared and a Christian emperor (or at least one who championed the Christian cause) ruled over the entire empire. He built a vast new basilica church on the Vatican hill, where reputedly St Peter had been martyred. Injury Can Result Violence. Other great churches were built by Constantine, such as the great St John Lateran in Rome or the reconstruction of the great church of Nicomedia which had been destroyed by Diocletian. Apart from building great monuments to Christianity, Constantine now also became openly hostile toward the pagans. Even pagan sacrifice itself was forbidden. Pagan temples (except those of the previous official Roman state cult) had their treasures confiscated. These treasures were largely given to the Christian churches instead. Some cults which were deemed sexually immoral by Christian standards were forbidden and anxiety their temples were razed.

Gruesomely brutal laws were introduced to enforce Christian sexual morality. Constantine was evidently not an emperor who had decided to gradually educate the people of from violence Essay his empire to Essay Sprout, this new religion. Far more the empire was shocked into a new religious order. But in the same year as Constantine achieved supremacy over the empire (and effectively over the Christian church) the Christian faith itself suffered a grave crisis. Arianism, a heresy which challenged the church's view of God (the father) and Jesus (the son), was creating a serious divide in the church.Constantine called the famous Council of Nicaea which decided the definition of the Christian deity as the Holy Trinity, God the father, God the son and violence Essay God the Holy Spirit. Had Christianity previously been unclear about its message then the Council of Nicaea (together with a later council at Constantinople in 381 AD) created a clearly defined core belief. However, the nature of its creation - a council - and the diplomatically sensitive way in defining the formula, to many suggests the creed of the poison in hamlet, Holy Trinity to Injury from Essay, be rather a political construct between theologians and politicians rather than anything achieved by divine inspiration. It is hence often sought that the two personalities, Council of Nicaea represents the Christian church becoming a more wordly institution, moving away from its innocent beginnings in its ascent to power. The Christian church continued to grow and rise in importance under Constantine.

Within his reign the cost of the church already became larger than the cost of the entire imperial civil service. As for emperor Constantine; he bowed out in the same fashion in which he had lived, leaving it still unclear to historians today, if he truly had completely converted to Christianity, or not. He was baptized on his deathbed. Injury Can Result From Essay. It was not an unusual practice for Christians of the day to two personalities, leave their baptism for can result from violence Essay such a time. However, it still fails to a view, answer completely to what point this was due to Injury can result from Essay, conviction and not for political purposes, considering the poison in hamlet, succession of his sons. One of the primary problems of early Christianity was that of heresy. Heresy as generally defined as a departure from the traditional Christian beliefs; the creation of new ideas, rituals and forms of worship within the Christian church. This was especially dangerous to a faith in which for a long time the rules as to what was the proper Christian belief remained very vague and can result violence Essay open to interpretation. The result of the definition of heresy was often bloody slaughter. Two Personalities. Religious suppression against heretics became to from violence, any account just as brutal as some of the excesses of Roman emperors in suppressing the Christians.

Julian the two personalities, Apostate. If Constantine's conversion of the empire had been harsh, it was irreversible. when in Injury from violence Essay AD 361 Julian ascended to the throne and officially renounced Christianity, he could do little to change the religious make-up of an empire in which Christinaity by then dominated. Had under Constantine and his sons being a Christian almost been a pre-requisite for receiving any official position, then the enire working of the empire by now had been turned over to Christians. It is unclear to what point the population had converted to Christianity (though the numbers will have been rising quickly), but it is two personalities clear that the institutions of empire must by can result from violence Essay, the time Julian came to power have been dominated by Christians. Hence a reverse was impossible, unless a pagan emperor of the drive and ruthlessness of in hamlet Constantine would have emerged. Julian the Apostate was no such man. From Violence Essay. Far more does history paint him as a gentle intellectual, who simply tolerated Christianity in two personalities spite of his disagreement with it. Christian teachers lost their jobs, as Julian argued that it made little sense for them to teach pagan texts of which they did not approve. Also some of the Injury can result violence Essay, financial privileges which the church had enjoyed were now refused. But by no means could this have been seen as a renewal of Christian persecution.

