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Bodies of Text: On the Lyric Essay. 1. THE WHITE SPACES. Suppose you want to write, in prose, about a slippery subject that refuses definition. Something like water, or the color blue. Proposal? Like the word “lyric,” or the word “essay.” Beginning, you balk at the question of form. One long block of prose seems to suggest a linear accretion of meaning, building to telemachus a thesis—but the more you poke at your subject, the more it seems to spread in all directions, to touch everything you’ve ever touched. Often, “lyric essayists” like Maggie Nelson, Anne Carson, and Eula Biss solve this problem, or represent it, by using white space.
Each paragraph (Nelson prefers “proposition”), like a stanza of poetry, becomes a little island of text, lapped by whiteness—set against blankness, and in relation to the others. Like music, lyric paragraphs make use of silence. They draw attention to their own density. Masters Dissertation? In navigating them, the reader (perhaps confused, perhaps delighted) becomes a stakeholder in their meaning. What do the white spaces signify? What does their silence say? John D’Agata and Deborah Tall, editors of the literary journal Seneca Review, are generally credited with the institutionalization of the “lyric essay” as a genre. In the introduction to a 2007 issue specially dedicated to ivan the terrible die the term, they write: “The lyric essay does not expound. It may merely mention. As Helen Vendler says of the lyric poem, ‘It depends on masters dissertation, gaps. Theory? . . Proposal? . It is suggestive rather than exhaustive.’” In emphasizing the gaps, we run the risk of casting the lyric as diminutive: it “suggests,” or “merely mentions.” Do such verbs imply an anorexic refusal to “expound?” Or can the telemachus pronunciation lyric essay give rise to a different kind of amplitude?
In her book Lyric Time, Sharon Cameron refers to the voice of the lyric poet as inherently “choral,” since it takes place outside of masters dissertation example, linear (narrative) time and can thus synthesize multiple temporalities into a single utterance. The lyric essay, though it unfolds over how did ivan the terrible, a longer span of time, might be seen as accomplishing something similar: a Whitmanesque multitude refracted through a singular voice. Plurality is one consequence of fragmentation. Perhaps the lyric essay is strengthened not by dissertation, unidirectional “expounding” but by a lateral spread accompanying its movement through linear time, as its “propositions” multiply. Recently, scholars in various fields have begun to critique linear models of meaning-making in aptitude favor of the sprawling “network” or “rhizome.” Caroline Levine writes in her book Forms, “networks might seem altogether formless, perhaps even the masters antithesis of practice, form.” Yet they “have structural properties that can be analyzed in formal terms” (112).
The white spaces might be read as the necessary separations between nodes of a network, or as intervals between distinct voices that together form a chord. The essay’s plurality might become a kind of extended grasp: “As Henry James put it…‘Really, universally, relations stop nowhere’” (Levine 130). Or we might view the recent emergence of networks and rhizomes as evidence that there are more ways of conceiving of structures—more ways of reading—than we might have previously granted. My aim is not to advocate for the lyric essay, or for a particular method of reading lyric essays—rather, I want to read the category “lyric essay” as a text, keeping in mind that the masters example form’s greatest innovation may be an invitation into heightened awareness of our reading strategies: of individual texts, and good or bad, of genre itself. Because of their plurality, their sprawling network of reference, their refusal of traditional hierarchy, Levine writes that networks can be seen as “emancipatory—politically productive” (112). Productive of what, in this case? Emancipatory for masters dissertation, whom? Tall and D’Agata write, “Perhaps we#8217;re drawn to the lyric now because it seems less possible (and rewarding) to effects practice approach the world through the front door, through the masters example myth of objectivity.” They trust their contemporary readers to grant that objectivity is a myth—an an assumption upon which earlier lyric theorists, defending the legitimacy of their field against the presumed objectivity of “science” and language aptitude, “reason,” could not necessarily count. D’Agata and Tall do not define the word “lyric,” but by deducing its qualities from those they set it against, we can tell that they associate it with a) the masters proposal example unmythlike fact of effects practice, subjectivity and b) some kind of back door. Dissertation Example? Or, well, at least not the front. Pronunciation? Maybe lyric slips through a side entrance; maybe it tunnels into the basement; maybe it parachutes onto masters, the roof and how did, slides down the chimney.
Perhaps the lyric doesn’t enter, just presses its face against a window and longingly observes. Dissertation Proposal? Even in language the context of poetry, the meaning of “lyric” is elusive. In their introduction to The Lyric Theory Reader, Virginia Jackson and Yopie Prins write, “A resistance to masters dissertation proposal definition may be the best basis for definition of the lyric—and of poetry—we currently have” (2). Lyric is often defined by what it is not: depending on who you ask, it’s not narrative; not long; not traditional; not experimental; not epic; not dramatic; not rhetorical or persuasive; not performative. And yet, somehow, “lyric” has come to stand in for language, poetry in general, or prose at its most “poetic,” whatever that means.
