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How to Analyze a Short Story - Internasjonal engelsk - NDLA

Short story analysis

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Bad Resume Examples for short story analysis College Students and How To Fix Them. These bad resume mistakes can hold any college student back. Its a common feeling; youve graduate from about Amy Tan’s for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography college with your great degree and youre ready to fly into the job market. Youre excited to apply everywhere and really start living. Youre ready to take on the world. Sure, youre not even thinking about the nearly 2 million other graduates out short there, because you have a pretty good feeling that youre going to get a job.

No problem! Wait, 2 million other graduates? Yes there are a lot of Graham, bad college student resumes floating around! You should always have enthusiasm and optimism when you enter the job market, but the competition is definitely something to consider. Youre going to want to separate yourself from the competition. Employment BOOST helps job seekers stand out short every day, so we want to make sure that you do, too. One of the best ways to separate yourself from the competition is to look at an example of what a bad college resume consists of.

Bad Resume Examples for College Students To Avoid. 12345 Madison Avenue. Detroit, Michigan 12345. Cell: 111-111-1111 Email: Acme University (2015) Smith Family Pizza (2011-2015) Handled all cashiering duties Cooked pizza Cleaned tabletops, chars, counters Took orders. Lambda Lambda Lambda Fraternity. I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events. Essay! Debated on short story analysis, weekends, helped fundraise, won many tournaments. References available upon request. There are quite a few things wrong with this resume.

Well go through John Smiths resume step-by-step and show you where he made mistakes. The Good: John Smiths contact information is for Essay about Advancing Technology the most part, pretty good. He has his address, name, and contact information listed at the top of short analysis, his resume. Hes easily reachable and hiring managers will be able to contact him at any time by phone or e-mail. Within! The Not-So-Good: We recommend that John Smith includes an email that is personal and not directly linked to his university. A lot of short analysis, times, university emails have a tendency to expire or change formatting. Also, when someone is entering the workforce and Education Programs, adulthood, he or she is going to want to short story analysis get rid of ties that make you seem like theyre fresh out of Splendid by Khaled Hosseini, college. Even though John just graduated, the .edu email gives off the impression that hes still a student. Short Story Analysis! If he gets a normal email address with his name in it, hell be much better served.

The Good: It was a good idea for John to include the name of his university. Xvi Last! Believe it or not, there are applications out there that do not have a university listed when they have an education section. The Not-So-Good: John should have included the degree and short, major that he earned. For example, a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Political Science would have been the Essay on Alternative, right thing to short story write. Additionally, listing ones GPA is not necessarily a good idea. If John had earned a 4.0, then it might be alright; for Alexander Bell the most part, its best to just leave it off. Story Analysis! The Good: John listed his job title, place of on Inferiority, work, and story analysis, tenure on Rights within A Thousand by Khaled Essay examples, his resume. Its important to short story analysis have job tenure on the resume because hiring screeners wont even consider you if you dont have it.

Its the about Advancing and the Nurse's, only way to analysis gauge how much experience you actually have. The Not-So-Good: Well, to point out the obvious, John has some typos on his resume. Thats always a one-way ticket to the no pile of Essay, resumes. Short! Having typos or grammatical mistakes on your resume shows the Essay on Alternative Programs, hiring screeners that youre careless and not quite ready for the professional world. A resume is a document that illustrates your professional branding; its not some paper in college that you can turn in for a grade. Additionally, John forgot to list his internships on short, his resume. On Alternative Education! Even though they are unpaid, they show that he has experience outside of short, part-time jobs that dont really play a role in his career.

You can still include them on your resume when first starting out your job search, but internships that are relevant to your career are whats going to be most important. Including those internships will also give the Women’s within A Thousand Splendid by Khaled Hosseini examples, resume a sense of direction and focus. From this resume, its tough to figure out short what Johns interests are or what he has experience in. Essay About Role! If John includes that he had a summer internship at short analysis, a state senators office, it will help him when he applies to various staffer positions. Also, when it comes to the experience that he did list, he basically just reiterated his job duties. This doesnt really tell the hiring screener anything. While we mention that a part-time job at his familys pizzeria may not be in his long-term plans, its still considered experience that he can utilize when applying to positions if he features it correctly. Instead of writing that he handled all cashiering duties and took orders, he should write something like, Interfaced with customers over the phone and in person, utilizing well-trained customer service skills. Statements like this help show the Bell Essay, hiring screener that you gained something applicable to other jobs from the experience.

This applies to jobs at all levels. You should never just list the duties of short, your job. The Good: It was a good idea for John Smith to include that he was a part of the debate club on Essay Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography, his resume. Extracurricular activities show that you were active in college. If you excelled in them, they can really help out your application, even for your first professional job after college. Short Story Analysis! After that first job, though, extracurricular activities that you had in college wont really have a place on your resume. The Not-So-Good: John didnt really show his significance when he listed these positions.

If he was the president of about and Biography, his fraternity or the captain of the debate team, he should include that. If he didnt hold a leadership position there, he should still try to show how he really made an impact within those organizations. Instead of saying, I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events, John could state, Served as fraternity treasurer and social chair, organizing massive fundraisers and story analysis, brought in the most money to the fraternitys charity in Lambda Lambda Lambda history. In terms of the on Inferiority Essay, debate club, John could state, was ranked in the top ten debaters in the college circuit for short analysis the state of Michigan for all four years. While this is an example of a bad college resume, we understand that resume mistakes should be considered on king louis xvi last, a case-by-case basis. That being said, its never a bad idea to short story analysis read and Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay, revise your resume to story analysis make sure that you can keep up with the words, competition. Analysis! Thank you for taking the Essay about for Self-Identity: Fiction and Biography, time to read Employment BOOSTs Bad Resume Examples for College Students. We do encourage you to share this article with your colleagues, friends and business associates, they will thank you one day!

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I'm Married to a Man With Two KidsAnd Deeply, Madly in short story, Love With a Woman. Lauren Slater considered herself thoroughly heterosexual until she found herself in a swoon over a woman. The only thing left? Figuring out the sex part. I am in love with a woman. Essay About? It makes no sense; I am straightstraight as a stick, as steel, as flint. Short? My woman has gleaming black hair, a perfect nose, a shapely mouth bracketed by two deep dimples. Her name is Anna, not Aaaana , rhyming with banana, but Ahhhna , the a 's all soft and sleepya name with wind in about Nurse's, it, a name that brings to mind treetops and oceans. Story Analysis? I love that her name is the same spelled forward or backward; this palindrome suggests that despite the softness of her sound, Anna is indestructible, a solid pillar of a person.

Last year I drove to Pennsylvania with a friend. We spent the entire seven-hour ride complaining about Rights Splendid Hosseini examples, our marriages. Our husbands were not sleeping with us; their salaries were paltry; they left sinks full of dishes and short, dishes full of scrap. Somehow, the subject turned to homosexuality. You couldn't pay me to sleep with a woman, my friend said, and I nodded in agreement. I've always understood myself to be irrevocably hetero, in love with muscles and sweat, with stubble and silence, with the flat-packed chest and the visible bicep. I love nipples on men, the Graham, sudden surprise of them, those two points of short story vulnerability hidden in a furze of about Advancing Nurse's Role wiry curls. For almost all of short analysis my existence, I've spent some portion of my time daydreaming about sex, and Essay, women have never been part of it.

A gay female friend once took me to a lesbian bar, where I saw dykes with spiked hair and chains, and also wispy women who looked like you could push them over with one finger. The butch women fascinated methe ones with Navy tattoos mapping their beefy arms, their leather vests soaked in neat's-foot oil, as soft as they were hard. The bar had a dance floor, and lights swirledpink and violet rays bending and flashing over dyads of women moving in the middle. I clutched the stem of my oh-so-tame wineglass and watched a couple kissing in the cornerI felt totally out of place. I felt practically Republican. On my right hand, my engagement ring, a white moonstone set in silver, seemed to short story analysis throb, and so I slid my hand into my pocket. Someone tapped me on the back, and when I turned around I saw an attractive woman with a short cap of for Self-Identity: and Biography hair and willowy limbs.

Dance? she asked. I gulped and backed away. I backed all the story analysis, way to the door and then opened it, fleeing into the street, into Essay about Advancing and the Nurse's Role, the cold and clean winter air. Given my hetero history, how is it that I am nowmarried and with two childrenin love with a woman? Let me tell you what I mean when I use the phrase in love. I want to live with this woman. I want to short fall asleep next to Two Lectures her. I want to build a house of story analysis beams and wide windows, surrounded by fenced fields in which our horses will graze away their days. I want to kiss this woman, and I have, placing my lips squarely on hers and Technology and the Role, giving not one kiss but a series of kisses that involved taking her luscious lip between my two teeth and biting down just to the point of pain.

I have let my hands wander over the tendons in her neck, feeling how hard they are, how splayed. I have cupped the back of her head and felt her heat. I have whispered her name. I don't really think I enjoy sex with Anna because she lacks a penis. I enjoy it because it's a full-bodied, sensual experience of nuance and complexity. Sex with her is unlike anything I've ever experienced. Short Story? Given my age, given that my hormones don't soar as high as they did in king, my twenties and thirties, I'm a little surprised I can have sex at all.

I have not had sex with my husband in some time; our children keep us bound. Analysis? He knows about my relationship and seems not to much care. As long as you're not with a man, he said, it's fine with me. Essay About Amy Tan’s For Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction And Biography? Wounding words that sent me straight back to analysis my love, to my Ahhhna. As I was saying, sex with her is entirely different than sex I've had with a man. Essay About For Self-Identity: Intertwining And Biography? How to explain? Where to short story analysis begin? For starters, I like that with a woman you don't have intercourse. Graham Bell? Perhaps that's because I sometimes found it slightly painful, but I don't really think I enjoy sex with Anna because she lacks a penis.

I enjoy it because it's a full-bodied, sensual experience of nuance and complexity. Here we areon a Sunday, let's sayat a bed-and-breakfast in Vermont. We are on short analysis, a soft, slipcovered couch, lying side by side. There is a wineglass but no wine. The water is sparkling, full of king louis fizz, tangy on the tongue, delicious.

The cheese is wrapped in red wax, its flesh a creamy white; there are rounds of story analysis French bread scattered on king xvi last, a tray. We have come here to be alone. Story? We've known each other five months, maybe six. We lie together on the couch and speak effortlessly of Alexander Bell Essay total trivia. With intellectual proclivities both, we wonder exactly what a neurotransmitter is. We talk about Moonshine, her horse, and analysis, Napollo, mine.

I tell her I don't like snakes, and she asks me if I like geckos. We go on this way for hours. Then she takes my hand or I take hers, no matter. Advancing And The Nurse's Role? She nuzzles in the niche of my neck. I untangle my hand from hers and, one by one, bend each finger at its perfect waist. I study her nails, which gleam like the interior of an oyster shell. Analysis? I slide my thumb up and down slowly between her fingers. I circle her knuckles, turning her hand over and over and always going back to the long, slow stroke, which is, of course, physical and metaphorical, alluding to something more. Then it is my turn, if we are even taking turns, which we're not. But she has my hand and is stroking me into submission, into, well, acceptance: that I am here; that I, a married, heterosexual mother of an 11-year-old boy and about Advancing and the, a 16-year-old girlthat I am aroused by the feeling and the metaphor, by this languid seduction in short, which no part of the body is neutral.

Sex with a man is Graham Essay not like this. I shouldn't say that, I suppose, given that there are billions of men on this planet, and I've only had sex with four or five of them. So let me rephrase. In my limited experience, sex with men has never involved metaphor, and the suggestion has been limited to only first flirtations. No man has ever made love to short story my hand. Anna wants to make a dress of glass. She has an engineering degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is starting a company to create an Alexander Bell app that allows users to story simultaneously search for directions, cost, and time for all types of transportationfrom public transit to car-sharing to cyclingwith the aim of reducing traffic. She has read almost all the classics and Essay, does extremely high-level math. At MIT, Anna worked with a team that constructed carsin particular, a solar-powered car that they raced across Australia.

She knows how to shoot a gun. She is an expert fencer. Story Analysis? She is in training for an international pentathlon and is a nationally recognized dressage champion. Anna also owns three sewing machines and can whip up a pleated skirt, a silk vest, a velvet shawl of royal blue fringed with tassels of black. Her spools of thread are lined up along her windows: magenta, purple, gold. About Amy Tan’s? A glass dress, she says, her eyes alight. Can you imagine it?

I nod, because I can. In her art studio in her house, she holds the glass cutter in analysis, her hand and leans over a transparent sheet, cutting out two small squares and then placing copper foil between them before putting them in the kiln to fuse. Anna has, so far, made about 15 three-by-three-inch copper-and-glass squares, which she links together by drilling two tiny holes in xvi last words, each square and attaching them together with miniature gold hoops. The glass scales drape over my arm, cool and clanking, soon to be the short story analysis, bodice; this dress, slipped over the head and waterfalling over the body. Anna lives just 15 minutes from my house, in an antique abode with pegged-pine floors and soaring ceilings, her bedroom filled with the fragrance of jasmine from an Essay Education actual jasmine plant, which is, the story analysis, first time I see it, in extravagant bloom. Essay Advancing And The Role? Her huge garden is in the back of the story, house, and we wander through it just as summer starts, filling our baskets; and then, back inside, she slices a starfruit, a melon, a vibrant red pepper, placing them on king louis xvi last, a white plate in a circular arrangement. She is not a professional cook or a professional gardener or a professional glassmaker, but everything Anna does, she does with ardor and competence, the combination producing an amazing bounty. I know as the short story analysis, relationship ages, she'll hurt me and I'll hurt her, but I also believe we contain the Essay about Advancing Technology, salves with which to tend to the broken bits, the injured parts. The pan heated now, Anna lays a pale fillet of fish in the skillet and sears it, a sudden flame jumping up, while I sit at short story analysis, the counter and watch her work, her hands shredding rumpled leaves of Graham Essay spinach, dicing an heirloom tomato.

We eat the food she has cooked meand I realize with each forkful that it has been a long, long time since anyone has cooked for me, and no one has ever cooked for me with such panache, such freshness, the garden coming into short analysis, the kitchen. At home with my husband, he sometimes cooks, but the meals are from the freezer, the Amy Tan’s Search Fiction, fish breaded and processed, the beans swimming in butter. Of course, my husband and I have been married for close to 27 years, and time puts a tarnish on short, everything; even on Anna it will, I know. We are in the first blush, the beautiful beginning, and even at this early stage I catch glimmers of her sharp shards: a harsh word, a fleck of Essay about Amy Tan’s Search Fiction frustration. Can I just do this by myself? she once said to me, leaning over a leek, irritated, irritable. I stepped back, wincing: Go right ahead. Story Analysis? I know as the relationship ages, she'll hurt me and I'll hurt her, but I also believe we contain the salves with which to tend to Women’s Rights Splendid Hosseini examples the broken bits, the injured parts. But I'm getting ahead of myself. The truth is, before Anna I'd gone for four or five years without the touch of an story adult, and my skin responded by seeming to Essay about Advancing Technology Nurse's Role sheet off in flakes.

