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No Silver Bullet: Essence and on Pharmaceutical Contracts Accidents of Software Engineering. Of all the monsters that fill the Frederic Code Hero, nightmares of on Pharmaceutical our folklore, none terrify more than werewolves, because they transform unexpectedly from the familiar into horrors. For these, one seeks bullets of silver that can magically lay them to rest. The familiar software project, at least as seen by bacon the nontechnical manager, has something of this character; it is usually innocent and straightforward, but is capable of becoming a monster of missed schedules, blown budgets, and on Pharmaceutical Contracts flawed products. So we hear desperate cries for a silver bullet--something to make software costs drop as rapidly as computer hardware costs do. But, as we look to the horizon of a decade hence, we see no silver bullet. There is no single development, in either technology or in management technique, that by itself promises even one order-of-magnitude improvement in productivity, in reliability, in simplicity. In this article, I shall try to show why, by examining both the Crimea-Whose is it, nature of the software problem and the properties of the bullets proposed. Skepticism is not pessimism, however.

Although we see no startling breakthroughs--and indeed, I believe such to be inconsistent with the nature of software--many encouraging innovations are under way. A disciplined, consistent effort to on Pharmaceutical Contracts, develop, propagate, and exploit these innovations should indeed yield an order-of-magnitude improvement. There is no royal road, but there is a road. The first step toward the number, management of disease was replacement of demon theories and humours theories by the germ theory. That very step, the beginning of hope, in itself dashed all hopes of magical solutions. It told workers that progress would be made stepwise, at great effort, and that a persistent, unremitting care would have to be paid to a discipline of cleanliness. So it is with software engineering today. Does It Have to Essay on Pharmaceutical, Be Hard?--Essential Difficulties. First, one must observe that the anomaly is not that software progress is so slow, but that computer hardware progress is so fast.

No other technology since civilization began has seen six orders of Bank Study Essay magnitude in performance price gain in 30 years. In no other technology can one choose to take the Essay, gain in either improved performance or in reduced costs. These gains flow from the transformation of computer manufacture from an assembly industry into a process industry. Second, to see what rate of progress one can expect in software technology, let us examine the difficulties of Land that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them into essence , the difficulties inherent in Contracts the nature of Code Hero Essay software, and Contracts accidents , those difficulties that today attend its production but are not inherent. The essence of a software entity is a construct of Fashion Essay interlocking concepts: data sets, relationships among data items, algorithms, and invocations of functions. On Pharmaceutical. This essence is abstract in that such a conceptual construct is the same under many different representations. It is Fashion Essay, nonetheless highly precise and richly detailed.

I believe the hard part of on Pharmaceutical building software to be the specification, design, and Crimea-Whose Land is it Essay testing of this conceptual construct, not the labor of representing it and testing the fidelity of the representation . We still make syntax errors, to be sure; but they are fuzz compared with the conceptual errors in Essay on Pharmaceutical most systems. If this is true, building software will always be hard. There is inherently no silver bullet. Let us consider the inherent properties of this irreducible essence of modern software systems: complexity, conformity, changeability, and invisibility. Complexity. Bank Case Essay. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct because no two parts are alike (at least above the on Pharmaceutical, statement level). If they are, we make the two similar parts into men domination, a subroutine--open or closed. In this respect, software systems differ profoundly from Essay on Pharmaceutical, computers, buildings, or automobiles, where repeated elements abound. Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build: They have very large numbers of states.

This makes conceiving, describing, and testing them hard. Software systems have orders-of-magnitude more states than computers do. Likewise, a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger sizes, it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements. In most cases, the elements interact with each other in some nonlinear fashion, and donald trump the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly. The complexity of software is an on Pharmaceutical Contracts essential property, not an accidental one. Hence, descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence. For three centuries, mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides by Fashion Essay constructing simplified models of complex phenomena, deriving properties from the models, and verifying those properties by experiment.

This paradigm worked because the complexities ignored in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena. It does not work when the complexities are the essence. Many of the Essay Contracts, classic problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size. From the Frederic Hero, complexity comes the difficulty of communication among team members, which leads to product flaws, cost overruns, schedule delays. From the complexity comes the Essay Contracts, difficulty of enumerating, much less understanding, all the possible states of the program, and from that comes the unreliability. Royal Bank Of Scotland Case Essay. From complexity of Essay on Pharmaceutical function comes the difficulty of invoking function, which makes programs hard to Frederic Hero Essay, use.

From complexity of structure comes the difficulty of Essay on Pharmaceutical extending programs to new functions without creating side effects. From complexity of structure come the unvisualized states that constitute security trapdoors. Not only technical problems, but management problems as well come from the complexity. It makes overview hard, thus impeding conceptual integrity. It makes it hard to find and men domination control all the loose ends. It creates the Contracts, tremendous learning and understanding burden that makes personnel turnover a disaster.

Conformity. Software people are not alone in facing complexity. Physics deals with terribly complex objects even at the fundamental particle level. The physicist labors on, however, in a firm faith that there are unifying principles to be found, whether in quarks or in unifiedfield theories. Einstein argued that there must be simplified explanations of nature, because God is not capricious or arbitrary. No such faith comforts the software engineer. Much of the complexity that he must master is arbitrary complexity, forced without rhyme or reason by the many human institutions and systems to Hero Essay, which his interfaces must conform. These differ from on Pharmaceutical Contracts, interface to Crimea-Whose is it Anyways? Essay, interface, and from time to time, not because of on Pharmaceutical necessity but only because they were designed by different people, rather than by God. In many cases, the software must conform because it is the most recent arrival on the scene.

In others, it must conform because it is perceived as the most conformable. But in all cases, much complexity comes from conformation to other interfaces; this complexity cannot be simplified out by men domination any redesign of the software alone. Changeability. The software entity is constantly subject to pressures for change. Of course, so are buildings, cars, computers. Essay Contracts. But manufactured things are infrequently changed after manufacture; they are superseded by later models, or essential changes are incorporated into later-serial-number copies of the same basic design. Call-backs of automobiles are really quite infrequent; field changes of computers somewhat less so.

Both are much less frequent than modifications to fielded software. In part, this is so because the software of a system embodies its function, and the function is the part that most feels the pressures of change. In part it is because software can be changed more easily--it is pure thought-stuff, infinitely malleable. Royal Essay. Buildings do in fact get changed, but the on Pharmaceutical, high costs of change, understood by all, serve to dampen the whims of the changers. All successful software gets changed. Two processes are at Royal of Scotland work.

First, as a software product is found to be useful, people try it in new cases at the edge of or beyond the original domain. The pressures for extended function come chiefly from users who like the basic function and invent new uses for it. Second, successful software survives beyond the normal life of the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, machine vehicle for zoroastrianism and christianity which it is first written. If not new computers, then at least new disks, new displays, new printers come along; and the software must be conformed to Essay Contracts, its new vehicles of Land is it opportunity. In short, the Essay, software product is embedded in a cultural matrix of applications, users, laws, and machine vehicles. These all change continually, and their changes inexorably force change upon the software product. Invisibility. Crimea-Whose Is It Anyways? Essay. Software is invisible and Contracts unvisualizable. Geometric abstractions are powerful tools.

The floor plan of zoroastrianism a building helps both architect and on Pharmaceutical Contracts client evaluate spaces, traffic flows, views. Contradictions and Fashion Essay omissions become obvious. Contracts. Scale drawings of mechanical parts and men domination stick-figure models of molecules, although abstractions, serve the same purpose. A geometric reality is captured in a geometric abstraction. The reality of software is not inherently embedded in space. Hence, it has no ready geometric representation in the way that land has maps, silicon chips have diagrams, computers have connectivity schematics. As soon as we attempt to diagram software structure, we find it to constitute not one, but several, general directed graphs superimposed one upon another. The several graphs may represent the flow of control, the flow of data, patterns of dependency, time sequence, name-space relationships.

These graphs are usually not even planar, much less hierarchical. Indeed, one of the Contracts, ways of establishing conceptual control over such structure is to Anyways? Essay, enforce link cutting until one or more of the Essay, graphs becomes hierarchical. [1] In spite of progress in restricting and simplifying the structures of software, they remain inherently unvisualizable, and trump thus do not permit the mind to use some of its most powerful conceptual tools. This lack not only impedes the Essay on Pharmaceutical, process of design within one mind, it severely hinders communication among minds. Past Breakthroughs Solved Accidental Difficulties. High-level languages. Surely the most powerful stroke for software productivity, reliability, and simplicity has been the progressive use of high-level languages for programming. Most observers credit that development with at least a factor of five in productivity, and with concomitant gains in reliability, simplicity, and comprehensibility. What does a high-level language accomplish? It frees a program from much of its accidental complexity.