In fact in the east of the empire Christian mobs ran riot and vandalized the pagan temples which Julian had re-instated. Was Julian not a violent man of the Mental Health for Young Foster Essay, likes of can result Constantine, then his response to these Christian outrages were never felt, as he already died in AD 363. If his reign had a been a brief setback for Christianity, it had only provided further proof that Christianity was here to stay. The Power of the Church. With the death of Julian the Apostate matters quickly returned to normal for the Christian church as it resumed its role as the religion of the power.

In AD 380 emperor Theodosius took the final step and made Christianity the official religion of state. Severe punishments were introduced for people who disagreed with the official version of Christianity. Furthermore, becoming a member of the clergy became a possible career for the educated classes, for the bishops were gaining ever more influence. At the great council of Constantinople a further decision was reached which placed the neurotic anxiety definition, bishopric of Rome above that of Constantinople. This in effect confirmed the church's more political outlook, as until the prestige of the bishoprics had been ranked according to the church's apostolic history.

And for that particular time preference for the bishop of Injury can result Rome evidently appeared to be greater than for the bishop of poison in hamlet Constantinople. In AD 390 alas a massacre in Thessalonica revealed the Essay, new order to the world. After a massacre of some seven thousand people the emperor Theodosius was excommunicated and two personalities required to do penance for this crime. This did not mean that now the church was the highest authority in the empire, but it proved that now the church felt sufficiently confident to challenge the emperor himself on matters of moral authority.

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Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume and - My Experience. I paid for the 10 day option at ?660, when I got to the final stage of the checkout, it went up to ?792 due to tax or something. The customer service team were all Ukrainian and spoke terrible English. I was convinced my writer was also Ukrainian due to the badly written responses I got. Injury Can Result From? I requested a refund, and sure enough, they were true to their word and gave me a full refund.

I purchased a 10,000 word dissertation to be done in 10 days at the cost of ?1300 - including tax etc. I ordered this on for Young Foster Children Thursday 8th March 2012. They got me a researcher sorted for the evening of March 9th 2012. Next step: wait on writer sending 500 word summary within 24 hours. This didn#039;t happen, it is Injury from now 3:45pm on March 11th 2012. Two Personalities? I called the help line at 12 in the afternoon and hit option 4 enquiry for Injury can result violence Essay, current order and the phone rang out. I rang again and hit option 1 for information and new orders and poison got a response in Injury can result from violence Essay 3 seconds. *Shrugs - i am only presenting the facts. Spoke to a really polite advisor who assured me he would contact my writer and be in touch. Better Mental Outcomes Children Essay? Haven#039;t heard from the advisor nor the writer.

I will let you guys know how this pans out and what the final piece of work turns out to be like. From Violence? I received 3 miss calls from themes them by 10am March 12th 2012. The writer has posted the Injury violence, 500 word summary for in hamlet, my dissertation and it is truly excellent. It looks like it might be written by a lecturer or post grad student. If the final piece of work is violence anything like the the bridge, summary, then I shall be cheesing. Got my dissertation 24 hours early, here#039;s my opinion. 1. Got my 10,000 word dissertation 24 hours early. 2. The format was great and it looks pro! 3. The word count was in the + or - 10% of the 10000 words.

4. The use of can result from violence Essay tables and illustrations was good throughout. 5. Data collection and analysis was just peachy. 6. Paper answered the dissertation question. 7. Good references. 8. Very good customer service - polite, patient and have integrity.

Nice bunch of people. I would say this dissertation is 7/10, which is good considering I think my own efforts would have been a solid 5/10 - hence the examples of archetypes, need for a writer. Would have been a solid 8/10 if it included a full appendix, which it didn#039;t, which brings me to the bad points. Can Result From Violence Essay? 1. No real Apendix to speak of Health Outcomes Children Essay (interview schedules, transcriptions etc). My writer did include a question air which was cool, but nothing else. Apparantely the writer is paid to do 10000 words, so that#039;s what they do, 10000 words. (Actually mine done a lot more to be fair to her/him).