Standing under the short story analysis, pounding shower, I'd rub the tops of Women’s Rights Splendid Suns by Khaled Essay examples my knees, my elbows, and story, skin would flake from about Role my fingers, clog the drain. I dreamt one day that I unzipped my skin the way one unzips a fancy dress, carefully, stepping out of it as it slumped around my ankles, my body held together only by filaments of nerves that served as string. When I awoke, I drank a cup of coffee and then went to the computer. Short Analysis? I went on Essay Education, a dating site called OkCupid. I hadn't yet met Anna, so naturally I checked out the men. I saw one or two who appeared interesting but, well, I was married. I shut my laptop. My husband hired Anna to tutor our daughter in science, which she does to pay the bills while she tries to get her start-up started. Anna and I discovered right away that we both loved horses, so soon enough we were riding together. Short Story Analysis? She told me early on that she was gay, but I didn't think much of it, having had many gay friends.

Then I saw her garden and her glass dress in Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay, the making and her extravagant jasmine. Then she told me about the short, company she was building and king louis xvi last words, the house she wanted to one day construct, a house with a stream running through it, a house that had fruit trees growing in its center, and I began to imagine my way into her imaginings, thinking, I can see myself there. And once I could see myself in story, Anna's dreams, it was like we'd turned a corner. No longer able to envision a future with my husband, I'd been living for some time with mist in the distance, but with Anna, the distance seemed to glitter. Her dreams were huge. She dreamt of growing gardens all over the world. She has twice traveled to Women’s Suns by Khaled Essay India, once to manufacture cars and short analysis, once for Essay, curiosity, bringing back with her exotic textiles that were somehow comforting to short me. I sat on her bed one evening, and she brought them out, textiles folded and then unfolded, a rich red silk bordered with gold, bolts of it. Curtains, I said.

I can see these as curtains. My heart, for some reason, began to beat faster, my breath rose in my throat. I can, too, Anna said. Wouldn't it be something, to make a house with you? I said. Something, she replied. It would be something.

Nothing happened that night, but I was aroused. I don't mean sexually. My whole body was beating like the North Star that we could see outside the window. Like a beacon the star beamed, and when I went home and got out of my car, moths flew to Essay about Technology Nurse's Role me the way they're drawn to light, which I was. I went inside. My husband was sleeping in his study. Upstairs in the master bedroom, which I'd come to occupy by myself, I slowly took off my clothes.

I pictured taking off my clothes for Anna. Because I'm fat, and because I have had a bilateral mastectomy, I knew I would never actually do that, but I thought about it nevertheless. Short Analysis? I imagined us in her dream house, by an interior stream, kissing. A woman! A woman?

A woman. I wrote woman on a piece of paper and then crossed out the w and the o so the word became man . Just two little letters separated the sexes; surely I could bridge that gap. Every embryo begins its life as basically female, and it's not until at least the seventh week of Graham Essay pregnancy that the fetus asserts its sex, setting into short story analysis, motion the development of a penis or a clitoris. I don't like the word penis , and I'm not so sure about clitoris or vagina either, but the actual penis I like well enough, whereas the actual vagina frightens me, the mound hiding an Essay Nurse's incredibly complex body part. These are not the feelings of a lesbian, or even a flexible bisexual. Given them, how could I have sex with Anna? And yet as I discovered more and more about her, as day after day, week after week, I met this amazing woman who wanted to cook for me and short story analysis, care for me and for whom I, in turn, could cook and king xvi last, care for, I found myself falling in love, and not just in story, friendship love but in Two Lectures, sexual love, Anna's presence filling my body with spark.

For weeks I went back and forth in my mind. I had a nightmareI forgot its contents, but it involved sleeping with a womanand I realized, upon awakening, that no, I could not sleep with Anna. But then a day would go by in which we did not speak, and I'd find myself pining for her and, when I saw her again, wanting nothing more than that. And then one night I had a fight with my husband. The fight was nothing new. He said something snarky to me, and I responded in short story analysis, kind.

I switched on the outside lights and Essay on Alternative Programs, stormed out short analysis of the house and down to our barn, where I hung out with my horses past midnight. I nuzzled Halo in her neck and felt Flame's hot breath on my face. I took Flame from Graham Bell Essay her stall and curried her coat until it gleamed like a wet chestnut. I put her back in her stall, said good night to my horses, and short story, left the barn. Ahead of me the house was sunk in darkness. My husband had shut off all the lights, even though I was outside. Advancing Technology? I made my way slowly through the story analysis, thick blackness, slid open the door, and Programs, flicked on the kitchen light so the room leapt to life: a half-eaten orange on a plate on short story analysis, the counter, the rough rind of the skin in scraps around it. The orange, its lantern color, its vitality, the way it was open like thatit all reminded me of Anna. Standing in Essay Search Intertwining and Biography, my house, I realized that I wished I were standing in hers.

I turned on my computer and short, wrote her an e-mail, and at the end I said, Good night, loved one. And then we were together. She's certainly smart enough for you, my friend Jen said when I confided my affair. Smarter than me, by far. Louis Xvi Last? The first time we had sex, we lay for hours on that couch in Vermont playing with each other's hands, and story analysis, then slowly, so slowly, that gave way to kissing, and xvi last, I kissed her first. I refused to take off my clothes because of my weight, but she pulled off hers with abandon, yanking her shirt over her head, her bra black, unsnapped, revealing two mounds tipped with pale pink, which I touched gingerly. Anna slid off her shorts, and a night went by, the window in our room wide open, the cool spring air pouring in, the comforter stuffed with feathers, the story, muscles in her thigh defined, my fingers finding them, and more. I let her touch me, too, beneath the Women’s within A Thousand Essay, sheath of my clothes, but what I really remember is touching herher body a brand-new continent, even though it shouldn't have been because it was in some sense identical to my own. Short Story? But how strange, how odd, how confusing, trying to navigate the huge open space of the female form, of this female form with its history and pains and likes and dislikes, and Essay Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining, not knowing any of it, really, and trying to short analysis find my way. In the midst of Alexander Bell it all, I suddenly remembered my nightmare, its ugly contents: I'd been with a woman and felt disgusted by the prospect of oral sex with her, of any kind of short sex; it had seemed revolting.

And now here I was, just weeks later, with a woman in an enormous bed, and nothing was disgusting, which surprised me. After all, are not dreams the Essay about Advancing Technology, royal road to the unconscious? And is not the unconscious the truest, most authentic expression of self? Apparently no and no, in analysis, my case. I like sex with a woman, but I also remain ambivalent about it, although that has nothing to Graham Bell Essay do with Anna, whom I love without reservation. Evolution is godlike to me, and I can't help but think that my body is designed for a man: the interior pathway built for the sperm to race up toward the egg. If so, then am I somehow using my body in a way that goes against short story analysis, natureas retrograde and bigoted as that sounds? Seeking to Women’s Rights within A Thousand Hosseini examples reassure myself, I type homosexuality in story analysis, the animal kingdom into Google, and I find articles in Nature and on Inferiority, Science about same-sex relationships that occur between all kinds of animals, from bonobos to giraffes to fighter fish to birds. In fact, currently in short analysis, a German zoo there exist a pair of homosexual male penguins. In an attempt to convert them, the Alexander Graham Essay, zoo warden separated the couple and placed a Swedish female bird with each. But neither boy was interested in short, the girl, and the protest from the German gay community grew so loud that eventually the warden reunited the lovers, who frolicked once more.

Prairie voles do it. Primates of all variety do it. Therefore, I should have no doubt, no hesitation. I thought I was a freethinker, open to anything, and I am, I am, but I am also not. I'm willing to go outside my heterosexual box, but I do so on tiptoes, glancing backward. About? I take my children to the Public Garden in Boston to short celebrate spring, and everywhere there are heterosexual couples holding hands, not to mention the swans on Essay about Technology Role, the pond, regal and ivory with flaming orange beaks. One especially large swan waddles across the short analysis, grass with seven babies following her, and in Alexander Graham Essay, the green rushes by the river we find a nesta nest!and inside it a clutch of eggs I tell my children not to touch.

The eggs and the ivory swans and story analysis, even the Bell, smell of spring itself all seem to suggest to analysis me that heterosexual sex is what makes the world go round, gay penguins or not. On Inferiority Essay? There is now a heaviness in my limbs. I want to go home and short, slip between my sheets, to be alone with my body and its wayward wants. I know for louis xvi last words, a fact that were I to call Anna, she would come over and comfort me, whereas my husband would not. Story Analysis? She would not judge.

She would put her hand on my head. She would make me soup from chives and coconut milk. Surely this sort of kindness cannot be badher ability to nurture so natural itself. I take my children home, but the image of the eggs stays with me. Bell? Dusk comes with a chill. I sit in a rocker with a blue shawl over my shoulders. The house is deeply quiet, the silence amplifying the sound of the kitchen clock as it ticktocks through time. I could spend my life in short, a dead marriage to Rights Splendid Suns by Khaled examples a man I still somehow love, a man in whom, buried beneath dreck and dross, I can still discern the analysis, qualities that drew me to him: the humor, for Alexander Graham Essay, instance, his elfin ways, his capacity for kindness, none of it accessible to short me but nonetheless visible like a ghost moving in a world out of my reach. I read somewhere that most marriages survive until the offspring reach age seven, at which point the children no longer necessarily need the Women’s A Thousand Suns Hosseini Essay examples, attention of two parents. Evolution, always seeking to protect the progeny, has apparently wired us to remain wed for almost a decade. Were Anna an Aaron I would be just as attracted.

What counts for short, me, apparently, isn't the gender of my partner but the ineffable essence. As I rock, a deer leaps out Essay on Alternative Programs of the woods and across the lawn, and then it's gone. The clock talks. Short Story Analysis? I've been alive one half of a century, and my lifetime is dwindling down. I don't want my days to Amy Tan’s for Self-Identity: be dry. I am seeking companionship, love, and the object of my affections just happens to story be female. I am not attracted to Anna because she is female. I am attracted to Anna because she is about Technology and the Nurse's Role Anna. Were Anna an Aaron I would be just as attracted. What counts for me, apparently, isn't the gender of my partner but the ineffable essence. As for the evolutionary imperatives, if I'm cared for analysis, myself, does that not give me more strength to care for my children?

I've noticed that since my affair with Anna began, my husband and I are fighting less, and king louis words, thus a certain toxic tension has been lifted from the household. I've heard that this is common, that affairs can improve primary relationships. Because the straying party tries harder out of short guilt? Because she just doesn't care anymore? For me, maybe it's that I'm better able to louis xvi last withstand what I have now because I know that change is just around the corner. I'm fairly certain that I will leave my husband, and analysis, I hope, eventually, that he and I will remain friends who together parent our best beloveds. In the meantime, I rediscover a playfulness.

The day after we visit the about Amy Tan’s for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction, garden, I take my daughter shopping and insist she try on sundresses with skinny straps, patterned with bursting flowersclothes of analysis color and character that she ultimately rejects, but still. About For Self-Identity: Fiction And Biography? We have fun in that store. I hug my son hard, riffle my fingers through his sandy blond hair. Evolutionary biologists admit that homosexuality has them stumped. Gay sex doesn't yield children, so why hasn't it been selected out of the story analysis, population? That homosexuality has endured and is found in a wide range of species across the globe suggests that same-sex pairings must play a role in king xvi last words, the roll of generations. There is one study suggesting that people who are relatively open to same-sex erotic behaviorand who are thus assumed to be more likely to engage in story, ithave higher levels of progesterone, a hormone related to bonding and about Advancing and the Nurse's, caretaking. Analysis? Could it be that gay people are particularly good at nurturing children, and Alexander Graham, that trait has helped them survive the Darwinian elimination game? Another study, involving Samoan islanders, seemed to back up this so-called kin-selection theory: Researchers found that gay Samoan men were more involved with their nieces and nephews than were their heterosexual counterparts of both sexes. Much of this is short story speculation, of course, and that I need to Essay investigate the evolutionary advantages of homosexuality unnerves me. When my husband and short analysis, I wed, we had my close lesbian friend lead the ceremony.

We acknowledged out loud that our marriage was privileged and that there were millions of same-sex couples who could not enjoy the benefits of a heterosexual union. Which is to say I've always seen myself as utterly accepting of homosexuality, but my relationship with Anna has revealed a corner of homophobia inside me. King Xvi Last Words? And while sex with Anna has shown me a whole new world of pleasurable possibilities, I still can't bring myself to try oral sex, though I will say that my objections to it were initially knee-jerk, whereas now I'm just cowardly. What began as an aversion has softened to a crisis of confidence, a severe shyness. Last weekend Anna and I went to Martha's Vineyard. Short Story? We stayed in king louis words, the house of one of her friends, who loaned it to us for a weekend getaway. If you stood in the heart of the house and listened hard, you could hear the murmur of the sea over story analysis the hill and down a steep slope of wild grasses. Everywhere in this house were ocean-worn rockssmooth, silky stones that the owner, an exquisite artist and sculptor, had drawn on with colored wax pencils, transforming a plain and plebeian object into something of artistic beauty.

There were stones of angels and stones of the sun; there were stones of waterfalls and of tigers pacing through thick fields. There were tiny stones with tiny drawings on louis, them and stones too big to hold in your hand. Analysis? Next to the painted stones was a wire basket holding newly found ones, and I took one in my hand. It was large and almost hard to Search for Self-Identity: and Biography hold. It felt like it had been tongued by the sea for a million years, worn with the palest pattern on it: scales, maybe, or the fossilized imprint of a crawling crab. Everyone who visits here has to draw on short story analysis, a stone, Anna told me. I've never been able to draw, and I balked at my assignment. You have to do it, Anna said. She loaned us her house. Essay Amy Tan’s For Self-Identity:? We owe her the present.

I pressed my cheek to the smooth side of the rock I was holding, a solid pillow. Story Analysis? I tentatively picked up a pencil, and, without any more thought, plunged into the tasksurprised by the lush lines of color, by the feeling of drawing on a three-dimensional surface, which is not at Essay on Alternative Education Programs, all like drawing on paper. There are curves you must navigate, rounded spots and edges that give way to other sides. Short? Suddenly the stone seemed infinite, and about Amy Tan’s and Biography, I wondered how old it really was and if maybe it had once been part of a meteorite: a stone from short space above space, from a black hole, from dark matter, from an astral galaxy we had yet to detect with even the largest of lenses. A feeling of sacredness came over me, of being sucked back into about for Self-Identity: Fiction and Biography, the tunnel of time. I was young again, a tiny child without reservation or consternation; I was free. Short? Everywhere around me was grass and wind. I had no doubts and was all impulse, the spark from Essay about Technology Nurse's Role one neuron to another.

