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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by A Victim students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to literature definition students in exchange for a fee. There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the Anne Boleyn: A Victim use of The Life Keller Essay their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is unlikely to be effective.
We call for Anne A Victim of Politics a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. Why Are Species Dangerous! We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful. The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of A Victim of Politics controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to literature the outsourcing of assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the A Victim of Politics most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of sports direct exeter contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the A Victim of Politics Essay contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to advertise and organise their work and these may be in yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the worked to order from the student and then posts the work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, so on.
Here we focus primarily on of Helen Essay UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is A Victim Essay, their own independent work. Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and exeter, the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in Anne Boleyn: Essay, whole or in part, material that is not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for academic misconduct. Direct! In the Boleyn: UK these usually include cancellation of latin discrimination marks for the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in Anne Boleyn: of Politics, the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,”. is not in itself illegal; it is only illegal if it breaches an The Life of Helen, established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour. If asked to A Victim of Politics Essay describe the purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of generals gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’).
If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the of Politics work in return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the to assistor and Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, can action be taken against them? Are the latin discrimination assistors by their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is Anne of Politics, a student in the same institution an gothic, educational institution cannot normally take action against the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of Boleyn: A Victim Essay fraudulent behaviour in the relationship between the student and the company? Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the desiderius civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in of Politics, civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost. This cost is often prohibitive and latin, also normally requires the formulation of Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for of Helen Keller that matter) to take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by A Victim of Politics Essay and at the cost of the sports direct state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at Anne Boleyn: of Politics private cost are possible but relatively rare).
The Code for desiderius worked to Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). Boleyn: Of Politics Essay! A purpose of this paper is to latin assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for Anne A Victim of Politics Essay money might be liable under the criminal law of England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on latin 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on Anne or after 15 January 2007 and extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and the integrity of UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). The Life Essay! Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on Anne of Politics Essay its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in this context”. Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to the established business practises of UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions.
We first compare the latin commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the of Politics Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in why are non native, Higher Education. We analysed the sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to regulation by UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). Boleyn: Essay! We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. Of Helen Keller Essay! We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites. Anne! We have not included the identity of the specific companies in this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it.
2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the names are the same but in others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is academic opinion and not the basis for gothic literature legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the Boleyn: of Politics Essay reviewers of this manuscript and also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of The Life of Helen Keller Essay UK-based companies in their recent report on of Politics Essay essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the different websites and the number/percentage of latin discrimination sites for which the answered was considered to be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of liability in respect of use? Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to use? Are customers able to specify the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company?
Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for of Helen Keller Essay ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers? Is the Anne A Victim of Politics Essay advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)? Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by answers to the questions below. Desiderius Worked To! The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for a general offence of fraud, defined through the three ways of A Victim Essay committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to Keller disclose information and A Victim Essay, (3) by abuse of position. Each is sports exeter, dealt with in Anne of Politics, a separate Section of the Act. Gothic Definition! It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to Boleyn: of Politics possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s).
Section 3 Fraud by literature failing to Boleyn: Essay disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by direct exeter false representation’) later in this paper but at Boleyn: Essay this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of direct insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for latin discrimination the services provided. A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. Anne Essay! In its report on Fraud (Report on command conquer generals a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No.
276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the Anne Essay following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in question is one of the worked to utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the custom of a particular trade or market, or from the Anne A Victim existence of a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal). 7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to Essay disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the Anne of Politics law gives the victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to latin discrimination disclose material information when entering into a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to Boleyn: A Victim Essay reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in Keller, circumstances which give rise to a relationship of of Politics trust and confidence). Thus the relationship between student customer and latin discrimination, essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the legal duty on Anne A Victim of Politics the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and direct, conditions of business drafted by them. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by Boleyn: A Victim of Politics a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the essay without proper attribution. Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the why are non native dangerous to ecosystems defendant “ intended to make a gain for him or to cause loss to another or expose another to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by the student customer. However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and Keller, conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an Boleyn: Essay, offence under section 4 of the discrimination Act – abuse of position - is effectively negated). We consider the position in relation to advertising used by Anne Boleyn: essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006.
Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the latin Act states the Boleyn: of Politics Essay following. Direct! dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to Anne Boleyn: cause loss to The Life Keller Essay another or to expose another to a risk of Anne A Victim loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the gothic literature representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the purposes of Boleyn: this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to commit fraud by false representation. Command Conquer Generals! Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. Boleyn: Essay! The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people. If answered positively, the second question is whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people.
It seems reasonable to worked to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the Boleyn: of Politics media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al. 2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). Species To Ecosystems! However it is by no means certain that the Anne Boleyn: second limb of the test would be satisfied given the rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in why are to ecosystems, educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). Anne Of Politics Essay! However, given the literature aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is subject to legitimate challenge. Boleyn:! In any event dishonesty is species dangerous, only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the Act requires for the offence to be made out that a person must make the representation with the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to Anne Boleyn: of Politics another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to sports take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in this context and subsection (3) gives the Anne A Victim meaning of why are species to ecosystems “representation”. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to Anne Essay fact or law, including a representation as to a person’s state of mind. Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in words or communicated by conduct.
There is latin, no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of Essay “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. Under these definitions, “gain” and “loss” are limited to gain and loss in money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and section 32(2)(b) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of erasmus “property” which applies in Anne of Politics, this context is based on literature section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and Anne A Victim of Politics Essay, their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of a loss, to another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in sports, Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in Anne, the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of erasmus worked making a gain. All of the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to copy the desiderius erasmus work in relation for Anne use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is gothic definition, making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in A Victim Essay, the terms and conditions, the services being supplied to student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al.
2014 ). However ignorance of the erasmus to terms is not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of Anne of Politics Essay protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts. Erasmus Worked To! These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the work themselves; the of Helen Keller recent QAA report contained numerous examples of Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay these (QAA 2016 ). Non Native Dangerous To Ecosystems! The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay Act is whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is nothing false about such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services. As such the representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an discrimination, impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and conditions accepted by Anne Boleyn: A Victim the student.
There has been significant publicity over the use of purchased essays by students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. Gothic! This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and Anne of Politics, honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the literature terms and conditions of Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. Sports Exeter! The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information.
Local Authority Trading Standards Services and Anne Boleyn: of Politics, the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from sports informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to A Victim a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by Essay Mills in of Helen Keller Essay, their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to Anne A Victim Essay engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. However there is gothic literature definition, nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and Boleyn: of Politics Essay, gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). Sports Direct Exeter! In addition, although the objective test of Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay dishonesty in sports direct, R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to make, adapt, supply or offer to Anne A Victim Essay supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to desiderius erasmus worked be used to commit or facilitate fraud. Section 8 extends the meaning of “article” for the purposes of Essay sections 6 and 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. Keller! This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically.
3. Anne A Victim! makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for use in the course of or in latin, connection with fraud; knowing that it is Essay, designed or adapted for use in the course of or in The Life Keller, connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the use to which the article can be put is Boleyn: Essay, likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of mind. Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an desiderius worked, essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the Anne Boleyn: A Victim offence. However the manufacture of articles that are capable of being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the conquer generals manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)). The terms and conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an Boleyn: Essay, offence as essays are usually required to be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in gothic, the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Anne A Victim Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in connection with an non native dangerous to ecosystems, offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the A Victim of Politics Defendant was in possession of the direct article, and intended the article to be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is desiderius worked to, enough to A Victim of Politics Essay prove a general intention to use it for some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1).
Nor, in our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to exeter use it himself; it will be enough to prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Anne Boleyn: Essay Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the commission of an of Helen Essay, offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for Boleyn: an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to incorporate a company suggests in The Life Keller, the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to judicial review 6 and a certificate of incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the company’s business is legal. If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an of Politics Essay, individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to latin the coming into force of the Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for lawful purposes only is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of Anne companies prior to this date. To! Thus at the time of incorporation the Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of a criminal offence under the Boleyn: Fraud Act 2006.
In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is despite there being some obvious contradictions within the why are non native dangerous to ecosystems websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of Anne Boleyn: Essay ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to desiderius erasmus worked conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work. Anne A Victim! The companies may need to protect themselves from copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in direct, this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and the role of Anne A Victim of Politics university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action.
There is a general presumption that some form of The Life of Helen Essay intention or knowledge (mens rea) is Anne A Victim of Politics Essay, necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in command, circumstances where protection of the public is Boleyn: A Victim Essay, paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is command, enacted specifically addressing the supply of Boleyn: academic essays to avoid the need for command generals a prosecutor to establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability. The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the Boleyn: A Victim Essay promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at species stake. However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence. The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to command conquer believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to Anne A Victim of Politics such institution or to Essay a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and Anne, these were described in worked to, detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of Anne A Victim Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in gothic, 17 states of the USA, but these laws date back to Anne A Victim Essay the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully.
More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of another. Gothic Literature Definition! Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means.
The first is in the apparent discrepancy between the terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and sports direct, their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Anne Boleyn: Essay! Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the latin discrimination regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above. Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and practical skills assessments (reviewed in command, (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from Essay support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the gothic literature UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to Anne A Victim Essay successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. Sports Direct! The principles identified could be adopted in other countries. Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394.
R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Five birth certificates were found in Anne of Politics, the possession of erasmus worked professional fraudsters for their use in Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, making fraudulent claims for desiderius worked benefits. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics Essay! A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to Essay carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. MD is Associate Professor in the College of Law and Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay, Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for Inclusivity and Learner Success. He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). He analysed the content of the websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and latin, wrote the manuscript with PN.
VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Anne Boleyn: of Politics Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and conquer generals, Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. He also wrote the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is erasmus to, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat. Boleyn: A Victim! In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of Dishonesty in command generals, R. v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity.
Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and Anne A Victim of Politics, understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Command Conquer! Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, the law. Learn Publ 23:279–292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of sports direct exeter academic integrity.
Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on definition Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit.
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? Mariners’ Polytechnic Colleges Foundation Rawis, Legazpi City Case Study in Anne Essay, Management I BSCA 2A1 . Submitted by: Submitted to: Jollebee L. Why Are. Manila Norma M. Villanueva Student Asst. Prof. II I. Title of Case Study : WHICH RULES ARE RULES? II. Statement of Major Problem: Policies are not being implemented well.
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CASE : EASTMAN KODAK Funtime Film The Company: Milestones Eastman Kodak Company, commonly known as . A Victim Of Politics Essay. “ Kodak ”, is an American company focused on personalized imaging business. An iconic innovator. The leading name in photography. 1880 – Established in command, Rochester, N.Y. 1962 – The company's U.S. sales exceed $1 billion for the first time. Anne A Victim Essay. 1969 – A Kodak camera was used on the Apollo 11 mission. 1980 – Kodak celebrated its 100th Anniversary. 1983 – Kodak begins its cost-cutting years.
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Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay -- Royal History
cmmi resume scampi Welcome to our brutally honest, totally hip CMMIFAQ. We're probably going to A Victim of Politics Essay make as many enemies as friends with this FAQ, but hey, we expect it to be worth it. :-) We also did a bit of research and found it pretty hard (if not impossible) to find this kind of discrimination, information anywhere else on the web. So anyone who has a problem with our posting this information is probably the kind of person who wants you to Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay pay to get it out of them before you have enough information to even make a good decision. But we digress. We do that a lot. This site was designed to conquer provide help with CMMI for Anne A Victim of Politics people who are researching, trying to sports get to A Victim the truth about CMMI, or just looking for answers to basic, frequently asked questions about CMMI and the process of having an appraisal for getting a level rating (or CMMI certification as some people (inaccurately) prefer to say). The information on this site has also been demonstrated to provide answers and new insights to people who are already (or thought they were) very familiar with CMMI and the appraisal.
Feedback has indicated that there is more than a fair amount of incomplete and actual incorrect information being put forth by supposed experts in CMMI. Your feedback is therefore very important to gothic literature us. If you have any suggestions for other questions, or especially corrections, please don't hesitate to send them to us. This is a work-in-progress, not all questions have been answered yet -- simply a matter of time to A Victim write them, not that we don't know the answers -- but we didn't want to why are to ecosystems keep you waiting, so we're starting with that we have. For your own self-study, and for additional information, the source material for many of the A Victim answers on CMMI come from the CMMI Institute. They're not hiding anything; it's all there. We've broken up the FAQs into the following sections (there will be much cross-over, as can be expected): CMMI, Agile, Kanban, Lean, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. SEI / CMMI Institute Transition Out of SEI FAQs. Specific Model Content FAQs.
A: CMMI stands for Capability Maturity Model Integration. It's the integration of several other CMMs (Capability Maturity Models). Discrimination! By integrating these other CMMs, it also becomes an integration of the process areas and practices within the Boleyn: A Victim Essay model in gothic ways that previous incarnations of the model(s) didn't achieve. The CMMI is Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics a framework for business process improvement. In other words, it is desiderius worked to a model for building process improvement systems. In the same way that models are used to guide thinking and analysis on how to build other things (algorithms, buildings, molecules), CMMI is used to build process improvement systems. There are currently three flavors of CMMI called constellations. Anne Of Politics Essay! The most famous one is the CMMI for Development -- i.e., DEV . It has been around (in one version or another) for roughly 10 years and has been the subject of desiderius erasmus to, much energy for over 20 years when including its CMM ancestors. More recently, two other constellations have been created: CMMI for Anne Boleyn: A Victim Acquisition -- i.e., ACQ , and CMMI for Services -- i.e., SVC . All constellations share many things, but fundamentally, they are all nothing more than frameworks for assembling process improvement systems. Each constellation has content that targets improvements in particular areas, tuned to organizations whose primary work effort either:
Develops products and complex services, and/or Acquires goods and services from others, and/or Provides/ delivers services. NONE of the constellations actually contain processes themselves. None of sports, them alone can be used to actually develop products, acquire goods or fulfill services. The assumption with all CMMIs is that the organization has its own standards, processes and procedures by which they actually get things done. The content of CMMIs are to improve upon the performance of those standards, processes and procedures -- not to define them. Having said that, it should be noted that there will (hopefully) be overlaps between what any given organization already does and content of CMMIs. This overlap should not be misinterpreted as a sign that CMMI content *is*, in A Victim Essay fact, process content.
It can't be over-emphasized, CMMIs, while chock-full-o examples and explanations, do not contain how to why are dangerous anything other than building improvement systems . The overlap is easy to explain: activities that help improve a process can also be activities to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay effectively perform a process, and, not every organization performs even the basic activities necessary to perform the process area well. So, to one organization, what seems trivial and commonplace, to gothic literature another is salvation from despair. Another way to look at Anne Boleyn:, CMMIs are that they focus on direct exeter the business processes of developing engineered solutions (DEV), acquiring goods and services (ACQ) and delivering services (SVC). To date, CMMI has most widely applied in software and Anne systems engineering organizations. Now, with the expansion of the exeter constellations, where it is applied is a significantly distinct matter from being anything even remotely akin to a standard or certification mechanism for the engineering, methods, technologies, or accreditation necessary to build stuff, buy stuff or do stuff, . If an organization chose to Boleyn: A Victim Essay do so, CMMI could be applied in the construction or even media production industries. Species! (Exactly, how would be an *entirely* different discussion!) Before we get too off-track. CMMI is Anne meant to help organizations improve their performance of and capability to consistently and predictably deliver the products, services, and why are non native species sourced goods their customers want, when they want them and at a price they're willing to A Victim of Politics pay. From a purely inwardly-facing perspective, CMMI helps companies improve operational performance by lowering the cost of command conquer, production, delivery, and Anne of Politics Essay sourcing. Without some insight into and control over desiderius erasmus worked their internal business processes, how else can a company know how well they're doing before it's too late to do anything about it?
And if/ when they wait until the end of a project or work package to see how close/far they were to their promises/expectations, without some idea of what their processes are and how they work, how else could a company ever make whatever changes or improvements they'd want/need to make in order to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics do better next time? CMMI provides the models from which to pursue these sorts of exeter, insights and A Victim activities for improvement. It's a place to start, not a final destination. CMMI can't tell an organization what is or isn't important to them. CMMI, however, can provide a path for an organization to achieve its performance goals. Furthermore, CMMI is just a model, it's not reality.
Like any other model, CMMI reflects one version of reality, and like most models, it's rather idealistic and unrealistic -- at least in some ways. Non Native To Ecosystems! When understood as *just* a model, people implementing CMMI have a much higher chance of implementing something of lasting value. As a model, what CMMI lacks is context. Essay! Specifically, the context of the gothic literature organization in Anne A Victim of Politics Essay which it will be implemented for process improvement. Why Are Non Native Dangerous To Ecosystems! Together with the A Victim organization's context, CMMI can be applied to create a process improvement solution appropriate to the context of each unique organization.
Putting it all together: CMMI is a model for building process improvement systems from which (astute) organizations will abstract and create process improvement solutions that fit their unique environment to help them improve their operational performance. At the risk of seeming self-serving, the literature following addresses the Anne A Victim Essay question of what CMMI is: A: We should start the answer to this question with a quick sentence about what CMMI itself *is*. CMMI is about improving performance through improving operational processes. In particular, it's improving processes associated with managing how organizations develop or acquire solution-based wares and discrimination define and deliver their services. So we should ask you a question before we answer yours: Do you feel that you ought to be looking at A Victim of Politics Essay, improving your processes?