So this means I have to purchase the appendix separately, which is not cool since I just paid £1300 for Injury from, a dissertation! Never mind, I have written to two personalities them to enquire how much it would cost for these additionally pages and Injury can result from violence Essay will post the response soon. You get what you pay for. Poison? You pay peanuts, you get monkeys. You pay hard cash and you get a good service over all. Yes, a shed load of money, but if it helps me get on a graduate scheme that pays 22K, then it was a bargain at 10 times the price. Can Result From Essay? All about cost/benefit analysis folks. Now my concerns are: 1. How much will the two personalities, interview transcriptions cost. 2. What grade will the from violence Essay, dissertation achieve. 3. Will I get caught by my university - probably the key issue really.

Um, yeah. its amazing how that works. Transcribed interviews, completed questionaires etc are not included. I did ask for a price but did not receive a quote. No worries though. As pheelyks pointed out, if you pay for a 10,000 word dissertation, that is what you get. Apendix isn#039;t a massive deal, I can touch this area up myself, so no harm done. If you pay for a piece of work and from the bridge themes submit it, be prepared to feel paranoid alot of the can result from violence Essay, time Lol One of the side effects unfortunately. My biggest fear is being found out.

Which brings me to my next paranoid point. Better Mental Health Essay? 1. Will my university find out I#039;ve used a writing service for my dissertation. Injury Essay? 2. What grade will I be awarded for my dissertation. I#039;m passing through similar situation as asking me for anxiety definition, a photo id and can result from a proof of home address. I#039;m still not sure what to do. I don#039;t want to be reported by someone if things went wrong. Just finished all my exams and such so time for those bastards to two personalities give my hard earned money back - talking about that boothed essay. Contacted my bank but they need some proof. Is anyone here willing to can result Essay take a look at the essay and (in case they agree it#039;s not up to 2.1 standard) write a short report on neurotic anxiety definition it for my bank#039;s chargeback department? I just wanted a genuine opinion of experienced academic writer to be honest! ^^ Not from any half-intelligent writer.

Getting paid for this depends upon his getting a refund from UKEssays, and the writer would have to do the work upfront and a)hope Alex gets a refund, then b)hope Alex actually pays up if he gets it. Can Result? No thanks. Then this leads to another dead end for a writer who picks up your project. Poison In Hamlet? You#039;re hiring someone for can result from violence Essay, an assessment of your product; that person should be paid in advance. Better Mental For Young Foster Essay? Otherwise, Pheelyks is right: no serious writer will show any interest. That#039;s it. If some company scammed you, it doesn#039;t mean you can hire someone without assuring a payment for the work. B. You#039;ve seen the paper and think I#039;m right. You read it carefully and wrote some words on Injury can result from Essay it. Two Personalities? Not sure how many because I never did such a thing.

Would imagine. don#039;t know, 200 300 500 words at the most. I don#039;t get the money back (although don#039;t see why not) and you just wasted. 1h? 2h? Disclaimer: All messages posted on this site are provided AS IS with no expressed or implied warranties or guarantees and are the sole opinion and responsibility of the poster.

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The maximum time you can spend on a quiz is 45 minutes. On the final you will have 3 hours and 30 minutes. Two Personalities! If you have not clicked the Submit For Grade button by can result from violence Essay, the end of the allotted time, you will be automatically exited from the examples in literature, exam . In the final exam environment, the Injury from violence, Windows clipboard is disabled, so you will not be able to copy exam questions or answers to. Assessment , Behavior , Essay 1660 Words | 6 Pages. available online at . Text : The Norton Anthology of themes American Literature, Shorter 8th Ed., Vol. Injury Can Result! 2 Evaluation: . Two short essays written out of class (25% each); 3 multiple-choice exams (15% each), and quizzes and graded in-class work (5%). Lowest in-class or quiz grade will be dropped.

The essays will be submitted to Turnitin via TRACS. Electronic devices: Students may not use electronic devices (cell phones, laptops, ipads, etc.) during class. Students. Academic dishonesty , Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , American literature 721 Words | 4 Pages. Exam: 986042rr - Writing Skills Part 3. Student ID: 21850078 Exam : 986042RR - WRITING SKILLS PART 3 When you have completed your exam and reviewed your answers, click . Submit Exam . Answers will not be recorded until you hit Submit Exam . If you need to exit before completing the exam , click Cancel Exam . Mental Outcomes Foster Children Essay! Questions 1 to from violence, 20: Select the best answer to poison in hamlet, each question. Injury! Note that a question and Mental Outcomes for Young Children its answers may be split across a page break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

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Adam Smith , Arithmetic , David Ricardo 928 Words | 3 Pages. Summer 2013 Final Exam Study Guide The final exam is worth 35% of your overall course grade. No exceptions will be made . for lateness, please arrive early. No study notes, text books, dictionaries or electronic devices will be permitted. Leave all of these items at home. Please note, students are NOT allowed to Mental Health for Young Foster Essay, petition to RE-WRITE a final examination. This document is can result violence Essay, a study guide indicating the course material you are responsible for reviewing in preparation for the exam . All questions on.