I picked up a pencil with a deep-rose tip and short, made my circle, shapes suddenly easy to create, the neck and shoulders, the Essay about Amy Tan’s Fiction and Biography, bare breasts, the short story analysis, torso twisted just a little, and the legs, one lifted up high and one set solidly on the green ground. I made an image of a naked woman that actually looked to me something like a naked woman (although later, when I showed my stone to Amy Tan’s for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction Anna, she thought I'd drawn a giraffe); my woman was stepping on stone, stepping through stone, doing the impossible, coming through solid sediment with what seemed to me to be enormous power and pulse. My own pulse quickened; I could feel its rhythm in my temple and my wrists. Short Story? I gave my woman veins and a ruby heart. I gave her hands and hair.

And when I was done, I had a drawing that, even in its resemblance to Essay Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: a giraffe, was still well beyond my abilities, that came from some place inside me I could not name. I wondered how many rooms there were inside me that I'd yet to story analysis explore, how many doors still clicked closed, how many palindromes, how many people, how many worlds, and whether they would all be as beautiful as the Essay about Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: Fiction and Biography, stone in the sky we call earth: this planet holding oceans and short story analysis, fields and so many human hearts, each with two billion beats in a lifetime. Alexander Bell? That's what we get, two billion beats, not much more and sometimes much less. All humans, our hearts hammering on until one day they stop, and the body gets buried, and we go back to being atoms with their spinning centers, microscopic flecks of enormous energy and light, as though packed with all of our lifetime loveits curves and short analysis, caresses, its sudden surprises, its real revelations, its long-gone losses, its mourning melodies, its coconut-soup comfortall of it happening in two billion beats of the human heart turning on king, our stone in story, the sky. This article originally appears in the November 2015 issue of Essay about Advancing Nurse's ELLE.

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The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) Concerning little animals Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous letter on the protozoa, gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in short story analysis, a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of Women’s within Hosseini, a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 m. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of short, his little animalcules', which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. In these reflections on Essay Advancing Technology Role the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoek's ideas and short analysis, observations, I equate his questions with the Alexander Essay preoccupations of our genomic era: what is the nature of Leeuwenhoek's animalcules, where do they come from, how do they relate to each other? Even with the powerful tools of analysis, modern biology, the king xvi last answers are far from short analysis resolvedthese questions still challenge our understanding of louis xvi last words, microbial evolution. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . My work, which I've done for a long time, was not pursued in order to gain the short story praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from Role a craving after knowledge, which I notice resides in me more than most other men. Leeuwenhoek, Letter of story analysis, 12 June 1716. Leeuwenhoek is universally acknowledged as the father of microbiology.

He discovered both protists and bacteria [1]. More than being the Rights Splendid by Khaled first to see this unimagined world of animalcules', he was the first even to think of short story analysis, lookingcertainly, the first with the power to see. Using his own deceptively simple, single-lensed microscopes, he did not merely observe, but conducted ingenious experiments, exploring and manipulating his microscopic universe with a curiosity that belied his lack of Nurse's, a map or bearings. Short. Leeuwenhoek (figure 1) was a pioneer, a scientist of the highest calibre, yet his reputation suffered at the hands of those who envied his fame or scorned his unschooled origins, as well as through his own mistrustful secrecy of his methods, which opened a world that others could not comprehend. The verification of on Alternative Education Programs, this new world by short, the natural philosophers of the nascent Royal Society laid out the ground rules that still delineate science today, but the freshness and wonder, the sheer thrill of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries, transmit directly down the centuries to on Inferiority, biologists today.

Microbiologists and phylogeneticists continue to argue about the nature of analysis, Leeuwenhoek's little animals, if in more elaborate terms. Only now are we beginning to find answersand surprisingly uncertain answersto the questions that drove Leeuwenhoek: where did this multitude of Advancing and the Nurse's Role, tiny animals' come from, why such variety in size and behaviour; how to distinguish and short story, classify them? Portrait of Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje, 1686, at Essay Advancing, age 54. Short Story. Copyright The Royal Society. Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper [1] was not his first contribution to Philosophical Transactions , nor was it his first mention of little animals living in water. The paper was translated (English'd) from low Dutch, and Two Lectures, excerpted to half its original length by the redoubtable Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society and founding editor of short story analysis, Philosophical Transactions . Oldenburg corresponded so widely across Europe that he was imprisoned in the Tower for suspected espionage in 1667, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War (when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was renamed New York). Oldenburg later adopted a pseudonym, the anagram Grubendol, to avert suspicion (it would arouse mine).

Among his regular Dutch correspondents were the surgeon Regnerus de Graaf and statesman Constantijn Huygens, father of famed astronomer Christiaan Huygens, both of whom wrote epistles to Oldenburg introducing the exceedingly curious and industrious' Leeuwenhoek, Huygens adding the helpful note or Leawenhook, according to your orthographie [2]. That was in Education, 1673; by 1677, Leeuwenhoek was well known to the Royal Society, but by short analysis, no means were his reports accepted on trust. Oldenburg published several of Leeuwenhoek's letters in 1673 and 1674, which dealt with interesting but uncontentious matters, such as the structure of the bee sting. Equivalent microscopic structures of objects visible to the naked eye had been illuminated by Robert Hooke in Essay Advancing Technology and the, his Micrographia nearly a decade earlier; indeed, it is to Hooke that we owe the word cell, which he used to denote the boxy spaces (reminiscent of the small rooms in a monastery) that make up the short structure of Alexander Graham Essay, cork [3]. From some of Leeuwenhoek's slightly waspish remarks in his early letters, he had almost certainly seen a copy of Micrographia on his visit to London in 1667 or 1668, when the book was practically a fashion accessory (the most ingenious book I read in all my life, wrote Pepys, who stayed up all night with it; Pepys reputedly stayed up all night often, though rarely with a book).

Leeuwenhoek first courted controversy in a letter of September 1674. Describing a nearby lake, Berkelse Mere, he noted that its water was very clear in short story, winter but at the beginning or middle of summer it becomes whitish, and there are then little green clouds floating in it [4]. Xvi Last. These clouds contained wispy green streaks, spirally wound serpent-wise, and orderly arrangedthe beautiful green alga Spirogyra . Then came Leeuwenhoek's first mention of little animals: among these streaks there were besides very many little animalcules And the motion of short story analysis, most of these animalcules in the water was so swift, and so various upwards, downwards and round about xvi last, that twas wonderful to see: and short analysis, I judged that some of these little creatures were above a thousand times smaller than the smallest ones I have ever yet seen upon the rind of cheese (by which he meant mites) [4]. Until this point, Oldenburg had published almost all of Leeuwenhoek's letters (including this one) within a few months of receipt. Now, he drew pause. Of the Women’s Rights A Thousand Splendid Essay examples next 12 letters sent by Leeuwenhoek, only three were published, and none that touched on animalcules. Short Analysis. Oldenburg had every reason to be suspicious; as Leeuwenhoek wrote to Hooke a few years later I suffer many contradictions and oft-times hear it said that I do but tell fairy tales about the little animals' [5]. Essay Advancing Nurse's. This invisible world was teeming with as much varied life as a rainforest or a coral reef, and yet could be seen by none but Leeuwenhoek. No wonder Oldenburg and his colleagues had doubts. Set against this background, Leeuwenhoek wrote his eighteenth letter to the Royal Society, dated October 1676, the celebrated letter on the protozoa, which Oldenburg excerpted, translated and published as the 1677 paper.

It opens with a bang: In 1675 I discovered living creatures in story analysis, Rain water which had stood but few days in a new earthen pot, glased blew [i.e. painted blue] within. This invited me to view this water with great attention, especially those little animals appearing to me ten thousand times less than those represented by Mons. Swamerdam and called by him Water fleas or Water-lice , which may be perceived in Rights Splendid by Khaled Essay, the water with the naked eye [1]. Clifford Dobell, in his delightful biography published in 1932 (300 years after Leeuwenhoek's birth), notes that Oldenburg's translation is good but not perfect [6]. Story Analysis. That's not surprising. While Oldenburg knew the language, he had no knowledge of the organisms themselves. In contrast, Dobell was a distinguished microbiologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and had the Essay about Advancing and the Nurse's Role great benefit of hindsight. His biography was a labour of love, written over story analysis 25 years, frequently in king louis xvi last, the middle of the night, while carrying out his own research on intestinal protozoa and other protists.

Dobell taught himself Dutch and translated Leeuwenhoek's letters painstakinglywritten, as they were, in a colloquial Dutch no longer in use, and in the beautiful but scarcely legible hand of short, a copyist (figure 2). Essay. Dobell revelled in the precise beauty of Leeuwenhoek's descriptions of short analysis, Euglena , Vorticella and many other protists and bacteria, which leapt off the page, immediately recognizable to this expert kindred spirit. Some 250 years earlier, Oldenburg had none of these advantages in contemplating Leeuwenhoek's lettershis translation is an Education Programs, extraordinary monument to the open-minded scepticism of science. First and last pages of short, Leeuwenhoek's 1676 letter to Oldenburg, in Essay on Alternative Programs, the hand of a copyist. Copyright The Royal Society. I sketch this background because the paper itself is unusual even in Leeuwenhoek's oeuvre, taking the form of a diary.

On a cursory reading, it seems almost embarrassingly naive to the modern earthe earthen pot glased blew within in the first sentence is a good example (but see [7] for a discussion of Dutch prose style in the seventeenth century). Short. We learn that on the 17th of this month of June it rained very hard; and I catched some of that rain water in on Alternative Education Programs, a new Porcelain dish, which had never been used before, but found no living creatures at short, all in it [1]. Alexander Essay. On it goes, with precise but apparently irrelevant details. In the open Court of my house I have a well, which is about 15 foot deep, before one comes to the water. It is encompassed with high walls, so that the Sun, though in Cancer, yet can hardly shine much upon it. This water comes out of the ground, which is sandy, with such a power, that when I have laboured to empty the well, I could not so do it but there remained ever a foots depth of water in it. Short Story Analysis. This water is in Summer time so cold, that you cannot possibly endure your hand in it for any reasonable time [1]. And my favourite: July 27 1676. I went to the sea-side, at Schlevelingen, the wind coming from the Sea with a very warm Sun-shine; and Essay, viewing some of the Sea-water very attentively, I discovered divers living animals therein. I gave to short, a man, that went into the Sea to wash himself, a new glass-bottle, bought on Essay purpose for that end, intreating him, that being on short the Sea, he would first wash it well twice, or thrice, and king words, then fill it full of the Sea-water; which desire of mine having been complied with, I tyed the bottle close with a clean bladder [1].

On a first reading, then, Leeuwenhoek might come across as a simpleton; and he has too often been dismissed as such. One can only smile at analysis, the image of Leeuwenhoek on the beach, pressing his pre-prepared bottles onto strangers. But which details are important? How should he have charted this abundant new world? We need to appreciate several points. This letter was intended to defend his discoveriesmerely so as to make my observations more credible in Essay about Advancing Technology and the Role, England and short story analysis, elsewhere [8]. Alexander Graham Bell. Leeuwenhoek typically wrote with publication in mind (and later published his own works privately whenever the Royal Society declined to do so), but here he preferred to clarify exactly what he had done, doubtless anticipating that Oldenburg would eliminate superfluous details.

In this, he would defer to the judgement of educated men, being careful, as was the custom of the times, to denigrate his own learning. But characteristically, he would defer only on his own terms, and his self-portrait is in fact remarkably objective. I have oft-times been besought, by short, divers gentlemen, to Women’s Rights within by Khaled Hosseini examples, set down on paper what I have beheld through my newly invented Microscopia : but I have generally declined; first, because I have no style, or pen, wherewith to express my thoughts properly; second, because I have not been brought up to languages or arts, but only to business; and in the third place, because I do not gladly suffer contradiction or censure from others' [9]. Short Story. All those who have raged at Two Lectures Essay, the obtuse comments of Reviewer 3 will sympathize with this last point; but like Leeuwenhoek, suffer it we do. In his letter of 1676, then, Leeuwenhoek set out a detailed context for his observations. Dobell notes that Leeuwenhoek was manifestly a man of great and singular candour, honesty and sincerity. He was religiously plain and short story, straightforward in all he did, and therefore sometimes almost immodestly frank in describing his observations.

It never occurred to him that Truth could appear indecent [10]. On a closer reading, the colloquial manner of Leeuwenhoek's letter conceals the Advancing Technology and the Nurse's workings of his precise and methodical mind. Leeuwenhoek was acutely aware of contamination; he replenished evaporated water with snow-water, the purest then available, making every effort not to short story, introduce little animals from any other source. On Alternative Education Programs. He sampled water from many different sourceshis well, the short analysis sea, rain water, drain pipes, lakesalways taking care to clean his receptacles. About And The Role. In a later letter, he mentions that he even examined water that had been distilled or boiled [11]. In each case, he describes different populations of animalcules over time. Time is analysis critical. Frequently, he observes nothing for a week, checking each day, before reporting a profusion of little animals of Essay Education, diverse types, replicating themselves over short story analysis several days before dying back again. The time, dates, sources, weather, all these were important variables for Leeuwenhoek, which he charts carefully.

He was resolutely opposed to the idea of spontaneous generation, nearly 200 years before Pasteur finally resolved the matter with his swan-necked flasks. Leeuwenhoek later described the procreation of cells via copulation or schism to release daughter cells in arresting detail. Essay Search For Self-Identity: Intertwining And Biography. But his early disbelief of spontaneous generation is implicit in the comparisons of his 1677 paper, in short, his care to avoid contamination, and his estimation of rates of growth. Leeuwenhoek also reports experiments, adding peppercorns to water, both crushed and uncrushed (as well as ginger, cloves, nutmeg and vinegar, omitted from Oldenburg's excerpts for Philosophical Transactions ). In these infusions, Leeuwenhoek observed an astonishing proliferation of Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography, tiny animals incredibly small; nay, so small, in my sight, that I judged that even if 100 of analysis, these very wee animals lay stretched out about Technology and the Nurse's one against another, they could not reach the length of a grain of story, course sand; and Graham Bell, if this be true, then ten hundred thousand of these living creatures could scarce equal the bulk of a course grain of sand [1]. Short Story. Again, the colloquial language deceives. In a clarification sent to Alexander Graham Bell Essay, Constantijn Huygens and story, Hooke, Leeuwenhoek writes Let's assume that such a sand-grain is so big, that 80 of them, lying one against the other, would make up the length of one inch [12]. He goes on to calculate the number of animalcules in a cubic inch; for our purposes here, his calculation puts the Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay length of his very wee animals' at less than 3 m. Bacteria. (He later describes bacterial motility unequivocally [13]). He also notes that he deliberately underestimates the number of bacteria in a drop of short analysis, waterfor the within Splendid Essay examples reason that the number of animalcules in so small a quantity of water would else be so big, that twould not be credited: and when I stated in my letter of short story analysis, 9th October 1676, that there were upwards of 1 000 000 living creatures in about Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction and Biography, one drop of pepper-water, I might with truth have put the number at eight times as many [14].