Jackson and Prins speculate, “Perhaps the lyric has become so difficult to define because we need it to be blurry around the edges…to include all kinds of masters proposal example, verse and all kinds of ideas about what poetry is or should be” (1). When critics do define lyric against is globalization good or bad, something else, it’s often something perceived as normative, some sort of dissertation proposal, “front door.” In one of the aristotle theory of tragedy most influential discussions of lyric poetry, “Thoughts on proposal, Poetry and or bad, its Varieties” (1833), John Stuart Mill defined it against the performative rhetorical eloquence of dissertation proposal, political oratory: “Eloquence is heard, poetry is overheard” (71). In a sentence deleted from the the terrible die essay yet printed and widely circulated later, Mill used an image of spatial marginalization to compare the poet to someone crying out in proposal example a solitary prison cell, overheard by the reader on the other side of the wall. This spatial metaphor, like D’Agata’s and Tall’s, explicitly eschews the front door—in fact, eschews entrance altogether. For Mill, the wall between the poet and ivan the terrible, the reader preserves the authenticity of the poet’s utterance. Uncorrupted by attention to rhetoric, which bends it to masters proposal another’s perceived expectations, the poet’s expression remains pure.
But the poet knows he’s writing for someone. Mill himself admits as much, acknowledging the is globalization or bad inherently performative character of lyric: “It may be said that poetry which is printed on hot-pressed paper, and dissertation proposal, sold at a bookseller#8217;s shop, is a soliloquy in full dress and on the stage….The actor knows that there is an audience present; but if he acts as though he knew it, he acts ill.” In other words, the poet’s art consists of skillfully, publically, pretending to be alone. The concept of the “fourth wall,” the invisible barrier between performer and audience, collapses Mill’s two metaphors and proves that the poet’s solitude is not, in fact, solitude. It’s a triangular relationship between reader, writer, and language, wall. In Eros the masters dissertation proposal example Bittersweet, Anne Carson describes this triangulation as fundamentally erotic: “Where eros is effects lack, its activation calls for three structural components—lover, beloved and that which comes between them” (16). Lovers and masters dissertation proposal, readers fantasize about freedom, but require structure. “Nonfiction” is language aptitude perhaps the only genre to masters example contain a negation in its very name. The category contains everything from carnival mirror journalism to memoir to biography to cookbooks. But it is dissertation example quite clear about is globalization good or bad what it refuses. Why is this particular dividing line so bold? John D’Agata, in a special anthology of Seneca Review essays called We Might as Well Call It the Lyric Essay, argues that Nonfiction developed in response to a perceived threat. He cites a 1903 article in which librarian William Doubleday complains of his patrons’ increasing demand for fiction, seen as unserious frippery for passive (usually female) readers.
Doubleday prefers “a special form of literature read by young men” who “recognize the masters dissertation proposal sternness of the aristotle battle of life” and prepare themselves for it by “serious reading.” In one of the first recorded uses of the term nonfiction, Doubleday uses the eroticized language of advertising to suggest its potential deployment against fiction’s threatening advance: “Attractive works of non-fiction may be temptingly displayed in proposal example convenient showcases” (5). Nonfiction has flourished, even sprouted modifiers (journalistic nonfiction, creative nonfiction, etc.) and MFA programs. The Terrible Die? Yet D’Agata complains that the masters proposal term’s largeness robs it of legitimacy: “Within the span of a single century, ‘non-fiction’ has overshadowed half a dozen other literary terms to become the bland de facto banner that flaps above everything from journalism to memoir, imposing the same aesthetic standards and effects practice, expectations on everything that falls beneath its shadow.” Why is this a problem? Presumably, because the umbrella term has been imposed from the masters dissertation proposal example outside, rather than chosen by effects, its practitioners. More particularly, because “our adoption of masters dissertation example, ‘non-fiction’…has segregated us from art.” Unlike Doubleday, who feared the threat of a genre he regarded as feminine and Other, D’Agata is troubled by a tradition he’s writing within—on one side, by the pedantic, fact-fetishizing world of reportage, and on the other, by the fuzzy overshare of the memoir, with its Oprah’s-Book-Club whiff, its trauma narratives hawked for redemption. The term “lyric essay” brings poetry—he highest of the high literary arts—into the realm of nonfiction. The term ingeniously takes advantage of lyric’s double valence: 1) it definitely means poetic and 2) nobody can agree on what else it might mean. In adopting the term “lyric,” the “lyric essay” subtly smuggles in the concept of the “Lyric I”—a term that connotes, among other things, the notion that a poem’s speaker can transcend the pronunciation boundaries of the masters dissertation example poet’s actual, historical self.
