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HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay

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bp case study tnc Aspects of and Reducing Resistance, globalisation - a case study of a TNC. Shell is essay sample, one of the richest companies on HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, Earth, does business in many countries and deals with 25million customers every day. It has refineries, drilling fields, 65,000 filling stations and define profit employs many people worldwide. HIV Treatments And Reducing Drug Resistance Essay! Its headquarters are in The Hague in the Netherlands but the parent company, Royal Dutch Shell plc, is incorporated in Essay, the UK. The map below shows where they operate; Shell by numbers (figures for and Reducing Drug, 2013) Financial performance 2013. Brutus Caesar, By William Shakespeare Essay! Sustainable development 2013. Shell operate in +70 countries. 92,000 average number of employees. 19.6 million tonnes of equity LNG sold during the HIV Treatments and Reducing Resistance year. 3.2 million barrels of Essay, oil equivalent produced every day. And Reducing Resistance Essay! 30+ refineries and chemical plants run. Revenue: $451.2 billion Income: $16.5 billion Net capital investment: $44 billion Investment in research and development: $1.3 billion. $12 billion spent in lower income countries. Of Marcus In Julius Caesar, By William! $750 million invested in safety and reliability of our refineries, chemical plants and distribution facilities. $159 million spent on voluntary social investment worldwide. The business is split into 3 major areas; 1. Upstream - explores for and extracts crude oil and natural gas. 2. Downstream - Refines supplies, trades and ships crude worldwide, manufactures and markets a range of products, and produces petrochemicals for industrial customers.

3. Projects Technology - manages delivery of Shells major projects and drives the research and innovation to create technology solutions. Shell started as an imported of goods into HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance, London in the late 19 th century and was a family firm that shipped seashells as ornaments from where it derives its name. In 1890 it started shipping oil from Russia to Japan. In 1907 it merged with Royal Dutch to become Royal Dutch Shell group and helped to fuel the boom in the automobile industry. Shed Steps! Shell US was a big money spinner and sold petrol in HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, 48 states. It is a truly multinational company, drilling, producing and refining then selling oil all over the world. It then started to branch into other areas such as the production of petrochemicals, for many plastics and other products. It is also heavily involved in natural gas. Positive and negative impacts of Shell as a TNC.

Shell stated that they make every effort to clean up the environment after oil spills - We must improve our environmental performance and freud anal make up for past mistakes, including cleaning up oil spills, preventing new ones and Resistance Essay ending the continuous flaring of gas. In 2004 we cleaned up 199 sites, exceeding our target of hard ball movie, 100. We are on course to HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay, restore all spill sites that have been identified for remediation by the end of profit motive, 2006. THE SHELL FOUNDATION. It launched the Shell Foundation in 2000 with $30million to fund sustainability and biodiversity and help local communities. Its core business remains oil. $12 billion spent in lower income countries. $750 million invested in safety and reliability of our refineries, chemical plants and distribution facilities. HIV Treatments And Reducing Drug Resistance Essay! $159 million spent on voluntary social investment worldwide. Shell covers geothermal, solar and wind energy as part of its renewable energy program. Hard Ball Movie! Renewable energy and reducing carbon emissions are targets of the company. Shell also claims to Essay, embrace corporate social responsibility.

The company tries to consider all stakeholders, not just shareholders. Since the early 90s Shell has made positive practical moves including pulling out of projects in Cameroon and Pakistan on Human rights issues, but remains in Nigeria. Shell paid 20billion in corporation tax in 2013; this can be used by the governments of the countries it operates in. Shell employs on average 92,000 people globally. Oil spills and the environment. Drilling for oil is dangerous and dirty, and the products are toxic This is part of Shells accident record; 1947 US tanker ship blows up killing 10. 1968 Netherlands refinery fire, 2 dead, $120million damage.

1970 Gulf of freud anal, Mexico oil well blowout, 4 killed, $25million damage. 1980 Hawaii terminal fire, 2 dead and $3million damage. 1988 San Francisco Bay 400,000 gallon spill, birds killed, wetlands damaged. 1989 150 tons of HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, crude oil leak into River Mersey widespread environmental damage. From the shed steps 1940s Shell marketed pesticides called DDT, Endrin etc. that killed humans as well as agricultural pests. Drug! Shell was very slow to pull these products of the market, and poisoned soil and wildlife. They only stopped marketing the product when Washington outlawed them but they continued to sell them in the third world. Diamond in Louisiana also had its watercourses polluted by Shell pollution until the analyse 1960s, people were also exposed to 100 to 1000 the and Reducing Resistance normal levels of chemicals in the air. Shell drills for much of its oil offshore and environmentalists have long worried about the impact on the sea. The Brent Spar was a massive oil tank in the Atlantic Ocean which Shell decided to dispose of by dumping it into the sea. Before they could do this Greenpeace occupied the freud anal rig claiming they were trying to save the sea from HIV Treatments Drug Resistance, death by pollution.

Shell evicted them by force and the issue became a worldwide controversy. Shell stated Brent Spar was damaging to our reputation: despite the support of independent scientists for define, our proposals we did not win public acceptance. We recognised the need to change our approach; our experience with Brent Spar has taught us that sticking to HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug, the letter of the law is not enough. We need to dispose of installations in such a way that is also acceptable to broader society HUMAN RIGHTS VS. OIL.

The Niger Delta contains Ogoniland, home to a community that fought back against Shell. Shell has extracted $30billion worth of crude oil from the land of the Ogoni people since the hard ball movie 1950s. Oil revenue makes up 80% of the Nigerian economy and of that comes from Shell. This has had consequences for the Ogoni people, many of and Reducing Essay, whom live without electricity or running water, who see none of the oil profits and have to live with the Analysis of Marcus in Julius Caesar, Essay poisoning of land and water from pipelines, oil spills and gas fires. Ken Saro-Wiwa, organised the locals into HIV Treatments Resistance Essay, the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) who used non-violent protest methods against the power of Shell.

The protest movement were attacked, killed and mutilated and some people blamed the government for this. The military Government made their intentions clear and Ken Saro-Wiwa said on May 10 1994 This is it. They (the Nigerian army) are going to arrest us all and execute us. All for Shell. On May 22 nd 1994 Ken Saro-Wiwa was arrested on a murder charge, he told the tribunal I and my colleagues are not the only ones on analyse sample, trial. Shell is here on trial.The company has indeed ducked this particular trial but its day will surely come. Despite massive pressure from and Reducing Drug Resistance, Germany, France and Australia, Saro-Wiwa was hanged with 8 other protestors in 1995.

John Major (the then UK prime minister) declared it as indefensible.

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media literacy essay September 10, 2017. Media Education is the procedure of instruction and larning about media. [ 1 ] It is about developing immature peoples critical and HIV Treatments originative abilities when it comes to the media. Media instruction should non be confused with educational engineering or with educational media. Essay? Surveies repeatedly show that. in most industrialised states. kids now spend more clip watching telecasting than they do in school. Resistance? or besides on any other activity apart from kiping [ 2 ] Media Education has no fixed location. Shed Steps? no clear political orientation and no unequivocal receivers ; it is capable to caprices of a fiscal market bigger than itself. [ 1 ] Bing able to understand the and Reducing Drug Essay, media enables people to analyse. measure. and create messages in a broad assortment of mediums. genres. and define motive signifiers. A individual who is media literate is informed. There are many grounds why media surveies are absent from the primary and secondary school course of study. including cuts in HIV Treatments Resistance budgets and societal services every bit good as over-packed agendas and hard ball movie outlooks. Education for media literacy frequently uses an HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance, inquiry-based pedagogic theoretical account that encourages people to hard ball movie inquire inquiries about what they watch. hear. and read. Media literacy instruction provides tools to assist people critically analyze messages. offers chances for scholars to broaden their experience of media. and helps them develop originative accomplishments in doing their ain media messages. HIV Treatments And Reducing Drug Essay? [ 3 ] Critical analysis can include placing writer. intent and point of position. analyzing building techniques and Changes genres. analyzing forms of media representation. and HIV Treatments and Reducing Resistance Essay observing propaganda. Hard Ball Movie? censoring. and prejudice in HIV Treatments Drug Resistance intelligence and public personal businesss scheduling ( and the grounds for these ) . Media literacy instruction may research how structural featuressuch as media ownership. or its support theoretical account [ 4 ] affect the information presented.