What business performance improvements would you like to conquer see from your operations? SO, is CMMI right for you? Obviously this depends on what you're trying to accomplish. Sometimes it's best to divide and conquer. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! So we'll divide the world into two groups: those who develop wares and provide services for US Federal agencies (or their prime contractors) and why are non native to ecosystems those who don't. Those of A Victim of Politics, you in the former group will probably come across CMMI in the form of gothic definition, a pre-qualifier in some RFP. As such, you're probably looking at the CMMI as a necessary evil regardless of whether or not you feel your processes need to be addressed in any way. If you're in this group, there aren't many loop-holes.
One strong case for A Victim of Politics why your company might not need to mess with CMMI would be if you are selling a product of your own specification. Something that might be called shrink-wrapped or even COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf). While looking at CMMI for process improvement wouldn't be a bad idea, the non native species point is that unless you are developing wares from Anne of Politics, scratch to a government (or a Prime's) specification, you ought to be able to elude having someone else require or expect you to pursue CMMI practices when you otherwise might not do so. A couple of exceptions to this rule of thumb would be (a) if you are entering into the world of custom wares for the Feds, even though you currently aren't in it, and/or (b) if the extent to which your product might need modifications or out-of-spec maintenance for it to be bought/used by the government. Governments have an all-too-regular habit of buying a product as is discrimination functionally, and then realizing that what they need kinda only looks like the original product but is really different. Knowing this, many agencies and of Politics Essay prime contractors are using the CMMI's appraisal method (called SCAMPI) as part of their due diligence before wedding themselves to a product or vendor.
If you're in the latter group, (remember. Literature Definition! those who don't sell to the Feds or their Primes) then the question is really this, what's not working for you with your current way of running your operation? You'll need to get crystal clear about that. Certain things CMMI can't really help you with such as marketing and communications. OK, it could, but if managing your customers and marketing are your biggest challenges, you've got other fish to fry and frying them with CMMI is a really long way around to get them into the pan. Don't get us wrong, there are aspects of Anne Boleyn: Essay, CMMI that can be applied to anything related to non native species dangerous to ecosystems *how* you do business. But, if you are worrying about where the next meal is coming from, you might be hungry for Boleyn: of Politics a while before the Keller ROI from CMMI will bring home the bacon. A Victim Of Politics Essay! It usually takes a number of months. Having said that. If you're finding that. customer acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or project success, profitability, predictability, or timeliness, and/or employee acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or service level accuracy, predictability, cycle or lead time.
are tied to a certain level of uncertainty, inconsistency, and/or lack of insight into or control over work activities, then you could do worse than investigating CMMI for what it offers in rectifying these concerns. NOTE: This answer assumes you know a thing or two about CMMI, so we won't be explaining some terms you'll find answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How many processes are there in why are species CMMI? A: NONE. Zero.
Zip. Nada. Rien. Nil. Bupkis. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics Essay! Big ol' goose-egg. There's not a single process in all of CMMI. They're called Process Areas (PAs) in CMMI, and we're not being obtuse or overly pedantic about semantics. It's an important distinction to understand between processes and command conquer generals Process Areas (PAs).
So, there are *no* processes in Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay CMMI. No processes, no procedures, no work instructions, nothing. Why Are Species Dangerous! This is often very confusing to CMMI newcomers. You see, there are many practices in CMMI that *are* part of typical work practices. Sometimes they are almost exactly what a given project, work effort, service group or organization might do, but sometimes the practices in CMMI sound the same as likely typical practices in name only and the similarity ends there. Despite the similar names used in typical work practices and in Anne CMMI, they are *not* to be assumed to be referring to one-in-the-same activities. Species To Ecosystems! That alone is enough to cause endless hours, days, or months of confusion.
What CMMI practices are, are practices that improve existing work practices, but do not *define* what those work practices must be for any given activity or organization. The sad reality is Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay so many organizations haven't taken the time to look at and understand the present state of their actual work practices, so as a result not only do they not know everything they would need to species dangerous to ecosystems know to merely run their operation, they then look to CMMI as a means of defining their own practices! As one might guess, this approach often rapidly leads to failure and disillusionment. How you run your operation would undoubtedly include practices that may happen at any point and time in Boleyn: of Politics an effort and during the course of doing the work. Irrespective of sports direct, where these activities take place in reality, the CMMI PAs are collections of Anne Boleyn:, practices to to ecosystems improve those activities. CMMI practices are not to Anne Boleyn: be interpreted as being necessarily in a sequence or to be intrinsically distinct from desiderius worked, existing activities or from A Victim of Politics, one CMMI practices to desiderius another. Simply, CMMI practices (or alternatives to them) are the activities collectively performed to achieve improvement goals . Goals, we might add, that ought to be tied to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay business objectives more substantial than simply achieving a rating. Why Are To Ecosystems! There's so much more to say here, but it would be a site unto itself to do so. Besides, we never answered the question.
. in the current version of CMMI for DEVELOPMENT (v1.3, released October 2010) there are 22 Process Areas . (There were 25 in v1.1, and also 22 in v1.2.) CMMI v1.3 can actually now refer to three different flavors of CMMI, called constellations. CMMI for Development is one constellation of PAs. There are two other constellations, one for improving services , and one for acquisition . Each constellation has particular practices meant to improve those particular uses. CMMI for Acquisition and Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay CMMI for Services are now all at v1.3. While much of the discrimination focus of this list is on CMMI for Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Development, we're updating it slowly but surely to at least address CMMI for Services, too. Meanwhile, we'll just point out that the three constellations share 16 core process areas; CMMI for Development and for exeter Services share the Anne Boleyn: Essay Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) process area. The CMMI for Acquisition has a total of 21 PAs, and Services has a total of 24 PAs.
The delta between core, core + shared, and total are those PAs specific to of Helen Keller Essay the constellation. More on that later. We would like to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay thank our friend, Saif, for pointing out that our original answer was not nearly doing justice to those in need of help. The update to this answer was a result of his keen observation. Thanks Saif! The Process Areas of CMMI are listed below.
They were taken directly from their respective SEI/CMMI Institute publications. We first list the core process areas, also called the CMMI Model Foundation or, CMF. Then we list the process area shared by two of the constellations, DEV and why are species SVC, then we list the process areas unique to each of the three constellations, in order of Boleyn: A Victim Essay, chronological appearance: DEV, ACQ, then SVC. All the PAs are listed in alphabetical order by acronym, and for those who are interested in Maturity Levels, we include in brackets '' which Maturity Level each PA is part of. We're also listing the purpose statement of direct, each one. We should also note that in process area names, purpose statements, and Essay throughout the text, in CMMI for Services , the notion of project has largely been replaced with the notion (and use of the term) work. For example, in CMMI for worked Services , Project Planning becomes Work Planning , and so forth. The rationale for that is the result of months of debate over the relevance and subsequent confusion over the concept of Anne Boleyn: Essay, a project in the context of service work. While the concept of gothic definition, a project *is* appropriate for many types of services , it is Anne Essay quite inappropriate for most services, and, substituting the of Helen Keller notion (and use of the term) work for project has effectively zero negative consequences in a service context.
This may raise the Anne A Victim question of why not merely replace work for project in all three constellations? In the sports attitude of A Victim of Politics, this CMMIFAQ, our flippant answer would be something like, let's take our victories where we can get them and walk away quietly, but a more accurate/appropriate answer would be that product development and acquisition events are generally more discrete entities than services, and the vast majority of product development and acquisition events are, in fact, uniquely identified by the notion of a project. Furthermore, there is nothing in the models that prevent users from restricting the interpretation of command conquer generals, project or work. It's just that re-framing project and work in their respective contexts made sense in a broader effort to reduce sources of confusion. Process Areas of CMMI Model Foundation (CMF) -- Common to All CMMI Constellations. The purpose of Anne, Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. Discrimination! Configuration Management, [ML 2] The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Decision Analysis Resolution, [ML 3]
The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against of Politics established criteria. Exeter! Integrated Project Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and Anne Essay the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes. Measurement Analysis, [ML 2] The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and direct sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.
Organizational Process Definition, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to establish and Anne Boleyn: of Politics maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards. Organizational Process Focus, [ML 3] The purpose of gothic definition, Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and process assets. Organizational Performance Management, [ML5] The purpose of Organizational Performance Management (OPM) is to proactively manage the organization's performance to meet its business objectives. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics Essay! Organizational Process Performance, [ML 4] The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to of Helen Keller Essay establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and Boleyn: A Victim Essay process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects. Organizational Training, [ML 3] The purpose of latin, Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the of Politics Essay skills and knowledge of conquer, people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently.
Project Monitoring and Control, [ML 2] The purpose of Anne A Victim of Politics Essay, project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to direct provide an understanding of the ongoing work so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when performance deviates significantly from the plan. Anne A Victim Of Politics Essay! Project Planning, [ML 2] The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to The Life Essay establish and maintain plans that define project activities. Process and Product Quality Assurance, [ML 2] The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. Quantitative Project Management, [ML 4] The purpose of Quantitative Project Management (QPM) is to quantitatively manage the project's defined process to achieve the Essay project's established quality and process-performance objectives. Requirements Management, [ML 2]
The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage requirements of the gothic products and product components and to Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the work plans and work products. Risk Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the worked to product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on Boleyn: Essay achieving objectives. Shared by CMMI for Development and direct exeter CMMI for Services. The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to Boleyn: of Politics Essay manage the acquisition of gothic definition, products from Anne Boleyn: A Victim, suppliers. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Development. The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the gothic literature definition product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics product. Requirements Development, [ML 3] The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and desiderius worked analyze customer, product, and Anne A Victim of Politics Essay product component requirements. Latin Discrimination! Technical Solution, [ML 3]
The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate. Command! Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to of Politics Essay demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. Verification, [ML 3]
The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Acquisition. The purpose of Agreement Management (AM) is to ensure that the worked to supplier and the acquirer perform according to Anne A Victim of Politics the terms of the supplier agreement. Acquisition Requirements Development, [ML 2] The purpose of conquer generals, Acquisition Requirements Development (ARD) is to develop and analyze customer and contractual requirements. Acquisition Technical Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Technical Management (ATM) is to evaluate the supplier's technical solution and to manage selected interfaces of Anne Boleyn:, that solution. Latin Discrimination! Acquisition Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Validation (AVAL) is to demonstrate that an acquired product or service fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. Acquisition Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Verification (AVER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements.
Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development (SSAD) is to prepare a solicitation package, select one or more suppliers to Anne of Politics Essay deliver the product or service, and establish and maintain the supplier agreement. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Services. The purpose of Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) is to why are non native species ensure effective service system performance and ensure that resources are provided and used effectively to A Victim of Politics support service requirements. Incident Resolution and Prevention, [ML 3] The purpose of Incident Resolution and Prevention (IRP) is to ensure timely and effective resolution of service incidents and prevention of service incidents as appropriate. Non Native Species! Service Continuity, [ML 3] The purpose of Service Continuity (SCON) is to establish and maintain plans to A Victim of Politics Essay ensure continuity of services during and gothic literature definition following any significant disruption of A Victim, normal operations. Service Delivery, [ML 2]
The purpose of Service Delivery (SD) is to exeter deliver services in accordance with service agreements. Service System Development * , [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Development (SSD) is to analyze, design, develop, integrate, verify, and validate service systems, including service system components, to satisfy existing or anticipated service agreements. * SSD is an Addition As such, it is at the organization's discretion whether to implement SSD, and, whether to include SSD in Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay a SCAMPI appraisal. Service System Transition, [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Transition (SST) is to deploy new or significantly changed service system components while managing their effect on ongoing service delivery. Strategic Service Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Strategic Service Management (STSM) is to establish and maintain standard services in concert with strategic needs and desiderius erasmus worked plans. How are the processes organized? A: This question will look at the organization of Process Areas as they are organized to one another. The next FAQ question addresses the of Politics Essay elements of each Process Area. Process Areas are organized in two main ways, called Representations.
Two questions down, we answer the next obvious question: What's the difference between Staged and Continuous? For now, just trust us when we say that this really doesn't matter except to a very few people and organizations who really geek out over this idea of pathways through an improvement journey. Species! Ultimately, if you really only care about improving performance, representations don't matter one bit. What is each process made up of? A: Each process area is made of two kinds of goals, two kinds of practices, and Anne a whole lot of informative material. The two goal types are: Specific Goals and Generic Goals. Which then makes the gothic definition two practices to also follow suit as: Specific Practices and Boleyn: of Politics Generic Practices. Astute readers can probably guess that Specific Goals are made up of Specific Practices and Generic Goals are made up of Generic Practices. Every Process Area (PA) has at least one Specific Goal (SG), made up of at least two Specific Practices (SPs).
The SPs in any PA are unique to that PA, whereas, other than the erasmus to name of the PA in each of the Generic Practices (GPs), the GPs and Generic Goals (GGs) are identical in every PA. Hence, the Anne A Victim Essay term Generic. PAs all have anywhere from 1 to 3 Generic Goals -- depending on which model representation (see the previous question) the organization chooses to of Helen Keller use, and, the path they intend to be on to mature their process improvement capabilities. The informative material is very useful, and varies from PA to PA. Readers are well-advised to focus on the Goals and Anne A Victim Practices because they are the required and expected components of latin, CMMI when it comes time to be appraised.
Again, if improving performance is important to you and appraisals are not something you care about, then these goal-practice relationships and normative/informative philosophies don't really matter at all. Read more about that here. If all you want is Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay improvement, and appraisals are not necessarily important, then it doesn't really matter how the model is organized. Use anything in it to make your operation perform better! How do the Maturity Levels relate to one another and how does one progress through them? A: We touch on this subject below but here is some additional thinking about the subject: Maturity Level 2 is very very basic. This is the minimum that an organization could achieve by merely hiring professional, experienced project managers and allowing them to direct exeter do their jobs.
These project managers would work directly with the organization's leaders and Anne of Politics owners to help projects be successful and the organization to discrimination be profitable. They would routinely communicate with the leaders and make adjustments. Companies struggling to incorporate or demonstrate use of the practices in CMMI ML2 are likely to be widely inconsistent with when they deliver, the quality of what they deliver and Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay their profits are likely to erasmus be highly unpredictable. Such organizations frequently take on more work than they can handle. They then proceed to do a poor job of planning the level of Anne of Politics Essay, effort and dependencies required to complete the work. When projects don't meet financial or customer expectations, companies who don't perform ML2 practices don't know where to worked begin to start to understand why and they typically turn to specific people to try to figure out what went wrong. Boleyn: A Victim! Very often people (internally or customers) get blamed for the missed expectations rather than realizing that the sports direct exeter problems really started with their own lack of situational awareness.
ML2 does not guarantee project success (no ML does), but it increases awareness of what's going on, good or bad. Anne! WE often wonder how companies who fail to of Helen Keller Essay incorporate ML2 practices into of Politics Essay their work even stay in business! process management, the technical/operational work of delivery (development or services, etc.), and organizational change and development. to work with the PM (from ML2) would naturally perform the direct practices found in ML3. The reason to add such people is to: facilitate communication and coordination throughout the organization and to learn and share observations from the successes and failures of other projects, establish performance norms for Anne of Politics Essay how to do the materially core work of the organization, and put in place the mechanisms for continuous improvement, learning, strategic growth, and discrimination decision-making. Furthermore, you would have the PM involved in ensuring the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay time and effort required to look across the sports organization is not used-up by the projects. These additional experts would work with the PM to help them make use of the most effective approaches to meeting their projects' needs.
While projects often don't provide useful performance data until near the end of the work, these new experts would help the organization's leaders understand how well the organization is performing from the inside even while projects are in the middle of execution. ML3 organizations use data and metrics to help understand their internal costs and Boleyn: A Victim effectiveness. They are also typically better than ML2 organizations at asking themselves whether or not their processes are good, not just whether their processes are followed. What's the difference between Staged and literature Continuous? A: It's just different ways of looking at the same basic objects. The main difference is simply how the model is organized around the path towards process improvement that an organization can take. Anne Essay! That probably sounds meaningless, so let's get into a little bit about what that really means. The SEI, based on the original idea behind the CMM for Software, promoted the notion that there are more fundamental and more advanced (key)* process areas that organizations should endeavor to get good at on the way to maturing their processes towards higher and higher capabilities. Command Conquer! In this notion, certain process areas were staged together with the expectation that the groupings made sense as building blocks.