An innocent, early example of spinning data to sell to a journal? But the natural philosophers of the Royal Society, in pioneering the methods we still use in short analysis, science today, were not easily spun. Leeuwenhoek's letter had been read aloud over several sessions and attracted great interest, verging on Essay about Amy Tan’s for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography consternation. Oldenburg wrote to Leeuwenhoek, asking him to acquaint us with his method of observing, that others may confirm such Observations as these, and to provide drawings [15]. Leeuwenhoek declined, throughout his life, to give any description of his microscopical methods (for reasons best known to himself, said Hooke; though science has hardly resolved the short analysis issue of intellectual property since then). But Leeuwenhoek did now employ a draughtsman, whose regular gasps of astonishment when shown various little animals punctuate Leeuwenhoek's later letters (Oh, that one could ever depict so wonderful a motion!).

Some of Rights A Thousand Suns by Khaled examples, these limner's drawings are shown in figure 3. Leeuwenhoek also sent eight testimonies from gentlemen of short analysis, reputea Lutheran minister, a notary and a barrister, among others. It is striking to the modern reader that none of these gentlemen were natural philosophers acquainted with the methods of science; but according to louis words, the historian Steven Shapin, it was the bond of the short gentleman that counted. The practice of signed testimonies from gentlemen was common in the seventeenth century; the fact that Leeuwenhoek called upon eight such testimonies attests to the unprecedented character of king, his findings, but also perhaps to his lower social standing [18]. ( a ) Rotifers, hydra and vorticellids associated with a duckweed root, from a Delft canal. Short. From Leeuwenhoek [16]. ( b ) Bacteria from Leeuwenhoek's mouth; the dotted line portrays movement.

From Leeuwenhoek [17]. About Technology And The. Copyright The Royal Society. No doubt all this was helpful, but it was countered by letters from story analysis others such as Christiaan Huygens (son of Constanijn), then in Essay Amy Tan’s Search Fiction and Biography, Paris, who at that time remained sceptical, as was his wont: I should greatly like to know how much credence our Mr Leeuwenhoek's observations obtain among you. He resolves everything into little globules; but for my part, after vainly trying to analysis, see some of the things which he sees, I much misdoubt me whether they be not illusions of Bell, his sight [19]. The Royal Society tasked Nehemiah Grew, the botanist, to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's work, but Grew failed; so in 1677, on succeeding Grew as Secretary, Hooke himself turned his mind back to microscopy. Hooke too initially failed, but on his third attempt to reproduce Leeuwenhoek's findings with pepper-water (and other infusions), Hooke did succeed in seeing the animalculessome of these so exceeding small that millions of short, millions might be contained in Alexander Bell, one drop of water [20] (actually far less precise than Leeuwenhoek). Short. He went on Alexander to write It seems very wonderful that there should be such an infinite number of animalls in soe imperceptible quantity of matter. Short Story Analysis. That these animalls should be soe perfectly shaped and indeed with such curious organs of motion as to be able to move nimbly, to turne, stay, accelerate and retard their progresse at pleasure. And it was not less surprising to find that these were gygantick monsters [protozoa] in comparison of a lesser sort which almost filled the Two Lectures on Inferiority water [bacteria] [21]. Unlike Leeuwenhoek, Hooke gave precise details of analysis, his microscopical methods, and demonstrated them before the gathered fellows, including Sir Christopher Wren, later publishing both his methods and observations in Microscopium (1678) [20].

He even taught himself Dutch, so that he could read the letters of the ingenious Mr Leeuwenhoek. As noted by the microscopist Brian J. Ford [22] and microbiologist Howard Gest [23], Hooke was a central and too-often overlooked figure in the history of microbiology: his earlier book Micrographia (1665) most likely inspired Leeuwenhoek to king, begin his own microscopical studies. Without Hooke's support and verificationa task beyond several of the best microscopists of the age, including GrewLeeuwenhoek might easily have been dismissed as a charlatan. Instead, through Hooke's impressive demonstrations, and with the direct support of the patron of the story analysis Royal Society, King Charles II, Leeuwenhoek was elected a Fellow in about Amy Tan’s Fiction, 1680. Others had independently changed their view of Leeuwenhoek in the interim, but that did little to alter the short analysis course of events.

Christiaan Huygens, for example, overcame his early scepticism after visiting Leeuwenhoek and seeing his animalcules. He went on Alexander to grind his own lenses, observing various protists himself [24]. Indeed, Huygens made a number of pioneering observations, but these remained in manuscript and were unpublished until the turn of the twentieth century [25]. Ironically, Hooke's admirable comments on the construction of microscopes might have undermined Leeuwenhoek's later reputation. Hooke made various types of microscope. He much preferred using larger instruments with two lenses, but in the Preface to Micrographia [26] he also described how to make simple microscopes with a single lenswhat became known as a Leeuwenhoek microscope [27]. The lens is produced by melting Venice glass into thin threads, containing little globules, which are then ground and polished, and story, mounted against a needle hole pricked through a thin plate of brass (figure 4). If an Women’s within Suns by Khaled Essay examples, Object, plac'd very near, be look'd at through it, it will both magnifie and make some objects more distinct than any of the great Microscopes. Story. But because these, though exceeding easily made, are yet very troublesome to be us'd, because of their smallness, and the nearness of the Object; therefore to prevent both of these, and yet have only king louis words two refractions, I provided me a Tube of Brass' [26]. In 1678, Hooke reiterated his dislike of single-lens microscopes: I have found the use of them offensive to my eye, and to have much strained the sight, which was the reason why I omitted to make use of them, though in truth they make the object appear much more clear and distinct, and magnifie as much as the double Microscopes: nay to those whose eyes can well endure it, tis possible with a single Microscope to make discoveries much better than with a double one, because the colours which do much disturb the clear vision in story analysis, double Microscopes is clearly avoided and prevented with the single [20]. ( a ) Replica of a single-lens microscope by Leeuwenhoek (Image by Jeroen Rouwkema. Alexander. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons). ( b,d ) Photomicrographs taken using simple single-lens microscopes including one of Leeuwenhoek's originals in Utrecht, by Brian Ford (Copyright Brian J. Ford). ( b ) An air-dried smear of Ford's own blood through the original van Leeuwenhoek microscope at Utrecht, showing red blood cells and short story analysis, a granulocyte with its lobed nucleus (upper right; about on Inferiority Essay, 2 m in diameter). ( c ) Spiral bacteria ( Spirillum volutans ) imaged through a replica microscope with a lens ground from spinel; each bacterial cell is about 20 m in length. Short Story. ( d ) The intestinal protist parasite Giardia intestinalis imaged through a replica soda-glass produced by Essay on Alternative Education Programs, Brian Ford [28,29].

It seems that Hooke's aversion to short story analysis, simple single-lens microscopes passed on king louis words down the generations, but not his appreciation of short analysis, their merits. The compound microscope, with its refractive aberrations, became the tool of choice, and Leeuwenhoek's microscopes were quietly forgotten, their oblivion hastened by Essay about Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction, Leeuwenhoek's own secrecy, notwithstanding his gift of 13 microscopes, with corresponding specimens, to the Royal Society on short story his death in 1723 at the age of 90. Leeuwenhoek had actively discouraged teaching his methods, for reasons that are troubling today in an age when education is king louis xvi last open to all. While lens grinding was linked with artisans rather than with gentlemen, hence might have been discouraged on that basis alone, Leeuwenhoek, as always, spoke plainly. In a letter to Leibnitz, he wrote To train young people to short story, grind lenses, and to Essay about Amy Tan’s Search Fiction and Biography, found a sort of school for this purpose, I can't see there'd be much use: because many students at short analysis, Leyden have already been fired by on Inferiority Essay, my discoveries and short analysis, my lens grinding But what's come of it? Nothing, as far as I know: because most students go there to make money out of science, or to get a reputation in Essay on Alternative, the learned world. But in lens grinding, and discovering things hidden from our sight, these count for nought. And I'm satisfied too that not one man in a thousand is capable of such study, because it needs much time, and spending much money; and story, you must always keep on thinking about these things, if you are to get any results.

And over Essay about Amy Tan’s and Biography and above all, most men are not curious to short story, know: nay, some even make no bones about saying: What does it matter whether we know this or not? [30]. Most scientists, I imagine, would see themselves as that one man in a thousand; it is Essay about Amy Tan’s Intertwining and Biography our task today to persuade others that it does indeed matter, not for any immediate benefit, but for the sake of curiosity and its unknowable contribution to short story, the sum of human knowledge and wellbeing. The dominant use of compound microscopes over the following centuries meant that the Advancing Technology brief blaze of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries was nearly extinguished until the great compound microscope makers of the early-nineteenth century, notably Joseph Bancks (who also produced some high-powered single-lens microscopes, used by Robert Brown in his discovery of Brownian motion and cytoplasmic streaming, and by Darwin aboard the Beagle). Analysis. In the interim, microscopy had never recaptured Leeuwenhoek's early glory, its credibility being undermined by reports of homunculi crouching in semen and other figments of the imagination. The concept of preformation was called into Essay on Alternative, serious question from the 1740s, beginning with Abraham Trembley's work on the regeneration of freshwater polyps [31]. In the 1750s, Linnaeus scarcely troubled himself with the classification of microbes; he dumped the whole lot into the phylum Vermes (worms'), genus Chaos (formless). The damaging accusation of seeing things that were not there, combined with Linnaeus's insinuated absence of structure, meant that few believed Leeuwenhoek could have seen cells as small as bacteria; even the analysis empathetic Dobell struggled to conceive what magical form of Essay about, lighting Leeuwenhoek must have employed to view his specimens.

Only the galvanizing work of Brian J. Ford, who rediscovered some of Leeuwenhoek's samples in the library of the Royal Society in 1981, resurrected the glory of the single-lens microscope [32]. Ford photographed Leeuwenhoek's original specimens using one of his surviving microscopes in Utrecht, and short story, demonstrated a remarkable resolution of less than 1 m [33] (figure 4). Essay. That left little scope for disbelief: plainly, Leeuwenhoek really did see much of what he claimed. So what is Leeuwenhoek's legacy? Most of his discoveries were forgotten, and only rediscovered in the nineteenth century, 150 years later, being then interpreted in the context of the analysis newly developing cell theory, with little reference back to Essay about Advancing Technology and the Role, Leeuwenhoek himself. Story. In this regard Leeuwenhoek's legacy is analogous to that of Gregor Mendel, likewise rediscovered at a time when others were exploring similar ideas. For Self-Identity: And Biography. Leeuwenhoek's work, of course, ranged far beyond microbiology.

In all, he sent around 200 letters to the Royal Society, 112 of which were published, touching on many aspects of biology and even mineralogy. He remains the analysis most highly published author in the journal. He is considered to be the founder of many fields, but none of on Alternative Programs, them more important than his astonishing discoveries in microbiology, and story, none conveyed with such delight. Leeuwenhoek was captivated by his animalcules. Among all the marvels that I have discovered in nature, he wrote, these are the Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: and Biography most marvellous of short story, all [34]. His exhilaration in discovery, combined with a fearless and surefooted interpretation of Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography, unknown vistas, is for me Leeuwenhoek's true legacy. It is story a spirit effervescent in many later pioneers of Essay on Alternative Education Programs, microbiology, indeed in science more generally. And many of the problems that beset Leeuwenhoek troubled them too. Take the ultrastructure of cells, especially protists. Leeuwenhoek could clearly see little feet (cilia) and also the budding offspring of short story analysis, cells, but he saw much more than that. I'm struck by this passage in on Inferiority Essay, the 1677 paper, describing an short story, egg-shaped animalcule (which Dobell tentatively identified as the ciliate Colpidium colpoda [35]): Their body did consist, within, of 10, 12, or 14 globuls, which lay separate from each other. Rights A Thousand Suns By Khaled. When I put these animalcula in analysis, a dry place, they then changed their body into a perfect round, and often burst asunder, the globuls, together with some aqueous particles, spred themselves every where about, without my being able to discern any other remains.

These globuls, which in the bursting of these creatures did flow asunder here and there, were about the bigness of the first very small creatures [bacteria]. And though as yet I could not discern any small feet in them, yet me thought, they must needs be furnished with very many [1]. While the Two Lectures globuls' in C. colpoda were probably mostly food vacuoles, as well as the short analysis macronucleus, Leeuwenhoek's comparison with bacteria leaves open the tantalizing possibility that he had even seen organelles such as mitochondria, which with a diameter of 0.51 m would have pushed his microscopical resolution to the limits. Essay About Amy Tan’s For Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction And Biography. Some 250 years later, this equivalence between intracellular globuls' and free-living bacteria was pursued by the early-twentieth century pioneers of endosymbiotic theory, notably the Russian Konstantin Mereschkowski, Frenchman Paul Portier and analysis, American Ivan Wallin, the latter pair independently going so far as to argue that mitochondria could be cultivated [36]. The idea of Graham, symbiogenesis' was famously ridiculed by the American cell biologist E.B. Wilson, who summed up the short analysis prevailing attitude: To many, no doubt, such speculations may appear too fantastic for present mention in polite biological society; nevertheless, it is within the range of possibility that they may some day call for serious consideration [37]. Another half-century was to elapse before Lynn Margulis and others demonstrated that mitochondria and Essay Search Fiction, chloroplasts do indeed derive from bacterial endosymbionts [38]; and even then, not without a fight. I doubt that the idea of endosymbiosis would have shocked Leeuwenhoek; nor would he have been much surprised by the contemptuous disbelief of many biologists over short decades. Another unifying theory came from biochemistry, and fittingly drew inspiration from Leeuwenhoek's hometown of Delft (described by the Earl of Leicester, once Governor-General of the Essay Amy Tan’s Search Intertwining Fiction and Biography Netherlands, as another London almost for beauty and fairness'). The pioneer of comparative biochemistry, Albert Kluyver, was Professor of Microbiology in the Technical University of Delft from 1922 until his death in 1956. Story. More than anyone else, Kluyver appreciated that biochemistry unified life [39].

He realized that different types of respiration (he cites sulfate reduction, denitrification and methanogenesis) are fundamentally equivalent, all involving the transfer of electrons from Women’s Rights Hosseini Essay a donor to an acceptor. He appreciated that all forms of respiration and fermentation are united in that they all drive growth by means of phosphorylation. Such parallels made the startling differences between cells explicable, a discovery he cherished as highly edifying to the scientific mind [40]. He expressed this unity in short analysis, the awkward phrase From elephant to butyric acid bacteriumit is all the same, later paraphrased, more memorably but without attribution, by Essay and the Nurse's, Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod as that old axiom what is true for bacteria is also true for elephants. Kluyver, in story, a seminal passage, recognized that the fundamental unity of biochemistry opens the way for Advancing Nurse's, a better appreciation of evolutionary developments which have taken place in the microbial world, since the antithesis between the aerobic and anaerobic mode of life has been largely removed [40]. The unity of biochemistry, then, gave the short story analysis first insights into the evolution of the astonishing variety of little animals', which until then had remained a mystery, their provenance as wholly unknown as in Leeuwenhoek's time. Kluyver's student Cornelis van Niel, together with Roger Stanier, made some headway in the 1940s before despairing of the Essay on Alternative endeavour altogether.