An abstract program consists of conceptual constructs: operations, data types, sequences, and communication. The concrete machine program is concerned with bits, registers, conditions, branches, channels, disks, and such. To the extent that the high-level language embodies the donald number, constructs one wants in the abstract program and Essay Contracts avoids all lower ones, it eliminates a whole level of complexity that was never inherent in the program at all. The most a high-level language can do is to furnish all the constructs that the programmer imagines in the abstract program. To be sure, the level of our thinking about Crimea-Whose Land Anyways? Essay, data structures, data types, and operations is steadily rising, but at an ever decreasing rate. And language development approaches closer and closer to the sophistication of users.

Moreover, at some point the elaboration of a high-level language creates a tool-mastery burden that increases, not reduces, the intellectual task of the user who rarely uses the esoteric constructs. Time-sharing . Time-sharing brought a major improvement in on Pharmaceutical Contracts the productivity of donald trump bacon programmers and in the quality of their product, although not so large as that brought by high-level languages. Time-sharing attacks a quite different difficulty. Time-sharing preserves immediacy, and hence enables one to maintain an overview of complexity. The slow turnaround of batch programming means that one inevitably forgets the minutiae, if not the very thrust, of what one was thinking when he stopped programming and called for compilation and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts execution. This interruption is costly in time, for one must refresh one's memory. And Christianity. The most serious effect may well be the decay of the grasp of all that is going on in a complex system. Slow turnaround, like machine-language complexities, is an accidental rather than an essential difficulty of the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, software process.

The limits of the potential contribution of Bank of Scotland time-sharing derive directly. The principal effect of timesharing is to shorten system response time. As this response time goes to zero, at on Pharmaceutical Contracts some point it passes the human threshold of noticeability, about 100 milliseconds. Beyond that threshold, no benefits are to be expected. Unified programming environments. Unix and Interlisp, the first integrated programming environments to come into widespread use, seem to Study, have improved productivity by integral factors. Why? They attack the accidental difficulties that result from using individual programs together, by providing integrated libraries, unified file formats, and pipes and filters. Essay On Pharmaceutical. As a result, conceptual structures that in principle could always call, feed, and use one another can indeed easily do so in practice. This breakthrough in turn stimulated the development of whole toolbenches, since each new tool could be applied to any programs that used the standard formats.

Because of these successes, environments are the subject of much of today's software-engineering research. We look at their promise and limitations in the next section. Ada and other high-level language advances. One of the most touted recent developments is Ada, a general-purpose high-level language of the zoroastrianism and christianity, 1980's. Ada not only reflects evolutionary improvements in language concepts, but indeed embodies features to encourage modern design and modularization. Perhaps the Ada philosophy is more of an advance than the Ada language, for it is the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, philosophy of modularization, of abstract data types, of Fashion Essay hierarchical structuring. Ada is over-rich, a natural result of the process by Essay on Pharmaceutical which requirements were laid on its design. Men Domination. That is not fatal, for subsetted working vocabularies can solve the learning problem, and hardware advances will give us the Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, cheap MIPS to pay for the compiling costs. Advancing the structuring of software systems is indeed a very good use for the increased MIPS our dollars will buy. Operating systems, loudly decried in the 1960's for zoroastrianism their memory and cycle costs, have proved to be an Contracts excellent form in which to use some of the MIPS and cheap memory bytes of the past hardware surge. Nevertheless, Ada will not prove to be the silver bullet that slays the software productivity monster.

It is, after all, just another high-level language, and the biggest payoff from such languages came from the first transition -- the Fashion Essay, transition up from the accidental complexities of the Contracts, machine into the more abstract statement of donald trump step-by-step solutions. Essay. Once those accidents have been removed, the remaining ones will be smaller, and zoroastrianism the payoff from on Pharmaceutical, their removal will surely be less. I predict that a decade from now, when the effectiveness of Ada is assessed, it will be seen to have made a substantial difference, but not because of any particular language feature, nor indeed because of all of them combined. Neither will the new Ada environments prove to be the cause of the improvements. Ada's greatest contribution will be that switching to it occasioned training programmers in modern software-design techniques. Object-oriented programming. Many students of the art hold out bacon number more hope for object-oriented programming than for Essay any of the other technical fads of the day. [2] I am among them. Mark Sherman of Dartmouth notes on CSnet News that one must be careful to distinguish two separate ideas that go under that name: abstract data types and hierarchical types . Fashion Essay. The concept of the abstract data type is that an object's type should be defined by a name, a set of proper values, and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts a set of proper operations rather than by its storage structure, which should be hidden. Examples are Ada packages (with private types) and Modula's modules. Hierarchical types, such as Simula-67's classes, allow one to define general interfaces that can be further refined by providing subordinate types.

The two concepts are orthogonal_one may have hierarchies without hiding and hiding without hierarchies. Both concepts represent real advances in the art of building software. Each removes yet another accidental difficulty from the of Scotland Study, process, allowing the designer to express the essence of the design without having to express large amounts of syntactic material that add no information content. For both abstract types and hierarchical types, the result is to remove a higher-order kind of on Pharmaceutical accidental difficulty and Land Essay allow a higher-order expression of design. Nevertheless, such advances can do no more than to remove all the accidental difficulties from the expression of the design. The complexity of the design itself is essential, and such attacks make no change whatever in that. An order-of-magnitude gain can be made by object-oriented programming only if the Essay on Pharmaceutical, unnecessary type-specification underbrush still in our programming language is itself nine-tenths of the work involved in designing a program product. I doubt it. Artificial intelligence. Many people expect advances in artificial intelligence to provide the revolutionary breakthrough that will give order-of-magnitude gains in software productivity and zoroastrianism and christianity quality. [3] I do not.

To see why, we must dissect what is meant by artificial intelligence. D.L. Parnas has clarified the terminological chaos: [4] Two quite different definitions of AI are in common use today. AI-1: The use of computers to solve problems that previously could only be solved by applying human intelligence.

Al-2: The use of Essay a specific set of programming techniques known as heuristic or rule-based programming. In this approach human experts are studied to determine what heuristics or rules of zoroastrianism and christianity thumb they use in solving problems. On Pharmaceutical. The program is designed to solve a problem the way that humans seem to Royal Bank, solve it. The first definition has a sliding meaning. Something can fit the definition of Al-1 today but, once we see how the program works and Essay understand the problem, we will not think of it as Al any more. Unfortunately I cannot identify a body of technology that is Crimea-Whose Land Anyways? Essay, unique to this field. Most of the work is problem-specific, and some abstraction or creativity is required to see how to transfer it. I agree completely with this critique. The techniques used for Essay Contracts speech recognition seem to have little in common with those used for image recognition, and both are different from those used in expert systems. I have a hard time seeing how image recognition, for Royal Bank example, will make any appreciable difference in programming practice. The same problem is true of speech recognition.

The hard thing about building software is deciding what one wants to say, not saying it. No facilitation of expression can give more than marginal gains. Expert-systems technology, AI-2, deserves a section of its own. Expert systems. The most advanced part of the artificial intelligence art, and the most widely applied, is the technology for building expert systems. Essay. Many software scientists are hard at work applying this technology to men domination, the software-building environment. [3, 5] What is the concept, and what are the prospects? An expert system is a program that contains a generalized inference engine and Essay a rule base, takes input data and assumptions, explores the men domination, inferences derivable from the rule base, yields conclusions and advice, and on Pharmaceutical Contracts offers to explain its results by retracing its reasoning for the user. The inference engines typically can deal with fuzzy or probabilistic data and rules, in Crimea-Whose Land Essay addition to purely deterministic logic. Such systems offer some clear advantages over programmed algorithms designed for arriving at the same solutions to the same problems: Inference-engine technology is developed in an application-independent way, and then applied to many uses. On Pharmaceutical. One can justify much effort on the inference engines.

Indeed, that technology is well advanced. The changeable parts of the application-peculiar materials are encoded in the rule base in a uniform fashion, and tools are provided for trump number developing, changing, testing, and documenting the rule base. Essay On Pharmaceutical. This regularizes much of the complexity of the application itself. The power of such systems does not come from ever-fancier inference mechanisms but rather from ever-richer knowledge bases that reflect the real world more accurately. I believe that the men domination, most important advance offered by the technology is the separation of the application complexity from the program itself.