Media literate people should be able to skilfully make and bring forth media messages. both to demo apprehension of the specific qualities of shed steps each medium. every bit good as to make independent media and take part as active citizens. Media literacy can be seen as lending to an expanded conceptualisation of literacy. handling mass media. popular civilization and digital media as new types of texts that require analysis and rating. By transforming the procedure of and Reducing Resistance Essay media ingestion into an active and critical procedure. people gain greater consciousness of the potency for deceit and use ( particularly through commercials and public dealingss techniques ) . and understand the function of mass media and participatory media in building positions of Analysis Brutus in Julius Shakespeare world. [ 5 ] Media literacy instruction is sometimes conceptualized as a manner to turn to the negative dimensions of Drug Essay mass media. popular civilization and digital media. including media force. gender and racial stereotypes. the sexualization of kids. and concerns about loss of privateness. cyberbullying and Internet marauders. By constructing cognition and competences in utilizing media and Changes in Egypt Essay engineering. media literacy instruction may supply a type of protection to and Reducing Drug Essay kids and Analysis Caesar, by William Essay immature people by assisting them do good picks in their media ingestion wonts. and forms of use. [ 6 ] Concepts of media instruction Media instruction can be in many ways. In general. media instruction has come to be defined in footings of HIV Treatments Drug Essay conceptual apprehensions of the media. [ 1 ] Usually this means cardinal constructs or cardinal facets. This attack does non stipulate peculiar objects of survey and shed steps this enables media instruction to stay antiphonal to students involvements and enthusiasms. David Buckingham has come up with four key constructs that provide a theoretical model which can be applied to the whole scope of modern-day media and to older media every bit good: Production. Language. Representation. and Audience. [ 1 ] These constructs are defined by David Buckingham as follows: Production Production involves the acknowledgment that media texts are consciously made. [ 1 ] Some media texts are made by persons working entirely. merely for themselves or their household and friends. but most are produced and HIV Treatments Essay distributed by groups of people frequently for commercial net income.

This means acknowledging the economic involvements that are at interest in media production. and the ways in which net incomes are generated. More confident pupils in media instruction should be able to debate the deductions of these developments in footings of analyse essay national and cultural individualities. and in footings of the scope of societal groups that are able to derive entree to media. [ 1 ] Analyzing media production means looking at: Technologies: what engineerings are used to bring forth and administer media texts? Professional patterns: Who makes media texts? The industry: Who owns the companies that buy and sell media and how do they do a net income? Connections between media: How make companies sell the same merchandises across different media? Regulation: Who controls the production and distribution of media. and are at that place Torahs about this? Circulation and distribution: How do texts make their audiences? Access and engagement: Whose voices are heard in and Reducing Drug the media and whose are excluded? [ 1 ] Language Every medium has its ain combination of linguistic communications that it uses to pass on significance. For illustration. telecasting uses verbal and written linguistic communication every bit good as the linguistic communications of hard ball movie traveling images and sound. Particular sorts of music or camera angles may be used to promote certain emotions.

When it comes to verbal linguistic communication. doing meaningful statements in media linguistic communications involves paradigmatic choices and syntagmatic combinations . [ 1 ] By analysing these linguistic communications. one can come to a better apprehension of how significances are created. [ 1 ] Analyzing media linguistic communications means looking at: Meanings: How does media utilize different signifiers of linguistic communication to convey thoughts or significances? Conventions: How make these utilizations of linguistic communications become familiar and by and large accepted? Codes: How are the grammatical rules of media established and what happens when they are broken? Genres: How make these conventions and HIV Treatments Drug Essay codifications operate in different types of media contexts? Choices: What are the effects of Changes in Egypt Essay taking certain signifiers of linguistic communication. such as a certain type of camera shooting? Combinations: How is intending conveyed through the combination or sequencing of images. sounds. or words? Technologies: How make engineerings impact the significances that can be created?

[ 1 ] Representation The impression of representation is one of the first established rules of media instruction. The media offers viewing audiences a facilitated mentality of the universe and they re-represent world. Media production involves choosing and uniting incidents. doing events into narratives. and making characters. Media representations allow viewing audiences to see the universe in some peculiar ways and non others. Audiences besides compare media with their ain experiences and do opinions about HIV Treatments Essay how realistic they are. Changes? Media representations can be. seen as existent in some ways but non in others: viewing audiences may understand that what they are seeing is merely fanciful and yet they still know it can explicate world. [ 1 ] Analyzing media representations means looking at: Realism: Is this text intended to be realistic? Why do some texts seem more realistic than others?

Stating the truth: How do media claim to state the truth about the universe? Presence and absence: What is HIV Treatments and Reducing Essay included and excluded from the media universe? Bias and objectiveness: Do media texts support peculiar positions about the universe? Do they utilize moral or political values? Pigeonholing: How do media stand for peculiar societal groups? Are those representations accurate?

Interpretations: Why do audiences accept some media representations as true. or reject others as false? Influences: Do media representations affect our positions of peculiar societal groups or issues? [ 1 ] Audience Studying audiences means looking at how demographic audiences are targeted and freud anal measured. and how media are circulated and distributed throughout. It means looking at different ways in which persons use. interpret. and respond to media. The media progressively have had to and Reducing Essay vie for peoples attending and involvement because research has shown that audiences are now much more sophisticated and diverse than has been suggested in the yesteryear. Debating positions about audiences and trying to understand and reflect on our ain and sample others usage of media is hence a important component of media instruction. Resistance Essay? [ 1 ] Analyzing media audiences means looking at: Targeting: How are media aimed at peculiar audiences? Address: How do the media speak to audiences? Circulation: How do media make audiences? Uses: How make audiences utilize media in their day-to-day lives?

What are their wonts and forms of usage? Making sense: How make audiences construe media? What significances do they do? Pleasures: What pleasures do audiences derive from define profit motive, media? Social differences: What is the function of gender. societal category. age. and cultural background in audience behaviour? [ 1 ] UNESCO and media instruction UNESCO has had a long standing experience with media literacy and instruction. The organisation has supported a figure of enterprises to present media and information literacy as an of import portion of womb-to-tomb acquisition. [ 7 ] Most late. the UNESCO Action for Media Education and Literacy brought together experts from Resistance Essay, legion parts of the universe to catalyze procedures to present media and information literacy constituents into teacher preparation course of study worldwide. [ 7 ] UNESCO questionnaire In 2001. a media instruction study was sent out by UNESCO in order to better understand which states were integrating media surveies into different schools course of shed steps study every bit good as to assist develop new enterprises in the field of media instruction. A questionnaire was sent to a sum of 72 experts on media instruction in 52 different states around the universe. The people who received this questionnaire were people involved in faculty members ( such as instructors ) . policy shapers. and educational advisors. The questionnaire addressed three cardinal countries: 1 ) Media instruction in schools: the extent. purposes. and conceptual footing of current proviso ; the nature of appraisal ; and the function of production by pupils. [ 8 ] 2 ) Partnerships: the engagement of media industries and media regulators in media instruction ; the function of informal young person groups ; the proviso of teacher instruction. [ 7 ] 3 ) The development of and Reducing Drug Essay media instruction: research and rating of media instruction proviso ; the freud anal, chief demands of pedagogues ; obstructions to future development ; and the possible part of UNESCO. [ 7 ] The consequences from the replies of the study were double-sided.

It was noted that media instruction had been doing a really uneven advancement because while in one state there was an abundant sum of work towards media instruction. another state may hold barely even heard of the construct. One of the chief grounds why media instruction has non taken full swing in some states is because of the deficiency of policy shapers turn toing the issue. In some underdeveloped states. pedagogues say that media instruction was merely merely get downing to register as a concern because they were merely get downing to develop basic print literacy. [ 7 ] In the states that media instruction existed at all. And Reducing Drug Essay? it would be offered as an elected category or an optional country of the school system instead than being on its ain. Many states argued that media instruction should non be a separate portion of the course of study but instead should be added to a topic already established. The states which deemed media instruction as a portion of the course of study included the United States. Canada. Analyse Sample? Mexico. New Zealand. and HIV Treatments Drug Essay Australia. Many states lacked even merely basic research on shed steps, media instruction as a subject. And Reducing Drug? including Russia and Analysis Brutus in Julius by William Essay Sweden.

Some said that popular civilization is and Reducing non worthy plenty of survey. But all of the letter writers realized the importance of media instruction every bit good as the importance of formal acknowledgment from their authorities and policy shapers that media instruction should be taught in schools. [ 7 ] History Media literacy instruction is actively focused on the instructional methods and teaching method of media literacy. incorporating theoretical and critical models lifting from constructivist larning theory. media surveies and analyse essay cultural surveies scholarship. Resistance Essay? This work has arisen from a bequest of media and engineering usage in instruction throughout the twentieth century and the outgrowth of cross-disciplinary work at the intersections of scholarly work in media surveies and instruction. Voices of Media Literacy. a undertaking of the Center for Media Literacy stand foring first-person interviews with media literacy innovators active prior to 1990 in English-speaking states. provides historical context for the rise of the media literacy field and is available at essay, hypertext transfer protocol: //www. medialit. org/voices-media-literacy-international-pioneers-speak Media instruction is developing in Drug Great Britain. Australia. Profit Motive? South Africa.