By the time they published their famous essay The concept of a bacterium in 1961 they no longer cared to defend their own earlier taxonomic systems [41]; they sought only to distinguish bacteria (prokaryotic cells, lacking a nucleus) from larger eukaryotic protists, all of which have a nucleus. In this, they were remarkably perspicacious, commenting: The differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are not expressed in any gross features of cellular function; they reside rather in differences with respect to the detailed organization of the cellular machinery [41]. They cite the examples of respiration and photosynthesis, found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells: But in the prokaryotic cell, these metabolic unit processes are performed by an apparatus which always shows a much smaller degree of specific organization. In fact, one can say that no unit of short, structure smaller than the cell in its entirety is recognizable as the site of Women’s Splendid by Khaled Hosseini, either metabolic unit process ' [41]. Short Story. This is a beautiful insight, worthy of king xvi last, Leeuwenhoek himself. In eukaryotes, respiration and photosynthesis are conducted in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively, and continue perfectly well in isolation from the rest of the cell, as all the soluble enzymes needed are constrained within the analysis bioenergetic membranes of the Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay organelle. In bacteria, by contrast, the enzymes required are split between the cell membrane (whether invaginated or otherwise) and the cytosol, making the bacterium as a whole the story indivisible functional unit. King Louis Xvi Last Words. This distinction applies as much to cyanobacteria (classed as algae, not bacteria, by Ernst Haeckel and later systematists) as to other bacteria. Stanier and van Niel therefore argued that bacteria are a single (monophyletic) group, all similar in story analysis, their basic plan, but insisted that any further attempts to define phylogeny were hopeless. The timing was unfortunate.

Francis Crick had already advocated the Education use of molecular sequences as a wonderfully sensitive phylogenetic signal, writing in 1958: Biologists should realize that before long we shall have a subject which might be called protein taxonomythe study of amino acid sequences of short story, proteins of an organism and the comparison of them between species. It can be argued that these sequences are the most delicate expression possible of the Alexander Graham Bell phenotype of an organism and short, that vast amounts of Essay, evolutionary information may be hidden away within them [42]. Soon afterwards, Zuckerkandl Pauling [43] formalized the argument with sequence data; and a mere two decades later, Carl Woese published his first tree of story analysis, life [44]. Woese [45] was soon dismissing Stanier and van Niel as epitomising the Essay Advancing Technology Role dark ages of microbiology, when microbiologists had given up any prospect of a true phylogeny. Woese's tree was based on ribosomal RNA. He showed that prokaryotes are not monophyletic at all, but subdivide into two great domains, the story bacteria and archaea. Later work, which used other methods to root the tree [46], portrayed the eukaryotes as a sister group to the archaea [47]. Essay Intertwining And Biography. For the first time, it seemed possible to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships between Leeuwenhoek's animalcules in an evolutionary tree of life. Woese and his co-workers went so far as to argue that the short story analysis term prokaryote was obsolete, being an invalid negative definition (i.e. prokaryotes are defined by the absence of a nucleus; [48]).

The three domains tree is still the standard text book view. Even so, for all its revolutionary appeal, Woese's tree is the apotheosis of a reductionist molecular view of evolution, based on constructing trees from a single gene. It is ironic that, later in Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay, life, Woese called for a more holistic biology, while refusing to countenance the limitations of his single-gene tree [49]. More recent work, based on whole genome sequences, has undermined Woese's narrow viewpoint. While the sisterhood of archaea and eukaryotes is upheld for a core of informational genesgenes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translationit is not at all true for most other genes in story, eukaryotes, which are more closely related to bacteria than archaea. King Louis Words. Woese's iconic tree is therefore profoundly misleading, and should be seen strictly as a tree of short analysis, one gene only: it is not a tree of life. We cannot infer what a cell might have looked like, or how it might have lived in the past, on king louis words the basis of its ribosomal genotype. Eukaryotes are now plainly seen to story, be genomic chimeras, apparently formed in a singular endosymbiosis between an archaeal host cell and a bacterium around 1.5 billion years ago [50]. This chimerism cannot be depicted on a normal branching phylogenetic tree, because endosymbiosis involves fusion of branches, not bifurcation, producing instead a striking composite tree, depicted beautifully (and presciently, as this is still accurate) by Bill Martin in 1998 [51] (figure 5). Bill Martin and I have since argued that the singular endosymbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes, which gave rise to mitochondria, increased the energy available per gene in eukaryotic cells by a breath-taking three to Essay about Technology and the Nurse's, five orders of magnitude [52].

That overcame the pervasive energetic constraints faced by bacteria, enabling a massive expansion in cell volume and genome size, and permitting the evolution of many eukaryotic traits from the nucleus to sex and phagocytosis (all of which were first reported by Leeuwenhoek himself). This view accords nicely with Stanier and van Niel's conception of prokaryotes as the indivisible functional unit; mitochondria are functional energetic units, pared down bacteria that can be replicated to generate more power. Story. It might be that eukaryotes had to Essay, evolve by way of an endosymbiosis, for these bioenergetic reasons. A tree of life drawn by Bill Martin in 1998, reflecting whole genomes. The tree shows the chimeric origin of eukaryotes, in which an archaeal host cell acquired bacterial endosymbionts that evolved into mitochondria; and analysis, the later acquisition of chloroplasts in Plantae . Reproduced with permission from Essay [51]. Copyright 1999 John Wiley Sons, Inc. Even in the absence of endosymbiosis, the short idea of a true phylogenetic tree of life is on Inferiority undermined by the prevalence of lateral gene transfer in both bacteria and archaea. Informational genes, including ribosomal RNA, are generally inherited vertically, giving a robust phylogenetic signal, but such genes account for barely 1% of a bacterial genome, and much of the rest is passed around between cells by lateral gene transfer, confounding deep phylogenetic signals.

A potentially revolutionary new study shows that the major archaeal groups originated with the lateral acquisition of bacterial genes [53]. Ironically, the unity of short story, biochemistryKluyver's edifying guide to evolutionis the root problem: the Essay Amy Tan’s Search Intertwining universality of the genetic code, intermediary metabolism and short analysis, energy conservation (e.g. the shared mechanism of on Alternative Programs, respiration) means that genes are an exchangeable currency, and facilitate adaptation to the endless variety of external conditions. Again, the link between the ribosomal genotype of a prokaryotic cell and its phenotypethe way it makes a livingis forever changing. Ford Doolittle notes that pervasive genetic chimerism means that no hierarchical universal classification can be taken as natural [54]; the universal tree of life is a human foible and not a true representation of the real world. Short Analysis. As Doolittle observes, Biologists might rejoice in Essay about Technology and the Nurse's Role, and explore, rather than regret or attempt to story, dismiss, the creative evolutionary role of lateral gene transfer [54]. The tree of Essay about Amy Tan’s Search Intertwining Fiction, life promises a hierarchical order, and takes authority from short story analysis Darwin himself, but in microbes at least it is not sustained by the very genetic sequences that made such phylogeny possible. Early evolution without a tree of life [55] might seem an alarming vista to many, but Leeuwenhoek would surely have felt at home. He was happiest without a compass.

Perhaps that, more than anything else, is the lesson we still need to Graham Bell Essay, learn from Leeuwenhoek today. There is a danger of complacency in biology, a feeling that the immense computational power of the modern age will ultimately resolve the questions of biology, and medical research more broadly. But pathophysiology stems from short analysis physiology, and physiology is a product of evolution, largely at the level of cells. Within Hosseini. The eukaryotic cell seems to have arisen in a singular endosymbiosis between prokaryotes, and eukaryotes share a large number of basic traits, few of which are known in anything like the same form in bacteria or archaea. We know of no surviving evolutionary intermediates between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Short. We know almost nothing about which factors drove the evolution of on Alternative, many basal eukaryotic traits, from the nucleus to meiosis and sex, to story, cell deathtraits first observed by Leeuwenhoek.

Why did meiosis and sex arise from king louis xvi last lateral gene transfer in bacteria? Why did the nucleus evolve in eukaryotes but not in bacteria or archaea? What prevents bacteria from engulfing other cells by phagocytosis? There is no agreement on the answers to story, these questions, nor more broadly to a question that might easily have been asked by Leeuwenhoek himselfwhy is Technology Nurse's Role life the way it is? Some of us have argued that eukaryotic evolution is explicable in short, terms of the detailed mechanisms of energy conservation, with an allied requirement for endosymbiosis leading to Essay about for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction, conflict and analysis, coadaptation between endosymbionts and their host cells [56]. Essay. But these arguments still lack rigorous proof, as do all alternative hypotheses.

In the meantime, we have at best an unreliable map of the land that enchanted Leeuwenhoek. We should rejoice and explore. Nick Lane is a Reader in Evolutionary Biochemistry in story analysis, the Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London. His research is on the role of bioenergetics in the origin of Rights A Thousand Suns by Khaled Hosseini Essay examples, life and the early evolution of cells, focusing on the importance of story analysis, endosymbiosis and cellular structure in determining the king louis course of evolution. Nick was awarded the inaugural UCL Provost's Venture Research Fellowship in 2009, the BMC Research Award for Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and Evolution in 2011, and the Biochemical Society Award for analysis, 2015.

He leads the Essay about and the Nurse's Role UCL Research Frontiers Origins of Life programme and was a founding member of the UCL Consortium for Mitochondrial Research. Short Analysis. He has published some 70 research papers and articles, co-edited two volumes and written four critically acclaimed books on evolutionary biochemistry, which have been translated into 20 languages. His book Life Ascending won the Essay on Alternative Programs 2010 Royal Society Prize for Science Books.

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American Exceptionalism Essays and Research Papers. ? exceptionalism not to be confused with the analysis, ideology of americanism. American Exceptionalism : Belief that U.S.A. . is historically and Essay on Alternative Programs politicaly a completely unique nation and therefor superior to other nations (Hebel 2008) Rhethorical origins: - especially John Winthrop?s ''A Model of Christian Charity'' - sermon by Puritan layman and leader John Winthrop, who delivered on board the ship Arbella while on route to the Massachusetts Bay Colony - biblical aproach - Puritan colonists are god's ''chosen. American exceptionalism , God , James K. Polk 920 Words | 3 Pages. A Tale of Two Johns Many early American writers had similar visions of life in America. Some were driven by religion and others by short story analysis, . the desire for exploration. In this, two notable early American writers stand apart from the rest. Two Lectures On Inferiority! John Winthrop was born in England to a prosperous family and went on to be very wealthy by his own accord but not before making his way to America and short story becoming one of the leading figure in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. John Smith was born to a less prestigious. Essay! American exceptionalism , Americas , Christianity 1225 Words | 3 Pages.

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3. Short Analysis! Americans are extremely independent. American , Anna Faris , United States 1763 Words | 5 Pages. November 4, 2013 American Exceptionalism We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill.(Winthrop). This country . was built under the Search Intertwining Fiction and Biography, scrutiny of the rest of the world; we were founded as an example and story continue that legacy today. King Words! We have created a superior government where power resides with the story analysis, people. Countries just granted their independence model their governments after ours. We are regarded as a safe haven to many immigrants who just want their own American Dream. The United.

United States , Vladimir Putin 1251 Words | 4 Pages. Women’s Within A Thousand Splendid Suns Hosseini! ?Rude Americans Stories are often told about story rude American tourists, neighbors, or simply Americans . They have . been labeled as rude because of their actions and their portrayal in the media and our society. Most of the Essay about Amy Tan’s Search, complaints involve tourists. According to short story,, Triposo, a travel blog, conducted a survey last year involving 700 respondents from 62 countries about Two Lectures bad tourist behavior. It covers everything from travel etiquette and manners (like hogging the armrests and analysis asking. 2003 invasion of Iraq , A Good Thing , American 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Women’s Rights Within By Khaled! American Exceptionalism: Declaration of Independence. United States has evolved into the most powerful state in the world, surpassing nations in analysis, every demographic at one time or another.

Americas values are so . influential, a term known as American Exceptionalism has sprung up to describe the nations power and strength over other countries. American exceptionalism refers to the theory that the United States occupies a special niche among the nations of the world in terms of Women’s within Splendid Hosseini its national credo, historical evolution, political and religious institutions. Cold War , Franklin D. Roosevelt , President of the United States 2328 Words | 7 Pages. Black People and story American Dominant Culture. Louis Xvi Last Words! war and 4. Describe Ronald Takaki calls the Master Narrative of American history. What two assumptions does this version of . American history rely upon, and what problems does this pose for short, the study of Americas history and contemporary understandings of who/what is American ? * Master narrative: the Essay about Search and Biography, power and popular but inaccurate story declaring that our country was settled by European immigrants, and Americans are white. * A filter through which we learn history * Leaves. African American , Black people , Race 2164 Words | 7 Pages.

AMERICAN IDEALS AND VALUES I. Ideals: 1. Freedom: The notion that America offers freedom for all i an ideal that unifies . Americans and links present to past. Yet this ideal has not always corresponded to reality. - Americans commonly regard their society as the freest and best in the world Proud when thinking that their country a heaven destination for those longing for freedom and opportunities. Short Story! all people are equal all people are equal - Americans understanding of Essay about Amy Tan’s Fiction freedom is shaped. American , Freedom of speech , Nationalism 567 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis! their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the Two Lectures on Inferiority, players within the organization are individuals and can't be seen as representatives of their . respective cultures; Jim is simply one American businessman and Klaus is merely one German man. The project is dominated by Germans First described is the short, American perspective of Jim. It's important to note, that he thought himself to Essay about for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction, be a good fit, due to short analysis, his experience traveling to Germany, as well as his ability to speak the about Fiction, language, his wife. American , Canada , Culture 1162 Words | 5 Pages. Story Analysis! Key Points for the Defense of American Exceptionalism. ?Lawson Traylor Instructor Kevin Kerr History 201-002 25 November 2012 Key Points on the Defense of American Exceptionalism . American Exceptionalism is the idea that America is founded on a creed. Essay! That creed is to spread liberty, freedom, and democracy to the rest of the world. G.K.

Chesterton stated, America is the only nation in the world that is founded on a creed. The creed he mentions is story analysis stated in the Declaration of Independence. In the preamble, it is said that, We hold these truths. Nationalism , President of the United States , Thomas Jefferson 1247 Words | 5 Pages. American Imperialism: A Platform for the Conflict Paradigm. ?Brice Berg 7 October, 2012 American Imperialism: A Platform for Essay on Alternative Education, the Conflict Paradigm Imperialism in todays society, where it is analysis seen . in almost every society in one way or another, is used as leverage to gain social status. The countries that implement imperialism in their diplomatic relations use the Two Lectures Essay, method for the same common goal: to gain wealth, power, and status.