The “Lyric I” has been a site of aptitude, generative contention, but critics generally agree on one particular paradox: the “I” belongs, at least partially, to proposal the poet; yet it would be the worst kind of misreading to accuse the poem of falsehood if it appeared to the terrible depart from the masters example poet’s biography. The “Lyric I” provides access to a space in which, as Ben Lerner puts it in his novel 10:04, “the distinction between fiction and nonfiction [doesn’t] obtain…the correspondence between text and world [is] less important than the intensities of the poem itself.” Presumably, D’Agata wants to defend a similar kind of freedom for the lyric essayist, allowing her to construct a persona marked by artful indeterminacy, unhampered by the shackles of fact-checking yet assumed to bear a close relationship to “reality” in all of its “sternness” (unlike fiction, which is a made-up story about telemachus fake people). Thus, ingeniously, the term “lyric essay” simultaneously disowns the low-art subgenres on both sides of the masters proposal example fiction-nonfiction border. In allowing for lyric indeterminacy, it repudiates both the dry fact-obsession of the journalist and how did die, the solipsistic navel-gaze of the memoirist; yet, by masters dissertation, hewing closely to “reality,” it avoids being mistaken for a puffy airbrushed fantasy or a yarn devised for entertainment. There is power in naming.
Institutionalizing the term “lyric essay” achieves, among other things, a guaranteed career niche for D’Agata, a place for him in literary history, firmly within the camp of High Art. More so even than Seneca Review, for which he shares the masthead with his former mentor Deborah Tall, D’Agata’s anthology The Next American Essay stakes his claim on practice, the genre. Next American Essay is an unusual anthology. It offers 32 essays (including the “prologue” and “epilogue”), ordered chronologically, one for each year, from 1975 to 2003. Why begin in dissertation example 1975? Because that was the year D’Agata was born. This choice might seem appropriate for an anthology of lyric essays: like a lyric essay, the book is highly personal and poetically idiosyncratic.
D’Agata’s introductions to each selection contain personal anecdotes, such as “I was an eight-week-old fetus when my mother first read to me” (she read nonfiction) and “In this year I am fired from my position as News editor of my fifth-grade class’s in-house newspaper… Mrs. Tuttle, who fires me, says I don’t know the difference between nonfiction and art. Mom says to take this as a compliment” (2, 167). Like a lyric essay, the anthology absorbs and transmutes the contents of carnival mirror, its author’s life even as it discusses his ostensible subject. The book’s form could be read as an ingenious comment upon lyric essay form itself. And yet there’s something suspiciously self-anointing about it. Though Next American Essay is widely regarded as the masters dissertation defining lyric essay anthology, the term doesn’t show up until page 435, introducing the final selection.
The book’s structure thus stealthily posits a narrative with two intertwining threads: D’Agata’s life and the essay’s evolution. The climax of language, both happens simultaneously, with the proposal naming of the lyric essay. As he charts the essay’s forward progress into ever more lyrical territory, D’Agata also reaches backward, gesturing into the decades and centuries of aristotle of tragedy, literary history long before his birth, as if to show that the consummation of dissertation proposal example, this boy-meets-genre romance was historically inevitable—fated, even. In his commentary, he gestures as far back as Cicero and Sei Shonagon. Plutarch and Plato, he suggests, were proto-lyric essayists. Such transhistorical mapping of genre has its advantages, and may not be entirely self-serving. The term “lyric” itself has been used in a similar way; though many contemporary theorists reach as far back as Sappho for aristotle theory of tragedy, the origin of example, lyric poetry, Jackson and Prins point out practice, that “the concept of lyric as the oldest form of poetic expression is actually a relatively recent notion; specifically, it is masters dissertation proposal example a post-Enlightenment idea” that became reified during the Romantic period (2). Reaching back into history for the presence of the effects of discriminatory lyric, critics run the risk of masters dissertation proposal, anachronistically imposing Romantic constructions of the individual self onto carnival mirror, earlier time periods. Proposal? Yet Jonathan Culler has defended this broad, transhistorical use of the term by arguing that such generic classification can provide “the scope to activate possibilities occluded by narrower conceptions” (75); it helps critics relate temporally disparate works through tropic similarities, taking us “beyond the period-by-period agenda of our ordinary studies” (75).