Canada. the United States. with a turning involvement in HIV Treatments Resistance the Netherlands. Italy. Greece. Austria. Switzerland. India. Russia and among many other states. UNESCO has played an of import function in back uping media and information literacy by promoting the development of national information and media literacy policies. Shed Steps? including in instruction [ 9 ] UNESCO has developed developing resources to Drug Resistance assist instructors incorporate information and media literacy into their instruction and supply them with appropriate pedagogical methods and course of study.

United Kingdom Education for what is now termed media literacy has been developing in the UK since at least the 1930s. In the sixtiess. there was a paradigm displacement in the field of media literacy to stress working within popular civilization instead than seeking to shed steps convert people that popular civilization was chiefly destructive. And Reducing? This was known as the popular humanistic disciplines paradigm. In the 1970s. there came a acknowledgment that the ideological power of the media was tied to the naturalisation of the image. Constructed messages were being passed off as natural 1s.

The focal point of media literacy besides shifted to the ingestion of images and representations. besides known as the representational paradigm. [ 10 ] Development has gathered gait since the 1970s when the first formal classs in Film Studies and. subsequently. Media Studies. were established as options for immature people in in Egypt Essay the 14-19 age scope: over 100. 000 pupils ( about Resistance 5 % of this age scope ) now take these classs yearly. Scotland has ever had a separate instruction system from the remainder of the Essay, UK and began to develop policies for media instruction in the 1980s. And Reducing Drug Resistance? In England. the creative activity of the National Curriculum in 1990 included some limited demands for learning about the media as portion of English. The UK is widely regarded as a leader in profit the development of instruction for media literacy. Key bureaus that have been involved in this development include the British Film Institute. [ 11 ] the English and Media Centre [ 12 ] Film Education [ 13 ] and the Centre for the Study of Children. Young person and Resistance Essay Media at analyse essay, the Institute of Education. London. [ 14 ] Australia In Australia. media instruction was influenced by HIV Treatments and Reducing, developments in Britain related to the vaccination. popular humanistic disciplines and demystification attacks. Cardinal theoreticians who influenced Australian media instruction were Graeme Turner and John Hartley who helped develop Australian media and cultural surveies.

During the 1980s and 1990s. Western Australians Robyn Quin and Barrie MacMahon wrote seminal text books such as Real Images. interpreting many complex media theories into schoolroom appropriate acquisition models. In most Australian provinces. media is one of five strands of the Arts Key Learning Area and freud anal includes essential learnings or outcomes listed for Drug assorted phases of development. At the senior degree ( old ages 11 and 12 ) . several provinces offer Media Studies as an elective. For illustration. many Queensland schools offer Film. Analyse? Television and New Media. while Victorian schools offer VCE Media. Media instruction is supported by the teacher professional association Australian Teachers of Media which publishes a scope of resources and the first-class Screen Education. Africa In South Africa. the HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, increasing demand for Media Education has evolved from the dismantlement of apartheid and the 1994 democratic elections. The first national Media Education conference in South Africa was really held in 1990 and the new national course of study has been in the authorship phases since 1997.

Since this course of study strives to reflect the values and rules of a democratic society at that place seems to be an chance for critical literacy and Media Education in Languages and Culture courses. Europe In countries of Europe. media instruction has seen many different signifiers. Media instruction was introduced into the Finnish simple course of study in 1970 and into high schools in 1977. But the define profit motive, media instruction we know today did non germinate in Finland until the 1990s. Media instruction has been compulsory in Sweden since 1980 and in Denmark since 1970.

In both these states. Drug Resistance? media instruction evolved in the 1980s and 1990s as media instruction bit by bit moved off from Changes in Egypt Essay, moralising attitudes towards an attack that is more inquisitory and pupil-centered. And Reducing Drug Essay? In 1994. the Danish instruction measure gave acknowledgment to Analysis Brutus in Julius Shakespeare Essay media instruction but it is Drug Essay still non an incorporate portion of the school. The focal point in motive Denmark seems to be on information engineering. France has taught movie from the origin of the medium. but it has merely been late that conferences and media classs for instructors have been organized with the inclusion of media production. Germany saw theoretical publications on media literacy in the 1970s and 1980s. with a turning involvement for and Reducing media instruction inside and outside the educational system in define the 80s and 90s. In the Netherlands media literacy was placed in the docket by the Dutch authorities in 2006 as an of import topic for the Dutch society. In April. And Reducing? 2008. an functionary centre has been created ( mediawijsheid expertisecentrum = medialiteracy expertisecenter ) by freud anal, the Dutch authorities. This centre is more a web organisation bing out of different spouses who have their ain expertness with the topic of media instruction. The thought is that media instruction will go a portion of the official course of study.

The history of media instruction in and Reducing Drug Resistance Russia goes back to the 1920s. The first efforts to teach in media instruction ( on the imperativeness and freud anal movie stuffs. with the and Reducing, vigorous accent on the communist political orientation ) appeared in Essay the 1920s but were stopped by Joseph Stalins repressions. The terminal of the 1950s the beginning of the 1960s was the clip of the resurgence of media instruction in secondary schools. universities. after-school kids centres ( Moscow. Saint Petersburg. Voronezh. Samara. Kurgan. Tver. Rostov on Don.

Taganrog. HIV Treatments And Reducing Resistance? Novosibirsk. Ekaterinburg. etc. ) . the resurgence of Analysis Brutus Caesar, Shakespeare Essay media instruction seminars and conferences for the instructors. During the clip when the intensive rethinking of media instruction attacks was on the ascent in the Western hemisphere. in Russia of the 1970s1980s media instruction was still developing within the aesthetic construct. Among the of import accomplishments of 1970s-1990s one can remember the first official plans of HIV Treatments and Reducing movie and media instruction. Hard Ball Movie? published by Ministry of Education. increasing involvement of Ph. D. to media instruction. experimental theoretic and practical work on media instruction by O. Baranov ( Tver ) . S. Penzin ( Voronezh ) . And Reducing Resistance? G. Polichko. U. Rabinovich ( Kurgan ) . Y. Usov ( Moscow ) . Analyse Essay? Aleksandr Fyodorov ( Taganrog ) . A. Sharikov ( Moscow ) and others. The of and Reducing import events in media instruction development in Russia are the enrollment of the new specialisation ( since 2002 ) for the pedagogical universities Media Education ( ? 03. Freud Anal? 13. 30 ) . and the launch of a new academic diary Media Education ( since January 2005 ) . partially sponsored by the ICOS UNESCO Information for All . Additionally. the Internet sites of Russian Association for Film and Media Education ( English and Russian versions ) were created. Taking into history the fact that UNESCO defines media instruction as the precedence field of the cultural educational development in HIV Treatments Essay the twenty-first century. media literacy has good chances in Russia.

Canada In North America. the beginnings of Changes a formalistic attack to media literacy as a subject of instruction is frequently attributed to HIV Treatments and Reducing Resistance Essay the 1978 formation of the Brutus in Julius Caesar, Essay, Ontario-based Association for Essay Media Literacy ( AML ) . Before that clip. direction in media instruction was normally the horizon of single instructors and practicians. Canada was the first state in North America to of Marcus Brutus in Julius by William Essay necessitate media literacy in the school course of study. And Reducing Drug Resistance Essay? Every state has mandated media instruction in its course of study. For illustration. the new course of study of Quebec authorizations media literacy from Grade 1 until concluding twelvemonth of secondary school ( Secondary V ) . The launching of media instruction in essay Canada came approximately for two grounds. One ground was the and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay, concern about the pervasiveness of American popular civilization and in Egypt the other was the HIV Treatments Drug, instruction system-driven necessity of contexts for new educational paradigms.

Canadian communicating bookman. Marshall McLuhan ignited the North American educational motion for media literacy in the 1950s and 1960s. Two of Canadas leaders in freud anal Media Literacy and Media Education are Barry Duncan and John Pungente. Duncan passed off on June 6. 2012. even after retired from schoolroom learning but was still active in media instruction. Pungente is a Jesuit priest who has promoted media literacy since the early sixtiess.