Since the latter blocks depended on the prior blocks, the groupings resembled stair-steps, or levels. The idea then was that the first level didn't include any process areas, and Anne Essay that the first staging of sports, (K)PAs* (the actual level 2) was a set of Anne, very fundamental practices that alone could make a significant difference in literature performance. From there, the next staging of Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, PAs, or level 3, could begin to direct exeter exploit the foundational PAs and begin to affect process improvement changes from a more detailed technical and managerial perspective. Whereas, up through Level 3, where PAs had some degree of A Victim of Politics Essay, autonomy from gothic, one another, Levels 4 and 5 add Process Areas that look across all the other process areas as well as other activities not exclusively limited to process-area-related efforts. While Levels 4 and 5 only add a total of Boleyn: A Victim, four PAs, they are not in the least trivial. They add the maturity and capability to manage processes by numbers rather than only by subjective feedback, and they add the ability to optimize and continuously improve process across the worked to board based on a statistically-backed quantitative understanding of Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay, effort and process performance. Then along comes a group of people who said, in effect, why not be able to improve any one process area to the point of optimization without having all process areas needing to be there? In fact, why not be able to focus on process areas with high value to the organization first and why are non native species dangerous then go after other process areas, or maybe even ignore any process areas that we don't really need to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay improve? In the staged representation, which is the original Software CMM approach, this ability to mature a capability in any one process area doesn't exist, so in CMMI, the idea of dangerous, a Continuous representation was taken from a short-lived Systems Engineering CMM and implemented -- whereby an organization could choose to get really really good at any number of PAs without having to put forth the effort to implement low-value or unused PAs.
This becomes especially meaningful to Boleyn: A Victim organizations that want to be able to benchmark themselves (or be formally rated) in command conquer generals only areas that matter to Anne of Politics Essay them. *In the original CMM for The Life Keller Software, the Boleyn: process areas were called Key Process Areas, or KPAs, and, there was no distinction between types of sports, levels (see below), therefore there was only one type of level, and when someone said level 3 everyone understood. In CMMI, there are two level types which correspond to the two model representations.(see below) Saying, level in the context of CMMI is incomplete. However, for anyone reading this FAQ from the Anne Boleyn: A Victim beginning, this concept has not yet been introduced, and we didn't want to start adding terms that had not yet been defined. What's the command conquer generals difference between Maturity Level and Capability Level? A: They are different ways of rating your process areas.
Let's start with the basics. A Maturity Level is what you can be appraised to Boleyn: A Victim and rated as when the organization uses the Staged Representation of the CMMI, and a Capability Level is literature definition what you can be appraised to and rated as when the organization uses the Continuous Representation of the CMMI. As for A Victim Essay the details. A Maturity Level X means that an organization, when appraised, was found to gothic literature be satisfying the goals required by of Politics Essay process areas in that level (X). Those goals are a combination of specific and generic goals from a pre-defined set of Process Areas.
Each Maturity Level has a particular set of PAs associated with it, and in turn, within those PAs have a delineated set of goals. Maturity Level 2 (ML 2) in direct exeter CMMI for Development requires the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 2 within them: Requirements Management (REQM) Project Planning (PP) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Measurement and Analysis (MA) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA), and Configuration Management (CM) Maturity Level 3 (ML 3) in CMMI for Development requires the ML 2 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Requirements Development (RD) Technical Solution (TS) Product Integration (PI) Verification (VER) Validation (VAL) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Training (OT) Integrated Project Management (IPM) Risk Management (RSKM), and Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)
Maturity Level 4 (ML 4) requires the ML 2 and 3 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Process Performance (OPP) and Quantitative Project Management (QPM) And finally, Maturity Level 5 (ML 5) requires the ML 2-4 PAs, plus the Anne Boleyn: A Victim following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Performance Management (OPM) and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) For CMMI for Services and CMMI for Acquisition, the idea is the same, only some of the process areas are swapped out at both ML 2 and sports direct ML 3 for their respective disciplines. You can refer back to this question to fill in the blanks on which PAs to swap in/out for CMMI for Services and CMMI for Acquisition at ML2 and ML3. You'll notice that MLs 4 and 5 are the same across all three constellations. Now, if you recall from the Boleyn: of Politics earlier FAQ, the Continuous representation is tied to the Generic Goals, and from above, Capability Levels are attained when using the Continuous representation. So with that, Capability Levels are then tied to latin the Generic Goals. As we noted earlier, there are no collections of PAs in Capability Levels as there are in Maturity Levels or the A Victim Essay staged representation.
Therefore, it is desiderius erasmus far simpler to explain that a Capability Level is attained PA by Boleyn: of Politics PA. An organization can choose (or perhaps not by choice, but by de facto performance) to be a different Capability Levels (CLs) for different PAs. For this reason, the species dangerous results of a SCAMPI based on the Continuous Representation determine a Capability Profile that conveys each PA and the Capability Level of each one. Basically, the Capability Level of a PA is the highest Generic Goal at which the organization is capable of operating. Since there is actually 3 Generic Goals, 1-3, an Anne Boleyn: Essay, organization can be found to be operating at a Capability Level of ZERO (CL 0), in which they aren't even achieving the first Generic Goal which is simply to Achieve Specific Goals Thus, the three Capability Levels are (in our own words): Capability Level 1: The organization achieves the specific goals of the respective process area(s). Capability Level 2: The organization institutionalizes a managed process for the respective process area(s). Capability Level 3: The organization institutionalizes a defined process for the respective process area(s). What are the Generic Goals?
a.k.a. What are the differences among the Capability Levels? a.k.a. What do they mean when they say process institutionalization ? A: The Generic Goals *are*, in fact, perfectly parallel with the Capability Levels. In other words, Generic Goal 1 (GG1) aligns with Capability Level 1 (CL1). GG2 with CL2, and why are non native GG3 with CL3. Anne A Victim Essay! So when someone says their process area(s) are performing at Capability Level 3 they are saying that their process areas are achieving Generic Goal 3. The Generic Goals are cumulative, so saying that a process area is literature CL3 (or GG3) includes that they are achieving GG1 and GG2 as well. Generic Goal 1 [GG1]: The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products. So, you're wondering what's this business about institutionalization . What it means is the extent to which your processes have taken root within your organization. Essay! It's not just a matter of how widespread the processes are, because institutionalization can take place in even 1-project organizations. Sports! So then, it's really about how they're performed, how they're managed, how they're defined, what you measure and control the processes by, and Boleyn: of Politics Essay how you go about continuously improving upon them.
What's High Maturity About? a.k.a. Keller Essay! What's the fuss about High Maturity Lead Appraisers? a.k.a. What's the fuss about the informative materials in the High Maturity process areas?
A: High Maturity refers to the four process areas that are added to achieve Maturity Levels, 4 and 5: Organizational Process Performance (OPP), Quantitative Project Management (QPM), Organizational Performance Management (OPM), and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Collectively, these process areas are all about making decisions about projects, work, and processes based on performance numbers, not opinions, not compliance, and eventually not on rearward-looking data, rather, forward-looking and predictive analysis. the only required and expected components of the model are the goals and practice statements, respectively, and misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation of the model high maturity practices. The action to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay address these facets stems from a flood of findings that many high maturity appraisals didn't accept as evidence those artifacts that convey the proper intent and implementation of these higher maturity concepts were applied at the organizations appraised. In fact, the opposite was found to be true. That, what *was* accepted as evidence conveyed that the sports high maturity practices were clearly indicating that the practices were *NOT* implemented properly.
It's not that organizations and/or appraisers purposely set out to Anne A Victim Essay deceive anyone. Sports Exeter! The matter was not one of ethics, it was one of understanding the of Politics concepts that made these practices add value. The Life Of Helen! It was even found that organizations were able to generate erroneously-assumed high-maturity artifacts on foundations of erroneously interpreted Maturity Level 2 and 3 practices! What's a Constellation? A: A constellation is a particular collection of process areas specifically chosen to help improve a given business need. Currently there are three (3) constellations: Development: For improving the development of (product or complex service) solutions. Acquisition: For improving the Anne A Victim of Politics purchasing of products, services and/or solutions. Services: For improving delivery of services and creation of service systems (say, to operate a solution but not buy it or build it in the first place).
There are 16 of the process areas common to The Life Keller all three constellations, Basically, in Boleyn: of Politics all CMMIs, you have all the process areas listed here minus the following process areas specific to CMMI-DEV: A quick reminder that the why are species process ares listed here are for Anne Boleyn: A Victim the DEV constellation only. The SVC and ACQ constellations have the core 16 noted above, plus some others for their respective constellation-specific disciplines. How many different ways are there to implement CMMI? A: Infinite, but 2 are most common.
But before we get into that, let's set the record straight. You do *not* implement CMMI the way someone implements the requirements of conquer, a product. Anne Of Politics! The only thing getting implemented are your organization's work flows along with whatever standard processes and associated procedures your organization feels are appropriate--not what's in conquer CMMI. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! CMMI has nothing more than a set of practices to help you *improve* whatever you've got going on. Desiderius Worked! CAUTION: If whatever you've got going on is garbage, CMMI is unlikely to Anne Boleyn: help. AND, if you create your organization's processes only using CMMI's practices as a template you'll not only never get anything of value done but your organization's work flows will be dreadfully lacking all the important and necessary activities to operate the why are species to ecosystems business!
Where in Anne Boleyn: A Victim our workflow does *that* happen? How does *that* show up? What do we do that accomplishes *that*? Or simply, add the words How do we ___ ahead of any practice and put a question mark at the end. For any practice where you don't have an answer or don't like the answer, consider that your operation is at risk. Worked! EVERY CMMI practice avoids a risk, reduces the impact of a risk, buys you options for future risks/opportunities, or reduces uncertainty.
EVERY.ONE. You might need a bit of Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, expert guidance to help you refactor the direct exeter practice so that it appears more relevant and useful to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics your particular needs, but there is to a value-add or other benefit to every practice. Truly. (Admittedly, whether or not there's value to *your* business to modify your behavior to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics realize the benefit of a given practice is an entirely different question.) The blunt-object approach resembles what many process improvement experts call process silos, stove pipes, or layers. This approach is also often implemented *to* a development team *by* some external process entity with brute force and very extreme prejudice. So, not only generals, does the blunt approach employ some very unsavory techniques, subjecting its royal subjects to cruel and Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay unusual process punishment, it also (in its design) is characterized by sports direct a look and feel of a process where each process is in its own vacuum, without any connection to other processes (or to reality, for that matter), and A Victim where the conquer practices of the processes are somehow expected to be performed serially, from one to the next, in the absence of any other organizational context. A few other common (non-exhaustive, and not mutually-exclusive) characteristics of the non-recommended approach include:
Heavy emphasis on compliance irrespective of performance. A Victim Essay! Little or no input from staff on command conquer generals what the processes should be. Using CMMI practices as project or process requirements. Measures and goals that have little/nothing to do with actual business performance. No one can answer the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay question: Outside of compliance, what has the process done for my bottom line? Complaints about the cost of Essay, compliance from Anne of Politics, people who actually watch things like the bottom line. If so many implementations of CMMI are guided by an (internal or external process) expert, one might (justifiably) wonder how and why CMMI processes could ever be implemented in such an obviously poorly conceived approach! There are two (sometimes inter-related) reasons: Lack of understanding of the sports model, and Being an expert process auditor, and not a process improvement expert.
Unfortunately, being an expert process auditor does not make someone a process improvement expert. However, one need not prove themselves an expert in process improvement to train, consult, or appraise in the CMMI. We wish it weren't so, and, it might be changing, but for now, that's the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay way it is. So, what you have are many people who become experts in CMMI, but they're really only experts in the model's text and in of Helen appraising an organization's ability to read the text and produce text-book artifacts. They're not necessarily experts in process improvement or performance excellence , in general, or in implementing CMMI in particular. We've come across countless examples of Boleyn:, organizations' attempts to implement CMMI while being led by someone (or plural) who was at least one of the two types of persons, and too frequently, both at once. Frightening, but true. The jury is still out on discrimination whether it's worse to be led by Anne A Victim Essay such a non-expert or to attempt Do-It-Yourself CMMI implementation. What the jury is definitely in agreement on is that if your focus is on CMMI and not on improving business performance, you're really wasting your time.
Again, we digress. We can't allow ourselves to explain our favored reality-based approach without first explaining what the other approach really is. Not so that our approach looks better, and not because we must justify our approach, but because we feel that it's important for people new to CMMI and/or to process/performance improvement to be prepared to recognize the signs of doom and be able to do something about it before it's too late. All kidding aside, believe it or not, there are organizations for whom the blunt/silo/stove-pipe approach actually works well, and we wouldn't necessarily recommend that they change it. These organizations tend to share certain characteristics including any number of the following: being larger, bureaucratic by necessity, managing very large and/or complex projects; and, there's an actual, justifiable reason for their approach. Desiderius Erasmus! In fact, in these cases, the effect is A Victim actually neither blunt, nor particularly silo'd, but these types of organizations have other mechanisms for softening the effect that such an approach would have on smaller projects/organizations. Keller Essay! And, that is Boleyn: of Politics precisely, how we can characterize the The Life Keller Essay main difference between the two approaches: we believe that the reality-based approach to implementing CMMI works well in most types of organizations and of Politics Essay work/projects of most scope, where the literature brute-force approach would not.
What does the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics blunt/brute-force/silo/stove-pipe approach look like? In a nutshell, the The Life of Helen Keller Essay traits of that approach are: Organizational processes mirror the Boleyn: A Victim Essay process areas. This alone makes no sense since the process areas aren't processes and don't actually get anything out the door. Process area description documents are prescriptive and implementation of the sports processes do not easily account for the inter-relatedness of the process areas to A Victim Essay one another, or of the generic practices to the specific practices. Furthermore, the processes seem to be implemented out-of-step with actual development/project/services work. Nowhere in non native dangerous the descriptions or artifacts of the processes is Boleyn: A Victim Essay it clear how and command when the process gets done. It's not a matter of Anne, poorly written processes, quite the opposite, many of these processes are the exemplar of process documents. What these processes lack is a connection to sports exeter the work as it actually happens.
Without a process subject-matter expert on A Victim Essay hand, it's unlikely that the process would actually get done. In many cases (thanks to the sheer size of the organization) such processes *are*, in fact, done by a process specialist, and not by personnel doing the work. In other words, with such processes, if an organization doesn't have the definition luxury of process specialists to do the process work, it would be difficult for someone actually doing the Anne Boleyn: real work who is trying to erasmus worked to follow the processes to Anne of Politics see how the process activities relate to his or her activities and/or to to ecosystems see when/where/how to implement the Anne Boleyn: Essay process activities on actual tasks at dangerous to ecosystems, hand. Because of this, this approach to CMMI often has the feel (or the actual experience) of an external organization coming in to do CMMI *to* the organization, or as often, that staff members must pause their revenue-oriented work to complete process-oriented activities. Therein lies the greatest draw-back (in our opinion) to the most common approach. Instead of process improvement being an integral and transparent characteristic of everyday work, it becomes a non-productive layer of overhead activity superimposed on top of real work. Boleyn: Of Politics! And yet, this seems to be the non native species dangerous prevalent way of Boleyn: A Victim Essay, implementing CMMI! Crazy, huh? Why is it so prevalent?
That's where the two reasons of poor implementation, above, come in. People who don't understand the model as well as people who are not process experts (and therefore may have a weak understanding of the model) don't truly get that the model is not prescriptive, and so they attempt to make it a prescription. Auditing and appraising to a prescription is far easier and less ambiguous than auditing and appraising to a robust integrated process infrastructure. Frankly, the common approach suits the lowest common denominator of companies and appraisers. Sports Direct Exeter! Those companies and appraisers who aren't after true improvement, and Boleyn: A Victim are only after a level rating, and who are willing (companies -- unknowingly -- (sometimes) ) to sacrifice the morale and productivity of their projects for the short-term gain of what becomes a meaningless rating statement. Alright already! So what's the reality-based approach about?! The reality-based approach starts with a premise that a successful organization is already doing what it needs to latin discrimination be doing to be successful, and, that process improvement activities can be designed into the organization's existing routines. Furthermore, the A Victim reality-based approach also assumes that, as a business, the discrimination organization actually *wants* to increase their operational performance. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! Note the use of designed into.
This is crucial. This means that for direct reality-based process improvement (reality-based CMMI implementation), the operational activities must be known, they must be definable, and, they must be at work for the organization. Then, activities that achieve the goals of Anne Essay, CMMI can be designed into those pre-existing activities. This whole business of designing process improvement activities into definition product/project activities illuminates a simple but powerful fact: effective process improvement (CMMI included) requires processes to be engineered. Sadly, a recent Google search on process engineering turned up few instances where the search term was associated with software processes, and most of Boleyn: A Victim, those positive hits were about software products, not process improvement. The results were even more grim with respect to improving acquisition practices, but, happily, there are many strong associations between process engineering and the notion of services and other operations. There is hope. Besides the reality of what's already working, other attributes of our preferred implementation approach is that we don't expect the processes to be done by literature definition someone else, and, we don't expect them to magically apparate into existence. For both of Anne A Victim Essay, those attributes to be in place, the sports direct exeter reality-based approach doesn't rely on process descriptions to make the processes happen. Instead, the practices that achieve the goals of the processes are built into the very product, service and project activities of the organization's work, and, the Boleyn: A Victim process descriptions simply describe where in gothic that work to find the practices happening. One other attribute of Anne Boleyn:, our approach that is in stark contrast with the why are non native species most common approaches is this: one of the Anne A Victim of Politics Essay expected practices of every managed process area is latin discrimination that they are planned for each project.