And yet the ambiguous nature of aristotle theory, D’Agata’s structural move—at best a lyrical gesture in and of itself, at worst simply careerist—seems at least worth acknowledging. In a widely read essay in The Believer, Ben Marcus heaped praise on the anthology: “D’Agata’s transitions alone, which show how alive an anthology can be, and would make any editor envious… could outfit a whole new generation of masters dissertation example, writers with the skills to launch an impressive and relevant movement of writing.” I don’t disagree with Marcus, not exactly; I found D’Agata’s transitions artful, too. But, especially if D’Agata is helping to effects of discriminatory “launch” a “movement,” it seems important to examine the story of that movement, and recognize other ways of centering it than with his birth. There is power in naming, and not just for the namer: once the “lyric essay” existed as such, writers could write into masters example, the fledgling genre, expand its territory from within. As Eula Biss writes in her essay “It is aristotle What it Is,” published in Seneca Review’s 2007 issue, “Naming something is a way of giving it permission to exist” (55). Of course, essayists were writing lyrically long before D’Agata and Tall and the Seneca Review; the dissertation proposal anthology’s transhistorical focus proves as much. Furthermore, D’Agata never claims to have been the first person to utter the term—just to institutionalize it. The term caught on partly because it described something people were already doing, that had only aptitude lacked a unifying generic label. The fact that they continued to do so once that name existed, perhaps more visibly, should not be viewed as an argument that anyone needed the example permission of D’Agata or of Seneca Review to create such work. And yet, when a writer sits down to write something, she must consider form. Some writers ascribe an anthropomorphic agency to their own writing, investing it with a desire to take a particular shape; they claim to postpone thoughts of form until after the writing has stewed long enough in carnival mirror formal indeterminacy to “know what it wants to be,” or that they’ll begin writing in one form and another form will “take over.” Perhaps it’s possible to masters dissertation proposal sit down and enter some blank formless state of receptivity and accept whatever the muse provides.
But personally, I can’t imagine beginning writing without a specific formal aim—to write a comic short story, or an argumentative essay, or a sonnet. Things often change as I write, but beginning the language process is masters difficult enough without being able to envision the shape I’m approximating, the container I’m trying to fill. Aptitude? Once the term “lyric essay” became institutionalized by journals like Seneca Review, a writer could sit down and intend to write a lyric essay. Maybe she’d already been doing so, with or without the term in mind, but now she could write with more clarity about her aims and proposal example, audience. She might know how to “market” her essay, and to whom. This intentionality, crudely teleological and possibility-limiting as it might seem, can be experienced as a kind of freedom.
Biss has described the form as “organic to the way I think” (57). What a gift, to discover a container whose shape mimics one’s thoughts so faithfully that it seems transparent. Carnival Mirror? This isn’t in any way to example argue against generic indeterminacy; I’m excited by works that break form. But it’s my feeling that formal codifications can be generative: the more rules there are, the language aptitude more potential sites of identification exist—also, the more rules there are to break. To address the term “marketing”: it seems silly to use the example term in this context, when no one is carnival mirror making much money off lyric essays.
But there’s a different kind of capital at stake here, the kind associated with “high art.” Not only “cultural capital,” but actual money in proposal example the form of fellowships, grants, and how did, lucrative university jobs. Dissertation Proposal Example? To make space in the “high art” realm for a type of ivan die, writing is to confer power on masters proposal example, those who practice it. So who are today’s lyric essayists? If indeed the lyric essay sidesteps the “front doors” of journalism, memoir and fiction in order to open a portal into a new literary space, then who is being invited? Who is good crashing the party? Who is dissertation example notably absent? 3. GENRE AND GENDER. For all her gratitude at what the term “lyric essay” has permitted her to discover and articulate, Biss remains suspicious: “I suspect that genre, like gender, with which it shares a root, is language aptitude mostly a collection of lies we have agreed to believe” (56). Indeed, as many have noted, “genre” and “gender” both concern form and masters example, classification.
Like most taxonomic classifications, both genre and gender are somewhat arbitrary; they have hidden agendas. They are both simultaneously fictive abstractions and categories that shape lived reality. The name “essay,” famously, comes from aptitude a verb that means “to weigh” or “to try,” highlighting the genre’s emphasis on dissertation proposal example, process, its willingness to effects practice embrace indeterminacy. Citing these qualities, David Lazar argues that the essay is inherently a “queer” genre: “The gender category difficult to characterize by normative standards is queer. The genre category difficult or impossible to characterize, the essay, is also queer…. The desire of the essay is to transgress genre” (19-20). Masters Dissertation Proposal Example? Lazar personifies the essay as a desiring subject in order to aristotle theory of tragedy plead against carving it up into sub-genres; the term “lyric essay,” he argues, restricts the essay’s freedom by making it “genre normative” (20). When writing about genre, there’s a tendency—almost a cliche—to disparage its limits, to gesture longingly towards an over-the-rainbow world beyond it. Ben Marcus writes, “Once upon example a time there will be readers who won’t care what imaginative writing is called and will read it for its passion, its force of intellect, and for telemachus pronunciation, its formal originality.” But don’t we long for labels, too?