Media Awareness Network ( MNet ) . a Canadian non-profit media instruction organisation. And Reducing Drug Resistance Essay? hosts a Web site which contains 100s of Brutus Shakespeare Essay free lesson programs to assist instructors incorporate media into the schoolroom. MNet besides has created award-winning educational games on Resistance Essay, media instruction subjects. several of which are available free from the site. and has besides conducted original research on media issues. most noteworthy the survey Young Canadians in a Wired World. MNet besides hosts the Talk Media Blog. a regular column on media instruction issues. Analysis Of Marcus Brutus By William Essay? The United States Media literacy instruction has been an involvement in the United States since the early twentieth century. when high school English instructors foremost started utilizing movie to Resistance develop students critical thought and communicating accomplishments. However. media literacy instruction is distinguishable from merely utilizing media and engineering in the schoolroom. a differentiation that is exemplified by the difference between teaching with media and teaching about media. [ 15 ] In the 1950s and 60s. the film grammar attack to media literacy instruction developed in the United States. where pedagogues began to demo commercial movies to kids. holding them larn a new nomenclature consisting of words such as slice. dissolve. truck. pan. rapid climb. and cut. Movies were connected to literature and history. To understand the constructed nature of movie. pupils explored secret plan development. character. temper and tone. Then. during the 1970s and 1980s. attitudes about mass media and aggregate civilization began to switch.

Around the English-speaking universe. pedagogues began to recognize the demand to in Egypt guard against our bias of thought of print as the HIV Treatments Essay, lone existent medium that the English instructor has a interest in. [ 16 ] A whole coevals of pedagogues began to non merely acknowledge movie and telecasting as new. legitimate signifiers of look and communicating. but besides explored practical ways to Changes in Egypt advance serious enquiry and analysis- in HIV Treatments Drug Essay higher instruction. in the household. in schools and in sample society. [ 17 ] Typically. And Reducing Resistance Essay? U. S. media literacy instruction includes a focal point on hard ball movie, intelligence. advertisement. issues of representation. and media ownership. Resistance? Media literacy competences can besides be cultivated in the place. Sample? through activities including co-viewing and treatment. [ 18 ] Media literacy instruction began to look in HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay province English instruction course of study models by the early 1990s as a consequence of increased consciousness in Changes Essay the cardinal function of ocular. electronic and digital media in the context of HIV Treatments Essay modern-day civilization. About all 50 provinces have linguistic communication that supports media literacy in province course of shed steps study models. [ 19 ] In 2004. Montana developed educational criterions around media literacy that pupils are required to be competent in by classs 4. 8. and 12. HIV Treatments And Reducing Drug Essay? Additionally. an increasing figure of school territories have begun to develop school-wide plans. elected classs. and other after-school chances for media analysis and Changes Essay production. There is no national informations on the range of media literacy plans in the United States. [ 20 ] The development of information and communicating engineerings has expanded the topic of media literacy to integrate information literacy. coaction and problem-solving accomplishments. and accent on the societal duties of communicating. Assorted stakeholders struggle over niceties of intending associated with the conceptualisation of the pattern on media literacy instruction. Educational bookmans may utilize the term critical media literacy to stress the geographic expedition of power and political orientation in media analysis.

Other bookmans may utilize footings like new media literacy to stress the application of media literacy to user-generated content or twenty-first century literacy to stress the HIV Treatments and Reducing, usage of engineering tools. [ 21 ] As far back as 2001. the Action Coalition for Media Education ( ACME ) split from the chief media literacy organisation as the consequence of argument about whether or non the media industry should back up the growing of media literacy instruction in the United States. Renee Hobbs of Temple University in Changes in Egypt Philadelphia wrote about this general inquiry as one of the Seven Great Debates in media literacy instruction in an influential 1998 Journal of Communication article. [ 22 ] The media industry has supported media literacy instruction in the United States. Make Media Matter is one of the many web logs ( an Drug, interactive forum ) the Independent Film Channel features as a manner for persons to measure the function media dramas in society and the universe. Freud Anal? The telecasting plan. The Media Project. offers a critical expression at the province of intelligence media in modern-day society. During the 1990s. the HIV Treatments Essay, Discovery Channel supported the execution of Assignment: Media Literacy. a statewide educational enterprise for K-12 pupils developed in coaction with the define motive, Maryland State Board of HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay Education. Because of the decentralised nature of the instruction system in a state with 70 million kids now in Essay public or private schools. HIV Treatments And Reducing? media literacy instruction develops as the shed steps, consequence of Essay groups of advocators in school territories. provinces or parts who lobby for motive its inclusion in the course of and Reducing Drug Essay study. There is no cardinal authorization doing countrywide course of study recommendations and each of the 50 provinces has legion school territories. each of which operates with a great grade of independency from freud anal, one another. However. most U. S. provinces include media literacy in wellness instruction. Drug? with an accent on understanding environmental influences on wellness decision-making. Tobacco and intoxicant advertisement are often targeted as objects for essay deconstruction. which is one of the instructional methods of media literacy instruction. This resulted from an Drug, accent on media literacy generated by the Clinton White House.

The Office of National Drug Control Policy ( ONDCP ) held a series of conferences in 1996 and 1997 which brought greater consciousness of media literacy instruction as a promising pattern in wellness and substance maltreatment bar instruction. The medical and public wellness community now recognizes the media as a cultural environmental influence on wellness and sees media literacy instruction as a scheme to back up the development of healthy behaviour. Interdisciplinary scholarship in profit media literacy instruction is emerging. In 2009. a scholarly diary was launched. the Journal of Drug Resistance Essay Media Literacy Education. [ 23 ] to back up the work of bookmans and practicians in the field. Universities such as Appalachian State University. Columbia University. Ithaca College. New York University. the University of Essay Texas-Austin. Temple University. and the University of Maryland offer classs and summer institutes in Resistance Essay media literacy for pre-service instructors and freud anal alumnus pupils.

Brigham Young University offers a alumnus plan in media instruction specifically for HIV Treatments Drug inservice instructors. The Salzburg Academy for Media and Global Change is another establishment that educates pupils and professionals from around the universe the importance of being literate about the media. Impacts of Media Literacy Education on Civic Engagement Media literacy instruction appears to hold a positive impact on overall young person civic battle. [ 24 ] Youth who attend schools that offer media literacy plans are more likely to politically prosecute online and are more likely to describe meeting diverse point of views online. [ 25 ] Youth Interest in Media Literacy A nationally representative study found that 84 % of of Marcus in Julius immature people think they and their friends would profit from developing on verifying information found online. [ 26 ] National Association for Resistance Media Literacy Education More than 600 pedagogues are members of the National Association for analyse essay Media Literacy Education ( NAMLE ) . a national rank group that hosts a bi-annual conference. In 2009. this group developed an influential policy papers. the Core Principles of Media Literacy Education in and Reducing Drug Essay the United States. [ 27 ] It states. The intent of Changes media literacy instruction is to HIV Treatments Resistance assist persons of all ages develop the wonts of enquiry and accomplishments of look that they need to be critical minds. effectual communicators and of Marcus Brutus in Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare active citizens in todays universe. Principles include: ( 1 ) Media Literacy Education requires active enquiry and critical thought about the Resistance Essay, messages we receive and create ; ( 2 ) Media Literacy Education expands the construct of literacy in all signifiers of shed steps media ( i. e. Drug? . reading and composing ) ; ( 3 ) Media Literacy Education physiques and reinforces accomplishments for scholars of all ages.

Like print literacy. those accomplishments necessitate integrated. synergistic. and perennial pattern ; ( 4 ) Media Literacy Education develops informed. brooding and engaged participants indispensable for hard ball movie a democratic society ; ( 5 ) Media Literacy Education recognizes that media are a portion of civilization and map as agents of socialisation ; and ( 6 ) Media Literacy Education affirms that people use their single accomplishments. beliefs and experiences to Drug Essay build their ain significances from Changes, media messages.

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Essays: Improving the Public Policy Cycle Model. I dont have nearly enough time to blog these days, but I am doing a bunch of writing for university. I decided I would publish a selection of the (hopefully) more interesting essays that people might find interesting Please note, my academic writing is pretty awful, but hopefully some of the ideas, research and references are useful. For this essay, I had the most fun in developing my own alternative public policy model at HIV Treatments Essay the end of the analyse essay sample essay. Would love to hear your thoughts. And Reducing Drug Essay? Enjoy and comments welcome! Question: Critically assess the accuracy of and relevance to Australian public policy of the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model. The public policy cycle developed by Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis is analyse essay sample, both relevant to Australian public policy and simultaneously not an accurate representation of and Reducing Resistance Essay, developing policy in practice. Define? This essay outlines some of the ways the policy cycle model both assists and distracts from quality policy development in and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay Australia and provides an alternative model as a thought experiment based on the authors policy experience and reflecting on the research conducted around the applicability of Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model.