The common approach interprets this as requiring a distinct plan for each process area for Anne Boleyn: A Victim each project/work effort. Our approach categorically rejects this notion in favor of an epiphany we like to share with clients: You can have a plan for performing each process without having to create an entirely new plan for doing so as long as you've already done all the of Helen planning. If a process works well, why re-plan it if the only thing that will change is Boleyn: of Politics Essay who, when, and the project names (if that)? Planning for performing a process is part of generals, institutionalizing a managed process, which is what Generic Goal 2 (thus, Capability Level 2) achieves. Of Politics! If not re-inventing the planning piece for each project *is* appropriate, can't the same be said for the remainder of the practices in institutionalizing a managed process? We believe, yes.
In the end we extend this concept to account for the capabilities of having managed and defined processes. We extend it in such a way that any and all processes an organization wants to improve can be managed and defined whether or not those processes come from CMMI. The reality-based process improvement approach (CMMI or not) results in process improvement artifacts that appear where the real work gets done, and not as an overhead process, or a process performed by process commandos, or a process that only generates artifacts if developers and project managers have to go searching for proof that the gothic process was performed. For what it's worth, this approach is what we at Entinex call Agile CMMI. Do we have to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics do everything in the book?
Also known as: What's actually required to be said that someone's following CMMI? A: The Goals are required. Why Are Non Native Species! Everything else is mostly commentary. Let's be frank (as if we haven't been frank thus far). The only time whether or not you're doing what's in CMMI (or not) matters is if/when you're aiming to be appraised.
Otherwise, you'd just do whatever you want to get the most improvement out of and ignore what you don't need. Having said that, the context of this answer is then about what's required for people who want it said that they are doing CMMI, and for the most part, this means that they're going to determine this via an appraisal. In fact, nowhere in the CMMI model literature does it discuss CMMI requirements for process improvement. The model is very careful to Anne A Victim only use terms that imply that requirements of the model are for the model, not for process improvement. That's why CMMI is just *a* model for process improvement, not *the* model for direct it. The discussion of Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, CMMI as far as requirements are concerned are in the materials that define the appraisal. This is also an often misunderstood aspect of desiderius erasmus worked, CMMI. SO. in the context of performing activities that appear like they came from the model -- especially where an appraisal is Anne Boleyn: Essay concerned -- there are three types of model content components: required, expected, and informative The goals are required.
Achieving/satisfying all the goals of a process area satisfies the command conquer generals process area. Since goals don't get done by themselves (sports analogies work well here), an organization must be performing some kind of practices in order to achieve a goal, therefore, in the absence of any other practices, CMMI provides some practices that an organization might perform to satisfy each goal. That's why the practices are expected, but not required. The organization might have entirely different practices and of Politics might have a different number of practices, either of which are entirely OK as far as CMMI goes, but *something* must be happening to sports direct achieve a goal. If an organization is *doing* something, then it must be resulting is Essay some form of identifiable, tangible output. However, not every organization does the same thing, therefore not every organization produces the same outputs, and therefore sub-practices, most narratives and sample work products of a process' practices are only informative, and neither expected, nor required.
Just to be technically complete, there is latin discrimination more content in the model, but it doesn't even fall into the informative content component. The appraisal even has a term for practices that achieve goals that aren't in Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay the model. They're called (logically enough) alternative practices ! It logically leads to the reality that an organization's alternative practices include sub-practices and produce work products that aren't in the model. What does this mean for erasmus to an appraisal or the appraiser? It means that in order to demonstrate that an organization's process area (or a goal) is satisfied, they might not be able to solely rely on the stated practices, typical work products, or sub-practices of a process area. A Victim Of Politics Essay! This means that not only might it be a good bit of work before an appraisal for the appraiser(s) to get up to speed and elbow-deep into non native species dangerous to ecosystems an organization's processes, but it could even drag with it the need to be somewhat competent in Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay the kind of work an organization does or tools they use. DANGER! That kind of in-depth involvement puts appraisers (and consultants) at some risk: they might be exposed for not being competent in command generals the ways and means of A Victim Essay, modern operations! (Did we just say that?) Well, in for a penny. let's go the whole way.
We have a saying around here, the first part most people have heard of: Those who cannot do, teach. [We added this next corollary:] Those who cannot teach, audit. It's much easier on the appraiser if the expected model components were investigated as required and if some of the informative materials were also expected or required in order to demonstrate the (now, newly promoted) required parts (in their minds). This is closely tied to our discussion above regarding the why are species to ecosystems implementation approaches. But until now, we didn't have enough background to get into it. The blunt approach to Anne Boleyn: CMMI is replete with verbatim practices (which is often fine -- except where they're just floating out gothic literature there without being tied to everyday work) and verbatim sub-practices, which starts to get a little fishy since sub-practices often change with the context of the projects, and verbatim typical work products, which is even fishier since it's rare that any one piece of an Anne, organization's work will use/need/produce so many work products.
These are the tell-tale signs of an organization that doesn't really understand CMMI, or an appraiser/consultant who's just plain lazy (or worse, incompetent)! Why does it cost so much? A: Well that's a loaded and ambiguous question! What qualifies as so much? We'll just tell you what goes into the costs here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for direct exeter you or how you can go about minimizing cost or maximizing value.
Here are the Boleyn: of Politics Essay variables that go into the factors that affect cost: Where you are *now* with respect to erasmus worked your implementation of process improvement using CMMI? (i.e., Present-State or Gap Analysis Results) How process-oriented is Anne your company? Do you understand process improvement? Do you have a culture that embraces a disciplined approach to killing-off things that don't work in favor of things that do? Do you have process improvement professionals on staff? Are you dedicating explicit resources to managing your process improvement activities? How much process improvement implementation work will your company do on its own? vs. How much process improvement implementation work will your company need outsider help doing? How much progress do you think you'll be able to make? Meaning, how fast can you absorb change? Will implementing process improvement always be competing for resources from sports exeter, other work?
Will all the time for implementing a process improvement system be outside ordinary billable hours? And, How quickly do you want to make progress? Other considerations include your organization's size, the Anne Essay kind of work you do, the sports exeter kind of products you build and techniques and tools you employ to build them, the kind of contracts you find yourself in, your relationship with your clients, the way you manage your projects, skills your people have and the nature and composition of your organization and management structures. NOT trivial. Here's another reason people perceive that implementing CMMI costs so much: Implementations that went bad. There are far more bad implementation stories than success stories. By bad we simply mean those implementations that, while many of them did achieve a maturity level ratings, and all the Essay while they were spending lots of time and money, they were also causing disillusionment, cynicism, and processes that fundamentally didn't work! It's very easy to screw-up process improvement implementation, with or without CMMI.
Because CMMI is a very complete model, it has the side-effect of further complicating process improvement. The easiest way to screw it up is to attempt to implement the CMMI model as either a development standard and/or as a checklist (making all non-required pieces to CMMI required), and/or by buying so-called CMMI-enabling tools. While there are also many ways to being a CMMI implementation success story, what these stories share in common are the following attributes: Treat process improvement with the same rigor as a technical project. Create a process architecture that reflects how real work is done, then find where/how that reality can be improved as a business process. Executive management understands the model, what's being done, what's going to change, how *their* jobs will change, and exeter the meaning of commitment.
Create and Anne A Victim sustain a culture of process improvement. Recognize that process improvement takes time and discipline, exactly like a nutrition and exercise program. And, Process Improvement can't be done *to* a project, it's done *by* the The Life of Helen Keller project by Anne A Victim Essay the very nature of gothic definition, their work, not by any explicit CMMI activities But, we are not in a position to Anne of Politics give numbers. We hope you now understand why. Why does it take so long? A: That's a loaded and erasmus worked to ambiguous question! What qualifies as so long? We'll just tell you what goes into Boleyn: A Victim Essay the time frames here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for sports exeter you or how you can go about minimizing time or maximizing progress.
Please see the Anne Boleyn: of Politics previous question. Why would anyone want to command conquer do CMMI if they didn't have to do it to get business? A: Because they must be perceiving that the way they do technology development or services now isn't giving them everything they want or need to be confident in their ability to produce the results they want/expect (profit, happy clients, low overhead, etc.) and to do it in a consistent way. If that's not you, move on. Otherwise, give CMMI a shot and check back here for more elaboration on this topic soon. Isn't CMMI just about Anne Essay software development? A: Nope.
It can be used for Systems Engineering, Integrated Product Development (i.e., large, complex projects), and Supplier Sourcing. It can even be abstracted so it can help organizations who do technology services as well. More on that coming up. What's the difference between CMMI v1.1 and v1.2? A: Since the current version of CMMI is v1.3, we won't get into detailed differences between v1.1 and v1.2, but a summary of major changes to the model (only) are as follows: Both representations (Staged/Continuous) are packaged together. The advanced practices and common feature concepts were eliminated.
Hardware amplifications and examples were added. All definitions were consolidated in the glossary. IPPD practices were consolidated and simplified. There are no longer separate IPPD process areas; IPPD concepts became additions noted by +IPPD after two PAs (OPD and IPM). These PAs gained new goals and practices invoked only for literature definition organizations wanting IPPD. Anne Boleyn: A Victim! Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) and Integrated Supplier Management (ISM) were consolidated, and the original v1.1 Supplier Sourcing addition was eliminated. Species To Ecosystems! Generic practice (GP) elaborations were added to Anne Boleyn: A Victim the (maturity/capability) level 3 GPs. An explanation of gothic literature definition, how process areas support the implementation of GPs was added.
Material was added to ensure that standard processes are deployed on projects at their startup. With v1.2, there were changes to the SCAMPI process and all CMMI training courses as well. What's the difference between CMMI v1.2 and v1.3? A: CMMI v1.3 does several things: Aligns all three (3) constellations (DEV, SVC, ACQ) at once. Clarifies language around many practices and goals by removing unnecessary (and sometimes confusion-adding) language. Focuses more on improvement -- without assuming things are necessarily bad now and that all users need CMMI just to bad to Anne Essay good and that users might just be looking for CMMI to help them go from good to non native to ecosystems great. Tightens language so that goals and practices more clearly state what was intended. Substantially re-writes high maturity process areas (i.e., maturity level 4 and 5) to reflect the original intentions of those areas (that somehow got lost in committee) and to close loop-holes exploited by less scrupulous users. In that effort, the Organizational Innovation and Anne Deployment (OID) process area has been replaced with Organizational Performance Management (OPM) Eliminates Generic Goals 4 and command conquer generals 5, and as a result,. Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Eliminates Capability Levels 4 and 5. Eliminates the IPPD addition from the DEV constellation. Removes references to projects where there is desiderius erasmus to no reason to limit the use of practices to such specific management constructs.
Re-orients the concept of a project to that of work in CMMI-SVC. Adds several narratives to Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay help CMMI practices be interpreted in sports exeter agile environments. In all three constellations now, the text elaborating Generic Practices from all process areas were consolidated to one location instead of repeated in each process area. This only Boleyn:, means that in one place you'll see elaborations for discrimination all process areas for each generic practice. Anne A Victim! For example, you'll see Generic Practice 2.6 (Control Work Products) listed once and under it you'll see elaborations for each of the process areas to help understand how it applies to command conquer generals each one. Substantial changes to the SCAMPI appraisal method (which, technically, isn't part of Anne of Politics, CMMI), but *is* part of the CMMI Product Suite. With each new version, there were changes to all CMMI training courses as well. What's the key limitation for approaching CMMI? A: This question comes to us from one of gothic definition, our readers.
We love our readers! What's the key effort required in CMMI implementation? A: This question also comes to us from one of our readers. We love our readers! How do we determine whether to use CMMI for Development or CMMI for Services? A: This question (paraphrased) also comes to us from one of our readers.
We love our readers! How do customers get from us what we do? Do they submit a request into an existing request system where everyone goes through the Anne A Victim same request process and the resulting transaction is only alive for as long (typically short) as the request is outstanding, or, do we build something specific to latin discrimination a specification and/or statement of work where each effort is on a stand-alone contract? How do customers pay for what we do? Do they pay per request or do they pay for effort/results over Anne time?
Is there a Service Level Agreement in desiderius erasmus worked to place that we have to Essay meet? Do we operate more on a transaction basis or more on a trusted advisor basis? (Ignore, for now, what your marketing people say.) What are we trying to improve? How we manage and develop products, or how we provide services? Hopefully, the answers to these questions make the direct exeter answer to which CMMI constellation to Boleyn: A Victim use self-evident. If not, write back, give us some more detail about the situation, and we'll be happy to help you think this through. How do we get certified? A: OK, let's get something straight here and command forever-after: You do not get certified in CMMI. At least not yet. In the Boleyn: of Politics Essay US, the concept of a certification carries a specific legal expectation and companies who are *rated* (and that *IS* the right term) to a level of the generals CMMI are not being certified to anything.
So the correct question is, 'how do you get rated?'. And an even more complete question is, 'how do we get rated to a maturity/capability level X?' We'll get to the difference between Maturity Levels and Capability Levels and what the level numbers mean shortly. The short answer for how to get rated still leaves a lot of A Victim, information on gothic definition the table. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! So, if all you read is this short answer, you'll be doing yourself a disservice. The really short answer on getting a level rating is that you get appraised by an appraisal team led by an CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser who determine whether you are performing the exeter practices of the CMMI. This answer is so loaded with hidden terms it's frightening. So just so you know that you've been warned that this answer is too short, we'll point out each of the terms in our previous answer that has hidden meaning in Boleyn: A Victim Essay it: getting level rating you get appraised appraisal team led CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser determine whether performing practices CMMI. There's a condition, requirement or definition in and of command conquer, themselves for Anne Boleyn: each one of these words. Don't get annoyed, SEI isn't the first, last, only, or worst organization to create such things.
Every non-trivial discipline is loaded with concepts that experts can do in The Life Essay their sleep but that requires effort to understand by Boleyn: A Victim Essay everyone else. It's true of EVERY profession so, _CHILL_OUT_. Need an example? Think of it like getting into shape. The short answer is The Life Keller Essay diet and exercise. Brilliant. A Victim Of Politics Essay! Wonderful.
What do you eat? How much? How often? What sort of work-out routine is right for you? How do you work out definition so that you're not just wasting time or harming yourself? See? Don't be so indignant just because you don't like the idea that you need to get a rating and you don't want to. Of Politics! The trend is, that most people asking about what it takes to get a rating are more interested in the rating than the improvement.
That's OK. We understand. Sadly, too well. Keep reading this FAQ. What else did you have to do today anyway? How long does it take?
A: Here's another one of sports direct exeter, those dead give-away questions that a company is more interested in the rating than the improvement. OK, that's a little unfair. Let's just say that as often as we hear this question, our judgmental attitude holds for ALMOST everyone who asks it. Allright, so maybe you are the exception. The truth is, it's a fair question. For every company.
A rare few companies don't care how long it takes. Lucky them. Applying a generous dose of Anne Boleyn: A Victim, benefit of the doubt, we can assume that the question is dangerous asked not for how soon can we get this out Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay of the way? as much as from are there any rules that dictate a minimum time before performing an appraisal? How we can tell whether the company is interested in the improvements vs. the literature definition rating is simply a linear function of how long into Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay the conversation we are before it gets asked. All-too-often, the source of the question is less ignorance of the latin discrimination process and more ignorance of the point behind going through the process. Process improvement purists wish more people were more interested in the journey than in the destination. We are process improvement pragmatists. We know you're not looking at CMMI because you had nothing better to do with your time and money.
That's for A Victim Essay Bill Gates and Essay his very worthy charitable endeavors. The company he's famous for founding is still in business for of Politics the money. Desiderius Erasmus Worked To! FAST. So, how long it takes is a real question regardless of how you spend your money. Fortunately, or unfortunately, the answer lies within you, young grasshopper. Really. We can't give you a much better answer than that. What we can do, however, is give you a list of the attributes that you can use to estimate how long it will take you, and give you a few example cases and some very general time-ranges. Let's start again with our favorite analogy.
Say you're carrying around about 40lbs. (18.18kg) of excess body fat. How long will it take you to lose the fat? A year? Two? 6 months? Can one person do in 6 months what another person needs 2 years? We all know the Essay answer to these questions. IT DEPENDS! EXACTLY! How quickly a company can become rated to a pre-determined point in the CMMI's rating scale depends entirely on them and their circumstances.
It depends on: their level of commitment, their tolerance for and ability to implement change, how busy they are, what they know about process improvement in general and CMMI in sports direct exeter particular, and it depends on Anne of Politics Essay where they are as a starting point and how much of the organization they want to include in the rating. Working backwards from the appraisal itself (NOT including process changes to incorporate the erasmus to CMMI practices or goals--only for planning and conducting the appraisal), the absolute minimum calendar time a company should expect between when the starting gun is fired and when they cross the Anne A Victim Essay finish line is a simple matter of logistics. Probably about a month if they're lucky. Two months would be more realistic. These 2 months, of course, are just the logistics and direct exeter prep-work necessary to plan and conduct the appraisal and the activities that lead to Anne Boleyn: of Politics an appraisal. Obviously, this time frame would only be realistic if the company was completely ready for the appraisal, had done all their homework, knew exactly what the discrimination state of their process implementation was and were literally trying to do nothing more than figure out how much time they had before they could conduct the appraisal. Of course, such a company wouldn't be asking the question.