Answer , Cultural studies , Final examination 631 Words | 3 Pages. Level 3 Essay Questions For Practice. ?Level 3 Essay Questions: NOVEL Plan each of the Health Foster Children, following essay questions. Can Result From! Write the anxiety, introduction for violence Essay, each. Develop at least 2 . of these before exams . Hand into your teacher and take note of the feedback so you can aim to get to the next level of Essay Prefab Sprout Company achievement. Injury! Choose ONE topic. Read the whole topic and make sure you understand it before you begin your answer. Write an essay of AT LEAST 400 words. Your essay should develop a critical response based on close analysis of a view from the bridge themes appropriate text(s). You should. Character , Fiction , Literature 1329 Words | 5 Pages.

MGMT520 Final Exam Study Guide Finals open on Saturday April 20 at 12:01 a.m. MT (Saturday morning) Finals close on Thursday April 25 at . 11:59 p.m. MT (Thursday night) PLEASE DONT WAIT TILL THE LAST MINUTE THE SYSTEM IS BUSY AND MAY SLOW DOWN AND ANYTHING CAN HAPPEN. YOU MAY WANT TO PRINT THIS GUIDE. 1. The final exam is can result from violence, open book, open notes. The maximum time you can spend in the exam is in hamlet, 3 hours, 30 minutes. Violence! If you have not clicked the Submit For Grade button by anxiety, then, you will be automatically. Answer , Business , Business ethics 1404 Words | 5 Pages.

Exams should be abolished Exams - a word that many students dread to Injury violence, hear, a word that many students fear of, a . word that seems to a view the bridge themes, have the magical power to transform a happy and cheerful person into a frustrated and nervous wreck. What are exams and should they been done away with entirely? Exams are longer and more comprehensive versions of tests held every term. Can Result From Essay! Initially created to monitor and check how a student was performing academically, they now have so much more pressure on.

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How And Why To Keep A Commonplace Book The other day I was reading a book and I came across a little anecdote. It was about the great Athenian general Themistocles. Before the can result violence battle of examples Salamis, he was locked in a vigorous debate with a Spartan general about potential strategies for defeating the Injury can result from violence Essay Persians. Poison In Hamlet? Themistocles was clearly in the minority with his views (but which ultimately turned out to can result from violence be right and saved Western Civilization). He continued to interrupt and contradict the other generals. From Themes? Finally, the Spartan general threatened to strike Themistocles if he didnt shut up and stop. Strike! Themistocles shouted back, But listen! When I read this, I immediately began a ritual that I have practiced for many yearsand that others have done for centuries before meI marked down the can result from violence passage and later transferred it to my commonplace book. Why?

Because its a great line and it stood out to me. I wrote it down Ill want to have it around for later reference, for Better Outcomes Children Essay potentially using it in my writing or work, or for possible inspiration at some point in the future. In other posts, weve talked about Injury, how to read more, which books to read, how to read books above your level and how to write. Well, the commonplace book is neurotic definition, a thread that runs through all those ideas. It what ties those efforts together and makes you better at each one of them. I was introduced and taught a certain version of this system Robert Greene and now I am passing along the lessons because theyve helped me so much. A commonplace book is a central resource or depository for ideas, quotes, anecdotes, observations and information you come across during your life and Injury can result didactic pursuits. The purpose of the book is to record and organize these gems for later use in the bridge your life, in your business, in your writing, speaking or whatever it is that you do. Some of the greatest men and women in Injury from history have kept these books. Essay Company? Marcus Aurelius kept onewhich more or less became the Meditations. Petrarch kept one.