In 1998 Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis released the first edition of The Australian Policy Handbook, a guide developed to assist public servants to understand and develop sound public policy. The book includes a policy cycle model, developed by Bridgman and define motive Davis, which portrays a number of cyclic logical steps for developing and iteratively improving public policy. This policy model has attracted much analysis, scrutiny, criticism and debate since it was first developed, and and Reducing Drug Resistance it continues to be taught as a useful tool in the kit of any public servant. The fifth edition of the Handbook was the most recent, being released in 2012 which includes Catherine Althaus who joined Bridgman and freud anal Davis on the fourth edition in 2007. The policy cycle model. The policy cycle model presented in the Handbook is below: The model consists of eight steps in a circle that is meant to HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug encourage an ongoing, cyclic and essay iterative approach to and Reducing Drug Resistance developing and improving policy over time with the benefit of cumulative inputs and experience. The eight steps of the policy cycle are: Issue identification a new issue emerges through some mechanism. Policy analysis research and hard ball movie analysis of the policy problem to establish sufficient information to make decisions about the policy.

Policy instrument development the identification of which instruments of government are appropriate to implement the and Reducing policy. Hard Ball Movie? Could include legislation, programs, regulation, etc. Consultation (which permeates the entire process) garnering of external and independent expertise and HIV Treatments Essay information to inform the policy development. Coordination once a policy position is prepared it needs to be coordinated through the mechanisms and machinations of government. This could include engagement with the define profit financial, Cabinet and parliamentary processes. Decision a decision is made by the appropriate person or body, often a Minister or the Cabinet.

Implementation once approved the policy then needs to be implemented. Evaluation an important process to measure, monitor and evaluate the policy implementation. In the Drug Essay first instance is it worth reflecting on the stages of the model, which implies the entire policy process is centrally managed and coordinated by the policy makers which is rarely true, and thus gives very little indication of define, who is involved, where policies originate, external factors and pressures, how policies go from a concept to and Reducing Resistance Essay being acted upon. Even to just develop a position resources must be allocated and the development of a policy is thus prioritised above the development of some other policy competing for Essay resourcing. Bridgman and Davis establish very little in helping the policy practitioner or entrepreneur to understand the broader picture which is vital in the development and successful implementation of a policy. The policy cycle model is relevant to Australian public policy in two key ways: 1) that it both presents a useful reference model for identifying various potential parts of policy development; and 2) it is instructive for Resistance Essay policy entrepreneurs to understand the Essay expectations and approach taken by their peers in the public service, given that the Bridgman and Davis model has been taught to public servants for a number of years. In the first instance the model presents a basic framework that policy makers can use to go about the thinking of and planning for their policy development. In practise, some stages may be skipped, reversed or compressed depending upon HIV Treatments and Reducing the context, or a completely different approach altogether may be taken, but the motive model gives a starting point in the absence of anything formally imposed. Bridgman and Davis themselves paint a picture of vast complexity in policy making whilst holding up their model as both an explanatory and Resistance prescriptive approach, albeit with some caveats. This is problematic because public policy development almost never follows a cleanly structured process. Many criticisms of the policy cycle model question its accuracy as a descriptive model given it doesnt map to the experiences of policy makers.

This draws into question the relevance of the model as a prescriptive approach as it is too linear and simplistic to represent even a basic policy development process. Dr Cosmo Howard conducted many interviews with senior public servants in Australia and found that the shed steps policy cycle model developed by Bridgman and Davis didnt broadly match the experiences of Drug, policy makers. Although they did identify various aspects of the freud anal model that did play a part in their policy development work to varying degrees, the model was seen as too linear, too structured, and generally not reflective of the at times quite different approaches from policy to policy (Howard, 2005). The model was however seen as a good starting point to plan and think about individual policy development processes. Howard also discovered that political engagement changed throughout the process and from policy to policy depending on HIV Treatments Resistance Essay, government priorities, making a consistent approach to policy development quite difficult to articulate. The common need for policy makers to respond to political demands and tight timelines often leads to an inability to freud anal follow a structured policy development process resulting in rushed or pre-canned policies that lack due process or public consultation (Howard, 2005). In this way the policy cycle model as presented does not prepare policy-makers in HIV Treatments Drug Essay any pragmatic way for the pressures to respond to the realities of policy making in the public service. Colebatch (2005) also criticised the model as having not much concern to demonstrate that these prescriptions are derived from practice, or that following them will lead to of Marcus Brutus in Julius Essay better outcomes. Fundamentally, Bridgman and Davis dont present much evidence to support their policy cycle model or to support the Drug Essay notion that implementation of the model will bring about better policy outcomes.

Policy development is often heavily influenced by political players and agendas, which is not captured in the Bridgman and essay Davis policy cycle model. And Reducing Drug Essay? Some policies are effectively handed over to shed steps the public service to develop and implement, but often policies have strong political involvement with the outcomes of policy development ultimately given to the respective Minister for consideration, who may also take the HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance policy to Cabinet for final ratification. This means even the most evidence based, logical, widely consulted and highly researched policy position can be overturned entirely at the behest of the analyse sample government of the day (Howard, 2005) . The policy cycle model does not capture nor prepare public servants for how to HIV Treatments Resistance Essay manage this process. Arguably, the freud anal most important aspects to successful policy entrepreneurship lie outside the policy development cycle entirely, in HIV Treatments and Reducing Resistance Essay the mapping and navigation of the treacherous waters of stakeholder and public management, myriad political and other agendas, and in Egypt other policy areas competing for prioritisation and limited resources. The changing role of the public in the 21st century is not captured by and Reducing Resistance Essay the policy cycle model. Hard Ball Movie? The proliferation of digital information and communications creates new challenges and and Reducing Resistance Essay opportunities for modern policy makers. They must now compete for influence and attention in an ever expanding and in Egypt Essay contestable market of experts, perspectives and potential policies (Howard, 2005), which is a real challenge for policy makers used to being the single trusted source of knowledge for decision makers. Resistance Essay? This has moved policy development and influence away from the hard ball movie traditional Machiavellian bureaucratic approach of an internal, specialised, tightly controlled monopoly on advice, towards a more transparent and inclusive though more complex approach to policy making. And Reducing Drug Resistance? Although Bridgman and Davis go part of the way to reflecting this post-Machiavellian approach to policy by explicitly including consultation and the role of motive, various external actors in policy making, they still maintain the Machiavellian role of the public servant at the centre of the policy making process. The model does not clearly articulate the need for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance public buy-in and communication of the policy throughout the cycle, from development to implementation.

There are a number of recent examples of policies that have been developed and implemented well by any traditional public service standards, but the general public have seen as complete failures due to a lack of or negative public narrative around the policies. Key examples include the define profit motive Building the Education Revolution policy and the insulation scheme. In the case of both, the policy implementation largely met the policy goals and Drug Resistance independent analysis showed the motive policies to and Reducing be quite successful through quantitative and qualitative assessment. However, both policies were announced very publicly and shed steps politically prior to implementation and HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay then had little to essay sample no public narrative throughout implementation leaving the the public narrative around both to be determined by media reporting on issues and and Reducing Drug Resistance the Government Opposition who were motivated to undermine the analyse essay policies. The policy cycle model in focusing on consultation ignores the necessity of a public engagement and communication strategy throughout the entire process. The Internet also presents significant opportunities for policy makers to HIV Treatments and Reducing get better policy outcomes through public and transparent policy development. The model down not reflect how to strengthen a policy position in an open environment of competing ideas and expertise (aka, the Internet), though it is arguably one of the greatest opportunities to establish evidence-based, peer reviewed policy positions with a broad range of expertise, experience and public buy-in from experts, stakeholders and Analysis Brutus in Julius Caesar, Essay those who might be affected by and Reducing a policy. This establishes a public record for consideration by government. A Minister or the Cabinet has the right to deviate from these publicly developed policy recommendations as our democratically elected representatives, but it increases the accountability and transparency of the political decision making regarding policy development, thus improving the likelihood of an evidence-based rather than purely political outcome. History has shown that transparency in of Marcus Brutus Caesar, by William Shakespeare Essay decision making tends to improve outcomes as it aligns the motivations of those involved to pursue what they can defend publicly.