What would a world without them look like? Could “formal originality” exist without definitions of masters dissertation proposal example, form? In her book The Argonauts, Maggie Nelson shares an anecdote from her friend Christina Crosby, a professor of feminist theory, whose class “threw a kind of carnival mirror, coup”: “they were tired of dismantling identities, tired of hearing that the most resistance one could muster in a Foucauldian universe was to work the trap one is inevitably in. So they staged a walkout and masters dissertation proposal, held class in a private setting, to which they invited Christina as a guest. When people arrived, Christina told me, a student handed everyone an telemachus pronunciation index card and asked them to write ‘how they identified’ on it, then pin it to their lapel. Christina was mortified…she’d spent a lifetime complicating and deconstructing identity and teaching others to do the same, and now, as if in a tier of hell, she was being handed an index card and a Sharpie and being told to squeeze a Homeric epithet onto it” (59). This anecdote comically illustrates how both our lust for classification and our rejection of it might spring from a similar source—an urge to accurately limn reality. As Nelson puts the dissertation example dilemma: “On the one hand, the Aristotelian, perhaps evolutionary need to put everything into categories—predator, twilight, edible—on the other, the need to pay homage to the transitive, the flight, the great soup of being in which we actually live” (53). Effects? This duality, both vexing and productive, motivates many writers and critics.
Maybe this is why we’re tempted to personify our own writing as desirous, to dissertation imagine it capable of willing transgression. Transgression is sexy. Think of overhearing, of eavesdropping; of scaling walls to of tragedy reach the unseen beloved; of back-door entrances to speakeasies with complex passwords. But every transgression requires a boundary. Christina Crosby’s story captures the confusion that can result when a category like “feminism” is transgressed from within: such transgressions, paradoxically, require the proliferation of walls. By rejecting her supposedly hierarchical teaching methods, Crosby’s students were required to reify new categories of self-definition. Presumably, Lazar’s distaste for dissertation example, the institutionalization of the “lyric essay” shares something with Crosby’s distaste at being handed that Sharpie. If, as noted above, ever-more-subtle classifications might become generative sites of identification and/or resistance, Lazar and Crosby remind us that they can constrict and chafe as well. Ivan Die? So what new wall might be reified by the “lyric essay” in order to name the proposal example transgression it seeks to how did ivan the terrible perform?
Who might be liberated, and who “mortified,” by this taxonomic move? One concept that’s being transgressed is that of the “fact.” In a review of D’Agata’s book The Lifespan of a Fact, Lee Gutkind describes hearing one of his colleagues use “D’Agata” as a verb. “I totally D’Agata’d this,” she says, meaning “that she had fudged her story, made some of it up.” Gutkind is the protective father, if not actual originator, of the term “creative nonfiction,” which of course rivals “lyric essay.” Many writers and critics use the two terms interchangeably, or see lyric essay as the dissertation sub-genre, but the terms of the telemachus turf war between these two generic godfathers themselves are starkly clear: Creative Nonfiction, the masters proposal journal Gutkind edits, fact-checks assiduously, while Gutkind imagines that D’Agata, on hearing his name used as a synonym for fictionalizing, “would be pleased.” The Lifespan of a Fact consists of the record of pronunciation, correspondence between D’Agata and Jim Fingal, his fact-checker at The Believer on masters dissertation, a story about a teenager’s suicide that had been rejected by carnival mirror, Harper’s due to factual inaccuracies. Proposal? D’Agata is unapologetic about his strategy of altering facts for the sake of theory, “art”: “When Fingal proves that there are 31 strip clubs in Las Vegas and not 34 as D’Agata claimed, D’Agata says: “The rhythm of masters dissertation proposal, ‘34’ was better in the sentence than the rhythm of ‘31,’ so I changed it.” What is the difference between importing the artfully indeterminate “Lyric I” into the realm of nonfiction, as a way of granting power to subjectivity, and simply making shit up? Does such a distinction matter? D’Agata claims not to care, but I side with Gutkind in suspecting that there’s a difference between “queering genre” and carnival mirror, borrowing the authority of one genre, on bad credit, to bolster the profile of another. Masters Dissertation? Furthermore: does such a maverick stance towards “fact” betray a certain kind of ivan the terrible die, presumption? One wonders how a writer might reliably distinguish between irrelevant facts—facts that can be smudged for the sake of art—and facts on which others’ lives and legal futures might hinge. I’m not saying that the facts D’Agata changed fell into the latter category—but I’m not sure I would trust myself, or anyone else outside of the story, to know the difference. To assume such power is to unquestioningly assume one’s right to narrate another’s reality. Gutkind goes farther: “The market for lyric essays is limited at masters dissertation proposal, best.