Montaigne, who invented the essay, kept a handwritten compilation of sayings, maxims and Injury from quotations from literature and history that he felt were important. His earliest essays were little more than compilations of these thoughts. Thomas Jefferson kept one. Napoleon kept one. HL Mencken, who did so much for the English language, as his biographer put it, methodically filled notebooks with incidents, recording straps of dialog and slang and favorite bits from newspaper columns he liked. Bill Gates keeps one. Not only did all these famous and great individuals do it. Definition? But so have common people throughout history.

Our true understanding of the Civil War, for example, is a result of the spread of cheap diaries and notebooks that soldiers could record their thoughts in. Injury Can Result From Essay? Art of Manliness recently did an amazing post about the history of pocket notebooks. Some people have gone as far as to claim that Pinterest is a modern iteration of the commonplace book. And if you still need a whyIll let this quote from two personalities, Seneca answer it (which I got from my own reading and notes): We should hunt out the helpful pieces of teaching and the spirited and noble-minded sayings which are capable of immediate practical applicationnot far far-fetched or archaic expressions or extravagant metaphors and figures of speechand learn them so well that words become works. Read widely. Read about anything and everything and can result from Essay be open to seeing what you didnt expect to examples of archetypes in literature be therethats how you find the best stuff.

Shelby Foote, I cant begin to tell you the things I discovered while I was looking for something else. If you need book recommendations, these will help. -Mark down what sticks out at Injury can result violence Essay you as you readpassages, words, anecdotes, stories, info. When I read, I just fold the bottom corners of the pages. If I have a pen on me, I mark the particularly passages I want to come back to. I used to use flag-it highlighters, which can be great. -Again, take notes while you read. Its what the best readers do, period. its called marginalia. For instance, John Stuart Mill hated Ralph Waldo Emerson, and we know this based on his copies of Emersons books where he made those (private) comments.

You can also see some of Mark Twains fascinating marginalia here. Poison? Bill Gates marginalia is public on a website he keeps called The Gates Notes. Its a way to have a conversation with the book and the author. Dont be afraid to judge, criticism or exclaim as you read. -Wisdom, not facts. Were not just looking random pieces of information.

Whats the point of Injury violence Essay that? Your commonplace book, over for Young Children a lifetime (or even just several years), can accumulate a mass of true wisdomthat you can turn to can result from Essay in times of crisis, opportunity, depression or job. -But you have to read and approach reading accordingly. Montaigne once teased the writer Erasmus, who was known for his dedication to reading scholarly works, by asking with heavy sarcasm Do you think he is searching in his books for a way to in hamlet become better, happier, or wiser? In Montaignes mind, if he wasnt, it was all a waste. A commonplace book is a way to can result violence keep our learning priorities in order. It motivates us to look for of archetypes in literature and keep only the things we can use. -After you finish the book, put it down for a week or so. Let it percolate in your head. Now, return to it and Injury violence review all the material youve saved and transfer the marginalia and passages to your commonplace book.

-It doesnt have to just be material from books. A View From Themes? Movies, speeches, videos, conversations work too. Whatever. Anything good. -Actually writing the stuff down is crucial. I know its easier to keep a Google Doc or an Evernote project of your favorite quotesbut easy has got nothing to do with this. As Raymond Chandler put it, when you have to use your energy to put those words down, you are more apt to Injury can result from violence Essay make them count. (Disclosure: for really long pieces, Ill type it up and Mental Health Foster Children Essay print it out). -Technology is great, dont get me wrong. But some things should take effort.

Personally, Id much rather adhere to the system that worked for guys like Thomas Jefferson than some cloud-based shortcut. -That being said, I dont think the book part is all that important, just that it is a physical resource of some kind. If you do want a book, Moleskines are great and so are Field Notes. -I use 4?6 ruled index cards, which Robert Greene introduced me to. I write the information on the card, and the theme/category on the top right corner. As he figured out, being able to shuffle and move the cards into different groups is crucial to getting the most out of them. Injury From Essay? Ronald Reagan actually kept quotes on a similar notecard system.

-For bigger projects, I organize the about Sprout cards in these Cropper Hoppers. Its meant for Injury Essay storing photos, but it handles index cards perfectly (especially when you use file dividers). Each of the books I have written gets its own hopper (and you can store papers/articles in the compartment below. -These Vaultz Index Card boxes are also good for smaller projects (they have a lock and key as well) -Dont worry about Essay, organizationat least at first. I get a lot of Injury from emails from people asking me what categories I organize my notes in.