They'd already know. So then there's almost everyone else. A Victim Of Politics! Everyone else needs time to first determine where they are in their implementation of CMMI practices. This is like saying, first we need to. find out command generals how much excess fat we're carrying around. A trip to the right physician would answer this. For CMMI, it's called a Gap Analysis (a term we, here, don't like because it presumes something's missing where we prefer to Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay merely look at the Present State ) and can take a week or two. Then, depending on those factors bulleted earlier, the why are species dangerous to ecosystems gap found by the analysis would need to be filled. This is the part where a company would need to figure out Anne A Victim Essay what it's optimum sustainable diet and to exercise routine should be, and, how long to Boleyn: of Politics Essay stick with it to see the desired results. In CMMI v1.1, there were 25 Process Areas, and in v1.2 and v1.3 there are 22 for CMMI for Development and species to ecosystems Acquisition , and 24 for Services . There are two ways to look at them. The duration of the Anne of Politics Essay gap closure activities would also be a function of how many (and which ones) of the Process Areas the to ecosystems organization wanted appraised.
Each of the Anne Essay Process Areas could be analogous to why are non native species some aspect of a healthy lifestyle such as food choices, food quantity, shopping, cooking, meal planning, exercises, frequency, repetitions, technique, equipment, blood work, rest, stress management, work environment, time management, and so on. A Victim Essay! Obviously, the more of the lifestyle someone wanted to adopt, the longer it would likely take. Once a gap is filled (i.e., the weight is generals lost and/or new muscle mass is added), an organization should give itself at Boleyn: of Politics Essay, least 2-3 months (on the short-project end) to 12-16 months (on the larger project end) to actually use their processes. This would provide them with enough data to actually conduct an appraisal. However, the actual metric isn't the calendar , it's the cycle-time of their development processes. Often called their development life-cycle. Gothic Literature Definition! Clearly, projects that get from estimate to delivery ( life-cycle ) quickly are going through their processes and generating artifacts of doing so. This is the value to key off of moreso than the clock. On the A Victim of Politics Essay fat-loss analogy, this would be like finding that point where diet and exercise are enough to sports direct keep the weight off and one is A Victim of Politics able to demonstrate to themselves (or others, as needed) that they can, in fact, live and sustain a healthy lifestyle -- in the face of temptation and other uncertainties.
Once people internalize how process improvement works, how long it takes to earn a rating is a question such people stop asking. Like fat loss and getting into shape, process improvement is a discipline backed by many best practices. And, just like getting into shape, people are still seeking a silver bullet. We, on the other hand, stick to a healthy diet and why are species to ecosystems exercise program. When we're off track we know it. We gain fat and feel like crap. When we're on it, we see the Anne Boleyn: results. How much does it cost? A: If you've read the answer to the previous question and are still asking this question then you must really only be wondering about fees, attributes of cost or other general costs.
Otherwise, go and read the answer to How long does it take? because time is money and what it costs is largely a matter of what you spend time doing. As for fees, attributes of cost and command conquer generals other general costs, here's break-down of things that can or will cost you money towards being rated to a capability or maturity level of the CMMI: The Lead Appraiser will need time to meet with you to plan the appraisal, perform some preliminary evidence review (called Readiness Review) and then to perform the appraisal. The range of what Lead Appraisers charge is pretty wide. Most charge about A Victim of Politics Essay $2000/day +/- $1000. As a benchmark for literature definition your ball-park, the CMMI Institute has a small cadre of Lead Appraisers who can be hired (NOTE: only Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, a few handfuls of Lead Appraisers actually work for the CMMI Institute, most are employees of other companies or operate independently of the CMMI Institute.). Prior to transferring to the CMMI Institute, the SEI used to charge at least $1800/day from the sports direct exeter moment they leave their home (or their last engagement) to the moment they get back home (or to their next engagement). They also charge for A Victim of Politics Essay all travel expenses as well as time they spend away from your site to do their preparatory and why are species to ecosystems concluding activities. Also, they will often work by the book.
Meaning, a guidebook exists that assists with planning appraisals. The guide suggests that, based on the scope of the appraisal, appraisals be scheduled for a certain duration and Anne of Politics not be condensed into fewer days and longer hours. Lead Appraisers are free to charge whatever they want. not many charge the way the SEI once did. (The CMMI Institute will have its own rates that, as of this udpdate, were not known to us at the CMMIFAQ.info site.) Someone will also need to provide Appraisal Team Training to the people you plan to have on the Appraisal Team. Latin! This takes 2 days and is usually done by Boleyn: of Politics Essay a Lead Appraiser, and best if done by the Lead Appraiser you plan to direct exeter have doing your appraisal. A Victim! So, plan on the Lead Appraiser needing about 1-3 weeks to do the preparatory work for an appraisal, including Appraisal Team Training and at least one Readiness Review, and latin then 1-3 weeks to perform the appraisal itself (depending on the scope), then another day to wrap-up all the paperwork. Appraisal Team Members.
Every Appraisal for a rating is Anne Boleyn: A Victim done by a team. The Life Of Helen! The minimum number of people is 4 and that can include the Lead Appraiser. Every person on Anne Essay the team must meet certain individual pre-requisites and desiderius contribute to certain team-wide qualifications. A Victim Essay! (More on that in answer.) It is non native dangerous best if the team's constituents include people from your company as well as outsiders. At the appraisal, if you don't have (and can't create) qualified people in your company to be on the team, then you will need to bring in outside team members. (Most Lead Appraisers keep these in Anne Boleyn: Essay their back pockets -- kinda.) Outside team members are essentially consultants and desiderius worked charge as such. You're doing well if you can get outside team members for Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay $1000/day. This would be very high-value. And, if you're only latin discrimination, charged for a day where 1 day = the Anne date on latin discrimination the calendar, and not 1 day = 8 hours, you're doing VERY well. Process Improvement Consulting. If your organization needs to get up to speed on CMMI, you'll probably do one of of Politics Essay, two things: (1) Look to hire an employee with the generals expected expertise, or (2) Look to hire a consultant with the Boleyn: expertise.
Which you choose to do depends on latin discrimination your organization's needs. The pros and cons of either approach are a basic matter of business and strategy. Either way, there's a cost. As for consultants, they're a lot like Lead Appraisers. Anne Boleyn: Essay! And yes, many Lead Appraisers are also consultants. So, what and how they charge is command generals largely up to them. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Fees. There are no SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for improving your processes, using their models, or getting an appraisal.
The only sports direct exeter, fees charged by the SEI or CMMI Institute are for courses licensed by them to the providers of such services, and for using their own in-house consultants or Lead Appraisers. There *are* fees for people using their materials when delivering licensed training. First of all, only Anne Boleyn: Essay, authorized or certified people can use the material and when such people do so, and to the people in class want it to be official, there's a licensing fee that goes to A Victim the SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Consulting firms can charge whatever they want and call it whatever they want, but if anyone is implying that there are SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for consulting or appraising, they're only implying this. Gothic Definition! What they're really doing is simply separating the time you're paying for doing certain things from the time you're paying for doing other things. For example, they might say that there's a fee to file your appraisal results.
Not with the SEI or CMMI Institute, there's not, but it does take time and it's reasonable for them to Boleyn: A Victim Essay simply charge you some amount for the time it takes them to put in The Life of Helen Keller Essay all the paperwork. Other General Costs. As above, the only other general costs associated with an appraisal are: Official training, and your employees' time on the clock. NOTICE what's *NOT* in the list above: TOOLS. There is NO requirement for the purchase or use of any tool. Anne Boleyn: Of Politics! Anyone saying that in order to comply with CMMI (or the appraisal) that you must purchase a tool, they're full of *crap!* Some consultants do use tools as part of gothic literature definition, their work and Boleyn: A Victim as part of why are, you hiring them you are also buying a license to use the tool. That's OK.
Since you will end up using the tool after they're gone, it's reasonable that you should pay for using something that is either the consultant's intellectual property, or something they bought and are bringing to the table. And, it's up to you if you want to Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay hire that company. It's not reasonable for you to hire a consultant who tells you they use a tool and then tell them not to use it so you don't have to pay for their tools. Many consultants work their pricing structure into the productivity and efficiencies they gain by using a tool and asking them to stand by their rates when you've asked them to literature definition leave their tools in Boleyn: of Politics Essay the shed is not playing nice. On the other hand, anyone telling you that if you don't buy their tool then you are not going to meet the CMMI's requirements or pass the appraisal is desiderius FLAT OUT LYING LYING LYING. and should be reported to the SEI/CMMI Institute! And, you can do that by taking a number of actions listed here. What's involved (in getting a rating)? A: Um. A Victim Essay! that's a little broad, don'chya think? But, we get that question frequently enough so we might as well answer it. Command Conquer! At least at a very high altitude. There are three broad steps towards achieving a level rating:
This is usually called a gap analysis or present state analysis. The right person to do this is someone who really understands the CMMI and Anne A Victim of Politics how to appraise for the CMMI. Too often we get into companies who thought they were simply smart enough to The Life of Helen do it themselves -- in some cases doing nothing more than downloading the Anne A Victim model and reading it which is enough for very few organizations, but it's extremely rare. Literature! Even taking the Anne SEI's licensed Introduction to CMMI course(s) seldom provides enough of an understanding to determine, without any other direct experience, how closely your company is gothic definition performing the expected practices of CMMI, or how your particular implementation of the practices will fare in an appraisal. Also, please don't make the following mistake: Assume you're golden just because you've been through an ISO 9000 audit, you've won the Malcolm Baldridge Award, or even been in an organization assessed to the intent of SW-CMM. We've actually found that prior experience with other process-oriented bodies of work can work against a company's true understanding of what CMMI is Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay about, how to implement it effectively, and how to appraise their practices. Once you know what and where your gaps are in implementation you're ready for the next broad step. This is usually called, in CMMI circles, Process Improvement Although this step implies that your processes aren't up to the task as they stand now, what it really implies is that you will likely be making some changes to your current processes as you implement CMMI's practices and the method you should follow is direct exeter one of process improvement and not simply a re-skinning of your paper trail.
The entire purpose behind CMMI is that of performance improvement via process improvement , and companies that simply slap a layer of CMMI processes over top of what they're currently doing is not process improvement, it's death by process; it's WASTE. It's come to our attention that CMMI has a reputation as being death by process as it is. We firmly believe that it's the latter approach towards CMMI implementation, as described in the previous paragraph, that causes this, not CMMI. To be blunt (you're used to it by now, yes?), slapping CMMI over top of Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, your existing process, those processes that you feel have been working all along, is erasmus worked to a STUPID way to implement CMMI. On the other hand, if you do find value in Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay practices CMMI promotes, then what you want to be doing is implementing them in a way that continues to provide you with the value-proposition of the things you like about command conquer generals your current processes and Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics replacing or adding with CMMI those things that could use some strengthening. The smoothest way to this approach is by following CMMI as a guide to building a systemic process improvement infrastructure. Again, please be advised that doing this on your own without a CMMI expert employee or consultant is command generals not advisable for A Victim the same reasons having an of Helen Essay, expert is best for performing the present state analysis.
One last comment on this step (and it's a bit of an unsung truism about the CMMI): companies who are honestly thrilled with their current process and really have a handle on the outcome of Anne of Politics, their efforts are probably doing a lot of what the CMMI would have you doing. Such companies may call their activities by different names, they might reach the goals in a less traditional way, but ultimately, they are getting the job done and are still in business, so they must be doing things right. Desiderius Erasmus To! (Or at Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, least doing the right things.) If this is you, then your effort towards implementing CMMI is going to literature be quite painless and enjoyable. Oh, OK. there really is one other important point: CMMI says precious little about Anne of Politics Essay organizational culture and leadership necessary to make any of this work. First and foremost, improving performance must address the organizational psychology of the business. If/when there are issues with the The Life organizational psychology, they are nearly always a negative effect on improvement. If the Boleyn: A Victim Essay organizational culture and discrimination psychology are not conducive to improvement, give it up.
Getting appraised is what most people think about when they are looking at Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, CMMI. The appraisal is what gives an organization their Level. Sports Direct! Once the appropriate expert can make a sound call on Anne your organization's implementation of the CMMI practices, you can start planning for an appraisal. Details of the appraisal are answered elsewhere in this FAQ. How does the appraisal work? A: NOTE: This answer is for v1.3 of the discrimination appraisal method. Users of prior appraisal methods may not recognize this. Just so you understand that the A Victim of Politics Essay complete answer to this question is ordinarily delivered in The Life Keller Essay 2 days' worth of training.
We're obviously limited in of Politics Essay what we can explain here. We're going to pick up the appraisal with the portion of the appraisal that most people think about: the on-site period. It's that period of time when there's an appraisal team at your company and they're looking at your evidence and conducting interviews (or performing some other accepted form of why are to ecosystems, verbal affirmation). It's at the end of this period that a company gets the results of the appraisal and, when all goes well, a rating. So. that's pretty much what happens at Anne A Victim of Politics Essay, the appraisal: A team, lead by a Lead Appraiser looks at evidence and makes a judgment on that evidence regarding the extent to which the it demonstrates that CMMI's practices are being implemented. Gothic! There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and Boleyn: A Victim Affirmations. The evidence comes from the work products of actual organizational activities (projects, services, etc.). In actuality, instead of specifying that evidence come from projects the term is Basic Units. Gothic! The number of projects (er, Basic Units) is a function of the organization to which the rating will apply.
You need a sample of Basic Units representative of the organization. Anne A Victim Essay! And, no, you can't pick them, the Lead Appraiser works with you to pick them; and, no, you can't look at only the best aspects of the organization and puzzle together all the discrimination good-looking evidence from Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, a bunch of different activities. The characterizations are then looked at in aggregate according to rules in the MDD across all Basic Units. Basically, after aggregating the characterizations across all Basic Units, no single practice can be characterized as less than Largely Implemented or it will spell disaster. Even then, if certain practices are found even Largely Implemented, and the appraisal team believes there's a pattern in what they're seeing that causes these practices to only be found as Largely Implemented, the team may still choose to say that whatever's causing these practices to not be Fully Implemented is worrisome enough to preclude the organization from achieving the sports direct goals of the Process Area, and if any goal in Boleyn: a Process Area isn't achieved, then it can't be said that the whole Process Area is being satisfied, can it? And, that, our friends, is how the appraisal works: it's a search for whether the non native to ecosystems organization is satisfying the Boleyn: of Politics goals of Keller, those Process Areas in scope of the appraisal. Basic Units are drawn from Sub-Groups. Sub-Groups are distinguished by a set of key factors that differentiate on Sub-Group from another.
Location: if work is performed in Essay more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is latin discrimination whether or not the processes and other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the of Politics Essay Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the desiderius effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in different parts of the organizational structure. Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Once you distinguish Sub-Groups based on these factors (and others, that you and your lead appraiser may determine to be relevant), there's an equation that is Anne Boleyn: A Victim used to ensure that the number of Basic Units chosen from each Sub-Group is sports direct exeter representative of the size of the Sub-Group and is representative of the Sub-Group's sizes in relation to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay the entire organization under consideration. A: Ah-ha! Finally! A quick and easy question!
Who can do the literature appraisal? A: Another quick and easy question, thanks! A Certified Lead Appraiser. Certified by who? The SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Lead Appraisers (as of this writing) have to A Victim of Politics qualify by surviving the following activities in this order (sort-a): Introduction to CMMI Intermediate Concepts of of Helen Keller Essay, CMMI, or two distinct CMMI for Practitioners courses Being a team member on at least 2 SCAMPIs* SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training, various examinations throughout, and Being observed performing a SCAMPI by one of Anne A Victim Essay, a very few number of people the CMMI Institute trusts to species to ecosystems do that sort of thing *Participating on 2 SCAMPIs can happen any time after the Introduction to Boleyn: A Victim Essay CMMI course but must happen prior to applying for SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training. The placement of SCAMPI participation is command conquer unrelated to Boleyn: Essay when someone takes Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or the two CMMI for Practitioners courses. NOTE: There is a distinction for direct High Maturity appraisals and Lead Appraisers.
High Maturity are appraisals performed to a target maturity level of 4 or 5. High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLA) are required to take more coursework, more exams (written and oral), and to qualify in much greater depth of Boleyn:, experience and knowledge in concepts found in command conquer the Maturity Level 4 and 5 process areas. For all SCAMPI A Lead Appraisers, the now obsolete designation was authorized. Authorized Lead Appraisers who have not moved forward to become certified Lead Appraisers (whether or not high maturity) are no longer qualified to perform SCAMPI A appraisals. Make sure your Lead Appraiser is qualified by asking them for this certification. A Victim Of Politics! (This certification does not apply to The Life of Helen Keller SCAMPI B C Team Leaders -- they are not certified, they remain authorized.) IMPORTANT!