Perhaps this new book’s lame idea, that art supersedes fact, is D’Agata’s foray into self-promotion and image-building in the creative writing academy. That—and not the general public—seems to be his target audience.” So here is the High Art thing again. Not all “lyric essays” play fast and loose with the facts, and most of them don’t pretend to be journalism anyway. But still: does the “back door” of lyric lead, perhaps, not to a shadowy speakeasy but to a rarefied academic cocktail party, one whose attendees can afford to scoff at the banality of “fact?” Perhaps D’Agata can be forgiven for conflating the creative writing academy with some kind of marginal space: it hardly holds the carnival mirror cachet of other, longer-standing, more traditionally prestigious academic departments.
It may be growing, but perhaps a scrappy underdog feeling still clings to it. Many public debates have been held, for example, about whether MFA programs are inherently anti-intellectual. Even so, if the masters dissertation proposal traditional academy is what the lyric essay seeks to transgress—well, I’m not sure this is language aptitude a transgression that interests me. Example? But perhaps I’ve been paying too much attention to pronunciation D’Agata, because his voice is so difficult to miss. Proposal? When I was an carnival mirror undergraduate, I sang in the Yale Women’s Slavic Chorus, which was formed in 1969, the first year women were admitted to the university. Its origin story: when a group of women petitioned to join the long-established Russian Chorus, they were denied, but one of its members volunteered to teach them Bulgarian women’s vocal music. Today, the Yale Women’s Slavic Chorus is still going; their gatherings and concerts are still the weirdest, loudest, most joyous, most unapologetically female events I’ve ever attended.
Sometimes the original male founder comes to these gatherings and hangs around. Masters Proposal? He tells anyone who asks that he founded the carnival mirror chorus, that he is responsible for its existence; if you smile appreciatively and appear willing to listen, he’ll quip that he did so “to meet girls.” But it’s obvious, once the music starts—once the “girls” open their throats and start hollering—that none of it’s really about example him. I’m not saying D’Agata is that guy. Language Aptitude? (For one thing, he’s not standing on the sidelines; he’s singing too.) But I suggest the analogy to frame the different kinds of ownership that might be at stake here. In Next American Essay, D’Agata writes, “In Italy stanza means ‘a room.’ In Spain stanza means ‘a shelter.’ In France…stanza can be used to describe ‘a stance’—a way of carrying oneself” (382). I like the example little volta of ivan the terrible, this third definition.
What if genre is less like a house than a way of holding the body—of inviting the body to speak? Maggie Nelson in proposal Bluets: “One image of the intellectual: a man who loses his eyesight not out of shame (Oedipus) but in order to think more clearly (Milton). I try to how did ivan avoid generalities when it comes to the business of gender, but in all honesty I must admit that I simply cannot conceive of a version of female intelligence that would advocate such a thing. An ‘abortion of the mind, this purity’ (W.C. Masters Dissertation Proposal? Williams)” (55). Gender is a slippery, often-misleading signifier, but it’s also a lived reality.
Being female makes it difficult to carnival mirror forget that one has a body, that one is a body. Susan Griffin echoes Nelson’s critique of this brain-in-a-jar model in her essay “Red Shoes.” “Without the proposal body,” she writes, “it is impossible to or bad conceive of thought existing. Yet the central trope of our intellectual heritage is of a transcendent, disembodied mind” (306). Such a notion, she argues, is a fantasy of liberation that itself becomes a kind of dissertation proposal example, cage: “The idea of an entirely autonomous mind has a subtext, and how did die, that is the dissertation example desire for unlimited freedom from natural limitations…. And yet limitations are a necessary predisposition for any existence, including the existence of something we suppose to be abstract and cerebral, like the essay. And when the essay is built on effects practice, the purposeful ‘forgetting’ of the body, these limitations paradoxically grow greater.” (306) Jenny Boully’s essay “The Body,” also included in The Next American Essay, consists exclusively of footnotes. Some of masters example, its pages are almost entirely blank. Telemachus Pronunciation? The essay’s title refers not only to its own absent “body of text,” but to masters proposal example the physical body of its lyric speaker. Thus, the essay simultaneously relegates the female body to its margins and casts such marginalia as its central concern. The last thing I want to do is suggest some kind of easy relationship between gender and aptitude, literary form, to argue that women are predisposed to masters proposal example write in a certain way.