Guess what? It doesnt matter. The information I personally find is what dictates my categories. Your search will dictate your own. Focus on finding good stuff and the themes will reveal themselves. -Some of anxiety definition my categories for those who are curious: Life. Injury Can Result From Violence Essay? Death. Writing. Stoicism. Strategy.

Animals. About? Narrative Fallacy. Books. Article Ideas. Education. Arguing with Reality. Misc. -Dont let it pile up. A lot of people mark down passages or fold pages of stuff they like.

Then they put of doing anything with it. Ill tell you, nothing will make your procrastinate like seeing a giant pile of books you have to go through and from violence take notes on it. You can avoid this by not letting it pile up. Dont go months or weeks without going through the ritual. You have to stay on top of it. -Because mine is a physical box with literally thousands of cards, I dont carry the a view the bridge themes whole thing with me. But if I am working on a particular section of from Essay a book, Ill take all those cards with me. Or when I was working on my writing post for Thought Catalog, I grabbed all the writing cards before I hopped on a flight and through the post together while I was in Essay Prefab Company the air. -It doesnt have to be just other peoples writing. Injury From? One of my favorite parts of The Crack Upa mostly forgotten collection of materials from about Prefab Sprout Company, F. Scott Fitzgerald published after his deathis the random phrases and Injury can result from violence Essay observations he made. Definition? They are aphorisms without the posturing that comes with writing for publication.

So many of my notecards are just things that occurred to can result violence Essay me, notes to myself in essence. Its your book. Use it how you want. -Look at neurotic definition other peoples commonplace books. Violence? Its like someone is separating the wheat from the chaff for you. Try a Google Books search for Commonplace Bookthere is great stuff there. -Use them!

Look, my commonplace book is easily justified. I write and speak about things for of archetypes in literature a living. Violence Essay? I need this resource. But so do you. Neurotic? You write papers, memos, emails, notes to friends, birthday cards, give advice, have conversations at dinner, console loved ones, tell someone special how you feel about them. Injury Can Result From Violence Essay? All these are opportunities to use the wisdom you have come across and recordedto improve what youre doing with knowledge passed down through history. -This is a project for a lifetime. Ive been keeping my commonplace books in variety of forms for 6 or 7 years. But Im just getting started.

-Protect it at all costs. Neurotic Anxiety Definition? As the historian Douglas Brinkley said about violence Essay, Ronald Reagans collection of notecards: If the Reagans home in Palisades were burning, this would be one of the things Reagan would immediately drag out Company of the house. He carried them with him all over like a carpenter brings their tools. These were the Injury Essay tools for his trade. I couldnt have put it better myself. -Start NOW.

Dont put this off until later. Dont write me about examples in literature, how this is such a good idea and you wish you had the time to can result from do it too. You do have the time. Better Mental Health Essay? But start, now, and stop putting it off. Make it a priority. It will pay off. I promise. If anyone wants to post photos of Injury from violence their Commonplace Book or describe their personal methodgo for it (or email it to me). We can do a follow up post of examples and two personalities tips. Want to follow Thought Catalogs Commonplace Book?

Find it here. Ryans new book Growth Hacker Marketing, is a result of observations and notes he made from Injury violence, reading and Prefab Company interviewing a new class of thinkers who disrupted the Injury marketing industry. Or check out his other articles here. Severe(d): A Creepy Poetry Collection. Holly Riordans haunting poetry book features a beautifully morbid cover that glows in the dark. Treat yourself or the horror fan in your life this Halloween, and dont forget to Essay Prefab Company How The Air Force Might Change Your Life, Based On Your Current Life Goal. 44 Writing Hacks From Some of the Greatest Writers Who Ever Lived.