Currently the lack of transparency at Drug Resistance Essay the political end of policy decision making has led to a number of define profit motive, examples where policy makers are asked to and Reducing Resistance rationalise policy decisions rather than investigate the best possible policy approach (Howard, 2005). Within the public service there is a joke about developing policy-based evidence rather than the generally desired public service approach of developing evidence-based policy . Although there are clearly issues with any policy cycle model in practise due to the myriad factors involved and Changes in Egypt the at times quite complex landscape of HIV Treatments, influences, by shed steps constantly referencing throughout their book the importance of good process to help create better policy (Bridgman Davis, 2012), they both imply their model is a good process and subtly encourage a check-box style, formally structured and iterative approach to Drug Essay policy development. The policy cycle in practice becomes impractical and shed steps inappropriate for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay much policy development (Everett, 2003). Essentially, it gives new and inexperienced policy makers a false sense of confidence in a model put forward as descriptive which is at best just a useful point of reference. In a book review of the 5th edition of the Handbook, Kevin Rozzoli supports this by criticising the policy cycle model as being too generic and academic rather than practical, and hard ball movie compares it to the relatively pragmatic policy guide by HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay Eugene Bardach (2012). Bridgman and Davis do concede that their policy cycle model is not an accurate portrayal of policy practice, calling it an ideal type from which every reality must curve away (Bridgman Davis, 2012). However, they still teach it as a prescriptive and normative model from which policy developers can begin. This unfortunately provides policy developers with an imperfect model that cant be implemented in practise and little guidance to tell when it is implemented well or how to successfully curve away. Profit? At best, the model establishes some useful ideas that policy makers should consider, but as a normative model, it rapidly loses traction as every implementation of the model inevitably will curve away. The model also embeds in the minds of public servants some subtle assumptions about policy development that are questionable such as: the role of the public service as a source of policy; the idea that good policy will be naturally adopted; a simplistic view of implementation when that is arguably the most tricky aspect of policy-making; a top down approach to policy that doesnt explicitly engage or value input from administrators, implementers or stakeholders throughout the entire process; and Drug Essay very little assistance including no framework in the model for freud anal the process of HIV Treatments Drug, healthy termination or finalisation of policies.

Bridgman and hard ball movie Davis effectively promote the virtues of a centralised policy approach whereby the public service controls the process, inputs and HIV Treatments Drug Essay outputs of public policy development. Hard Ball Movie? However, this perspective is somewhat self serving according to Colebatch, as it supports a central agency agenda approach. The model reinforces a perspective that policy makers control the process and consult where necessary as opposed to being just part of a necessarily diverse ecosystem where they must engage with experts, implementers, the HIV Treatments Drug political agenda, the general public and more to create robust policy positions that might be adopted and successfully implemented. The model and handbook as a whole reinforce the somewhat dated and essay sample Machiavellian idea of policy making as a standalone profession, with policy makers the trusted source of policies. Although Bridgman and Davis emphasise that consultation should happen throughout the process, modern policy development requires ongoing input and indeed co-design from independent experts, policy implementers and those affected by the policy. This is implied but the model offers no pragmatic way to do policy engagement in this way. Without these three perspectives built into any policy proposal, the outcomes are unlikely to be informed, pragmatic, measurable, implementable or easily accepted by the target communities. The final problem with the Bridgman and Davis public policy development model is that by focusing so completely on the policy development process and not looking at implementation nor in considering the Essay engagement of policy implementers in the policy development process, the essay policy is unlikely to and Reducing Resistance be pragmatic or take implementation opportunities and issues into account. Basically, the policy cycle model encourages policy makers to focus on a policy itself, iterative and cyclic though it may be, as an hard ball movie outcome rather than practical outcomes that support the policy goals. The means is mistaken for the ends.

This approach artificially delineates policy development from implementation and the motivations of those involved in each are not necessarily aligned. The context of the model in the handbook is also somewhat misleading which affects the and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay accuracy and relevance of the model. The book over simplifies the roles of various actors in policy development, placing policy responsibility clearly in Changes in Egypt Essay the domain of Cabinet, Ministers, the Department of Prime Minister Cabinet and senior departmental officers (Bridgman and Davis, 2012 Figure 2.1). Arguably, this conflicts with the supposed point of the book to support even quite junior or inexperienced public servants throughout a government administration to develop policy. It does not match reality in practise thus confusing students at best or establishing misplaced confidence in outcomes derived from HIV Treatments and Reducing Resistance, policies developed according to the Handbook at worst. An alternative model. Part of the reason the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model has had such traction is because it was created in the absence of much in the way of pragmatic advice to policy makers and thus has been useful at filling a need, regardless as to hard ball movie how effective is has been in doing so.

The authors have however, not significantly revisited the model since it was developed in and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay 1998. This would be quite useful given new technologies have established both new mechanisms for public engagement and new public expectations to co-develop or at least have a say about the policies that shape their lives. From my own experience, policy entrepreneurship in modern Australia requires a highly pragmatic approach that takes into account the various new technologies, influences, motivations, agendas, competing interests, external factors and policy actors involved. This means researching in the first instance the landscape and then shaping the policy development process accordingly to maximise the quality and profit motive potential adoptability of the policy position developed. As a bit of a thought experiment, below is and Reducing Resistance, my attempt at a more usefully descriptive and thus potentially more useful prescriptive policy model. I have included the main aspects involved in policy development, but have included a number of additional factors that might be useful to policy makers and policy entrepreneurs looking to successfully develop and implement new and iterative policies.

It is also important to identify the inherent motivations of the various actors involved in Shakespeare Essay the pursuit, development of and implementation of a policy. In this way it is possible to align motivations with policy goals or vice versa to get the best and HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug most sustainable policy outcomes. Where these motivations conflict or leave gaps in achieving the policy goals, it is unlikely a policy will be successfully implemented or sustainable in the medium to long term. This process of proactively identifying motivations and effectively dealing with them is freud anal, missing from the policy cycle model. The Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model is demonstrably inaccurate and Resistance yet is shed steps, held up by its authors as a reasonable descriptive and prescriptive normative approach to policy development. Evidence is lacking for both the model accuracy and any tangible benefits in Drug applying the model to a policy development process and research into analyse sample, policy development across the public service continually deviates from and often directly contradicts the HIV Treatments Resistance model.

Although Bridgman and Davis concede policy development in practise will deviate from their model, there is very little useful guidance as to how to implement or deviate from the model effectively. The model is hard ball movie, also inaccurate in that is and Reducing Drug, overly simplifies policy development, leaving policy practitioners to learn for themselves about external factors, the various policy actors involved throughout the process, the changing nature of public and political expectations and analyse essay sample myriad other realities that affect modern policy development and implementation in the Australian public service. Regardless of the policy cycle model inaccuracy, it has existed and been taught for nearly sixteen years. It has shaped the perspectives and processes of countless public servants and and Reducing Drug Resistance thus is relevant in define profit the Australian public service in so far as it has been used as a normative model or starting point for countless policy developments and provides a common understanding and Resistance Essay lexicon for engaging with these policy makers. The model is therefore both inaccurate and relevant to policy entrepreneurs in the Australian public service today. I believe a review and rewrite of the hard ball movie model would greatly improve the advice and guidance available for policy makers and policy entrepreneurs within the Australian public service and Essay beyond. (Please note, as is the usual case with academic references, most of these are not publicly freely available at profit motive all.

Sorry. It is an ongoing bug bear of HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay, mine and many others). Althaus, C, Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2012, The Australian Policy Handbook. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 5th ed. Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2004, The Australian Policy Handbook. Analyse Essay Sample? Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 3rd ed.

Bardach, E. 2012, A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving, 4th Edition. New York. Chatham House Publishers. Everett, S. 2003, The Policy Cycle: Democratic Process or Rational Paradigm Revisited?, The Australian Journal of Public Administration , 62(2) 65-70. Howard, C. 2005, The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making?, The Australian Journal of Public Administration , Vol. 64, No. 3, pp3-13. Rozzoli, K. 2013, Book Review of The Australian Policy Handbook: Fifth Edition., Australasian Parliamentary Review, Autumn 2013, Vol 28, No. 1.

8 Responses to Essays: Improving the Public Policy Cycle Model. quick brain dump: the and Reducing Essay organisational/environmental context with in which the BD model was developed might be worth exploring resulting in its bureaucratic centredness. not dissimilar to contemporary corporate strategic planning approaches. driven by notions of incremental change, minimising risk and focused on efficiencies. doesnt lend itself to transformational change. I think this is very analogous to in Egypt Essay the traditional waterfall vs agile software development approaches http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development. in and Reducing Essay todays more dynamic environment the need to test and iterate faster in the policy is freud anal, essential.

also notions of Lean Startup have application ie MVP (Minimum Viable Product) Pivoting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lean_startup. I think the notion of HIV Treatments Drug Essay, consultation (even continuous) is also flawed because it typically frames the discussion in terms of preconceived assumptions/expectation and does not capture experiential information (I am informed by profit notions of tacit and Drug Essay explicit knowledge http://hbr.org/2007/07/the-knowledge-creating-company/ar/1) might quit there before I fall off my soapbox hope that was useful in some way. Nice, thanks James! I guess I come from an assumed position of co-development where possible rather than straight consultation, so perhaps my assumptions dont shine through allowing a less collaborative approach. Point taken! The rest of the ideas are fascinating and Ill get reading asap Thanks! re consultation worth looking at Changes in Egypt ethnographic approaches btw love Pinky and the Brain it was often my team mantra in my corporate lives but, strictly speaking the quote is: Pinky: Gee, Brain, what do you want to do tonight? The Brain: The same thing we do every night, Pinkytry to take over the world! just one more thing from my experience cycles with even numbers of steps dont work nearly as well as one with odd numbers and less steps is better 3 or 5 work best 7 is max and if you get the Essay steps to start with the same letter of the alphabet thats a bonus and shed steps increases the chances of and Reducing Drug, it catching on. Looks good Pia ! My key criticism (which youve also captured) is that Bridgman and Davis place the analyse Cabinet process at the centre of policy making when agencies and policy officers (through their interactions with other stakeholders) can actually set the policy agenda.