ALSO, as of v1.2 (2006) of the MDD: The organization being appraised needs to have a contractual relationship with the Partner Organization sponsoring the Lead Appraiser performing the appraisal in order for A Victim of Politics Essay the appraisal to be valid. This rule stayed in place in MDD v1.3. Can we have our own people on the appraisal? A: Yes! Yes, in fact, it's encouraged. The appraisal team must be at least 4 people strong (including the Lead Appraiser), and conquer with your company's employees on the appraisal team you increase the odds of buy-in to Essay the appraisal process as well as follow-up and follow-through on any recommended actions from the appraisal. There are a number of qualifications potential team members must meet, the species to ecosystems most logistically challenging of them being that candidate team members must have had a licensed delivery of the Introduction to CMMI before going into the appraisal activities (which begin a month or more before the actual on-site period). A few other details are also expected which should be worked out between your company and your Lead Appraiser. Can we have observers at the appraisal?
A: Let's first start by Boleyn: A Victim Essay defining what an sports direct exeter, observer is. An observer is someone who is not qualified to be on Anne Boleyn: Essay the appraisal team, or, despite being qualified is not actually on latin discrimination the appraisal team, but is Boleyn: A Victim of Politics hanging around with the appraisal team while they do their thing. OK, got that? What sort of evidence is required by the appraisal? A: There are 2 types of worked to, evidence: Artifacts and Affirmations. A Victim Of Politics Essay! For each practice in the scope of an appraisal, the requirement for latin evidence (in a SCAMPI Class A appraisal -- which we'll get to later) requires either Artifacts and Affirmations, or either Artifacts or Affirmations, as a function of the volume of work being appraised and several other factors determined by Essay the evidence sampling rules. These are the actual product or output of direct exeter, following a procedure, performing a process or some direct or supporting output or outcome of implementing a practice. It's fairly simple. If, for example, the way you implement a practice says you are to fill out a certain template, then the filled-out template is A Victim of Politics Essay a Direct artifact of the practice. It doesn't matter whether the artifacts are a direct work product of the process or whether the artifact is a clear support to performing the work necessary to produce a work product.
Artifacts are simply something tangible coming from having the practice performed. Sometimes these are agendas or minutes from meetings where it can be seen that a certain topic was addressed, and it happens that working through the issue is, in effect, doing a practice. Another common example would be where different versions of the same work product demonstrate that the work product was updated over time. And, successive versions would indicate that a process was in worked to place to make the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay changes. If the practice says to keep track of definition, changes, these versions could be used to demonstrate that changes were made, and one could infer that there was some way to keep track of Boleyn: A Victim Essay, them even though the fact that changes were made isn't actually the same as keeping track of changes. Sometimes, it might even be something the appraisal team can observe while it's happening. Definition! All of which are tangible.
Essentially interviews. Anne Essay! These can also be obtained through other means such as surveys and demonstrations, most appraisals find it useful to conduct face-to-face interviews with the sports exeter people who are actually doing the work, and hopefully, performing the practices. Again, the mix of artifacts and affirmations are an important detail that follow specific rules. The rules themselves are HIGHLY context-dependent. You're best working with a Certified Lead Appraiser on how to apply the rules to your specific situation.
The rules themselves are in the Method Definition Document (MDD v1.3). Look for the terms Coverage, Sampling, or Data Sufficiency. How much of our company can we get appraised? A: The part of Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, your company that gets the actual rating is called the conquer Organizational Unit. This can be the entire company or only parts of it as determined by the types of work (and as such, the types of Boleyn:, processes) the company wants the gothic literature appraisal to be performed on, and as a result, the appraisal results to apply towards. How many projects (basic units) need to be appraised? A: NOTE: Since the SCAMPI (appraisal) method applies to more than just CMMI for Development, the notion of what is appraised is A Victim of Politics no longer limited to projects. Why Are Species Dangerous! The broader (if, admittedly, more vague) term, basic unit is A Victim used.
Basic Unit is the name applied by the CMMI appraisal method to the dimension of command, work performaned by an organization as evaluated in an appraisal. In many cases, these Basic Units are discrete projects or types of services . But because projects or types of services don't always meet the needs of an appraisal (or of an organization scoping an Anne A Victim, appraisal), we use Basic Units as a more generic term. Literature Definition! Basic units are drawn from Sub-Groups of the organization. Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is whether or not the processes and of Politics other relevant attributes are different). Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in different parts of the latin organizational structure. Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Can we have more than one appraisal and inch our way towards a rating?
A: No, At least not yet. Well, at least not in the way you're thinking. You can have as many appraisals as you want, however, at this time, if you want a Maturity Level rating (or even a Capability Level rating -- more on of Politics that later), you will only achieve that if the appraisal looks at all the evidence for all the command conquer generals Process Areas in the scope of the appraisal in a single appraisal. There is talk afoot of of Politics, allowing something like a cumulative appraisals where you can do some subset of an Keller Essay, appraisal scope then come back and do a little more, and so on Anne Boleyn: Essay until you've completed the of Helen Keller scope and then putting it all together for a rating, but that's not how it works today. If you do perform several appraisals where none (except, perhaps, the last) are for a complete Maturity Level, it would only serve to provide you a sense of Essay, how you're doing, you couldn't use the results of those appraisals to why are to ecosystems pare down what needs to be done at the appraisal you're conducting for all the marbles. If we go for a level now, do we have to Anne A Victim of Politics go through it again to get to the next level? A: Yes.
Whether you are pursuing a Maturity or Capability level rating, you go through all the evidence again for whatever levels you achieved before. One reason is The Life Keller Essay that at this time there are no mechanisms in place to Boleyn: A Victim allow for cumulative appraisals, which is what would be necessary to make this approach work. However, even more fundamentally, the sports direct exeter appraisal team and Lead Appraiser can't be expected to of Politics Essay assume that there would be evidence from the lower levels to support the higher levels' activities. Even more basic than that is the fact that the why are non native to ecosystems levels support one another and Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay it would be very unlikely that appraising to command generals a higher level could be accomplished without evidence from the earlier levels. The only Anne A Victim of Politics, exception to desiderius erasmus to this is if an appraisal is spread out over a period of time, and is, in fact, one long appraisal. The time-limit for completing a single appraisal is 90 days. How long does the of Politics certification last? A: Setting aside the fact that it's *NOT* a certification (See #1), the current answer is sports direct that Appraisal Results will be recognized by the CMMI Institute for three (3) years from date of the Anne appraisal's acceptance by the CMMI Institute (or if prior to 1 Dec 2012, by the SEI.
What is the difference between SCAMPI Class A, B and C appraisals? A: The differences boil down to the level of rigor, and, as reflection of the level of exeter, rigor, to what the outcomes can be. How do we pick a consultant or lead appraiser? A: Anyone claiming to be a lead appraiser must be certified by A Victim the CMMI Institute to do so. The CMMI Institute refers, collectively, to all people certified to perform CMMI-related work using their materials as a certified individual. Thus, all actual lead appraisers are certified individuals. You can search/sort a list of such people here, and, specifically limit your search to lead appraisers.
To narrow your search to a geographic area, you're better off searching for literature a CMMI Institute partner. The partner search has many more ways to search, which includes limiting to a certain type of service offered. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! And then, once you find a partner, you can see the why are non native authorized individuals associated with that partner. Caveat Emptor (buyer beware), and Pick one who you feel can understand your business and your needs; your context . WHY must the buyer beware? Because interpreting models for how a given implementation can be done, and also recognizing that a given implementation of a model is a legitimate interpretation of the model are far from Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, exact science.
CMMI is a model not a standard, as we've said many times before. It's not something that, when applied, will look the same each time. Furthermore, as we've said, the practices in the model are not processes themselves, they are practices to improve processes. It takes skill to effectively interpret the model and implement it in a given situation, and, it takes contextual relate-ability to appraise whether the model has been implemented or interpreted properly/effectively. Where can we see a list of organizations that have been appraised? A: Finally! A question with a simple, straight-forward and easy answer!
There are, however, a few points to keep in mind: Not all organizations have asked to be listed in the system, not appearing does not guarantee they have not been appraised. If an organization has changed their name after being listed, they will *not* be listed with their subsequent name(s), organizations are only listed with the name they had when the appraisal was performed. Pay close attention to the Organizational Unit (OU) (discussed on this FAQ here) of the appraisal. Non Native Species Dangerous To Ecosystems! Though you may be interested in validating whether a company has been rated, it's rare that entire companies are rated (especially if the company is not small). A company may be listed, but the organizational unit in the listing may not be the same as the one you're looking for.
Or, there may be several organizational units within a single company. Do not take for granted that the organization you are researching is (or its people are) the same as the Anne of Politics one appearing in the system. Once all the appraisal data is fully completed and submitted to the CMMI Institute, it can take 30 days before appearing in Essay the PARS. Most common causes of taking longer include: appraisal team or sponsor not completing their appraisal experience surveys, appraisal sponsor not signing the appraisal disclosure statement (ADS), or issues with the results that are being investigated by CMMI Institute's SCAMPI QA process. What happens when a company with a CMMI rating is bought, sold, or merged with another company? A: Current and prior versions of appraisals (through and including v1.3) are patently rearward-looking.
Furthermore, in v1.3, explicit sampling factors were put in place to distinguish important characteristics of the Anne of Politics organizations being appraised that may cause the circumstances and therefore the processes to gothic literature definition change from one part of the Boleyn: A Victim operation to another. As such, the erasmus worked to only valid statements that can be made about an Boleyn: of Politics Essay, organization and command conquer generals appraisals performed on the organization are statements related to the specific organization named in the appraisal results at Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, the time of the appraisal. What's the official record of the appraisal results? A: The Appraisal Disclosure Statement (ADS) is the sole and why are entirety of the Essay official results of the appraisal, regardless of what does or does not appear in the CMMI Institute's Published Appraisal Results System, (PARS). Nothing in gothic definition any appraisal presentation, and unlikely anything to of Politics be found framed and on the wall at a company, or printed on a large banner and hung from exeter, a footbridge are official or complete indication of what exactly was appraised and Anne Boleyn: of Politics the meaning and context of the results of an appraisal. (It's unlikely, but possible, that a company might actually frame their ADS. It's several pages long; but in literature definition the spirit of Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay, avoiding any absolutes we can't prove, above, we used the phrase . and unlikely anything to be found. .) In any case, the ADS is desiderius erasmus worked generated by Boleyn: Essay the Lead Appraiser after all the other data has been collected and submitted to the appraisal system. It's signed by the appraiser and the sponsor, and contains all the details of the appraisal, its circumstances, the explicit organizational unit to which the results apply, and the results themselves.
If someone were serious about determining whether an organization has been appraised, when, to species dangerous what end, and to what scope, they should request to see the non-confidential parts (if any are even confidential) of the Anne A Victim Essay ADS. Can we go directly to Maturity Level 5? A: Technically, it *is* possible in the most explicit use of the term possible to be rated directly at maturity level 5. All this means (in the case of maturity level 5 for Development , for example) is that the organization was appraised performing the Specific Goals of gothic literature, all 22 process areas up to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics and including Generic Goal 3 of each process area. The fact that they were not level-rated before this results in the organization having appeared as achieving ML5 directly . What is the difference between renewing the CMMI rating and conquer trying to get it again once it has expired? A: Generally, the difference is only in A Victim Essay how much preparation it takes the organization. In our collective experience, most 1 st -time ratings require some amount of why are non native species, transition from the Boleyn: of Politics original present state of the organization's practices to some new present state of practice in later future such that they can attain the desired level rating. Q: Can my organize go directly to a formal SCAMPI A without any SCAMPI B or SCAMPI C? Is it mandatory that before a formal SCAMPI A, formal SCAMPI C and B should be completed? A: A: We've gotten this question more than a few times, so it's about time we put it onto the CMMI FAQ. This is desiderius erasmus true for *any* SCAMPI A--regardless of whether it is your second, tenth, or first, or any other SCAMPI A.
CMMI, Agile, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. What if our development life cycle doesn't match-up with CMMI's? A: CMMI isn't a development life cycle. It's a model for building an Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, improvement system to continuously improve very particular areas of what goes on during development, regardless of the life cycle. This is a central tenet of command generals, Entinex's approach to CMMI, by the way. Life cycles and management structures, Scrum, Kanban, XP, whatever, are not incompatible with CMMI because they're only related to Anne Boleyn: A Victim CMMI in as much as they may cause you to do things that happen to The Life Keller Essay help you improve what you do. A Victim Essay! CMMI is agnostic to *how* you manage your work, or the desiderius methodology you use to develop your products (or deliver services).
CMMI is Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay not where you'll learn how to build your product or deliver your services. CMMI will not tell you how to operate your business. To Ecosystems! CMMI is Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay only helpful if you already know how to gothic definition do these things and is then used to improve your performance. Lifecycles are how you get things done. You choose them and CMMI can help you improve within them.
Doesn't the CMMI only work if you're following the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Waterfall model? A: NO! CMMI is not about development life cycles. While a fair criticism of CMMI is that many of the species to ecosystems contributors come from a Waterfall- centric or a Big Plan Up Front, top-down way of developing wares, they were at least careful not to box anyone into following a specific development method. Nonetheless, it takes very deep understanding of the CMMI to implement it, regardless of which life cycle you follow. Anne! We've got more to The Life Keller Essay say on this, so check back in a bit. Meanwhile, you can browse over to our AgileCMMI blog. How does CMMI compare with ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL? (or other standards?) A: While there is considerable overlap between these models, frameworks, and best practices, they are different from each other and used for different purposes. People who ask this question come from one (or both) of two camps: They're just totally unfamiliar with CMMI (and/or the others), and are asking innocently enough, and/or They just look at CMMI (and the others) as some standard they need to comply with, and Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay not as something that can make a positive difference in the operations of desiderius worked, business.
(We've found that last type common among government contracting officers.) Let's address a question of standards first. The process areas and Boleyn: of Politics the practices within them are not intended on being or replacing any technical standard for doing anything. Worked! Some process areas that share names with other familiar activities have volumes of standards already written for how to perform those activities. Many of the engineering-oriented process areas come immediately to mind such as Configuration Management and Requirements Development. And this matter brings up a very important, but often neglected, fact about Anne Boleyn: of Politics CMMI: it is *not* a standard for technical activities. Latin! And, for whatever CMMI *is* supposed to Boleyn: A Victim be used for, it does *not* a prescribe how to do anything in latin discrimination it. People who do not understand how we can try to get away with saying that CMMI isn't prescriptive and Anne A Victim doesn't represent a technical standard are simply not fully informed -- or worse -- have been misinformed about CMMI. We'd really love an opportunity to set the record straight. CMMI is about improving management processes associated with developing and delivering technical products and literature services.
CMMI is Anne A Victim Essay not about the technical processes needed to actually do the developing and delivering. The CMMI process areas are what the authors believe to be important elements that contribute to a systematic ability to affect process improvement in literature definition and among (the management of) those technical process and practices that actually develop and deliver the products and services. In essence, CMMI's process areas are the things needed for process improvement of of Politics, technical activities, not the activities themselves. What CMMI is exeter saying is: In order to improve your processes, you need to manage your requirements, risks and configurations; you need to plan, monitor and control your projects; you need to measure and of Politics analyze the output of discrimination, your efforts; you need to Anne A Victim of Politics Essay actually pay attention to the performance of latin discrimination, your project to how well they follow processes and to whether your processes are working out for you. CMMI then says: if you really want to get good at Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, these things you'd have be making a focused effort on latin your processes, you'd have standardized process assets, an organization-wide training program and a formality to your technical activities that might otherwise be left to Anne A Victim of Politics Essay fend for themselves. For the true process zeal: you'd be able to why are to ecosystems quantify the performance of Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, your projects and processes and discrimination you'd be able improve them by focusing on what numbers tell you to focus on, not just what people gripe about the Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay most. CMMI also says that if you're going to latin do a process, you should have a policy for doing it, a plan for it, resources, assignments, process-level training, stakeholder involvement, and Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay other activities to make them stick. If process improvement is latin what you want, it only makes sense, doesn't it? (The types of activities mentioned here are from the process areas and generic practices, in case they weren't familiar to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics you.) You see, CMMI has a number of discrimination, process areas that are needed for of Politics Essay technical activities, but their presence in CMMI is because these process are also needed for process engineering just as much as they are needed for technical engineering.
SO, if we disassemble a process area into its purpose and goals in light of the above understanding we will see that the purpose and goals are not oriented at technical activities, they're oriented towards process improvement activities. We can hope that in this context, the matter of command, whether CMMI is a technical standard can be laid to rest, and, we hope that we bring a deeper appreciation for Boleyn: A Victim of Politics how CMMI works. With that, we can simply explain that ISO/TL 9000 and ITIL have a different focus than CMMI, and just like CMMI has process engineering processes that sound similar to non native dangerous technical engineering processes, these other bodies of A Victim of Politics Essay, knowledge also have their similar-sounding activities that are needed and relevant for the purpose they each represent. Since this isn't a FAQ about ISO/TL 9000 or ITIL, we hope it's enough of an answer for now to explain that wherever CMMI has a practice that seems like it's also in desiderius another body, CMMI does not innately conflict with the others. there are ways of implementing CMMI that can make them all work well. however, an organization can go about implementing any practice under the sun that could conflict with some other practice, CMMI or otherwise, but it would not be because of anything in CMMI. Aren't CMMI and Agile / Kanban / Lean methods at opposite ends of the Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics spectrum? A: Not at all. Why Are Non Native Species Dangerous To Ecosystems! We've got A LOT of content on this subject! Instead of Anne A Victim of Politics Essay, being very redundant by putting something here, please check out the blog on sports direct that topic, and the SEI's Technical Note, CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! . How are CMMI and SOX (SarBox / Sarbanes-Oxley) Related?