Sociologically, what is it that pins country against country? It is all propelled by the Conflict Paradigm, which argues. American Empire , Cold War , Developed country 1136 Words | 3 Pages. American Imperialism: the Consequences. His: 204 American History Since 1865 American Imperialism The world today suffers the short story analysis, consequences of . nineteenth-century imperialism. Although Imperialism has been decreased to an extent, it is still strong today. The United States became an imperialist nation at the end of the 19th century because Americans wanted to expand overseas with their belief in manifest destiny. Since the Women’s Rights Suns by Khaled Essay, 1840s expansionists had spoken of a manifest destiny to overspread the North American continent from. American Empire , Caribbean , Colonialism 925 Words | 3 Pages. American Revolution: American Romanticism. Short Story Analysis! American Romanticism American Romanticism was a literary and artistic movement of the nineteenth century that placed a premium . on fancy, imagination, emotion, nature, individuality, and exotica.

It was the Romantic period in American Literature, which included writers like Washington Irving, Emerson, Thoreau, Emily Dickinson, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, Herman Melville, and others. One characteristic of American Romanticism involves humanity's relationship to Programs, nature. Much of the short, writing during. American poets , Edgar Allan Poe , James Russell Lowell 1883 Words | 5 Pages. Asian Americans in American Cinema. Advancing Role! Abstract With a recent surge of Asian Americans in American cinema, we are noticing that the stereotypes that we have used in . the past are actually being used by their culture to break into American culture.

Days of portraying Asian Americans as unintelligible and short subservient are gone and Rights Splendid by Khaled Essay examples are being replaced with a whole new outlook. The introduction of Martial Arts into American film has evolved the way Asians are viewed in American cinema. Analysis! Quentin Tarantino introduced a whole new outlook to Asian. Women’s Rights Within A Thousand Essay Examples! Asian American , Bruce Lee , Film 1394 Words | 4 Pages. American Inequality in American Psycho.

Derek Naegle Dr. Cammie Sublette ENGL 2033 September 7, 2012 American Inequality in American Psycho Set in the Manhattan of story analysis . 1989, Brett Easton Ellis's novel American Psycho sketches the life of Patrick Bateman, an attractive 26-year-old Harvard graduate who earns a six-figure income on Wall Street. On Alternative Education Programs! Bateman and short analysis his Ivy League educated friends enjoy all the Amy Tan’s Intertwining Fiction, luxury Manhattan has to offer, including expensive restaurants, exclusive nightclubs and excessive amounts of cocaine. However, what their. American Psycho , Bret Easton Ellis , Manhattan 682 Words | 3 Pages. African American and short American Society. T: Th. 3:30p.m.-4:45p.m. A Thousand Splendid Hosseini Examples! DAngelo, Raymond and Herbert Douglas, eds. Taking Sides: Clashing Views in analysis, Race and Ethnicity, 7th edition (Dubuque, IA: . Graham Bell Essay! McGraw-Hill, 2009) Issue #9: Is Racism a Permanent Feature of American Society? Is Racism a Permanent feature of analysis American Society? Derrick Bell argues in this issue that the prospects for achieving racial equality in the United States are illusory for Blacks.

Bell reminds us despite the fact of the progress of blacks in United States; the. African American , Black people , Discrimination 1438 Words | 4 Pages. Origins of American Exceptionalism and Manifest Destiny 1.1 Rhetorical Origins 1.2 Manifest Destiny 2. American . Exceptionalism and American Imperialism 2.1 American Imperialism 2.2 Americas Destiny 2.3 Strategic and Imperialistic Reasons 2.4 Translatio Imperii 3. Manifest Destiny and American Exceptionalism in the 21st Century 3.1 G.W. Essay! Bushs Address to the Nation (2001) 3.2 Barack Obama and short analysis the American Exceptionalism 3.2.1 1st Inaugural Address (2009) 3.2.2 Obamas View on American Exceptionalism. American Civil War , American Empire , American exceptionalism 2040 Words | 34 Pages. The American Journey Through Time. The American Journey Through Time Eric Gamez US History - Dual Credit January 18, 2013. Many things . have changed from the founding of the English colonies through 1877. Throughout the years in American history, the ideas of Women’s Rights within by Khaled examples American Identity and American Exceptionalism have changed. Short! There have been many factors that formed and Alexander Bell Essay developed America, among these being equality, human rights, and most importantly, the drive to be independent. The Declaration.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , John Adams 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Americas first president greatly benefited the American political system. This is a clear position that can be supported or opposed. . Although America perceived Manifest Destiny as a benevolent movement, it was in fact an aggressive imperialism pursued at the expense of others. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to American expansionism in the 1840s. WEAK ? Manifest Destiny was a expansion of American superiority over the continent and affected many. American Civil War , American exceptionalism , Andrew Jackson 1060 Words | 20 Pages. American Beauty: the American Tragedy? industry has focused on showing the analysis, direct relationship between the choices that people make and the resulting consequences they must face. In the movie . American Beauty, the character of Lester Burnham must make many important choices that could either lead to his ultimate happiness, or draw him further into his despair. br brIn the movie American Beauty, it is evident that Lester Burnham is in a state of despair. Lester's dull and monotonous voice introduces the audience to Essay Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction and Biography, his daily routine of. American films , American novels , Choice 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Reviewing the Construct of story American Exceptionalism: Turners Frontier the Naturalization of Power. ? Reviewing the Construct of American Exceptionalism : Turners Frontier the Naturalization of Power . Lindsay King 0549018 Femi Kolapo HIST 4120 Topics in Global History [] and as we lay and smoked the Technology and the, pipe of analysis peace and compared all this luxury to the years of about Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction tiresome city life that had gone before it, we felt that there was only one complete and short story analysis satisfying happiness in the world, and we had found it. -Mark.

American Revolution , Frederick Jackson Turner , Frontier Thesis 2733 Words | 9 Pages. The myth of equality through consume. ? Aim of the about, project Land of freedom, land of opportunities and American dream are, among others, some of the most recurrent topics when . referring to American Culture. American entertainment, music, cinema and short analysis media industries have contributed to build an idealist image vastly widespread around the for Self-Identity: Fiction, whole world about the American way of life, which is short analysis strongly linked to Essay on Alternative, values of story freedom, equity and abundance. America is presented like the land where everyman has an opportunity and social mobility. American culture , American Dream , American exceptionalism 3594 Words | 10 Pages. American History and Government Mid-Year Exam Review Sheet Test day is Wednesday, January 23, 8:00-10:00 at the Kingswood Gym. You will not . be allowed to louis xvi last words, use notes or outlines on the exam. The exam is story analysis counted as 20% of your semester grade. Mr. Karinen Mid-Year 2012-13 For the mid-year test you should know the A Thousand Splendid Hosseini Essay, following terms, ideas, people and concepts. You should be able to define each and/or explain its significance/importance.

Concept of God, Gold, and Glory Christopher Columbus. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , American Revolution 674 Words | 7 Pages. Short Story! 101 12 November 12, 2012 Long Essay The American Dream When it comes to the topic the Alexander Bell Essay, American Dream, most of us will . its to each his / her own. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of agreeing to short, disagree. Two Lectures! Whereas some are convinced that the American Dream is different depending on what one person make out of it, others maintain that the short analysis, American Dream is the Essay Programs, same and very much so reality. What actually is the American Dream? James Truslow Adams coined the term.

Academic degree , American Dream , Bachelor of Science 1447 Words | 4 Pages. That draws us to an interesting question asked by short, Henry Nash Smith in his essay Can American Studies Develop a Method? A far from rhetorical . question asked by one of the, if not the most influential person in louis, developing a method for story, American Studies in Two Lectures Essay, 1940 by receiving the first Ph.D in the field from Harvard. Smith and his myth-symbol theory were proved a major event in the theoretical development of American Studies as an interdisciplinary form of study. Smiths publication of Virgin Land in. American studies , Culture , Henry Nash Smith 1328 Words | 4 Pages. American Literature: The Meaning of analysis American. sprout up out of nowhere. Essay Technology Nurse's! The culture of the African- Americans , the Native Americans , and the Europeans provided us with the . customs and culture that we today call our own.

Through centuries of exposure to different cultures and ways, America has become, in the words of Jimmy Carter, not a melting pot, but a beautiful mosaic. (Carter and Shapiro 137) In this sense, the story, word American takes on a unique meaning, in that to be an American means to be part of this mosaic, and to have the Essay about Advancing Technology Nurse's Role, ability. African American , American Civil War , Americas 832 Words | 3 Pages. Brian Menezes 02/27/2013 ENG 98 Critical Summary Critical Summary of What is an American ? This historical perspective relates an . important theme of the short analysis, way that Americans are defined in What is an America by Jean De Crevecoeur. By using European cultural integration within the king words, theme of being American , Crevecoeur essentially reveals how opportunity has made America a nation of many cultures and ethnicities. In being a new nation that could welcome the destitute of Europe. Europe , European American , German language 467 Words | 3 Pages. African Americans in American Society 1920s. African Americans in the 1920s * Cast down your bucket where you are. Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes Booker T. Short! . Xvi Last! Washington, 1895 Atlanta Compromise Throughout US history, there is an abundance of story analysis racism, segregation and discrimination towards the African American people. In 1619, the first African slaves were brought to Rights within Splendid Essay examples, Jamestown to produce tobacco, tea, cotton, coffee and other precious commodities.

In this time period, 12 million Africans were forcibly transported. African American , Black people , Marcus Garvey 2613 Words | 7 Pages. The American Dream The meaning of the American dream has changed over time. In its inception it was a set of short story ideals, such as . freedom, opportunity, and xvi last words equality traditionally held to be available to every American . These ideas were brought forth to show people to that all men and women are created equal. This equality was said to be achieved through hard work and dedication. The American dream is something that has been preached in the United States for decades. People from all over the World come. American Dream , Americas , Immigration to the United States 1482 Words | 4 Pages.

Filipino Americans My name is Mely, a Filipino American , born and raised in the United States. Many people are not too . familiar with Filipinos as they are other ethnic groups, such as the short story, Chinese or the Japanese. Alexander Graham Bell Essay! Some people have confused me or my family as Chinese or even Hispanics because of story analysis our physical features being similar to either culture. I would like to Essay Technology and the Role, give a background of my Filipino history. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there has been a 99% increase of story analysis Asian Americans in the.

Asian American , Filipino American , Hawaii 832 Words | 3 Pages. The American Dream The idea of the American dream began when immigrants migrated to America in hope to become successful, have . financial stability, and Essay about Technology and the Nurse's Role receive rights they could not in short story, their country. The American dream however was not only Essay Amy Tan’s Intertwining Fiction and Biography, fancied by immigrants. Americans also had faith and wanted to pursue the American dream. Short Story! The confidence in the American dream has diminished over time due to several economic developments and government policies that has widened the gap between the rich and the. American Dream , Americas , Economic inequality 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Chinese Americans tend to keep their separate identity In the United States, there are multiple hyphenated Americans groups, . such as African- American , Asian- American , Irish- American , and Indian- American . People hold American nationality, but have a foreign birth or origins tend to identify themselves in some term of Essay about Advancing Role Hyphenated Americans . It means that they are not only Americans , but also involve in different ethnicity, religion, language, and culture. Chinese- Americans comprises the largest. Asian American , China , Chinese American 1222 Words | 3 Pages.

The American Dream The American dream. The exact definition of this term has changed greatly over the coarse of story analysis . American history, but the desire to obtain it has not. This idea in its most basic form is the Essay Education Programs, wish to be happy, the desire to better oneself and to achieve the ideal life. The thought of the short story analysis, American dream is deeply rooted in our history and many different groups of people through time have struggled to Women’s within Suns by Khaled Hosseini Essay examples, achieve their version of the short, American dream. Although many people have struggled. African American , Asian American , Black people 1393 Words | 5 Pages. customs, values, religion, practices, and law.1 American culture can be seen as more diverse and complex; however, people manage to find . common ground through music, art, fashion, science, technology, worldviews and democracy. On the grander scale, Americanization greatly impacts foreign countries and has the power to control them. It is capable of compelling good influence over other nations and often times it succeeds in louis xvi last, doing so. American cultural imperialism does not see itself as having. American culture , Culture , Globalization 1470 Words | 4 Pages. The American Dream Outline The three texts all have a different view on the American Dream.

Text 2 and 4 have a mainly . positive opinion, text 3 has a mainly negative opinion to the American Dream. Short Analysis! In text 2 and 4 they agree that the American Dream is a good thing that comes to people, who are hardworking and determined. In text 2 it furthermore says that those who not only Essay Search for Self-Identity: Fiction and Biography, takes but also gives back can achieve the American Dream. Short Story Analysis! Text 3 starts by Search Fiction, stating that a lot of short Americans are unhappy. American Dream , Arnold Schwarzenegger , James Truslow Adams 989 Words | 2 Pages. todays America, the Native Americans only make up about king 1% of the American population.

The other 99% are either immigrants or . Short Analysis! descendants of Bell immigrants. The American people mostly reside of immigrants who originally came to short story, America to seek freedom, independence, and the equality of opportunity. America a nation based on a multicultural society where a lot of subcultures come together and create one big culture by the values they have in Graham Bell, common. Because of that the American people doesnt identify themselves. American culture , American way , Americas 1043 Words | 3 Pages. already been accomplished, can be considered the overall American Dream. Generally, every child wants to surpass the achievements of their . parents as a natural act of competition and personal satisfaction. Throughout The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath, and Death of a Salesman, there is a constant yearning desire to achieve the American Dream; whether it be reality or illusion. Fitzgerald, Steinbeck, and Miller, all portray the ideas of the story analysis, American Dream relating to on Inferiority, the time period that they are referring. American literature , F. Scott Fitzgerald , The Great Gatsby 3111 Words | 7 Pages. will aid in economic improvement. The possibility of attaining these resources directly correlates to the political and economic atmosphere, both domestic . and international. This paper will attempt to determine if this theory relates to the Indian American ethnic group.

The flourishing geopolitical relationship between the United States and short story analysis India, combined with an atmosphere of increasing competitiveness among the international community in regards to technological advancement and innovation led to. Asian American , Chicago , Ethnic group 2083 Words | 6 Pages. Identity of Programs Asian- American Many Americans identify themselves by a hyphenated title. Story Analysis! People of these groups were almost all . immigrants who moved to on Alternative, United States from their native country. United States of America has been founded on the basis of immigration and refugee.

Throughout history, United States has welcomed immigrants from all over short story the world that came to America in on Alternative, hopes of seeking new life and freedom. Many people describe United States as a melting pot, which consist of different culture. Asian American , Chinese American , Household income in the United States 1082 Words | 3 Pages. American Airlines Marketing cases AMERICAN AIRLINES 1. Issues 2. Analysis! American Airlines' objectives 3. About Search And Biography! The airline . Story Analysis! industry 4. Alexander Bell Essay! Market 5. Consumer needs 6. Brand image 7. Short Story! Distribution system 8. Essay Amy Tan’s For Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction And Biography! Pricing 9. Marketing related strategies 10. Story Analysis! Assumptions and risks 1- Issues The main issue of Alexander Essay this case is the lack of profits of the airline industry, an industry that should be more than profitable due to the large amount of customers, the necessity of using airlines' services and the high prices charged by most. Airline , American Airlines , Delta Air Lines 1392 Words | 4 Pages. Roshani Shrestha Dr. Catherine Milton ENG 101, Composition 23rd April The Changing American Dreams When people think of the . Amercian dream , they think of short analysis one having a stress free and Advancing Role happy life, an excellent education and a successful career. Many people migrate from their native country to America in search of the American dream. Dreams of short story freedom, equality, and the opportunity to achieve their personal goals in life; for instance, better education, job opportunity, buying a house.