How can this technology be applied to the software-engineering task? In many ways: Such systems can suggest interface rules, advise on testing strategies, remember bug-type frequencies, and offer optimization hints. Consider an imaginary testing advisor, for example. In its most rudimentary form, the on Pharmaceutical, diagnostic expert system is very like a pilot's checklist, just enumerating suggestions as to possible causes of difficulty. As more and more system structure is embodied in the rule base, and as the rule base takes more sophisticated account of the trouble symptoms reported, the testing advisor becomes more and more particular in the hypotheses it generates and the tests it recommends. Such an expert system may depart most radically from the conventional ones in donald number that its rule base should probably be hierarchically modularized in the same way the corresponding software product is, so that as the Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, product is modularly modified, the diagnostic rule base can be modularly modified as well. The work required to generate the men domination, diagnostic rules is work that would have to be done anyway in generating the set of on Pharmaceutical Contracts test cases for the modules and for the system. If it is Crimea-Whose Land is it Anyways? Essay, done in a suitably general manner, with both a uniform structure for rules and a good inference engine available, it may actually reduce the Essay on Pharmaceutical, total labor of generating bring-up test cases, and help as well with lifelong maintenance and Fashion Essay modification testing. In the same way, one can postulate other advisors, probably many and probably simple, for the other parts of the software-construction task.

Many difficulties stand in the way of the on Pharmaceutical, early realization of useful expert-system advisors to Fashion Essay, the program developer. A crucial part of our imaginary scenario is the development of easy ways to get from program-structure specification to the automatic or semiautomatic generation of diagnostic rules. Even more difficult and important is the twofold ,task of knowledge acquisition: finding articulate, self-analytical experts who know why they do things, and on Pharmaceutical developing efficient techniques for zoroastrianism extracting what they know and distilling it into Contracts, rule bases. The essential prerequisite for building an expert system is to have an expert. The most powerful contribution by expert systems will surely be to put at the service of the Fashion Essay, inexperienced programmer the Essay on Pharmaceutical, experience and accumulated wisdom of the best programmers.

This is no small contribution. The gap between the best software engineering practice and the average practice is very wide_perhaps wider than in any other engineering discipline. A tool that disseminates good practice would be important. Automatic programming. For almost 40 years, people have been anticipating and writing about automatic programming, or the generation of Bank of Scotland Case Study Essay a program for solving a problem from a statement of the problem specifications. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts. Some today write as if they expect this technology to provide the next breakthrough. [5] Parnas [4] implies that the term is used for glamour, not for semantic content, asserting, In short, automatic programming always has been a euphemism for programming with a higher-level language than was presently available to the programmer. He argues, in essence, that in Royal of Scotland Essay most cases it is the solution method, not the Contracts, problem, whose specification has to be given. One can find exceptions. The technique of building generators is zoroastrianism and christianity, very powerful, and it is routinely used to good advantage in programs for sorting.

Some systems for integrating differential equations have also permitted direct specification of the Essay, problem, and the systems have assessed the parameters, chosen from Bank Case, a library of methods of solution, and generated the programs. These applications have very favorable properties: The problems are readily characterized by relatively few parameters. There are many known methods of solution to on Pharmaceutical, provide a library of alternatives. Extensive analysis has led to bacon number, explicit rules for selecting solution techniques, given problem parameters. It is hard to see how such techniques generalize to the wider world of the ordinary software system, where cases with such neat properties are the exception. It is hard even to imagine how this breakthrough in generalization could occur. Graphical programming. A favorite subject for Essay on Pharmaceutical PhD dissertations in software engineering is Anyways?, graphical, or visual, programming--the application of computer graphics to software design. [6, 7] Sometimes the promise held out by such an approach is postulated by analogy with VLSI chip design, in which computer graphics plays so fruitful a role. On Pharmaceutical. Sometimes the theorist justifies the approach by considering flowcharts as the ideal program-design medium and by providing powerful facilities for constructing them.

Nothing even convincing, much less exciting, has yet emerged from Frederic Hero Essay, such efforts. I am persuaded that nothing will. In the first place, as I have argued elsewhere [8], the flowchart is a very poor abstraction of software structure. Indeed, it is best viewed as Burks, von Neumann, and Goldstine's attempt to Essay Contracts, provide a desperately needed high-level control language for their proposed computer. In the pitiful, multipage, connection-boxed form to which the flowchart has today been elaborated, it has proved to be useless as a design tool--programmers draw flowcharts after, not before, writing the programs they describe. Second, the screens of today are too small, in pixels, to show both the scope and the resolution of Henry: Code Hero Essay any seriously detailed software diagram. The so-called desktop metaphor of today's workstation is instead an airplane-seat metaphor. Anyone who has shuffled a lap full of papers while seated between two portly passengers will recognize the Essay, difference--one can see only Fashion Essay, a very few things at once. Essay On Pharmaceutical. The true desktop provides overview of, and random access to, a score of pages. Moreover, when fits of creativity run strong, more than one programmer or writer has been known to abandon the desktop for the more spacious floor. The hardware technology will have to advance quite substantially before the is it Anyways? Essay, scope of our scopes is sufficient for the software-design task.

More fundamentally, as I have argued above, software is very difficult to Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, visualize. Whether one diagrams control flow, variable-scope nesting, variable cross references, dataflow, hierarchical data structures, or whatever, one feels only one dimension of the intricately interlocked software elephant. If one superimposes all the diagrams generated by the many relevant views, it is difficult to extract any global overview. Study Essay. The VLSI analogy is fundamentally misleading--a chip design is a layered two-dimensional description whose geometry reflects its realization in 3-space. Contracts. A software system is not. Program verification. Much of the effort in modern programming goes into testing and the repair of bugs. Is there perhaps a silver bullet to be found by eliminating the errors at the source, in the system-design phase?

Can both productivity and product reliability be radically enhanced by men domination following the Essay, profoundly different strategy of proving designs correct before the immense effort is poured into implementing and testing them? I do not believe we will find productivity magic here. Program verification is Code Hero Essay, a very powerful concept, and it will be very important for such things as secure operating-system kernels. The technology does not promise, however, to save labor. Verifications are so much work that only a few substantial programs have ever been verified.

Program verification does not mean error-proof programs. There is no magic here, either. Mathematical proofs also can be faulty. So whereas verification might reduce the program-testing load, it cannot eliminate it. More seriously, even perfect program verification can only establish that a program meets its specification. The hardest part of the software task is arriving at Contracts a complete and consistent specification, and much of the essence of building a program is in and christianity fact the Contracts, debugging of the specification. Environments and tools. Trump. How much more gain can be expected from the exploding researches into better programming environments?

One's instinctive reaction is that the big-payoff problems-- hierarchical file systems, uniform file formats to make possible uniform program interfaces, and Essay generalized tools--were the first attacked, and have been solved. Language-specific smart editors are developments not yet widely used in Henry: practice, but the most they promise is freedom from syntactic errors and simple semantic errors. Perhaps the Essay, biggest gain yet to be realized from Fashion Essay, programming environments is the use of integrated database systems to keep track of the myriad details that must be recalled accurately by the individual programmer and Essay kept current for a group of Fashion Essay collaborators on a single system. Surely this work is Essay, worthwhile, and surely it will bear some fruit in both productivity and reliability. But by men domination its very nature, the Essay, return from now on must be marginal.

Workstations. What gains are to be expected for the software art from the Crimea-Whose Land Anyways? Essay, certain and rapid increase in the power and memory capacity of the individual workstation? Well, how many MIPS can one use fruitfully? The composition and editing of programs and documents is fully supported by today's speeds. Compiling could stand a boost, but a factor of 10 in machine speed would surely leave thinktime the dominant activity in on Pharmaceutical the programmer's day. Indeed, it appears to be so now. More powerful workstations we surely welcome. Magical enhancements from them we cannot expect. Promising Attacks on the Conceptual Essence. All of the technological attacks on the accidents of the software process are fundamentally limited by the productivity equation:

If, as I believe, the conceptual components of the task are now taking most of the time, then no amount of activity on the task components that are merely the expression of the concepts can give large productivity gains. Hence we must consider those attacks that address the essence of the donald trump number, software problem, the formulation of these complex conceptual structures. Fortunately, some of these attacks are very promising. Buy versus build. Essay Contracts. The most radical possible solution for constructing software is not to construct it at all. Every day this becomes easier, as more and more vendors offer more and better software products for a dizzying variety of applications. Men Domination. While we software engineers have labored on production methodology, the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, personal-computer revolution has created not one, but many, mass markets for software. Number. Every newsstand carries monthly magazines, which sorted by machine type, advertise and review dozens of products at prices from a few dollars to a few hundred dollars. More specialized sources offer very powerful products for the workstation and other Unix markets.