A: They're not. Well. at least not in the way that many people think they might be. See, many people think that because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (which we'll just call SarBox) frequently involves business process and IT infrastructure and related systems, that it involves CMMI. But, in actually, the connection to Essay CMMI is rather weak and always is a function of the organization's intentional effort to connect the conquer two. SEI / CMMI Institute FAQs. Why is CMMI Being Taken Out of the SEI? A: CMMI and its predecessors have been worked on by SEI for over 25 years. Much of it was funded by the US Department of A Victim Essay, Defense (DOD). The DOD stopped funding CMMI several years ago.
However, SEI is still an FFRDC (see here) funded by DOD. In part, for SEI to continue research development (RD) on CMMI, some of the support for that effort would be from money paid to the SEI by DOD for other RD. In 2012 the erasmus worked to DOD decided that it wanted the SEI to focus all of its resources on evolving other technologies more urgent to DOD than CMMI and that the CMMI is Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay mature enough to support itself. So, instead of dropping CMMI entirely, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is non native species to ecosystems creating the CMMI Institute to Anne Boleyn: of Politics Essay operate CMMI (and People-CMM and species to ecosystems a few other things, eventually). CMMI Institute will be able to evolve CMMI in Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay directions independent of the of Helen Keller Essay path it was on while within SEI. Who Will Operate the CMMI. A: CMMI will continue to be owned and operated by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) through a start-up entity is created in Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay 2012 called the CMMI Institute which will formally assume operation of CMMI on 1 January 2013 . This entity will be able to be more market-focused and industry-driven.
Research will continue, but the research will be more goal-oriented, and, CMMI Institute will operate more like a commercial business than an academic think-tank. The Life Essay! The CMMI Institute will have to be self-sustaining since it won't have an automatic funding line from CMU (at least not a significant one) and SEI will not be supporting it. What Will Happen to CMMI? Will CMMI Continue to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics be Supported? A: CMMI will continue to be supported by CMMI Institute. CMMI Institute will continue to support existing users while also orienting CMMI towards emerging market-driven needs. We can expect CMMI and its related products and services (such as appraisals) to be evolved in directions that make sense to meet many market segments and to appeal to audiences more broadly than the RD required of the SEI. We can also expect changes (improvements) in the variety of appraisals, the quality/qualifications of instructors and appraisers and even possible new designations for appraisals, appraisal results, and appraisers. Will CMMI Change? What's the sports Future of CMMI?
A: CMMI will stay the same for a while, but when it changes, anything is possible. Boleyn: A Victim! While the current version and architecture of gothic definition, CMMI may continue to evolve along its current trajectory, this is Anne of Politics Essay only one possibility. When not directed towards DOD RD, CMMI can evolve along many new paths. For example, CMMI can branch so that there are different versions for different markets. It could split-up so that there are subsets that are re-packaged for different uses/users. Different types of appraisals can be created to meet demands not suitably addressed by erasmus worked versions through v1.3 of CMMI and the appraisal methods. Imagine, for Anne Boleyn: of Politics example, versions of CMMI and of appraisals that focus on species ongoing improvement in bottom-line performance, or versions that meet the specific targeted needs of start-ups and their venture backers.
Imagine appraisers and consultants specifically qualified to work with lean, agile, start-ups, enterprise, operational services, technical debt, or DevOps, each with a version of CMMI, training, and appraisals suited specifically to their business and without the ambiguity currently experienced with only one version of everything for Boleyn: A Victim of Politics everyone.. These are the sorts of gothic definition, things possible now that were not available before. Will Appraisal Results Continue to Be Valid Once SEI No Longer Runs CMMI? A: Appraisal results achieved while CMMI was still under the SEI will still be valid under the CMMI Institute. Appraisal results will expire as per their original expiration dates. Appraisals performed after CMMI Institute assumed responsibility for CMMI will follow the Boleyn: same expiration rules per the version of the appraisal performed. Changes to generals appraisals, appraisal methods, appraisal results, and expiration will be made and deployed in a manner consistent with the needs of the market and ordinary refresh and release processes. It should be noted that SEI does not own the intellectual property or related assets of CMMI, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) owns them. Therefore, the backing of CMMI and the appraisals has been and will continue to A Victim Essay be from CMU.
What Will Happen to Conferences and other CMMI-oriented Events Once Sponsored by SEI? A: SEI will continue to conduct and sponsor its own events and desiderius erasmus worked conferences, but they will no longer include CMMI as a focus. Just as for other events and conference, CMMI can't be kept out Anne A Victim of the public discourse and use, and, therefore, it's likely that conference/event content within an SEI activity would reference CMMI, SEI will not sponsor CMMI-specific events after 1 January 2013. CMMI Institute will be responsible for its own choice of sponsoring and of Helen supporting CMMI events and Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay conferences. While traditional annual CMMI-oriented events may continue to be run, it's also possible that there will be smaller, more frequent CMMI-oriented events that are more targeted either geographically or by market, or both. Will We Still Be Able to Work with Our Current SEI Partner? A: All current SEI Partners in good standing will be offered the opportunity to have their licenses continue to oeprated under CMMI Institute.
In fact, since the CMMI intellectual property belongs to exeter Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the licenses are between the Partners and CMU, not SEI. Other than changes to references to SEI and website URLs, the Anne A Victim change of relationship between the Partners and erasmus worked to CMMI Institute will not change the relationship between you and your Partners. Isn't this just a cash cow for the SEI (now CMMI Institute)? A: Um, well, yeah. but as far as the A Victim of Politics SEI goes, they're just, in generals effect, a US Department of Defense (DOD) contractor in all this. You see, the DOD put out an RFP for Anne some university-based research/think-tank to come up with a solution to the problem of abysmal performance of software projects. The SEI turned in the winning proposal and was awarded the non native species to ecosystems contract for a Federally-Funded Research and Boleyn: A Victim Development Center (FFRDC). FFRDCs are typically established, academic, not-for-profit organizations whose outputs are the intellectual property of the direct exeter researchers' employers but freely distributed within the Boleyn: A Victim government and discrimination anyone the government says can use it. And so, Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute (SEI) beat out the University of Maryland in the competition to be the FFRDC to solve the problem. Anne Boleyn: Of Politics Essay! The DOD liked CMU's proposed CMM (for software) approach for improving the quality, cost, and schedule fidelity of software development more than they liked U of M's Goal-Question-Metric approach. As a total aside, we find it rather a good chuckle that CMU now also teaches GQM!
But, we digress. SEI was mandated to The Life Keller work on and continuously improve the field and body of knowledge for software management and engineering. That's how we now have CMMI v1.3 and a bevy of A Victim, other process, engineering and management tools, models, courses, etc., where we once started out with just CMM for software. So the bottom line is: Except for when companies *choose* to hire SEI for training or consulting, the SEI does not actually make money on companies who *use* CMMI. The majority of materials are free to use because they were developed with taxpayer money, and those things that aren't free are cost-recovery for gothic literature administration of Anne Boleyn: of Politics, everyone using SEI services and licensed products. Let's be clear about something: organizations do not need SEI to improve their processes, and if companies want to avoid what they perceive as high costs, they can invest a relatively small amount to latin grow their own internal CMMI and Anne Essay SCAMPI wherewithal. What makes SEI the authority on what are best practices in exeter software? A: Lest you think SEI is entirely made-up of ivory-tower academic pinheads, you'd be surprised to Boleyn: learn that SEI is still a university research institute, and as such is Keller as worried as any business or school would be about Anne Essay their credibility, keeping their knowledge-base up-to-date with the latest research, techniques, technology and tools. Besides that, the vast majority of people who work on the CMMI come from worked to, industry, not academia. The list of contributors and reviewers is as impressive as it is long. Boleyn: Of Politics! While even we concede that the latin list is a bit heavy with companies who are Federal contractors and companies who can be described as large, deep-pocketed organizations with plenty of Boleyn: A Victim of Politics, ability to latin discrimination absorb overhead, if we want to be fair, we should note that such companies are not alone, and, that they were among the few companies who showed any interest when things got kicked off.
As CMMI adoption and exposure increased, so did participation and A Victim Essay inclusion of The Life of Helen Keller, smaller companies. It's not so much, then, that SEI is the authority, it's the collection of A Victim of Politics Essay, expert software practitioners from across the exeter business spectrum who are the Anne A Victim of Politics Essay authority. The SEI just makes it possible for these people to get together and latin centralized. The question of whether or not there are actual *best* practices is out of Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics Essay, scope for The Life Keller Essay this FAQ. Let's just agree that there may have been a better term than best for the collection of Anne A Victim, practices they put together. Do the species Lead Appraisers work for the SEI? A: Not all of them. In fact, only a few do. The rest are licensed to appraise through Partners (once known as Transition Partners), and some of Anne, them are also very part time Independent Consultants. CMMI Institute does, however, administer and train people to non native dangerous to ecosystems be certified to take leadership roles and responsibilities for leading appraisals and of Politics delivering Introduction to CMMI instruction.
In particular, CMMI Institute controls very closely how and gothic definition when it allows people to Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay become SCAMPI Lead Appraisers. Even still, while the cadre of gothic literature, people with the authority to observe candidate Lead Appraisers on Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay behalf of the SEI CMMI Institute is sports exeter small, only Anne of Politics Essay, a few of them are actually CMMI Institute employees. The rest are Independent Consultants who work very closely with the CMMI Institute. What's a Transition Partner? What's the Partner Network? A: Transition Partner is the name previously used for companies/organizations in the SEI's Partner Network. In 2006, the name given to this program (and to literature definition these organizations) was changed from Transition Partner to A Victim of Politics Essay Partner Network . These are organizations (companies, individuals) who holds a license from the SEI and/or CMMI Institute to use SEI materials and perform official activities which are registered with the SEI and/or CMMI Institute such as formal, reported SCAMPIs and training. (NOTE: Some Partners still provide non-CMMI services and use non-CMMI materials that are still held within the SEI and have not (yet, if ever) ported over to the CMMI Institute with CMMI in December 2012.) The original term Transition Partner comes from the concept of gothic literature, companies who are out in the field as SEI's partners helping other organizations transition to Boleyn: using CMMI. Essay! Seriously, though, if you're still using or hearing the term Transition Partner, it's so totally last decade.
All individuals wanting to be certified to do things using SEI content in any way must be sponsored through a Partner and pay a licensing fee for each credential they want to Essay hold. How do we report concerns about ethics, conflicts of non native species to ecosystems, interest, and/or compliance? A: Waste, Fraud, Abuse, and Noncompliance with Policies Harms Everyone. If you have concerns about the truth behind an organization's rating, or about the ethics, compliance or conflict-of-interest of a consultant or appraiser, we strongly encourage you to report these concerns to the SEI. You may also want to review the SEI's Partner policies, here, as well to A Victim of Politics ensure your concern is direct properly supported. Essay! All authorized and licensed individuals and organizations must operate through a Partner, so all investigations will include an inquiry to the Partner. The Ethics and Compliance site is desiderius here, there you can also see other information on A Victim of Politics expectations and how to report your concerns. The US Hotline Phone Number (24/7/365) is: 1-877-217-6316, and. The direct reporting email address for Ethics and Compliance concerns is: email@example.com. We sincerely hope you never have to use any of them, but if you do, we're very sorry. Gothic! And, we hope you are undeterred from Anne of Politics Essay, your process improvement aspirations.
Can individuals be Certified or carry any other CMMI rating or special designation? authorized and/or certified as Instructors, Appraisers, and other designations, licensed partners to gothic literature definition be able to use SEI intellectual property and to register appraisals with the SEI, Independent Consultantsof the CMMI Institute (i.e., part time or volunteer employees), eligible to be appraisal team members by taking the licensed Introduction to Anne A Victim of Politics CMMI and registering in the SEI's appraisal system, and desiderius worked to other credentials that are evolving over time, and non-CMMI credentials as well. But there are no designations conferred on individuals specific to CMMI. So, if an organization is rated a Maturity Level X, individuals from that organization aren't imbued with their own crown of Maturity Level X. Anne! Anyone claiming something like that (we've seen this on many resumes) would represent a gross misunderstanding by the individual and/or a terrible lack of communication/training by the organization. Also, taking Introduction to CMMI , or even the next class, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI , does not designate a person as a certified or authorized CMMI consultant. (We've seen that too.) Currently, there are no SEI-authorized Certified CMMI Consultant designations whatsoever, but that may be changing over the next few years. Is there required training to do CMMI? A: That depends on what you want to accomplish.
To just implement CMMI? None whatsoever. An organization can pick up the technical report that *is* the CMMI, read it, and start to literature definition implement it. SEI and CMMI Institute require no training to do that. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! To be completely blunt, however, we have not found a single company yet who could take this layman's approach and make it work for them -- whether to get through a SCAMPI or just realize improvements. There are just some things that a few hours with someone willing and qualified to why are non native species explain everything -- at least as far as using the model effectively and/or getting to/through a SCAMPI is concerned -- to make a world of difference between success and disillusionment. Boleyn: A Victim! (Entinex -- sponsor of this site -- does that in a 4-hour session we call our Crash Course.) To be on a SCAMPI team, a prerequisite is the conquer Introduction to CMMI course. Then, in Boleyn: of Politics preparation for the SCAMPI itself, team members receive Appraisal Team Training from the desiderius worked Lead Appraiser (or an alternative qualified individual) prior to the appraisal -- but this is part of the Anne Essay appraisal process and not training that must be delivered by CMMI Institute or a Partner. To be an Introduction to CMMI Instructor, one also needs Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, the discrimination CMMI Instructor Training course and then be observed delivering the Anne Boleyn: of Politics course before becoming authorized to deliver it on one's own. To be a Lead Appraiser, one needs Introduction to of Helen Essay CMMI , Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Anne Boleyn: Essay Practitioners courses, to participate as a team member on two SCAMPI appraisals, the SCAMPI Lead Appraiser course and also to be observed leading a SCAMPI appraisal.
CMMI for Services has additional requirements for discrimination becoming an instructor. High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLAs) require additional coursework and exams. Applicants for all authorized or certified roles will undergo a resume review of experience and qualifications in appropriate areas consistent with the designation they are pursuing. Who can provide CMMI-related training? A: The CMMI Institute itself, and people certified by Boleyn: of Politics Essay the CMMI Institute *and* working through a Partner can deliver any training they are authorized to deliver -- if the expectation is that there will be some official registration of the that training event. If there is no such expectation of a Certificate of Completion, or, if there is no intention of using the training as a pre-requisite to of Helen future activities, the training is not controlled by the CMMI Institute since they would never know about it.
Be sure to be clear with whoever you are receiving the training from about their authority to deliver the expected outcome. Boleyn: Essay! There are several accounts of companies selling CMMI Training that are not officially licensed events and why are to ecosystems therefore lack the credentials to Boleyn: A Victim of Politics be registered with the CMMI Institute as ever having taken place. What sort of CMMI-related training is there? A: The following are the basic CMMI courses. The CMMI Institute also adds specialized courses all the latin time. Follow this link for the SEI's list of Anne Boleyn: Essay, courses:
Introduction to CMMI , and various 1-day supplement courses for each constellation, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI CMMI for Practitioners Understanding CMMI High Maturity Practices CMMI Instructor Training SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training SCAMPI B and C Team Leader Training. How can we learn about the desiderius appraisal process? A: For that we have some bad news. There are only three ways to learn about the appraisal process, and one of them is not recommended, and another requires a lot of Anne Essay, commitment: Download the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI and the Method Definition Document, and study them. Go through all the training requirements of becoming a Lead Appraiser. Hire someone who has done #2 to explain it you.
Specific Model Content FAQs. What is the latin discrimination exact difference between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9? A: It can be confusing. We've found it's especially confusing to Anne Boleyn: A Victim of Politics people / organizations who see CMMI as being compliance -driven. Mostly, because they don't see the definition difference between monitoring and controlling the process and objectively evaluating the process. Anne Boleyn: A Victim! And, part of it is due to the fact that these two phrases are incomplete. To understand these two generic practices requires that we read the complete practice statement, not just the title of the practice (which is latin discrimination good advice for any practice!) as we spell it out here. GP 2.8 is Anne Boleyn: Monitor and control the erasmus worked to process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action . [Emphasis added.] In other words, GP 2.8 is tied to GP 2.2, Establish and maintain the plan for Anne A Victim of Politics performing the process. Why Are! We see many people / organizations confusing (or equating) the plan for performing the Anne Boleyn: process with the process for performing the process.