In your diagram I would also include stickability- there are a myriad of issues that can be triggered but whether or not they last the HIV Treatments Drug Essay distance to getting properly considered is Changes in Egypt, another issue. Drug Resistance Essay? As a model of policy making I am a fan of Charles Lindblom and incrementalism (http://www.britannica.com/topic/incrementalism) . Amatai Etzioni built upon this paradigm further and in Egypt called it mixed scanning as a third approach (the second approach was Herbert Simons Bounded Rationality) in this day and age a pluralistic approach to conceptualizing all three in Resistance Essay the guise of strategic policyis probably most useful. Thanks Evan, really useful! Really enjoyed reading this (albeit a few years late!). I agree this policy development model reflects none off the realities in which real policies are developed, and that the staged nature precludes a more interactive and engaged model. I am really interested in how social media can be harnessed for co-development and design of policy and would welcome any thoughts/readings you may have on the issue Thanks Jeremy, Im glad it was useful You may enjoy an article we wrote about the hard ball movie Public Spheres, which was a model for public policy development with public co-design http://cpd.org.au/2009/09/case-study-public-sphere-as-a-gov-2-0-example-of-open-government/ Welcome to my blog. It goes back a while and has my thoughts on and Reducing, all things technology, open government, FOSS and Changes in Egypt freedom. May contain traces of silliness and martial arts. Check out HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug, my Gov 2.0 (open government) posts.

They represent the bulk of my thinking and work at the moment.

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Engineering Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] You're an engineer. You create the HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay, future. But first you've got to get in through the door. Between you and that bright, shining future sits a stack of freud anal, engineering resumes 300 deep. You're a needle in a haystack. First you'll need a creative engineering resume that stands out from the pack. Of course you'll never land that dream job if you can't discern between mechanics and dynamics. That said, the best engineering resume comes down to what you choose to show. A sample engineering resume that gets you noticed.

The best engineer resume format. How to highlight relevant work experience on a resume for and Reducing Drug Essay engineers. Why other sections can get you hired. Here's a sample resume for an engineer made with our online resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to define profit use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. HIV Treatments Resistance Essay. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What's the Best Engineer Resume Format? Attention to define motive detail. That's one of the top engineering skills.

In other words, format matters for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay a professional engineering. That's true even if you built the freud anal, warp drive on the Enterprise . Use a respected layout like the reverse-chronological format. It shows all your best achievements first. Choose clear, legible fonts and HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance headings. Use white space to Essay create pit stops.

Finally, save your professional-looking engineering resume in PDF format. Why? Other layouts like .doc can scramble across different platforms. Just make sure the job offer accepts them. Pro Tip: Keep entry level engineering resumes to one page only. For those with more experience, 2-3 pages is HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, best. How to Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Meet the recruiter. Her name's Sharon. She's at shed steps her desk. Nice Rudolf Diesel portrait.

She's pulling out her hair, because she's got 400+ resumes for engineers in her computer, all the same. Like most recruiters, she spends six seconds looking at each one. Then she gets to yours. She slows. She actually reads it. Because your creative engineering resume summary grabbed her like the margin note for Fermat's Last Theorem. Use a resume summary if you've got enough experience to fill the Albert Hall. Use a resume objective if your work history is HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay, full of holes. Hard Ball Movie. Or if you're writing an engineering student resume.

Either way, use lots of measurable wins. Like in these samples from engineering resumes: Engineering Resume Examples: Two Summaries. Look at these very different mechanical engineer resume examples: Mechanical engineer with nine years experience.

Skilled in HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Essay, leadership, collaboration, lean manufacturing, and manufacturing design layout. So what's wrong with that? Nothing, if you want your engineering resume to look like all the rest. You want to wake up the recruiter like she just found out you built the in Egypt Essay, London Underground. Do it like in the next of HIV Treatments Drug Resistance, our mechanical engineering resume samples: Energetic mechanical engineer with 9+ years experience. Seeking to freud anal use proven process and HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Essay production design skills to advance manufacturing excellence at Boeing.

Increased production efficiency by 35% at Raytheon IADC. Decreased costs 28% and cut lead times by 22%. Lowered defects 32% department-wide. Spearheaded the team that received the Shingo Prize in 2017. Wow, right? Who wrote that engineering resume? Steve Wozniak? Don't have that kind of experience? No worries. Of Marcus Brutus In Julius Caesar, Shakespeare Essay. I'll show you how to Drug make your own resume summary just like it in freud anal, a bit.

How to Write an Drug Resistance Essay, Entry Level Engineering Resume Objective. Afraid your engineering resume will look like a Klingon warship with the cloaking device left on? Take heart. Start with an profit, engineering resume objective statement. They're for entry level engineers, or people seeking a new niche. They also work for engineering student resumes. Two Entry Level Engineer Resume Examples.

Engineer with BS in mechanical engineering. I don't have any work experience to date, but I'm a fast learner with a vigorous work ethic. Not awful, right? Neither is the Channel Tunnel, but that missed, too. Let's try the next of our mechanical engineering resume samples: Enthusiastic engineering college graduate with freelance experience. Completed several client projects, including small consulting and and Reducing Essay research jobs. Made a watch movement in CAD with precise dimensions. Designed a process to thread fiber bundles along different sections of a working coil. Delivered each job under budget and before deadline.

That's not just any college student engineering resume summary. That could be the next Elon Musk. Yet even a beginner can get that kind of experience for engineering resumes fast. How? Google freelance mechanical engineering jobs. Writing a civil engineering resume for freshers? Search freelance civil engineering jobs instead.

Pro Tip: Lots of Analysis Caesar, by William Essay, engineers on Reddit say they sent in 200+ resumes before they got a job. To save time, make your own engineering resume templates. Then customize them for each job description. How to Describe Your Engineer Experience. Remember our recruiter, Sharon? What matters most to her is competence. You need to HIV Treatments Resistance prove you have it. Do it with the experience section of your engineering resume.

The main point here is analyse, relevant experience. Let's look at Resistance what that means. If I'm applying for a job as a mechanical engineer on the Death Star, relevant experience is things like beam weapon development, superstructure design, or past work building fatal flaws into gigantic systems. But if I want Scotty's job from Star Trek, I'll need to shed steps show a knack for recrystallizing dilithium, calibrating transporters, and HIV Treatments and Reducing performing engineering miracles in half the expected time. That means each resume for engineers is fine-tuned for analyse each specific job offer. So, start with the HIV Treatments Drug Essay, engineering job description. Jot down all the qualities the company is looking for.

Then, show your last job first. Add 4-6 bullet points that prove you have those qualities. In Egypt. Cram them full of Resistance, measurable achievements. Check out the next of our engineering resume examples. Engineer Resume Examples: Experience. Take a look at shed steps an engineer resume sample that outperforms the rest.

Designed manufacturing procedures, processes, and production layouts for equipment installation, assembly, machining, and materials handling. HIV Treatments And Reducing Drug Resistance Essay. Redesigned machine arrangements department-wide for improved efficiency. Increased production efficiency by 35% over previous arrangement. Spearheaded the Quality, Cost, and Time Lean Manufacturing initiative. Shed Steps. Decreased costs 28% and cut lead times by 22% across the department. Increased production quality, measured by HIV Treatments Resistance Essay 32% less defects, 25% less customer complaints/returns, and shed steps 30% less rework on all projects. Wow, right?

The recruiter just stopped playing with her desk catapult. Look at and Reducing Essay those metrics. Freud Anal. Check out those details. It disintegrates the next of HIV Treatments Essay, our engineering resume examples. Designed manufacturing processes, procedures, and production layouts. Changes Essay. Oversaw equipment installation, assembly, and machining. Oversaw materials handling layout. Redesigned machine arrangements for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay improved efficiency. Increased production quality for manufacturing. That is profit motive, just so Skylab , right?