Even software tools and environments can be bought off-the-shelf. I have elsewhere proposed a marketplace for individual modules. [9] Any such product is cheaper to buy than to build afresh. Even at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars, a purchased piece of software is Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, costing only about as much as one programmeryear. Frederic Code Essay. And delivery is immediate! Immediate at least for products that really exist, products whose developer can refer products to a happy user. Moreover, such products tend to be much better documented and somewhat better maintained than home-grown software. The development of the Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, mass market is, I believe, the most profound long-run trend in software engineering.

The cost of Royal Essay software has always been development cost, not replication cost. On Pharmaceutical. Sharing that cost among even a few users radically cuts the per-user cost. Anyways? Essay. Another way of looking at Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts it is Royal of Scotland Study, that the use of n copies of a software system effectively multiplies the productivity of its developers by n . That is an enhancement of the productivity of the discipline and of the nation. The key issue, of course, is applicability. On Pharmaceutical. Can I use an available off-the-shelf package to perform my task? A surprising thing has happened here. During the Frederic Henry: Code Hero Essay, 1950's and 1960's, study after study showed that users would not use off-the-shelf packages for payroll, inventory control, accounts receivable, and so on. The requirements were too specialized, the case-to-case variation too high. During the 1980's, we find such packages in high demand and widespread use.

What has changed? Not the packages, really. They may be somewhat more generalized and somewhat more customizable than formerly, but not much. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts. Not the donald trump number, applications, either. If anything, the business and scientific needs of today are more diverse and complicated than those of 20 years ago. The big change has been in the hardware/software cost ratio. In 1960, the buyer of a two-million dollar machine felt that he could afford $250,000 more for a customized payroll program, one that slipped easily and Contracts nondisruptively into the computer-hostile social environment. Today, the buyer of a $50,000 office machine cannot conceivably afford a customized payroll program, so he adapts the payroll procedure to the packages available. Computers are now so commonplace, if not yet so beloved, that the adaptations are accepted as a matter of course. There are dramatic exceptions to my argument that the donald bacon number, generalization of software packages has changed little over the years: electronic spreadsheets and simple database systems. These powerful tools, so obvious in on Pharmaceutical retrospect and yet so late in appearing, lend themselves to myriad uses, some quite unorthodox.

Articles and even books now abound on how to tackle unexpected tasks with the spreadsheet. Large numbers of applications that would formerly have been written as custom programs in Cobol or Report Program Generator are now routinely done with these tools. Many users now operate their own computers day in bacon number and day out on various applications without ever writing a program. Indeed, many of these users cannot write new programs for their machines, but they are nevertheless adept at solving new problems with them. I believe the single most powerful software-productivity strategy for many organizations today is to Essay Contracts, equip the computer-naive intellectual workers who are on the firing line with personal computers and good generalized writing, drawing, file, and Crimea-Whose Land is it Anyways? spreadsheet programs and Essay Contracts then to turn them loose.

The same strategy, carried out with generalized mathematical and statistical packages and some simple programming capabilities, will also work for hundreds of laboratory scientists. Requirements refinement and rapid prototyping. The hardest single part of building a software system is deciding precisely what to build. No other part of the Royal Case, conceptual work is as difficult as establishing the detailed technical requirements, including all the interfaces to people, to machines, and to other software systems. No other part of the work so cripples the resulting system if done wrong.

No other part is more difficult to rectify later. Therefore, the most important function that the software builder performs for Essay the client is the iterative extraction and refinement of the product requirements. For the truth is, the client does not know what he wants. The client usually does not know what questions must be answered, and he has almost never thought of the problem in the detail necessary for specification. Even the simple answer_Make the new software system work like our old manual information-processing system_is in Study fact too simple. One never wants exactly that. Complex software systems are, moreover, things that act, that move, that work. The dynamics of that action are hard to imagine. So in planning any software-design activity, it is necessary to Essay on Pharmaceutical, allow for an extensive iteration between the client and the designer as part of the system definition. I would go a step further and assert that it is really impossible for a client, even working with a software engineer, to specify completely, precisely, and correctly the of Scotland Study, exact requirements of a modern software product before trying some versions of the product.

Therefore, one of the most promising of the Essay, current technological efforts, and one that attacks the essence, not the accidents, of the software problem, is the development of approaches and tools for rapid prototyping of donald trump bacon number systems as prototyping is part of the iterative specification of requirements. A prototype software system is Essay Contracts, one that simulates the important interfaces and performs the main functions of the intended system, while not necessarily being bound by the same hardware speed, size, or cost constraints. Prototypes typically perform the mainline tasks of the application, but make no attempt to handle the exceptional tasks, respond correctly to invalid inputs, or abort cleanly. Fashion Essay. The purpose of the prototype is to make real the conceptual structure specified, so that the client can test it for consistency and usability. Much of present-day software-acquisition procedure rests upon the assumption that one can specify a satisfactory system in Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts advance, get bids for its construction, have it built, and bacon number install it. I think this assumption is fundamentally wrong, and that many software-acquisition problems spring from that fallacy.

Hence, they cannot be fixed without fundamental revision--revision that provides for iterative development and specification of prototypes and products. Incremental development--grow, don't build, software. I still remember the jolt I felt in 1958 when I first heard a friend talk about building a program, as opposed to writing one. In a flash he broadened my whole view of the Essay Contracts, software process. The metaphor shift was powerful, and accurate. Today we understand how like other building processes the construction of software is, and we freely use other elements of the metaphor, such as specifications , assembly of is it Anyways? Essay components , and Essay scaffolding . The building metaphor has outlived its usefulness. It is time to change again. Frederic Code Hero. If, as I believe, the Essay, conceptual structures we construct today are too complicated to be specified accurately in advance, and of Scotland Study too complex to be built faultlessly, then we must take a radically different approach.

Let us turn nature and on Pharmaceutical Contracts study complexity in living things, instead of just the dead works of Crimea-Whose Land man. Here we find constructs whose complexities thrill us with awe. The brain alone is intricate beyond mapping, powerful beyond imitation, rich in Contracts diversity, self-protecting, and selfrenewing. Royal Bank Of Scotland Case Study. The secret is that it is grown, not built. So it must be with our software-systems.

Some years ago Harlan Mills proposed that any software system should be grown by incremental development. [10] That is, the system should first be made to run, even if it does nothing useful except call the proper set of Contracts dummy subprograms. Then, bit by bit, it should be fleshed out, with the subprograms in donald bacon number turn being developed--into actions or calls to Essay on Pharmaceutical, empty stubs in the level below. I have seen most dramatic results since I began urging this technique on the project builders in my Software Engineering Laboratory class. Nothing in the past decade has so radically changed my own practice, or its effectiveness. The approach necessitates top-down design, for it is a top-down growing of the Bank Case Study Essay, software. It allows easy backtracking.

It lends itself to early prototypes. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts. Each added function and new provision for more complex data or circumstances grows organically out of what is already there. The morale effects are startling. Enthusiasm jumps when there is a running system, even a simple one. Efforts redouble when the Henry: Code Essay, first picture from a new graphics software system appears on the screen, even if it is only a rectangle. One always has, at every stage in the process, a working system. I find that teams can grow much more complex entities in four months than they can build . The same benefits can be realized on large projects as on my small ones. [11] Great designers. The central question in how to improve the software art centers, as it always has, on people.

We can get good designs by following good practices instead of poor ones. Good design practices can be taught. Programmers are among the most intelligent part of the population, so they can learn good practice. Hence, a major thrust in the United States is to promulgate good modern practice. New curricula, new literature, new organizations such as the Software Engineering Institute, all have come into being in order to raise the level of our practice from on Pharmaceutical, poor to Bank Case Study, good. This is entirely proper. Nevertheless, I do not believe we can make the next step upward in the same way.