American Dream , Distribution of Role wealth , Economic inequality 1305 Words | 4 Pages. American Imperialism: Characteristics. American Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century extended from several characteristics of America and American society, including . but not limited to exceptionalism and short analysis manifest destiny. Louis! While these beliefs not only supported and manifested the perpetual effort to exploit and later completely oppress and subjugate the Native American populations within its borders, they also supported the later establishment of reservations and the practice of Native American boarding school education. But, American. American Civil War , Americas , Colonialism 893 Words | 3 Pages. Story Analysis! Native Americans in the American Revolution. November 16th, 2012 While most think of the American Revolution only as a battle between the American colonists and the . British Empire, Native Americans were a major factor in the war. The British and Americans clamored for war alliances from various Native American tribes and in most cases, the British came out victorious. This presented the rebellious Americans with the dilemma of how to confront hostile Native American tribes as American settlers moved steadily westward into Essay Advancing Nurse's Role, Indian country. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Massachusetts 1280 Words | 4 Pages.

The American Dream [Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institution] The American Dream Introduction The . American dream can be defined as equality of story opportunity and freedom that allows all U.S. residents reach their goals in life only with their effort and Rights A Thousand Splendid Suns Essay examples determination. Today, this idea first expressed in 1931 by James Truslow Adams, refers to short, that prosperity depends on your skills and your work, and not in Essay Technology and the, a rigid social hierarchy, although the meaning of the phrase has changed throughout. American Dream , James Truslow Adams , Middle class 1006 Words | 3 Pages. American Dream: The Conspiracy Everyone knows those stupid conspiracy theories about the Nazis and 9/11, but if you really think about it, . is the American Dream any different? Or is short story it just a product of the Graham Bell, government trying to short analysis, keep us appeased? Government has used propaganda ever since the Essay Technology Role, idea of a government was thought up. By definition, the story, American Dream is the idea that everyone in the United States has the chance to achieve success and prosperity. My theory is this; the government has. American Dream , Federal government of the about Technology and the Nurse's Role, United States , Immigration 1151 Words | 3 Pages.

The American Dream Is the Basis of American Culture. American Dream Willy Loman is a man on a mission. His purpose in life is to achieve a false sense of the American Dream, but . is this what Willy Loman really wants? In Death of a Salesman, Arthur Miller analyzes the American Dream by portraying to us a few days in story analysis, the life of a washed up salesman named Willy Loman. The American Dream is a definite goal of many people, meaning something different to everyone. Willy's version is different from most people though; his is based more on Essay being well-liked. American culture , Death of short a Salesman , James Truslow Adams 1208 Words | 3 Pages. King Louis Xvi Last! Some people might agree that the American dream still exists, while others dont or they have different beliefs.

The American . dream is one of the most controversial themes in the United States. I totally agree that the American Dream is still on, though we need to work a little more to make it happen. I recently read a quote by Senator John Kerry that relates two articles that I have read in the past about the American dream: We believe that what matters most is not narrow appeals masquerading. American culture , Democratic Party , English-language films 1756 Words | 4 Pages.

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essays of elio [On the short analysis dissociation of Alexander, sensibility] By collecting these poems from the work of a generation more often named than read, and more often read than profitably studied, Professor Grierson has rendered a service of some importance. Certainly the reader will meet with many poems already preserved in other anthologies, at analysis the same time that he discovers poems such as those of Aurelian Townshend or Lord Herbert of Cherbury here included. But the function of such an anthology as this is neither that of Professor Saintsbury's admirable edition of Caroline poets nor that of the Oxford Book of Englisb Verse . Mr. Grierson's book is in itself a piece of criticism and a provocation of criticism; and we think that he was right in Women’s Rights A Thousand Splendid by Khaled, including so many poems of Donne, elsewhere (though not in many editions) accessible, as documents in the case of metaphysical poetry. The phrase has long done duty as a term of story analysis, abuse or as the Essay about Amy Tan’s Intertwining Fiction label of a quaint and pleasant taste. The question is to what extent the so-called metaphysicals formed a school (in our own time we should say a movement), and short story, how far this so-called school or movement is a digression from the main current. Not only is on Alternative Education Programs it extremely difficult to define metaphysical poetry, but difficult to decide what poets practise it and in analysis, which of their verses. The poetry of Donne (to whom Marvell and Bishop King are sometimes nearer than any of the other authors) is late Elizabethan, its feeling often very close to that of Chapman.

The courtly poetry is derivative from Jonson, who borrowed liberally from the Latin; it expires in Two Lectures on Inferiority, the next century with the sentiment and witticism of Prior. Story! There is finally the devotional verse of Herbert, Vaughan, and Crashaw (echoed long after by Christina Rossetti and Francis Thompson); Crashaw, sometimes more profound and less sectarian than the Essay on Alternative Education others, has a quality which returns through the Elizabethan period to the early Italians. It is difficult to find any precise use of metaphor, simile, or other conceit, which is common to all the poets and at story the same time important enough as an element of style to Search Fiction isolate these poets as a group. Donne, and often Cowley, employ a device which is sometimes considered characteristically metaphysical; the short analysis elaboration (contrasted with the condensation) of a figure of speech to the farthest stage to which ingenuity can carry it. Alexander Bell Essay! Thus Cowley develops the commonplace comparison of the world to a chess-board through long stanzas ( To Destiny ), and Donne, with more grace, in A Valediction , the comparison of two lovers to a pair of compasses. But elsewhere we find, instead of the short story mere explication of the king content of a comparison, a development by analysis, rapid association of thought which requires considerable agility on the part of the Women’s Rights within A Thousand Splendid by Khaled Hosseini examples reader.

On a round ball. A workman that hath copies by, can lay. An Europe, Afrique, and an Asia, And quickly make that, which was nothing, All, So doth each teare, Which thee doth weare,

A globe, yea, world by that impression grow, Till thy tears mixt with mine doe overflow. This world, by waters sent from thee, my heaven dissolved so. Here we find at least two connexions which are not implicit in the first figure, but are forced upon story it by the poet: from the geographer's globe to the tear, and the tear to the deluge. On the other hand, some of Donne's most successful and characteristic effects are secured by brief words and sudden contrasts: A bracelet of bright hair about the bone, where the Essay about Search Fiction most powerful effect is produced by the sudden contrast of associations of bright hair and of bone. This telescoping of short story, images and Education, multiplied associations is characteristic of the phrase of some of the dramatists of the short story period which Donne knew; not to Women’s Rights by Khaled Hosseini mention Shakespeare, it is short frequent in Middleton, Webster, and Tourneur, and is one of the sources of the vitality of their language.

Johnson, who employed the term metaphysical poets, apparently having Donne, Cleveland, and king xvi last words, Cowley chiefly in mind, remarks of them that the most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together. The force of this impeachment lies in the failure of the conjunction, the fact that often the ideas are yoked but not united; and if we are to judge of styles of poetry by their abuse, enough examples may be found in Cleveland to justify Johnson's condemnation. But a degree of heterogeneity of material compelled into unity by the operation of the poet's mind is omnipresent in poetry. We need not select for illustration such a line as: Notre me est un trois-mts cherchant son Icarie; we may find it in some of the best lines of Johnson himself ( The Vanity of Human Wishes ): His fate was destined to a barren strand, A petty fortress, and a dubious hand; He left a name at which the world grew pale,

To point a moral, or adorn a tale. where the effect is due to a contrast of ideas, different in degree but the same in principle, as that which Johnson mildly reprehended. Short Story Analysis! And in one of the finest poems of the age (a poem which could not have been written in Essay Advancing Nurse's, any other age), the Exequy of Bishop King, the short story analysis extended comparison is used with perfect success: the idea and the simile become one, in the passage in which the Bishop illustrates his impatience to see his dead wife, under the figure of a journey: Stay for me there; I will not faile. To meet thee in Alexander Graham, that hollow Vale. And think not much of my delay;

I am already on story analysis the way, And follow thee with all the speed. Desire can make, or sorrows breed. Each minute is a short degree, And evry houre a step towards thee. At night when I betake to Essay about Technology rest, Next morn I rise nearer my West.

Of life, almost by eight houres sail, Than when sleep breath'd his drowsy gale. Story! . . . But heark! My Pulse, like a soft Drum. Beats my approach, tells Thee I come; And slow howere my marches be, I shall at on Alternative last sit down by short analysis, Thee. (In the last few lines there is that effect of Alexander Bell, terror which is several times attained by story, one of Bishop King's admirers, Edgar Poe.) Again, we may justly take these quatrains from Lord Herbert's Ode, stanzas which would, we think, be immediately pronounced to Essay Role be of the metaphysical school: So when from hence we shall be gone, And be no more, nor you, nor I,

As one another's mystery, Each shall be both, yet both but one. This said, in her uplifted face, Her eyes, which did that beauty crown, Were like two starrs, that having faln down,

Look up again to find their place: While such a moveless silent peace. Did seize on their becalmed sense, One would have thought some influence. Their ravished spirits did possess. There is short story analysis nothing in these lines (with the Alexander Graham Bell Essay possible exception of the stars, a simile not at once grasped, but lovely and justified) which fits Johnson's general observations on the metaphysical poets in his essay on Cowley. Short! A good deal resides in the richness of association which is at the same time borrowed from and given to the word becalmed; but the meaning is clear, the language simple and elegant. It is to be observed that the Alexander Graham Essay language of these poets is as a rule simple and pure; in the verse of George Herbert this simplicity is short story analysis carried as far as it can go--a simplicity emulated without success by numerous modern poets. The structure of the Women’s Suns Essay examples sentences, on the other hand, is sometimes far from simple, but this is not a vice; it is a fidelity to thought and feeling. The effect, at its best, is far less artificial than that of an analysis ode by Gray., And as this fidelity induces variety of thought and feeling, so it induces variety of on Inferiority Essay, music.

We doubt whether, in story analysis, the eighteenth century, could be found two poems in nominally the same metre, so dissimilar as Marvell's Coy Mistress and Crashaw's Saint Teresa ; the one producing an effect of great speed by Education Programs, the use of short syllables, and analysis, the other an ecclesiastical solemnity by the use of long ones: Love, thou art absolute sole lord. Of life and death. If so shrewd and sensitive (though so limited) a critic as Johnson failed to define metaphysical poetry by its faults, it is worth while to inquire whether we may not have more success by adopting the opposite method: by assuming that the poets of the Two Lectures seventeenth century (up to short story analysis the Revolution) were the within A Thousand Splendid Suns examples direct and normal development of the precedent age; and, without prejudicing their case by short story, the adjective metaphysical, consider whether their virtue was not something permanently valuable, which subsequently disappeared, but ought not to Essay on Alternative Programs have disappeared. Johnson has hit, perhaps by accident, on one of short story, their peculiarities, when he observes that their attempts were always analytic; he would not agree that, after the dissociation, they put the material together again in a new unity. It is Two Lectures Essay certain that the dramatic verse of the later Elizabethan and early Jacobean poets expresses a degree of development of sensibility which is short story analysis not found in any of the prose, good as it often is. If we except Marlowe, a man of prodigious intelligence, these dramatists were directly or indirectly (it is at Graham Essay least a tenable theory) affected by Montaigne.

Even if we except also Jonson and Chapman, these two were notably erudite, and were notably men who incorporated their erudition into their sensibility: their mode of short, feeling was directly and freshly altered by their reading and thought. In Chapman especially there is a direct sensuous apprehension of thought, or a recreation of thought into Alexander Graham Bell, feeling, which is exactly what we find in story analysis, Donne: in this one thing, all the discipline. Of manners and of manhood is contained; A man to join himself with th' Universe. In his main sway, and about Technology, make in all things fit. One with that All, and go on, round as it; Not plucking from the whole his wretched part,

And into straits, or into nought revert, Wishing the complete Universe might be. Subject to such a rag of it as he; But to short story consider great Necessity . We compare this with some modern passage: No, when the fight begins within himself, A man's worth something. God stoops o'er his head, Satan looks up between his feet--both tug-- He's left, himself, i' the middle; the soul wakes.

And grows. Prolong that battle through his life! It is perhaps somewhat less fair, though very tempting (as both poets are concerned with the Nurse's perpetuation of love by offspring), to compare with the stanzas already quoted from Lord Herbert's Ode the following from short story Tennyson: One walked between his wife and Essay about Advancing Technology, child, With measured footfall firm and mild, And now and then he gravely smiled. The prudent partner of his blood. Leaned on him, faithful, gentle, good, Wearing the rose of womanhood. And in their double love secure, The little maiden walked demure,

Pacing with downward eyelids pure. These three made unity so sweet, My frozen heart began to beat, Remembering its ancient beat. The difference is not a simple difference of degree between poets. Story Analysis! It is something which had happened to the mind of England between the time of Donne or Lord Herbert of Essay about for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction, Cherbury and short story analysis, the time of xvi last, Tennyson and Browning; it is the short analysis difference between the intellectual poet and Essay, the reflective poet. Tennyson and Browning are poets, and short story, they think; but they do not feel their thought as immediately as the odour of a rose. A thought to Donne was an experience; it modified his sensibility.

When a poet's mind is perfectly equipped for its work, it is constantly amalgamating disparate experience; the ordinary man's experience is chaotic, irregular, fragmentary. The latter falls in love, or reads Spinoza, and these two experiences have nothing to do with each other, or with the noise of the typewriter or the smell of cooking; in Alexander Graham Bell Essay, the mind of the poet these experiences are always forming new wholes. We may express the difference by the following theory: The poets of the analysis seventeenth century, the successors of the dramatists of the sixteenth, possessed a mechanism of sensibility which could devour any kind of Two Lectures on Inferiority, experience. They are simple, artificial, difficult, or fantastic, as their predecessors were; no less nor more than Dante, Guido Cavalcanti, Guinizelli, or Cino. In the seventeenth century a dissociation of sensibility set in, from which we have never recovered; and this dissociation, as is short analysis natural, was aggravated by the influence of the two most powerful poets of the century, Milton and Dryden.

Each of these men performed certain poetic functions so magnificently well that the magnitude of the effect concealed the absence of others. The language went on and in some respects improved; the best verse of Collins, Gray, Johnson, and even Goldsmith satisfies some of our fastidious demands better than that of about Amy Tan’s, Donne or Marvell or King. But while the language became more refined, the feeling became more crude. Short! The feeling, the sensibility, expressed in the Country Churchyard (to say nothing of Tennyson and Essay, Browning) is cruder than that in the Coy Mistress . The second effect of the analysis influence of Milton and Dryden followed from the first, and was therefore slow in manifestation. The sentimental age began early in the eighteenth century, and king xvi last words, continued.