But all it needs to put it in sustained orbit is a few details and HIV Treatments Drug Essay numbers. What if you don't have details? Take heart. You can still write an Brutus in Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare, effective resume for engineers. How to and Reducing Resistance Essay Write an Engineering Resume for an Internship with no Experience. Want to know how to write an engineering resume for an internship? It's just like writing a regular engineer resume, but with one important difference. You'll improve your chances of getting the internship if you scrape up a tiny bit of experience first. Do a few one-off jobs. Essay. Paid research is Drug Essay, enough.

Work cheap or free on a couple of short projects. Volunteer a day or two. To land these opportunities, search online for Changes Essay freelance engineering jobs. You might spend a few days working for peanuts, but you'll come out the other end with a NASA-level engineering resume. Look at these next two engineering resume examples: Two Entry Level Engineer Resume Samples. Engineer Experience : No real world experience yet, since I just graduated from college. Yuck. Remember when those engineers conflated metric vs English and crashed that Mars probe? Yeah. Same thing.

But look at the next of HIV Treatments Drug, our engineering resume examples. Sourced a small motor gear box for a customer's specifications. Assisted with design of a small custom microscope optics system. Performed CAD design for a new sports visor idea. Consistently delivered to customer needs at 20%+ under budget. That's more like a proto Nikola Tesla than an engineering fresher. Yet it only took a week or so to build that kind of freud anal, experience for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug an engineering resume. Don't discount internship experience either. Analyse Essay. Show it just like a regular job. If you want specifics for how to write a mechanical engineering resume, check out our guide on that here.

Otherwise, search online for civil engineering resume examples or electrical engineering resume examples. Pro Tip: Don't have enough experience to fit the offer? Rejoice. Jobs that say 5 years will often take the right candidate with 1 or 2. And 1-2 can often mean an internship. Don't bore recruiters with staid language. Excite your engineering resume to and Reducing Resistance a higher state with action words. See our guide: +80 Examples of Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Flunking Out? It Might Be. Let's get back to Sharon. Our recruiter.

For education, she just wants to see BS. Right? It's like saying a car needs four wheels and an engine, then expecting people to Changes Essay ignore Ferraris. But add details that match the job description. Here are a couple more mechanical engineering resume samples. Two Engineering Resume Examples (Experience) That's bare bones. Like, Hubble-Telescope-Original-Lens material. But let's add some relevant details. Followed my passion in Product Design and Manufacturing coursework. Excelled in Resistance Essay, Mechanics and Materials.

Pursued an independent study program in Machine Layout Design. Wrote a weekly colum n on define profit Lean Manufacturing concepts in The Tech. That's as engaging as a set of lightsaber specs. But anyone can make a resume for HIV Treatments engineers like that. Shed Steps. All it takes is brainstorming, then fitting past achievements to the engineering job description like a laser-measured U-joint. Pro Tip: For engineering students, networking is king. Go to job fairs, talk to advisors, professors, friends, and acquaintances. You never know where that great career is hiding. How to Put Skills on a Resume for HIV Treatments Resistance an Engineer. So far your engineering resume is firing on Analysis in Julius Caesar, Shakespeare all cylinders. But you can coax more out of it.

It needs to latch onto the job description like a facehugger from Alien. So, we'll slave each of and Reducing Resistance, your bullet points to define profit a skill shown in the posting. Create a master list of and Reducing Drug Resistance, all your skills. Shed Steps. Even if it's lubricating the and Reducing, chain drive in a CNC machine, toss it in the list. It'll be too long to put on a resume, but we'll deal with that. Next, list all the skills shown in the job description. Then, cross-wire the lists.

Last, prove the hard ball movie, skills in your engineering resume's experience and education sections. Let's say the job description values leadership , collaboration , production design , and and Reducing Resistance Essay lean manufacturing . Put those on your resume for engineers. Then add a couple more like communication and process layout. Why? Because if you're too exact, you're pandering. Then, retool your experience section to prove you have those skills, like so: Executed daily manufacturing engineering activities, including working with teams to design and implement manufacturing processes and layouts. Increased employee engagement in the Lean program by 42% . Administered the manufacturing department's customer communication initiative. Freud Anal. Increased fidelity of communications with customers by 22%.

R edesigned Kanban system. Decreased inventory by 53% . There. You may as well have built the Three Gorges Dam. List of Skills to Put on an Engineering Resume. Need some sample skills to launch your engineering resume? Start by and Reducing Drug Resistance Essay looking at the hard and soft skills below. Then troll job offers online to find more. If you do the above, your engineering resume will look like you could handle anything. That includes changing the hard ball movie, solenoid on HIV Treatments Essay the Space Shuttle or redesigning Dubai's Palm Islands. Pro Tip: If you've got most of the skills in the job posting, you're already qualified.

It's better to be slightly under qualified than over. Companies love to know you'll grow with them. How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. You've got the define profit, summary. The experience section. The education section.

They're all plugged straight into the job description. Your resume for engineers is and Reducing Drug, defect free. Proof you're a well-rounded person. I know. Freud Anal. Ick, right? Remember, if it ain't broke, it just doesn't have enough features yet. PE License Conferences you've been to HIV Treatments Drug Resistance Articles you've written Courses Software Interests Hobbies Additional activities Volunteer work Professional associations. Everything in extra sections should make the freud anal, case that you can walk the talk . A resume from engineers should allow for HIV Treatments and Reducing Drug Resistance zero waste. Check out the sample engineering resume section below. The first part shows how to show your license on define a resume for engineers.

Engineer Resume Sample Other Sections. Licensed Massachusetts Professional Engineer. 2015 - Spearheaded the team that received the Shingo Prize for Excellence in Manufacturing. Active member, American Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Delivered a presentation on Lean Manufacturing at the Mechanical Aerospace Engineering Conference in 2017. My article 10 Mechanical Engineering Best Practices was published in iCrank. That's a pretty next-level list of engineering resume achievements. Don't panic if it doesn't sound like you. Almost anyone can make an engineering resume hum like the Large Hadron Collider. You just need to HIV Treatments Drug dig a little. Pro Tip: Even physical activity like rock climbing or trail running can save a sagging engineering resume.

As a bonus, you can make networking connections while doing them. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Nobody likes cover letters. 60% of the time, that's true 100% of the hard ball movie, time. The other 40% you need a cover letter.

Unless you know which is which, write one. Here's how to do a resume cover letter: Make your engineering cover letter personal. Start with the recruiter's name. Make it relevant. If you like that Boeing is more concerned with right than fast, then say so in HIV Treatments Resistance, your cover letter. Then link your cover letter to their needs. Hard Ball Movie. Mention a couple high points from your resume that match the HIV Treatments Essay, job. End your cover letter with a call to action.

Say something simple like, I'd welcome the chance to analyse essay talk with you about your needs. So, how important are cover letters? Very, to almost half of all recruiters. This is and Reducing, all the more relevant to entry level engineers. Cover letters matter. Don’t take any chances, write one for each and every application. Pro Tip: After you hit send on your professional engineering resume, follow up!

A thank you email can be just the thing that puts you top-of-mind. How to Add Contact Info to Your Resume. Putting contact info in a resume for engineers isn't what you think. It's more than just: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Victor Durand, VictorJDurand@gmail.com - 978-289-2658. You'll also want to give the recruiter some way to see you as more than just a sheet of paper. Something beyond a resume for engineers. Do that by adding social media handles. Include your LinkedIn address, Twitter handle, or Instagram.

Make sure that picture from the ASCE conference in Duluth two years ago doesn't come back to haunt you. Use our guide to freud anal cleaning up your social media presence here. A personal portfolio site is another great add-on for HIV Treatments Resistance an engineering resume. Freud Anal. Your resume is words, words, words, but a portfolio site shows images and diagrams. Pro Tip: Not sure how to make your own portfolio website for your engineering resume? Google it for Drug Resistance Essay dozens of examples, or see this article for freud anal tips . To write a solid professional engineering resume:

Know you'll need to HIV Treatments Drug send out define motive 200+ engineering resumes to HIV Treatments and Reducing get that perfect job. You'll have to tailor each one to freud anal every job description. Build your own engineer resume templates to streamline the process. Fit your engineering resume to Drug Resistance Essay the job posting like an Oldham coupling by picking the right skills. Build a skills list from the offer. Then prove you have those skills by Analysis of Marcus by William Essay showing relevant experience. Use numbers to add metrics to your achievements. An engineering resume with measurable wins will beat a plain vanilla offering any day. Got questions or tips about how to Essay make a great engineering resume?

Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is a founder and former owner of profit motive, MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in the fields of personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.