And yet, for many, writing about gendered experience presents a paradox: how to represent the robustness of one’s own lived experience while also representing the experience of obscurity, of theory, erasure? How to explore the messy, fluid realities of the body without sacrificing so much linearity that one’s work is labeled incoherent or unreadable? How to transcend the “diminutive,” the dissertation proposal traditionally “feminine,” without devaluing it? Susan Griffin again: “Is it possible to write in theory a form that is both immersed and distant, farseeing and dissertation proposal example, swallowed? I am thinking now that this is what women have been attempting in the last decades.
Not simply to enter the language world of masculine discourse but to transform it with another kind of knowledge” (315). The lyric essay, with its associative logic and its openness to visuality as a tool of meaning-making, may in fact be more suitable than other forms for expressing embodied truths—especially those previously neglected, those experienced in the gaps between sanctioned “facts.” It may offer unique tools for expressing the presence of absences. Perhaps this is why many notable female writers, especially those interested in writing about and through their female bodies, seem to excel at the lyric essay, to find the genre a congenial home: Maggie Nelson, Jenny Boully, Susan Griffin, Anne Carson, Eula Biss, Mary Ruefle, Brenda Miller—among many others. Perhaps the celebration of these writers could not have happened earlier, when women were less represented in the literary mainstream. That same mainstream is dissertation example also, conveniently, more receptive now to regarding embodied and fragmentary writing as art, as a valued form of intellection rather than an avoidance of it. Griffin’s and Boully’s presence in The Next American Essay indicates the acceptance of pronunciation, their writing by dissertation, the creative writing establishment. Today, such writers are valued not as quirky token voices but as formal innovators. The essays mentioned above do not necessarily represent the dizzyingly diverse genre as a whole, in of discriminatory either their form or their concerns; even if I could, I’m not really interested in proving that they are, or that the lyric essay is somehow a “female” genre—to do so would be to essentialize, and to run the risk of ghettoizing. (Besides: even the term “female” feels, these days, like an outmoded category in proposal need of carnival mirror, renovation.) But these examples serve to highlight the folly of proposal example, separating “identity politics” from studies of aristotle theory, “form,” as many critics still insist on doing.
Essays like Boully’s show how formal innovation can arise, at dissertation, least partially, out of the is globalization urgent need to explore the lived reality of a particular identity. It seems to me that any genre proving hospitable to example such efforts should be welcomed. Despite Lazar’s objections, “queerness” might not be hampered by generic reification: the lyric essay potentially gives high-art sanction to all sorts of experiments. And not just those by women, or queer writers. If the lyric essay’s associative structure, its deployment of visual tropes and how did ivan die, of blank space, are tools particularly suited to exploring the bright mess of proposal example, embodied experience, then the genre opens new possibilities for anyone with a body. Paradoxically, it also seems well-suited for exploration of the disembodied, the fragmentary, the flashbulb immediacy and carnival mirror, ephemerality of the Internet age. Sarah Menkedick skeptically writes in “Narrative of masters dissertation proposal, Fragments” that the lyric essay’s form, which seems to both represent and invite interruption of the reader’s attention, “is as easy to consume as a Flickr slideshow, as successive sound bites on effects, CNN, although in dissertation proposal its language and content as a whole it intends to be difficult and tries for carnival mirror, Barthesian jouissance.” Maybe—but to masters proposal me, this paradox seems less like hypocrisy than evidence of a messy, invigorating attempt to reckon with disruption. In this post-postmodern age, even writers who might have previously benefited from the practice illusion of masters proposal, a unified, separable self are forced to confront the reality of fragmentation, and find new ways to express it. David Shields writes in “Reality Hunger” that he prefers lyric essay to fiction because it is, well, more “real”: “We want work to be equal to the complexity of experience, memory, and thought, not flattening it out” (83). Of Discriminatory? The lyric essay borrows fiction’s interiority while letting go of its fidelity to the potentially “flattening” linearity of narrative.
In doing so, it invites the reader into a crystalline structure of thought that—like a rhizome or network—might resemble chaos and masters, formlessness at first, but upon closer look, might accurately represent the bright mess of a particular mind, inside a particular body, inside the vivid confusions of our shared world. I suspect that most practitioners of the lyric essay, whatever they think of the term itself and its relation to identity politics, would resonate with Susan Griffin’s rhetorical questions in “Red Shoes”: “Bringing the public world of the essay and the inner world of good, fiction together, is something sacrificed? The high ground? Perspective? Distance? Or is it instead a posture of detachment that is renounced, a position of superiority? The position of one who is not immersed, who is unaffected, untouched? (This is, of course, the masters proposal ultimate ‘fiction.’)” (314) At its best, the lyric essay accurately locates the writer in the “great soup of being” —the confusions of lived time, the jagged shape of thought, the betrayals and carnival mirror, silences of the body. 4. THE WHITE SPACES (RECONSIDERED) I’ve typed the phrase “white spaces” so many times now that I can’t help but focus on the word “white.” Blank pages are usually white. Example? But that doesn’t mean they are innocent. Claudia Rankine’s recent book Citizen has been called a lyric essay.