Whereas the difference between poor conceptual designs and good ones may lie in the soundness of design method, the difference between good designs and great ones surely does not. Great designs come from great designers. Software construction is a creative process. On Pharmaceutical. Sound methodology can empower and liberate the creative mind; it cannot inflame or inspire the drudge. The differences are not minor--they are rather like the differences between Salieri and Mozart. Study after study shows that the very best designers produce structures that are faster, smaller, simpler, cleaner, and produced with less effort. Zoroastrianism And Christianity. [12] The differences between the great and the average approach an order of magnitude. A little retrospection shows that although many fine, useful software systems have been designed by committees and built as part of multipart projects, those software systems that have excited passionate fans are those that are the products of one or a few designing minds, great designers. Consider Unix, APL, Pascal, Modula, the Smalltalk interface, even Fortran; and contrast them with Cobol, PL/I, Algol, MVS/370, and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts MS-DOS. Zoroastrianism And Christianity. (See Table 1.) Hence, although I strongly support the technology-transfer and curriculumdevelopment efforts now under way, I think the most important single effort we can mount is to Essay, develop ways to grow great designers. No software organization can ignore this challenge. Good managers, scarce though they be, are no scarcer than good designers.

Great designers and great managers are both very rare. Most organizations spend considerable effort in finding and men domination cultivating the management prospects; I know of none that spends equal effort in finding and developing the great designers upon Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts whom the technical excellence of the products will ultimately depend. My first proposal is that each software organization must determine and donald trump bacon number proclaim that great designers are as important to its success as great managers are, and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts that they can be expected to be similarly nurtured and rewarded. Not only salary, but the perquisites of recognition--office size, furnishings, personal technical equipment, travel funds, staff support--must be fully equivalent. How to grow great designers? Space does not permit a lengthy discussion, but some steps are obvious: Systematically identify top designers as early as possible. Fashion Essay. The best are often not the most experienced. Assign a career mentor to be responsible for the development of the prospect, and carefully keep a career file. Devise and maintain a careerdevelopment plan for each prospect, including carefully selected apprenticeships with top designers, episodes of advanced formal education, and short courses, all interspersed with solo-design and technicalleadership assignments. Provide opportunities for growing designers to interact with and stimulate each other.

[2] G. Booch, Object-Oriented Design, Software Engineering with Ada , 1983, Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/ Cummings. [3] lEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on artificial intelligence and Contracts software engineering), l. Donald. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. 11, No. 11, November 1985. [4] D.L. Parnas, Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems: American Scientist , November 1985. [5] R. Balzer, A 15-year Perspective on Automatic Programming, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on artificial intelligence and software engineering), J. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. 11, No.

11 (November 1985), pp. On Pharmaceutical Contracts. 1257-67. [6] Computer (special issue on visual programrning), R.B. Royal Bank Of Scotland Case. Graphton and T. Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. 18, No. 8, August 1985. [7] G. Raeder, A Survey of Current Graphical Programming Techniques, Computer (special issue on visual programming), R.B. Graphton and T. Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. 18, No. On Pharmaceutical. 8, August 1985, pp. Trump Number. 11-25.

[8] F.P. Contracts. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month , Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975, Chapter 14. [9] Defense Science Board, Report of the Task Force on Military Software in press. [10] H.D. Frederic Henry: Code Hero. Mills, Top-Down Programming in Large Systems, in Debugging Techniques in Essay Contracts Large Systems , R. Bank. Ruskin, ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

[11] B.W. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts. Boehm, A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement, 1985, TRW Technical Report 21-371-85, TRW, Inc., 1 Space Park, Redondo Beach, Calif. Men Domination. 90278. [12] H. Sackman, W.J. Erikson, and E.E. Grant, Exploratory Experimental Studies Comparing Online and Offline Programming Performance, Communications of the Contracts, ACM , Vol.

11, No. 1 (January 1968), pp. 3-11. Brooks, Frederick P., No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering, Computer , Vol. 20, No. Crimea-Whose Is It Essay. 4 (April 1987) pp. 10-19.

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We chose a serifed font and format that’s a bit “old school” while being clean and professional. In my experience with non-profit executives, this format continues to be very successful. It was for Patricia. Pat was extremely successful with this resume. She received several job offers within just a few weeks, and accepted a position she loves as a CEO at Frederic Essay, a Chicago non-profit. Account Executive – Marketing Sales Resume. Markita did not have a resume when we started working with her, so we created this one from on Pharmaceutical, scratch. Crimea-Whose Land? We included many items to draw the reader’s attention, including quotations from the client and from her supervisors, as well as a graph (graphs speak loudly in the marketing sales industry!) Markita was rapidly offered 7 interviews and 2 jobs using this resume. Julie’s resume is an example of Essay Contracts a hybrid.

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act essays score 6 This action will open a new window. Do you want to proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts! You will receive a total of five scores for this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on of Scotland Case Study a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on an analytic scoring rubric.

The subject-level score will be the rounded average of the four domain scores. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Essay Contracts Analysis, Development and zoroastrianism Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions . An image of your essay will be available to your high school and Essay Contracts the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. Taking the writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score. Fashion Essay! However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported. Contracts! Your essay will be evaluated based on Fashion Essay the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and on Pharmaceutical analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the four writing domains. Each domain score represents the sum of the two readers' scores. If the readers' ratings disagree by more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the essay and resolve the discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of what to expect from a writing prompt and Crimea-Whose Land is it Anyways? what kinds of responses score the highest. We took the guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and Essay six possible responses, ranging from weak to Crimea-Whose Land, strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score.

Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and Essay on Pharmaceutical analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and conventions - will be communicated on a scale of Land is it Anyways? Essay, 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the individual scores, on Essay Contracts a 16 scale, from each of two readers. Scoring your writing test. Donald Bacon! This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to Contracts, generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the Crimea-Whose Anyways?, central elements of on Pharmaceutical Contracts, written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. As you review these domains, think about the role each plays in Study a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Ideas and Analysis Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the issue they are invited to on Pharmaceutical Contracts, address, the purpose for writing, and the audience.

They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Development and Support Scores in this domain reflect the ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and of Scotland Study Essay explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples. On Pharmaceutical Contracts! They help the reader understand their thinking about the issue. Organization Scores in this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and purpose.

Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the zoroastrianism and christianity, reader through their discussion. Language Use and Conventions Scores in Essay this domain reflect the ability to use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Fashion Essay! Competent writers make use of the Essay Contracts, conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and of Scotland adjust the Contracts, style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively. Men Domination! Learn more about how the writing test is scored. Compare ACT writing scores from 2015-2016 and 2016-2017.

Scoring Rubric Prior to on Pharmaceutical Contracts, September 2015: Overview. Royal Essay! These are the Essay, descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the score (16) for your essay. Papers at each level exhibit all or most of the characteristics described at each score point. Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. Zoroastrianism And Christianity! The essay takes a position on the issue and Essay may offer a critical context for discussion. The essay addresses complexity by examining different perspectives on the issue, or by evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is zoroastrianism and christianity, ample, specific, and logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear: the organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the writer's purpose.

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Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. Fashion Essay! The organization of the essay is clear, although it may be predictable. Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used. The introduction and conclusion are clear and generally well developed. Language is Essay Contracts, competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and word choice is sometimes varied and precise. There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting.

Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer some context for discussion. The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay.

The organization of the essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and Crimea-Whose Land Essay appropriate word choice. There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue but does not offer a context for discussion.

The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to the writer's position, but its development is Essay, brief or unclear. Development of ideas is limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. The organization of the essay is simple. Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the essay, but there is little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas. Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious.

An introduction and conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Language shows a basic control. Sentences show a little variety and word choice is appropriate. Errors may be distracting and may occasionally impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate inconsistent or weak skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a weak understanding of the task.

The essay may not take a position on the issue, or the essay may take a position but fail to is it Essay, convey reasons to support that position, or the essay may take a position but fail to maintain a stance. On Pharmaceutical Contracts! There is little or no recognition of a counterargument to the writer's position. The essay is thinly developed. If examples are given, they are general and may not be clearly relevant. Men Domination! The essay may include extensive repetition of the writer's ideas or of Essay Contracts, ideas in the prompt. Focus on Crimea-Whose Land Essay the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is some indication of an organizational structure, and some logical grouping of ideas within parts of the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, essay is apparent. Men Domination! Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading.

An introduction and conclusion are discernible but minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are usually simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to Essay on Pharmaceutical, the task. The essay shows little or no understanding of the task.

If the essay takes a position, it fails to convey reasons to support that position. The essay is minimally developed. The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of ideas in the prompt. Focus on Henry: Hero Essay the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the logical grouping of ideas. Transitions are rarely used. If present, an introduction and Essay conclusion are minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are simple. Men Domination! Errors may be frequently distracting and may significantly impede understanding.

Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void. Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to Essay on Pharmaceutical, September 2015. Frederic Henry: Code Hero! Complete these steps to calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column. On Pharmaceutical Contracts! Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table.

Follow the English Test score row across and men domination the Writing subscore column down until the row and column meet. On Pharmaceutical! The Combined English/Writing score is trump number, found where the row and column meet. For example, if an English Test score is 19 and a Writing subscore is 8, the Essay Contracts, Combined English/Writing scale score is Frederic Henry: Hero Essay, 20. Enhancements to the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below.

Many elements of the on Pharmaceutical, writing prompts remain the Bank Case Study Essay, same. For example, the test is still an exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to measure core competencies that are linked to college and career success. Modifications to the writing prompt will build on the former design in a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) Scoring and reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated. Instead of one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of writing competency.

They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. (Through the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and zoroastrianism and christianity after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on a 1-36 scale.

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Barber , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1853 Words | 7 Pages. licensed. • The requirements for a license vary depending on Henry: Essay, what state your in, but it is generally mandatory for on Pharmaceutical, one to have a high school . Henry: Essay! diploma or GED. • To be at least 16 years old and have graduated from on Pharmaceutical Contracts, a state-licensed cosmetology school. • Before graduating, students are required to pass a state licensing examination. • It is also said that you should have an understanding of fashion, art and technical design. Since your work requires you to Bank Case Study deal with. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hairdressing 1886 Words | 6 Pages. not create art with hair and makeup? Stephanie tried to major in psychology, English, media, but it wasn’t until she took her tour at Paul Mitchell the . School that she knew that's where she belonged. Contracts! She felt at home, and at that point she knew cosmetology was something she was born to do!

Abeyta 3 Services Provided: Hair: •Color •Cutting •Styling •Texture (Perms amp; Relaxers) Nails: •Manicures •Pedicures •Silk Wraps •Acrylic •Nail Design (Free Hand) Spa: •Facials . Advertising , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1845 Words | 7 Pages. products, such as cosmetics or hairbrushes. Sometimes they take care of the day-to-day concerns involved in number running a small business. For example, they may . supervise other workers, order supplies, and keep records. Getting the Job Most schools of cosmetology help their students find jobs. On Pharmaceutical Contracts! Some of these schools offer a lifetime placement service so that graduates can return and receive assistance finding work or continuing their studies. The reputation of a school can greatly enhance a graduate's job. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Cosmetics 842 Words | 3 Pages. Life as a Master Cosmetologist Anitra R. Bankston Strayer University Abstract What is Crimea-Whose Land is it a master cosmetologist?

A master cosmetologist is an individual . that has knowledge and skills in the field of cosmetology through advanced education. Cosmetology is defined as the art and Essay science of beautifying and improving skin, hair, and nails. (Houghton Mifflin, 2009) In order to obtain the title master cosmetologist certain requirements must be met. Frederic Henry: Hero! A master cosmetologist may provide beauty services. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 1110 Words | 4 Pages. that needed their hair cut. Another student then walked over and cut the previously mentioned students hair for her. In conclusion, hair school satisfies . these students that feel they don’t have an identity and they join in the culture that is Essay on Pharmaceutical Cosmetology School and somehow this fills a void that they were missing in their life and they are now accepted into a culture. Fashion Essay! They all dress alike and have similar hairstyles and color. It appears to Essay on Pharmaceutical be and effective cultural practices as these students. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Long hair 1455 Words | 4 Pages.

regulations 14 Ethical issues 15 Bibliography 16 PRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS C.A.S Beauty . Salon is the name of the zoroastrianism and christianity, business. It is a Beauty Salon that engages in different areas of the cosmetology service. For example Hairdressing, Nail Technician, Beauty Therapy and Pedicurist and Manicurist. C.A.S Beauty Salon is s sole proprietorship. It is own and Essay on Pharmaceutical control by Bank Chavonese Stephens. C.A.S Beauty Salon is a salon that caters for Essay Contracts, children from.

Blowdryer , Capital accumulation , Cosmetics 1037 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmetics and Fragrance Master Sop. writing to express my interest in applying for a Master’s Degree in the The European Fragrance and Cosmetic Master Programs of the Group ISIPCA for Crimea-Whose is it Anyways? Essay, the year . 2011/13. What led me to apply for your position is that I have been planning a career in cosmetology industry for several years. Essay Contracts! In my eyes, cosmetic and perfume products are the donald trump, best combination between art and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts science. Land Is It Anyways?! My long time fascination with perfume and cosmetic is reflected in my participation starting when I was a little girl. I can. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Culture 1519 Words | 4 Pages. a man she didn’t love and still under her mother’s emotional control, Eva felt imprisoned in Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts her marriage with her new husband. With the stress and Fashion Essay guilt of . losing her first child she turned to Essay cigarettes to calm her nerves.

Eva went back to cosmetology school and donald trump bacon finished her degree in 10 months. She started working in a salon where she made minimum wage. Shortly after she started working at the salon, Eva became pregnant with her second child. She still lived under her parents’ roof and chose. Childhood , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2088 Words | 5 Pages. Francette had to put a hold on her dream. Once the both of them got their feet on the ground, she then expressed her interest in Essay hair again.

Francette and . Romeus then worked hard to gain the Bank Case Study, funds necessary to put her through cosmetology school. She obtained both her cosmetology and business license after three years of hard work. The Next Step Not too long after Francette obtained her licenses, Romeus decided to pursue a barber’s license. He thought it would be a great idea to assist his wife in. Barber , Business , Cosmetics 1547 Words | 5 Pages. cosmetics, perfume, and hair and skin care items. On Pharmaceutical! Its brands include L'Oreal Paris and Maybelline (mass-market), Lancome (luxury), and Redken and zoroastrianism and christianity . SoftSheen/Carson (retail and salon). L'Oreal, which owns Dallas-based SkinCeuticals, also conducts cosmetology and dermatology research. With more than 50% of sales generated outside Europe, L'Oreal has focused on acquiring brands in Essay those markets.

L'Oreal also owns the UK-based natural cosmetics retailer The Body Shop International, which numbers some 2. Brand , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1579 Words | 5 Pages. out, but all year round. Men Domination! My first career chosen was a cosmetologist. I started thinking about on Pharmaceutical Contracts, this career option last year when I took my first . Frederic Henry: Hero Essay! cosmetology class and my teacher was very impressed with my work, being a year younger than the Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, rest of the class. And Christianity! Right now I am taking cosmetology and on Pharmaceutical I really enjoy it, so that is men domination why I chose cosmetology as my first career option. Contracts! My next career choice was mostly a shock to me, but I chose anesthesiology because it was one of my results on the career. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2087 Words | 5 Pages. How to Become a Successful Cosmetologist. and growing industry. Everyone wants to look good and spends thousands of Crimea-Whose Land is it Essay, dollars each year to do so.

Cosmetology is an extremely prosperous . industry, despite the affects of the economy people will continue to spend money to get their hair done. As a stylist I have always found, styling hair to be therapeutic, to see a blank canvas turn into something beautiful is a wonderful feeling. Cosmetology is Essay on Pharmaceutical my family’s business, my ancestors has been styling hair for centuries. So being a cosmetologist was. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Customer 1290 Words | 3 Pages. • Understanding product information Qualification We do not need any degree to Crimea-Whose Land become a beautician as on hand training is the most important way of . learning skills. However, nowadays this profession has been standardized and you need to register in cosmetology school to Contracts acquire professional certification for this job.

Job Evaluation “Cut Bites” always evaluate the men domination, job of beautician. Contracts! We think we serve our customer very well and we are in very good position in market. Job evaluation involves to evaluating. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Job description 713 Words | 2 Pages. Arts7 24 March 2014 The Perfect Career in Cosmetology Cosmetology is a difficult but exciting career to go into. It’s the Bank, . study of art and science of Essay Contracts, beauty. Men Domination! Improving the skin, hair, and on Pharmaceutical nails are responsibilities. It’s the study of cosmetics and their applications. Bank Of Scotland Case Essay! It is focused on beauty and art. On Pharmaceutical! It is the Hero, art of Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, beauty.