The poets revolted against short, the ratiocinative, the descriptive; they thought and felt by king louis words, fits, unbalanced; they reflected. In one or two passages of Shelley's Triumph of Life , in the second Hyperion , there are traces of story, a struggle toward unification of sensibility. But Keats and Shelley died, and Women’s Essay, Tennyson and Browning ruminated. After this brief exposition of a theory--too brief, perhaps, to carry conviction--we may ask, what would have been the fate of the metaphysical had the current of poetry descended in a direct line from them, as it descended in a direct line to them? They would not, certainly, be classified as metaphysical. The possible interests of a poet are unlimited; the more intelligent he is the better; the more intelligent he is the more likely that he will have interests: our only analysis, condition is that he turn them into poetry, and not merely meditate on them poetically. A philosophical theory which has entered into poetry is established, for its truth or falsity in one sense ceases to matter, and its truth in Women’s Suns by Khaled examples, another sense is short story analysis proved. The poets in question have, like other poets, various faults. But they were, at best, engaged in the task of trying to find the verbal equivalent for states of mind and feeling. And this means both that they are more mature, and Technology Role, that they wear better, than later poets of certainly not less literary ability.

It is not a permanent necessity that poets should be interested in philosophy, or in any other subject. We can only story, say that it appears likely that poets in our civilization, as it exists at present, must be difficult . Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. King Louis Xvi Last! (A brilliant and extreme statement of this view, with which it is not requisite to associate oneself, is that of M. Jean Epstein, La Posie d' aujourd-hui .) Hence we get something which looks very much like the conceit--we get, in fact, a method curiously similar to that of the metaphysical poets, similar also in its use of obscure words and of simple phrasing. O graniums diaphanes, guerroyeurs sortilges, Emballages, devergondages, douches! O pressoirs.

Des vendanges des grands soirs! Layettes aux abois, Thyrses am fond des bois! Relevailles, compresses et l'ternal potion, Anglus! n'en pouvoir plus. De dbcles nuptiales! de dbcles nuptiales! The same poet could write also simply:

Elle est bien loin, elle pleure, Le grand vent se lamente aussi . . . Jules Laforgue, and Tristan Corbire in many of his poems, are nearer to the school of short, Donne than any modern English poet. But poets more classical than they have the same essential quality of transmuting ideas into sensations, of transforming an on Alternative Education Programs observation into a state of mind. Pour 1'enfant, amoureux de cartes et d'estampes, L'univers est gal son vaste apptit. Ah, que le monde est grand la clart des lampes! Aux yeux du souvenir que le monde est petit! [Baudelaire] In French literature the great master of the seventeenth century--Racine--and the great master of the nineteenth--Baudelaire--are in some ways more like each other than they are like any one else. The greatest two masters of diction are also the greatest two psychologists, the most curious explorers of the soul. It is interesting to speculate whether it is not a misfortune that two of the greatest masters of diction in story, our language, Milton and Dryden, triumph with a dazzling disregard of the soul.

If we continued to Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction produce Miltons and Drydens it might not so much matter, but as things are it is a pity that English poetry has remained so incomplete. Short Story Analysis! Those who object to Essay about Fiction and Biography the artificiality of Milton or Dryden sometimes tell us to look into short, our hearts and Essay about Advancing and the Role, write. But that is not looking deep enough; Racine or Donne looked into short story, a good deal more than the heart. One must look into Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay, the cerebral cortex, the nervous system, and short story analysis, the digestive tracts. May we not conclude, then, that Donne, Crashaw, Vaughan, Herbert and Lord Herbert, Marvell, King, Cowley at his best, are in the direct current of English poetry, and that their faults should be reprimanded by this standard rather than coddled by antiquarian affection? They have been enough praised in terms which are implicit limitations because they are metaphysical or witty, quaint or obscure, though at Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining Fiction their best they have not these attributes more than other serious poets. On the other hand, we must not reject the criticism of short story, Johnson (a dangerous person to disagree with) without having mastered it, without having assimilated the Johnsonian canons of taste.

In reading the celebrated passage in his essay on Cowley we must remember that by wit he clearly means something more serious than we usually mean today; in his criticism of their versification we must remember in what a narrow discipline he was trained, but also how well trained; we must remember that Johnson tortures chiefly the chief offenders, Cowley and Cleveland. It would be a fruitful work, and one requiring a substantial book, to break up the classification of Johnson (for there has been none since) and exhibit these poets in all their difference of kind and of degree, from the massive music of Donne to the faint, pleasing tinkle of about Advancing Technology Nurse's Role, Aurelian Townshend--whose Dialogue between a Pilgrim and Time is one of the few regrettable omissions from the excellent anthology of Professor Grierson.

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essay workshop ideas You and short story analysis your students encounter persuasive writing everyday. Whether it's the radio announcer telling you why you should keep listening to his station, the television commercial showing you the results of a specific toothpaste, the magazine article examining the Essay about Advancing Technology and the, life of your favorite rock star, or even the short analysis, President of the United States giving the State of the about Search, Union address, persuasive writing plays an important part in your everyday life. During this workshop, you will take students step-by-step through the process of writing a persuasive essay. Short! The student's goal in Graham Bell persuasive writing is to try and convince people to agree with them about a specific issue. It is important for students to understand that persuasive writing relies heavily on facts- not opinions. That means they'll need to do a little research before they ever place pencil to paper. Short! While the focus of on Inferiority Essay this project is the creation of a persuasive essay, the step-by-step instruction for completing the essay revolves entirely around the writing process. You and story analysis your students encounter persuasive writing everyday. Whether it's the radio announcer telling you why you should keep listening to his station, the television commercial showing you the results of a specific toothpaste, the magazine article examining the life of your favorite rock star, or even the President of the United States giving the State of the louis, Union address, persuasive writing plays an important part in short story analysis your everyday life.

During this workshop, you will take students step-by-step through the process of writing a persuasive essay. The student's goal in persuasive writing is to Education, try and convince people to agree with them about a specific issue. It is analysis, important for students to Two Lectures on Inferiority Essay, understand that persuasive writing relies heavily on facts- not opinions. That means they'll need to short story analysis, do a little research before they ever place pencil to paper. While the focus of this project is the creation of a persuasive essay, the step-by-step instruction for completing the essay revolves entirely around the writing process. A typical class following the entire set of Persuasive Writing lesson plans can expect to spend one class period each school day for three to five weeks, depending on class size, grade level, and about and the Nurse's resources. Short Story! Our weekly lesson planner has divided the project up into a four-week schedule. However, you may choose to work at a slower or faster pace than what we've outlined.

It should be noted that a good portion of the work required to complete this project (including the required research) could be completed away from school. This Writer's Workshop project gives students the opportunity to become comfortable with the writing process as they work to complete a persuasive essay. The workshop is designed to take students through each step of the Essay on Alternative Programs, writing process and includes tutorials, worksheets, online planning tools and interactive mini-lessons. Begin your workshop with a quick mini-lesson designed to enhance students' use of transitional words and phrases and fine tune their use of short story analysis supporting examples- each important skills required for Women’s Essay writing a successful persuasive essay. We've provided both interactive online versions of our mini-lessons as well as printable versions you may copy for story analysis each student. The pre-writing stage of this project is probably one of the most important. It's during this stage that students will choose their issue person, research an issue, and finally, plan the structure of their essay.

During this step, students will refer to their research notes and use their structural plans as they begin to create a rough draft of Alexander Graham Bell Essay their report. A rough draft allows students to begin the process of organizing their work and get their thoughts down on paper. During this phase of the writing process, grammar, spelling, and punctuation aren't of utmost importance. The revision process concentrates on the content of their persuasive writing. As students begin the process of story analysis revising their work you'll want to remind them that revising doesn't involve making changes for spelling, grammar, or punctuation.

While editing isn't always a student's favorite task, it's an important task nonetheless. A Thousand Splendid Suns Essay Examples! During this stage, students will check spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and short analysis subject/ verb agreement. The review cycle allows students one more look before taking their work public. During this phase we discuss number of different ways to students may conduct a review process including: peer review, expert review, and self-assessment. Writer's Workshop: Persuasive Writing correlates with many of the national standards for language arts. National Council of Teachers of Essay Education English (NCTE) and the International Reading Association (IRA) include: Students read a wide range of print and short nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to Essay Technology Role, respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts.

They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of story analysis textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics). Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to louis xvi last words, communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for short analysis a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and Alexander Graham discuss print and story non-print texts. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. Students use a variety of technological and on Inferiority Essay information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and analysis communicate knowledge.

Students develop an Essay on Alternative Education Programs understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of story analysis a variety of literacy communities. Graham Bell! Students use spoken, written, and story visual language to Alexander, accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information). Technology Foundation Standards for Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity. use technology tools to collaborate and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences. use a variety of short media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences. use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources. use technology tools to process data and report results employ technology in the development of strategies for king xvi last words solving problems in the real world. use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity. use technology to short analysis, locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources. Rights Within A Thousand Suns Hosseini Essay Examples! use technology tools to process data and report results. Introduction to the Unit Mini-Lesson (1 day) Begin the unit with a discussion of persuasive writing and its many uses. Explain that persuasive writing is a tool for getting others to analysis, understand a particular point of view. If possible, provide adequate examples of persuasive writing students may have already encountered without even being aware of the fact. Be sure to explain that persuasive writing relies heavily on facts- not opinions.

That means students will be doing a little research before they actually begin writing. Next, discuss the overall scope and sequence of the workshop. If your class isn't already familiar with the steps of the writing process, review the steps and activities involved with each step. Essay! Be sure to include how much class time and homework will be involved with this project. The mini-lessons that accompany this unit, using transitional words and supporting examples align nicely with the type of writing required to short story analysis, create a persuasive essay. Start by explaining the importance of transitional words and phrases. Discuss how these skills make it easier to compare and contrast viewpoints- an important skill in words persuasive writing. Allow time for students to experience the online activities. End the story analysis, day with a lesson on supporting details and Graham their relevance in short story analysis persuasive writing. Explain that the supporting details must be facts, not opinions and that these details will be obtained through research. If possible, bring in examples of persuasive writing and ask the students to Essay, locate supporting details included by the author and then make a list of transitional words and phrases the author used.

The first, and most important step for writing a persuasive essay is deciding what a student wants persuade someone to believe. Is there a compelling social issue they'd like to correct, a situation within the school that they'd like to change, an issue from short analysis history that needs to be addressed, or maybe even a political condition they'd like to explore- the louis xvi last words, possibilities are endless! Once students have decided on an issue they'd like to explore, give ample time for the research process. Explain that good research is short, critical to a successful persuasive essay. It is xvi last words, essential that they have content to back up their claims.

Remind students to take detailed notes as they record information that documents both sides of their issue. Short Story Analysis! They will be referring to these notes as they begin to draft their paper. Encourage the use of a variety of different resources: encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, textbooks, online interviews, public documents, and face-to-face interviews with experts. List the arguments (2#150;3 days) Discuss the importance of relevant arguments in persuasive writing. Distribute the Arguments For and Arguments Against worksheet.

Examine the fact that it is impossible to and the Role, persuade someone to believe one's viewpoint without also considering the viewpoint of those who may disagree with him or her. Brainstorm as many examples as possible. Have students review their research and then use the worksheet to create a list of arguments for short story and arguments against Essay about Amy Tan’s Search Intertwining their issue. Finally, explain that ultimately they will be choosing their three best arguments to story analysis, include in their writing. Plan the Structure (1#150;2 days) Explain that all persuasive essays should contain the following elements: Opening/Introduction: In this area students will introduce their readers to the topic and give a little background information. Tell students that it works well to state the king louis words, topic in the form of a question- Is the Iditarod an example of cruelty to animals or a sporting event? They must be sure to state their position on the issue within the last sentence of the paragraph. In the opening, they should pull the reader in and give them a reason to keep reading.

Body: Explain that the body of their essay should contain at least three paragraphs. Short Story! Each paragraph must state a different viewpoint on their topic, examine the opposition to within by Khaled Hosseini, that viewpoint and provide a defense of that viewpoint. Many of the best examples of short story analysis persuasive writing save the most compelling viewpoint for third body paragraph leaving the reader with the strongest point before closing. The defense must be supported with evidence documented through research. Remind students not to forget the reason for examining an opposing viewpoint- they're trying to Alexander Graham Essay, prove, through the use of factual information-why their opinion is better. Within each paragraph students must be sure to analysis, use powerful transitional words and phrases as you compare each point. Closing/Conclusion: Explain that the conclusion should always restate the issue and king words then quickly tie in the three viewpoints examined in the body paragraphs.

Students should never introduce new information in the closing. Story Analysis! Tell them to simply summarize the arguments and then close with a powerful statement relating to Alexander Graham, their originally stated issue. Week three is when the real writing begins. Students should write their drafts and make revisions to content. A rough draft allows students to begin the process of organizing their work and getting their thoughts down on paper.

As they begin this phase of the work, remind students to focus on the content and allow their ideas to flow freely. Grammar, spelling, and punctuation will be corrected in later steps of the short analysis, writing process. Next, send the students to their desks and have them read through research and about Advancing and the Nurse's review their structural planing sheet. Require students to short analysis, spend an adequate amount of Essay time students thinking about ways to open their reports - a great hook to keep the reader interested. Finally, allow students at least one class period and additional time at home to complete this part of the process.

Remind students that this is simply a time to get their thoughts on paper- get content down now, and go back later to make corrections. When everyone has completed his or her first draft, it's time to begin the analysis, revision process. Spend time discussing what actually happens during a revision. Add additional information Rearrange events or information Remove unneeded information Replace existing text with new text that better describes or adds additional insight. Remind students that they do not need to correct grammar, punctuation, or spelling during this phase of the king words, writing process.

Tip for Students: A great way to check flow, content, and sentence structure is to read a paper out loud. Once students have drafted and revised their work, it's time to check for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, subject/verb agreement, and spelling. The essays are almost ready for their debut. Story! The reviewing process comes next. This step is Hosseini, painful to some students, so be sure to offer a variety of options for review. Short Story Analysis! Teacher Conference Peer Review Self-Assessment Tell students to think of the Reviewing process as a dress rehearsal#151;one last time to get it right before the rest of the Essay Amy Tan’s Search for Self-Identity: Intertwining and Biography, world gets to see their report. In some schools, this step is called Celebrate. Story! In many aspects, publishing is a form of celebration. It's a time for Essay students to share their work with others and in short story this case, the world. There are many great ways to publish a persuasive essay. One great way is to share it with the world by posting it on Essay on Alternative, the Internet.

Other great publishing ideas include: Using their persuasive writing as the base, have each student create a 60-second videotaped commercial designed to convince others of their views. Actually mail the short analysis, students' papers to the person or organization they're trying to persuade. Be sure to have them request a formal response to their letter. Have students use a multimedia software program to on Inferiority, create an short story analysis interactive version of their writing complete with graphics, photos, and recordings that help state their argument. Host a debate on the issues.

Ask fellow students to take the opposing viewpoints, research their side, and then host a debate. See if you can get your school or local paper to publish the students' persuasive writing attempts.