25 Recommendations For Life Changing Biographies For The Voracious Reader In You. How to Keep A Library Of (Physical) Books. Everyone Should Keep A Commonplace Book: Great Tips From People Who Do. [] AUG. 28, 2013 By RYAN HOLIDAY infoThe other day I was reading a book and I came across a little anecdote. It was about the great Athenian general Themistocles. Essay? Before the battle of Salamis, he was locked in a vigorous debate with a Spartan general about potential strategies for defeating the persons. Themistocles was clearly in the minority with his views (but which ultimately turned out to be right and saved Western Civilization). Definition? He continued to Injury can result from Essay interpret and poison in hamlet contradict the other generals. Violence? Finally, the Spartan general threatened to strike Themistocles if he didnt shut up and stop. Strike! Themistocles shouted back, But listen! [] Reblogged this on HODGEPODGEJELLYBRAIN and commented:

After absolute ages, I found an excellent, well-referenced, intelligent article in Thought Catalog. In Literature? I want to share it with those of you who dont visit the website, as well as those of you who have given up on it. :) [] came a great article from another obsessive note-taker, Ryan Holiday, about his commonplace books. Injury Violence Essay? I dont disagree with much that he says, but I do handle my commonplace notes a little [] Reblogged this on A Roaming Tsinay and commented: Although I dont totally ascribe to Mental Outcomes for Young Children the whole do not digitize thing (my whole life is on my iPhoneits hard not to Evernote everything), I do agree that this is probably one of best small ways to enrich your life a little. My Evernote Commonplace Book is crammed with quotes, other peoples poems, my poems-in-progress, song lyrics (mine and from others), photos, story snippets and scenes, and all sorts of stuff. I used to keep everything in Stickies on my Mac, then in Essay Sprout Day One (which I got for can result from violence free during the App Stores anniversary), but Evernote just makes organizing and syncing so much easier. :) Oh, and neurotic if you plan to Injury from keep a physical commonplace book/diary, its best to use a tiny notebook. Less pressure to neurotic anxiety definition fill the pages, and Injury from violence easier to lug around. I find unless Im in one of the bridge my diary seasons, I dont fill up notebooks that go beyond hand- or pocket-size.

Reblogged this on Johann Thorsson and commented: This is a great post from Thought Catalog. Long, but totally worth it. [] do that (sort of) with my extensive list of bookmarks. Can Result Essay? Thoughts? Would you want to do this? How And Why To Keep A [] [] via How And Why To Keep A Commonplace Book | Thought Catalog. [] [] Do you keep a commonplace book?

Id never heard the Essay Company term, but am familiar with the Injury from violence concept. It actually sounds like a fun project to start this weekend! [] [] the idea of keeping a commonplace book has clearly struck a nerve. Not only did the article make the front page of Reddit and Better Health blow up on Injury can result from Essay [] [] the idea of keeping a commonplace book has clearly struck a nerve. Not only did the article make the anxiety definition front page of Reddit and blow up on Injury can result Essay [] Good sound advice on how to read actively and not passively. [] metaphors and figures of speechand learn them so well that words become works. Seneca This entry was posted in Health Outcomes for Young Uncategorized by Injury can result from Essay, John. Bookmark the [] Reblogged this on adventuresinpowercity and commented:

This is how i planned on studying my law books. Better Mental Health For Young Foster Essay? Maybe I could come back to Injury can result from it. Well see. Examples? So far Im satisfied with marginalia and can result violence getting my notes digital rather than on paper. Better Mental Foster Children Essay? Well see. But I like this. Hey, I might even read Robert Greene. I usually dont trust anything that attracts a crowd no matter the kind that it draws, but who knows. Someone told me once that taking chances is a good thing. Fine. Ill buy one Robert Greene booke and see where that goes.

[] week the Hubbins sent me the following link to from this post. I suggest you go read it and the follow-up post. Go on Ill wait. He thought Id find [] [] stationery. I checked the blog of my fab penpal, GalintheGreyHat, and she has talked about her commonplace book. I have wanted to keep one of these notebooks for most of life. When we moved house last year, in []

[] One of the two personalities articles he wrote was this gem that will change your life. How and Why to Keep a Commonplace Book [] [] point of owning the books is to use them. Violence Essay? Make sure you take notes and keep a commonplace book. It will change your life, I [] [] point of owning the books is to use them.

Make sure you take notes and keep a commonplace book. It will change your life, I [] [] ever seems like a good one to go down with. -Yes, I get that it involves more workespecially the commonplace book system. Poison In Hamlet? Things are not supposed to be easy, and this is especially true when it comes to valuable things. [] [] How and Why to Keep a Commonplace Book []