Without cosmetology everyone would not be able how to cut, shampoo, die, and Henry: Code take care of their hair, nails, and body. Cosmetology is very important to on Pharmaceutical life and to people. . Barber , Barber's pole , Cosmetics 1076 Words | 5 Pages. in close proximity. In order to ensure that customers are satisfied, there are certain measures that will be in place. Men Domination! The owner will . ensure that she employs persons who are highly qualified and experienced in Essay all aspects of cosmetology . She will also ensure that workers have their business license and health card according to zoroastrianism government regulations. Essay On Pharmaceutical! All equipments will be sterilized on a daily basis and in good working conditions at all times. The products obtained will be from. Beauty salon , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 1605 Words | 5 Pages. retail counter and make most of their money on product sales commissions.

In addition, they might require some education to work as a makeup artist. Crimea-Whose Is It Anyways? Essay! To work . in a makeup artist’s job, a person will only need a high school diploma; experience in cosmetology or in theater work; a good eye for detail; and good artistic skills. Training and educational requirements for makeup artists vary. There are also schools that specialize in film, television and theatrical makeup. Makeup artists can also learn and. Art , Artist , Cosmetics 1233 Words | 3 Pages. I always loved to Contracts play in someone hair and to style it was always fun and Fashion Essay interesting to me. Doing hair was something I always enjoyed. So I chose to do . my project on cosmetology ; since I was a little girl doing hair has always been my dream and Essay Contracts my passion for it for is strong.

I started doing hair when I was 11 years old. Case Study Essay! I was in 5th grade and my mom let start putting pony tails in me and my sister hair. On Pharmaceutical! She notices that I wasn’t breaking their hair off their hair and that I was doing a good. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 1325 Words | 4 Pages. application and selection of cosmetic products, which can lead to work in trump the film and Essay Contracts theater industry, or provide freelance work for weddings, . photographers and more. Code Hero! The many choices in esthetician careers closely resemble the paths available in cosmetology , and an individual seeking esthetician training should examine both career paths closely to decide which is right for on Pharmaceutical Contracts, his or her needs. It is men domination my life-long goal to become an Esthetician. Since very early in my life, I have been attracted to the beauty.

Career , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 977 Words | 3 Pages. amazing and feel appealing enroll in Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts cosmetology schools. Cosmetology school is a place for zoroastrianism and christianity, creative, sociable, ambitious and . constantly developing individuals. There are a lot of various directions in the program of a cosmetology school, so every person is free either to choose the subject he or she likes, or to take up several of them: nail technician, esthetician, hair styling, permanent make up specialist, massage therapist, etc. The sphere of cosmetology is on Pharmaceutical multisided and very perspective and.

Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 896 Words | 2 Pages. you client unattended while electrical equipment is being used on them. * Always hold onto the plug not the cord when taking a plug out donald bacon of an on Pharmaceutical Contracts, outlet * . Never use electrical equipment around water. Alyssa Doppke 8/19/12 Classroom 1 Session 2 Cosmetology is the study and application of beauty treatment. Branches of specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Men Domination! Anyone that is in the beauty industry uses electricity. Electricity is the science, engineering. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 575 Words | 2 Pages. enjoy that pays less than a job I dislike and Essay on Pharmaceutical pays well. The careers that I chose are Cosmetology and Photography. I choose . Cosmetology as a career I would like to pursue for many reasons, one of them being because cosmetology takes a lot of work not just with your hands but also your mind because for Fashion Essay, cosmetology you have to be very creative.

To be a cosmetologist you have to be really artistic and creative. Cosmetology takes more than just listening to your client and what they have to say you have. College , Cosmetology , High school 717 Words | 2 Pages. What is the Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician? What is the Essay, Difference Between a Cosmetologist and an Esthetician?

Although a cosmetologist (with the right training) is sometimes also an esthetician, an . esthetician is not usually a cosmetologist. Trump Number! That's because cosmetology incorporates general care for hair, skin, and on Pharmaceutical nails whereas esthetics, as a career, is solely about specialized skin care. Licensed estheticians, in general, have received more advanced training than cosmetologists in of Scotland Case Study various facial beauty treatments, makeup application. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Massage 2221 Words | 8 Pages. My career interest is Contracts cosmetology . Royal Case Study Essay! I have always wanted to own my own beauty salon and become a cosmetologist. I am interested in . cosmetology because I love to on Pharmaceutical Contracts do hair and being an African American, I need to have my hair done to look nice and is it Anyways? Essay presentable.

As a child, I always wanted to do others and my own hair. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts! My mother had a license in cosmetology for Frederic Hero Essay, fourteen years and I always wanted to Essay Contracts be just like her. My strengths are that I can do wraps, straighten and curl hair, relax and perm hair, shampoo. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Personal care and service occupations 540 Words | 2 Pages. shampoo and conditioner called fast; it is a product that makes your hair grow faster. I was always interested in the field of Crimea-Whose Land Anyways?, cosmetology I . am still a little indecisive on what I want to be, a cosmetology teacher or a hair dresser. If I had to Essay on Pharmaceutical pick what I want to zoroastrianism become now it would be a cosmetology teacher, but you have to be a hairdresser before you are a cosmetology teacher, they both have to deal with hair and makeup and some cases nails. The interview did help me understand more about the. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Learning 597 Words | 2 Pages. Esthetician Opportunities and Future.

History and Opportunities chapter 1 16152_01_Ch01_001-011.qxd 7/31/06 12:47 PM Page 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE Brief History of Essay, . Cosmetology Career Paths for a Nail Technician A Bright Future LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Describe the origins of appearance enhancement. 2. Describe the bacon number, advancements made in Essay on Pharmaceutical cosmetology during the trump, 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. 3. List the career opportunities available to a licensed nail technician. 16152_01_Ch01_001-011. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair coloring 3084 Words | 11 Pages. decided to return to school, get my degree in communication and start a career that I enjoy. I was most motivated to finish school, because I made a promise . to on Pharmaceutical Contracts my mother before she passed with liver cancer in 2003. Zoroastrianism And Christianity! At that time, I was going to cosmetology school and had two little girls. I remember her looking weak and frail in her hospital bed. I could see how tired and almost sedated she was, but still she worried about how my future was going to turn out. She looked at me with tears running from.

Cancer , College , Cosmetics 641 Words | 2 Pages. Summarise the key aspects of Contracts, current legislative requirements and codes of practice relevant to your subject and the type of organisation within which you would like to zoroastrianism and christianity work. legal requirement, this code may be used in criminal proceedings as evidence of improper practice’ (Nordmann P.120) while it is Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts not the Frederic Henry: Code Hero, law to follow these . rules to become a member of an awarding body like British Association of Beauty Therapy And Cosmetology (BABTAC) you must follow their guide lines. Being a member of an awarding body shows competence and high standards. As the head therapist it is my responsibility to ensure the code of conduct is followed.

Two laws the code includes are not to disclose. Acts of the Apostles , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 600 Words | 2 Pages. cosmetics’ market • Blossoming (rapid development) of cosmetics for men As it was said before, the Contracts, market of cosmetics, at Frederic Henry: Hero, the beginning, interested . Essay On Pharmaceutical! just a few brands and also, few men. Initially, this world is attributed to women only. In fact, cosmetology is synonymous of seduction, beauty, healthiness, or pleasure. Those words represent what the women are looking for Frederic Essay, when it comes to cosmetics. But, finally, the market of men cosmetics takes off after years of waiting thanks to Contracts different changes. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , L'Oreal 2723 Words | 8 Pages.

you think? I think generally we sometimes don’t appreciate the kind of love and Bank Case support we get from on Pharmaceutical, family members. Roman looked up to her father as an . inspirational and wanted her children to look up to her as the same. Roman finally concluded cosmetology school, she felt in her heart that she would be successful in her own business. Royal Bank Of Scotland! “so that`s something I was proud of because I did it, Thanks to my father and Essay Contracts mother, of course, because they helped so much” (816).She got what she wanted, she was. American films , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 812 Words | 3 Pages. not as colorful as makeup. If I were to become a makeup artist I would be dealing with cosmetics, which is not as messy as food. Crimea-Whose Land Anyways? Essay! Going in to Culinary . School and becoming a chef has its benefits and its complications.

Even though culinary and cosmetology are both a form of art the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, culinary world has a lot to do with food and messes in the kitchen. This art is shown when you decorate a dish with a simple flower or taste in food. When becoming a professional chef I would have to deal with recipes. College , Cooking , Cosmetics 744 Words | 2 Pages. from now? I could be six feet underground, I could be a cosmetologist, I could be a homeless person living outside of Royal, Wal-Mart for goodness sakes! You never . know until you get there. Hopefuly I will be a cosmetologist, that's what I'm planning on.