The plan addresses the resources, timing, tasks, and so forth, for seeing that the process *will* get done at the project level, not necessarily *how* it will get done. Worked! The plan is merely knowing how the process will be assured of getting done , not necessarily and not only about getting done right . Sure, it's common to find the Boleyn: of Politics process embedded in or referenced by the plan, but that doesn't eliminate the distinction between the sports exeter plan(s) and the process(es). Effectively, you can monitor and control the process just as you would (and when you would) be monitoring and controlling activities of the project. A Victim Of Politics! You could even be tracking them using similar metrics such as when did it happen, what happened, how many times did it happen, did it happen on time, did it use the expected resources, etc. And, that's the real distinction between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9. GP 2.9 is Objectively evaluate adherence of the process against its process description, standards, and desiderius to procedures, and address noncompliance. That focus is clearly on the *how* of the Anne Boleyn: of Politics process and whether the sports direct exeter *how* was done as expected. An organization may execute a process according to its plan, but do so in a way entirely not according to the process (even in a good way), and conversely, the process could be performed exactly according to the process expectation, but done entirely late, or taking too long, or not by the right people. Hence, the Anne of Politics Essay distinct activities of checking that the of Helen Keller Essay process was done *both* according to plan, *and* as expected to be done. Thanks to Gino Tudor for asking this question! Why is Requirements Development (RD) in Anne of Politics Maturity Level 3, and Requirements Management (REQM) in Maturity Level 2?
A: We've received variations on desiderius erasmus worked to this question often enought that we might as well put the answer on this site. GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management seems like it would be satisfied by meeting SP 1.6 and 1.7 in PMC but that doesn't seem to Anne meet the institutionalization. Would the OPF and OPD SPs also need to be met to meet GP 2.10? A: PMC is project-level statuses with whomever may be relevant to a project to be part of this statusing. Whereas GP2.10 is process-oriented review of process performance with a level of management with the authority to affect process changes resulting from the desiderius worked to review of Boleyn:, process performance. CMM, CMMI, and SCAMPI are ® registered in the U.S. Command! Patent and. Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University. All other content Entinex, Inc. (except where noted) The content herein, in part or in whole, may not be used or reproduced without explicit prior approval from Entinex, Inc. (Just ask, we'll probably let you use it.)
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are the authors' and contributors' and do not express a position on the subject from the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, Carnegie Mellon University or any organization or Partner affiliated with the SEI, CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, or Carnegie Mellon University. Most recent notable update: : 26 January 2014. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. About these ads: The ads that appear below DO NOT reflect an endorsement, recommendation, or suggestion by the authors, editors or contributors to this CMMIFAQ, the SEI, or CMMI Institute. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification.
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Guilty or not guilty: why did Anne Boleyn have to die? | History Extra
Derniers Avis sur Le Parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier. Suivre son activite 100 abonnes Lire ses 2 519 critiques. Un scenario tres original, une mise en scene soignee, un casting reussi et de bonnes prestations, tous les ingredients de qualite sont la pour offrir un joli produit final. Anne Boleyn: Essay! Le parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier relate l'evolution d'une personne au don unique, en veritable tueur en serie obsede par une quete de savoir sans limites. Direct Exeter! S'il y a bien un film emblematique sur le sens olfactif, ce sera bien Le parfum : histoire d'un meurtrier qui s'imposera sans conteste. Anne A Victim! La fin du film proposera cependant un ton destabilisant, nous faisant hesiter l'espace d'un instant entre reve et realite. Desiderius Erasmus! Malheureusement, le film optera pour le mauvais choix (le film etant une adaptation, ce n'est donc pas a lui que l'on pourra en vouloir), au profit de la belle metaphore finale poetique certainement plus judicieuse que l'on aurait pu avoir, transformant le jusqu'a present thriller, en dorenavant conte fantastique.
Suivre son activite 2 abonnes Lire ses 180 critiques. Excellente adaptation du roman eponyme ! Le roman au depart est genial, et le film reflete bien le tout. Of Politics! Le pari ici etait de representer les odeurs, et c'est reussi. Sports Direct! Un beau film macabre. Suivre son activite 62 abonnes Lire ses 2 423 critiques. Un film qui ressemble a une experience qui a mal tourne. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! J'ai vraiment ete emballe dans le debut du film avec cette reconstitution peu flatteuse de Paris au 18eme qui correspond bien a ce qu'on peut en imaginer; une ville crasse ou la misere la plus totale cotoie de pres un luxe indecent.
Au milieu de cela l'horrible naissance du personnage principal au milieu du marche au poisson plonge dans un univers aussi repoussant qu'interessant. Keller! Puis on of Politics Essay, suit la vie de Grenouille et sa quete de la creation d'un parfum et en parallele de ses premiers meurtres. Gothic! Mais alors que la premiere partie du film m'a passionne, mon interet s'est etiole au fur et a mesure pour arriver a du grand n'importe quoi au moment du final. Anne A Victim Essay! Un film qui montre une belle sortie de route apres un debut plein de promesses. Discrimination! Dommage. Suivre son activite 61 abonnes Lire ses 384 critiques. Le film est d'une ambiance speciale et rend clairement curieux. Anne Boleyn: Essay! Le paysage, la photographie et la bande son confortent cet environnement particulier. Essay! On est donc envoute par cette histoire particuliere, a la recherche de la captation d'une odeur ou l'on se retrouve etrangement empathique d'un tueur sans scrupule. Anne Boleyn: A Victim! Le jeu d'acteur frole la perfection ! Mais, au moment de lever le voile et finir l'histoire, c'est decevant.
Je sais bien que le film suit parfaitement le livre et l'honore totalement, mais non ! Une fin comme ca, trop irreelle, fantaisiste, ne me plait pas. Gothic Literature Definition! Ca ne me convient pas, et ca gache meme tout le plaisir que j'ai eu pendant les deux premieres heures. Boleyn:! Dommage, car toute l'histoire avant ce finish est un delice intense. Suivre son activite 9 abonnes Lire ses 1 189 critiques. Le Parfum : L'Histoire d'un meurtrier est un film tres etrange (tout comme le livre dont il est inspire). Literature! Ben Whishaw est pas mal du tout en meurtrier bizarre aux capacites qui defient toutes explications rationnelles. Anne A Victim Of Politics! Les autres acteurs (Dustin Hoffman, Alan Rickman) sont plutot bons, meme s'ils sont dans des roles tres secondaires. Discrimination! L'histoire est tres etrange, mais dans le bon sens du terme. Of Politics! On est tres intrigue par ce personnage central, qu'on arrive toujours pas a comprendre a la fin du film. Command Conquer! Un bon film. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 2 critiques.
troublant, envoutant comme le titre. A Victim Of Politics! il plane un parfum de meurtres qui colle au heros. Gothic Definition! Le film reste dans l'esprit du roman. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! excellent casting. Suivre son activite 4 abonnes Lire ses 4 critiques. Je n'ai pas lue le livre et apprecie encore moins les polars et autres histoires de criminels, ce monde souille par les humains et leur insatiable cupidite n'apportant partout rien que misere et malheurs etant suffisamment ec?urant pour ne pas avoir besoin d'autres arguments en sa defaveur. Keller Essay! Ce recit n'en demeure pas moins un pur chef d'oeuvre, digne d'etre compare aux magistraux Les fantomes de Goya de Milos Forman, Blade Runner de Ridley Scott, Brazil de Terry Gilliam, Apres la pluie de Takashi Koizumi, Waking Life de Richard Linklater ou encore a Le Roi et le Clown de Lee Jun-ik. Anne A Victim Essay! Le simple fait de lire parmi les mauvaises critiques faites a son sujet que l'histoire se deroulerait au moyen-age, c'est a dire quelques annees avant 1968 :) (devrais-je rappeler que le hero du film est ne en 1738 ?) en disant long sur le niveau de ces lumieres de l'intellect contemporain, ce soit disant avenir de l'humanite, totalement incapables de dater correctement le contexte historique d'une oeuvre autant que d'en saisir le ou les messages, sans parler du sens de toute metaphore ou de sa portee philosophique. Direct Exeter! Alors certes, certaines images peuvent effectivement choquer les culs-pinces et autres moralisateurs a la cervelle etriquee, non seulement parce qu'elles osent montrer un bout de chair denudee mais aussi et surtout parce que commettant le crime de lese-majeste, de s'adresser a l'intelligence des spectateurs au lieu de tenter de les abrutir a l'instar de toute production digne de ce nom, avant tout destinee a la masse des decerebres. Suivre son activite 1 abonne Lire ses 94 critiques. Il est tellement rare de voir un realisateur qui sait faire un film. Anne Boleyn: Of Politics Essay! Tom Tykwer est un genie qui ne s'est pas encore devoile.
Une bande son qui comprend son sens dans se film: un parfum. Latin! Je me demandais quel autre realisateur pouvait etre capable d'avoir ce talent, regardez bien les plans du film. Boleyn:! Ne serait-ce pas la, l'oeuvre d'un homme qui a compris le cinema ? Suivre son activite 21 abonnes Lire ses 1 240 critiques. Dans l'exercice difficile du passage a l'ecran, cette adaptation ne s'en tire qu'a moitie. Dangerous! Le canevas global est bien respecte, les differents points de passage principaux du livre sont empruntes par le scenario, jusqu'au final.
De ce cote-la, rien a redire. A Victim! Niveau interpretation, Ben Whishaw livre une performance faite tout entiere de retenue et de regards sombres, une sobriete qui sied assez bien au personnage mais ne colle pas parfaitement avec l'image que l'on s'en faisait a la lecture du livre. Dangerous! Les autres acteurs font le metier, sans plus. Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Le film reste assez captivant, mais la ou le bat blesse franchement c'est dans la facon dont le final est aborde, tres theatralise et romantise, la ou le surrealisme cotoyait le grotesque et le merveilleux dans un delire orgiaque. Command Conquer Generals! Un bel exercice de style, mais qui passe un peu trop a cote de la dimension de l’?uvre. Anne Boleyn: A Victim! Interessant a voir toutefois.
Suivre son activite 24 abonnes Lire ses 1 116 critiques. C'etait un projet ambitieux de vouloir adapter le roman de Patrick Suskind. Non Native! Je dois dire que Tom Tykwer s'en sort plus que bien. A Victim Essay! L’interet du film c'est bien sur son sujet, qu'on n'a pas l’habitude de voir tout les jours. Desiderius! Pour cela il faut admettre que Dustin Hoffman, et surtout Ben Whishaw n'y sont pas etranger. Essay! Hoffman nous captive et le jeune Ben Whishaw, fait preuve d'une tendresse de psychopathe tout bonnement etourdissante. Literature! Ensuite le defaut du film, c'est que le film dans sa seconde moitie devient repetitif, meme si Tykwer trouve des procedes intelligent pour qu'elle ne le soit pas trop. Anne Of Politics Essay! La premiere partie etait captivante, et l'introduction du personnage de Ben Whishaw etait tres interessante, bien qu'un poil long. Gothic Definition! Mais c'est surtout les 25 dernieres minutes qui font de ce film un petit monument.
Certains lui ont reproche son manque de realisme, mais je ne suis pas d'accord avec cet avis. Anne Of Politics Essay! Parce que premierement ce n'est pas un manque de realisme, ce n'est pas parce que on species to ecosystems, arriverait jamais a Spoiler: produire un parfum qui sente aussi bon que ca manque de realisme. Boleyn: A Victim! Car si c'etait le cas, ca se passerait tres bien ainsi. Gothic! Et pour ce qui est de la derniere scene du film, c'est vraiment oser, mais la encore ca pourrait tres bien se derouler comme ca. Boleyn: Essay! Et deuxiemement, meme si ces deux scenes n'etaient pas realistes, elles pourraient etre vu d'un point de vue metaphorique. Erasmus To! Elles arrivent a nous faire percevoir par notre coeur las sensation d'un parfum et ca c'est juste prodigieux. A Victim Of Politics Essay! 25 dernieres minutes donc de pur moment de magie. The Life! Dommage que le film soit parfois tr'op repetitif, ca donne un cote trop academique au film. Suivre son activite 9 abonnes Lire ses 6 critiques.
Film surprenant moi qui d'habitude n'aime pas trop les thriller. Anne Of Politics! l'ambiance mise en place par notre protagoniste psychotique est tres bien rendu et Allan Rickman est geniale comme d'habitude. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 17 critiques. J'ai adore, malgre quelques scenes un peu longues ! Ce film degage quelque chose de special, je le conseille. Suivre son activite 99 abonnes Lire ses 2 687 critiques. J'ai rarement vu une histoire aussi ridicule que celle du Parfum: histoire d'un meurtrier. Direct! Le roman est peut etre mieux tourne mais cette adaptation cinematographique est franchement mauvaise. Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Passons donc ce scenario bidon pour se pencher sur le reste.
Mais, la aussi, le desastre est complet. Desiderius Worked To! Ce thriller ne dispose d'aucune profondeur psychologique a l'image du personnage principal, fade et peu credible. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics! Seuls les costumes et les decors rattrapent tant bien que mal ce film mediocre. Suivre son activite 115 abonnes Lire ses 867 critiques. En 1985, parut une veritable pepite de la litterature, Le parfum, sous-titre Histoire d’un meurtrier. Essay! L’originalite de l’intrigue propulsa cette ?uvre au rang de best-seller avec ses 15 millions d’exemplaires vendus a travers le monde. Boleyn:! Cette originalite n’interessa pas que les lecteurs puisque le producteur Bernd Eichinger voulut obtenir les droits de ce roman des sa parution. To! Quinze annees passerent avant que l’auteur ne finisse par ceder.
De grands noms de la realisation se sont penches sur le projet (Stanley Kubrick, Milos Forman, Martin Scorsese, Tim Burton, Ridley Scott), mais ce dernier echoua finalement dans les mains de Tom Tykwer. Of Politics! En effet, l’histoire unique en son genre ne pouvait qu’accrocher les lecteurs, mais aussi les amateurs de defis. Literature! Car l’adaptation s’est revelee etre un veritable defi. Anne Boleyn:! Et le pari est reussi. Sports Direct! L’ambiance particuliere y est bien retranscrite, avec cette histoire originale digne des grands thrillers, aussi fascinante qu'epouvantable. Anne! D’apres mes sources, l’adaptation cinematographique respecte a la lettre (ou pas loin) la trame du livre. Non Native Species To Ecosystems! Et je dois admettre que pour un film dont je n’avais jamais entendu parler jusqu’a ce que ma fille me le revele, j’ai ete captive des les premieres images avec cette parturiente qui accouche sous un etal de poisson en plein marche, et ce avec la plus grande indifference. Anne A Victim Essay! Debuts difficiles donc pour celui qui se fera appeler Jean-Baptiste Grenouille, homme qui possede un don exceptionnel : celui de l’odorat, capable de detecter tout arome, aussi insignifiant soit-il, ce qui va devenir une veritable obsession, laquelle va devenir meurtriere. Desiderius To! Ce qui fait de ce personnage principal un homme a la fois attirant et meprisant. Of Politics Essay! Evidemment, on desiderius erasmus worked to, ne peut que louer la qualite de la prestation de Ben Whishaw pourtant dans son tout premier role en tant que tete d’affiche.
Il faut dire qu’il semble avoir totalement integre la psychologie de ce personnage qui se distingue par ses specificites animales. Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Nul doute qu’il a recu les conseils avises du roi des roles de composition, j’ai nomme Dustin Hoffman, veritable saltimbanque puisqu’il nous a offert des roles inoubliables comme Tootsie ou Rain man pour ne citer que ceux-la. The Life Of Helen Keller Essay! A eux deux, ils reussissent a nous plonger dans l’univers olfactif des parfumeurs, veritable monde a part pour Jean-Baptiste qui le mettra definitivement sur la route du sang dans la quete de la fragrance parfaite. A Victim! Alan Rickman est parfait dans le role du pere prevenant, doue d’une intelligence rare, ce qui en fait naturellement un serieux rival a Grenouille. To! Meme les differentes filles victimes du parfumeur sont parfaites. Anne Boleyn:! La France du XVIIIeme siecle est tres bien representee, que ce soit pour la capitale ou le pays profond, et ce jusque dans les costumes.
De par cette epoque, et de par l’intrigue, il en resulte une esthetique soignee, sombre qui finit de faire adherer le spectateur a l’histoire. Sports Direct Exeter! Tout est parfait durant 1h50/55, jusqu’a l’execution de Jean-Baptiste Grenouille sur la place publique. Boleyn: A Victim Of Politics Essay! Spoiler: Une execution qui n’aura pas lieu… suite a un retournement de situation pas du tout credible, et qui amene une dose de fantastique a l’intrigue. Desiderius Worked To! Pour moi donc, la derniere demi-heure n’a pas de sens et gache ce qui semblait etre un veritable chef-d’?uvre. Anne Boleyn: A Victim Essay! Pour autant, on gothic literature definition, ne peut incriminer les scenaristes, puisqu’ils ont suivi la mouture du livre. Anne Boleyn:! Autant l’histoire parait folle, apres tout les faits divers relatent des choses totalement inconcevables, autant j’aurais aime un finish plus terre a terre. Command Conquer Generals! Ceci dit, Le parfum : histoire d’un meurtrier offre un beau divertissement avec son histoire peu banale. Suivre son activite 0 abonne Lire ses 67 critiques. ok. Boleyn: Essay! ce film est au niveau decor ou meme costume parfait avec un bon jeu de la part de dustin hoffman. Command Conquer! l histoire est special mais alors la scene de fin est totalement WTF et innatendu. Les meilleurs films de tous les temps selon les spectateurs Les meilleurs films de tous les temps selon la presse. de Christian Carion.
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