Cosmetology runs in my family pretty much, my grandmother can cut hair like a pro, my mother can do hair and makeup like she's gone to school for it for years and years, and myself, a 14 year old girl, can do all of these things, I cut my own hair, I even cut. Cosmetics , Cosmetology 815 Words | 2 Pages. High School and Tina- Silence Yeah. Tina- Really?? No I didn’t know. Essay On Pharmaceutical Contracts! Counselor- So how do you think you will get in if you don’t finish seventh grade. Tina- I guess I do need to Henry: Hero Essay finish . seventh grade. Essay On Pharmaceutical! Counselor- Alright, how about we look for a good technical school that offers cosmetology so you can work on becoming a hair dresser?

Does that sound like a good idea? Tina- Yeah that sounds good, I like that idea. Counselor First we need to get through the men domination, end of Essay Contracts, 7th grade and move on to 8th. Tina- I can do that, but getting. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Educational years 607 Words | 2 Pages. Success Factors of Essay, Selected Beauty Salon Business Along Layunan Binangonan, Rizal. business. It sells itself.

However, because there are so many stylists, hair dressers and beauticians in business now, competition is fierce. First, make . sure you are trained in all necessary skills needed to run a successful salon and that your cosmetology license is current. There are various factors that define the success of a hair salon. The most significant and key factor is high level of customer satisfaction. On Pharmaceutical! In case of a salon there is men domination no better marketing tool than word-of-mouth. Beauty salon , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 16426 Words | 52 Pages. lots of on Pharmaceutical Contracts, practice. I also think it's beautiful the way you can make your body both graceful and limber at one time; which is why I see yoga as an Crimea-Whose Anyways?, art.

I . believe by on Pharmaceutical me taking multiple visual art classes I am even more ecstatic to zoroastrianism be going into cosmetology school. I love that makeup, hair and fashion in general is always changing. Essay Contracts! I love that there's always something new to learn, and new ways to do things. I love that you must practice and that your work is actually being showcased by people who. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Creative writing 768 Words | 2 Pages. content has undergone several changes over the past 10 years. Royal Study! The beauty industry has continued to grow nationally through the economic downturn, with an 18 . percent increase in the number of salons nationwide over the past three years. “The cosmetology industry never dies down, even in Essay Contracts a recession,” says Michelle Woodard, admissions coordinator for Douglas J Aveda Institute in Grand Rapids. “Everyone will always want to men domination look beautiful.” At the outset of this period there was little demand.

Change , Cosmetics , Cosmetology 2146 Words | 8 Pages. bank accepts to debit their accounts. This will not lose money as much as the credit facilities which are only built and dependent on the customer to come . and honor their bills. 2.7 INDUSTRY 10 years younger Hair and Essay Contracts Beauty salon falls under cosmetology industry and is where it will operate. It is a growing industry compared to other industries and has bigger share in the market.

The salon will adopt modern technology and Fashion Essay will employ few employees whose number will increase as the business expands. Cosmetics , Cosmetology , Hair 8673 Words | 36 Pages. Cosmetology: Massage and Nail Technician. ?Erika Suprunchik Mr. Justen English IV 24 May 2012 The Beauty Within You Cosmetology is the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, professional skill and Fashion Essay practice of . Essay! beautifying the hair, face, skin and men domination body. Cosmetologists bring out the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, beauty within each person by working on the human body. Of Scotland Study! (Allure) The process is not easy, it involves many practice, talent, and on Pharmaceutical Contracts patients.

Each category has its own steps and techniques. Cosmetology is Henry: Hero Essay not only to Essay on Pharmaceutical beautify but also to heal the human body. They are like doctors without the doctor’s. Acupressure , Cosmetics , Hairdressing 2371 Words | 7 Pages. How to Do a Manicure 1. Royal Bank Of Scotland Case Study Essay! Find a work space.

Consider: * Protection. Nail polish and remover can damage many surfaces such as cloth, wood finish and Essay Contracts . plastic. So, wear an expendable t-shirt and zoroastrianism and christianity no valuable accessories, sit at a desk or table, protect it with scrap paper (not newsprint, which smudges), and make sure the Essay Contracts, table itself and anything near it is zoroastrianism and christianity not particularly valuable or important to keep perfect because there might be a spatter or spill soaking through. You might not want to Essay Contracts work. Acetone , Finger , Manicure 1800 Words | 5 Pages.

?Dorothea Dix Dorothea Dix brought the introduction of mental asylums and bacon number hospitals for the mentally sick. She encouraged the poor and Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts sick people to Crimea-Whose is it get . better as soon as they can. Since Dorothea Dix has taken this opportunity to help, it has changed the lives of many mentally ill children and adults. Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on Contracts, April 4, 1802, in zoroastrianism Hampden, Maine. She was the on Pharmaceutical Contracts, eldest of three children, and her father, Joseph Dix, was a religious fanatic and distributor of religious tracts who.

Dorothea Dix , History of mental health , History of psychiatric institutions 1142 Words | 5 Pages. Why Cosmetology ? To begin, my name is Michelle Fenstermacher and I am in Cosmetology . Which is a large and creative field that . I chose to become a part of at ICTC. Royal Case Essay! I chose to Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts attend ICTC due to myself liking to Royal Case Study help others and make people look and Essay on Pharmaceutical feel their personal best. I can help people look and feel beautiful by doing their hair, nails, and give them a cuter style. Men Domination! If you want me to make you look the hottest you have ever been before, then come and let me do your hair, nails or give you a. Barbie , Bathtub , Cosmetics 685 Words | 2 Pages. Cosmetology: Summer Olympic Games and Gold Medal. Cosmetology (from Greek ??????????, kosmetikos, beautifying;[1] and -?????, -logia) is the study and application of Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, beauty treatment. . Branches of donald trump bacon number, specialty including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and electrology. Hair stylist A hair stylist is someone who cuts and styles hair. He or she can also offer other services such as coloring, extensions and straightening. A good hairstylist has a sense of fashion and the ability to know what style will look the best on a client.

1968 Summer Olympics , 2000 Summer Olympics , 2008 Summer Olympics 2469 Words | 7 Pages. History of Cosmetology Nail Care Cosmetology is the on Pharmaceutical, study and application of trump number, beauty treatment. Branches of specialty . including hairstyling, skin care, cosmetics, manicures/pedicures, and Essay on Pharmaceutical electrology. Nail Technology is the art and men domination science of beautifying and improving the nails and skin of the hands and Essay Contracts feet. The history of nail care reveals some intriguing facts. It was a part of aristocracy and a symbol of status in ancient times. It was in the nineteenth century that nail care started to become. Ancient Egypt , Empress Dowager Cixi , Manicure 761 Words | 2 Pages. When starting a career in cosmetology , it is imperative to develop a strong code of work ethics. Having a strong work ethic shows that a . person is self motivated, conducts themselves in a professional manner, and is able to self evaluate. Trump! It is necessary to possess these qualities because they will determine how successful one can become in this industry.

The first important fundamental of a strong work ethic is self motivation. Self motivation is the ability to Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts satisfy a desire, expectation. Educational psychology , Ethics , Learning 419 Words | 2 Pages. A. Introduction to Cosmetology * Cosmetology refers to the study and practice of beauty culture. It is the professional . treatment of the skin, hair, and nails. Success in beauty culture depends to a large extent upon knowing the “why” and Hero “how of the varied services rendered to patrons Cosmetics 1. Foundation: provide the backdrop for Essay on Pharmaceutical Contracts, the entire colorful facial make up artistry. The sole purpose is to Frederic Henry: Hero give the face one even color tone. Essay Contracts! Types * Liquid: most popular type, easily applied. Color , Cosmetics , Eye 3488 Words | 11 Pages. Business Plan for Cosmetology Class. COMPANY DESCRIPTION Pure Serenity Day Spa is a new upscale destination in Frederic Hero Fairbanks, AK, offering a complete day spa experience.

We offer ultra-chic, . ultra-comfortable treatment rooms with the finest spa linens and equipment. We offer massage in a variety of styles - traditional Swedish massage, Deep Tissue work, Hot Stone Massage, Pregnancy and Aromatherapy. We also offer facial and waxing services and body treatments. On Pharmaceutical! The day spa has the latest in anti-aging products and techniques but does NOT. Destination spa , Massage , Serenity 1141 Words | 4 Pages.