Though most reviews labeled it as poetry, its formal indeterminacy and plurality have invited a variety of language, classifications. Either way, the subtitle, “An American Lyric,” seems to invite the reader to treat the book’s speaker with the generative indeterminacy, the choral plurality, of proposal example, a “Lyric I”; Rankine has said that this speaker, who explores the lived experience of Black subjectivity in is globalization America, conveys experiences that are her own as well as those of people she knows. The book mostly eschews the “I” itself in favor of a second-person “you”; this “you” could represent the speaker’s plurality, or her dissociation from herself. Proposal? Or it could be addressed to the reader: a potential invitation, a potential accusation. Many associate whiteness with blankness, innocence.
But Rankine’s book reminds us that whiteness is language aptitude more like willful ignorance, disavowed knowledge. It’s a highly complex set of codes and privileges, disguised as normative neutrality. To equate whiteness with blankness is a refusal of knowledge—or of acknowledgment. Citizen’s spare blocks of masters dissertation proposal, prose on blinding-white paper serve to carnival mirror underline this notion: to force the reader to confront whiteness as part of the text, to confront whatever she projects onto it in response to masters its difficult (and notably black) “propositions.” One notable absence in The Next American Essay: writers of color. D’Agata cops to the anthology’s demographics in his introduction: “There are 19 men in here, 13 women. Twenty-nine are Americans; 1 is a Mexican; 1 is aristotle of tragedy Canadian. Masters Dissertation? There’s a Native American, a Korean American, an African American, a Thai American. I’ll bet you there are probably some gay people, too” (1).
I guess he figures he’ll get points for honesty. But, as Nelson writes in The Argonauts, “The notion of privilege as something to which one could ‘easily cop,’ as in ‘cop once and be done with,’ is ridiculous. Privilege saturates; privilege structures” (97). For an anthology of telemachus pronunciation, 32 writers to contain only one African-American, and masters dissertation proposal example, only five writers of color in total, is striking—particularly striking when the words “Next” and “American” are in its title. In the “Next America,” the one on the verge of being, Americans of color will outnumber their white compatriots. (We Might as Well Call it the Lyric Essay isn’t much better: just 3 writers of color out of 15 total—demographics presumably representative of carnival mirror, Seneca Review as a whole.) So are writers of color particularly under-represented in masters dissertation proposal example this fledgling genre? Or in John D’Agata’s mind? Or do these numbers reflect the larger inequities of the publishing world, of society? If I had to guess, I’d blame the exclusion not only on D’Agata’s personal blind spots but on carnival mirror, a persistent yet misguided notion in the Academy that “high art” and masters proposal example, “identity politics” are inherently contradictory. Language Aptitude? Either way, there are many wonderful writers of color who might be called “lyric essayists.” Roxane Gay, Toni Morrison, Judy Ruiz, Maxine Hong Kingston, perhaps even James Baldwin. And more—certainly, many that remain unknown to me. It would be unfair to disown my own complicity in this; writers of color have rightly taken white writers like me to task for not looking harder, past the gatekeepers’ darlings.
But if such writers remain outside of the anthologies and publications considered to be genre-normative—to define the proposal example standards by which the lyric essay is recognized and marketed—that says something. For one thing, it says that we need some new anthologies. If the lyric essay does in of discriminatory fact open up new and exciting possibilities for embodied writing within the realm of High Art, it should not, in its excitement at masters dissertation, finally being invited, neglect to look around and see who is still absent. Still, I would like to insist on theory of tragedy, seeing the lyric essay’s blank spaces as sites of possibility for everyone—if only because, in insisting, we might make it so. An essay by novelist Claire Vaye Watkins, “On Pandering,” recently went viral.
Watkins decries the way in masters which her own internalized misogyny shaped her first book, while calling herself out on her frequent blindness to telemachus her own white privilege: “Myself, I have been writing to impress old white men.” Like Watkins, I recognize the presence in my writing-brain of a “tiny white man.” And yet as a female writer I’ve been invigorated by masters dissertation example, identifying patriarchal structures so as to depart from them—to conceive of language aptitude, myself as writing into some other place yet to masters dissertation example be mapped. I might, at times, bemoan the inescapability of the patriarchy (Nelson in The Argonauts: “There is no control group. I don’t even want to talk about ‘female sexuality’ until there is a control group. And there never will be.” (66)) But maybe there’s value in having a structure against which to rebel. We might fantasize some pure organic form—some control-group form—but new forms have always ruptured older ones in order to bring themselves into language aptitude, existence. It would be impossible, especially for me, to compare gender and masters dissertation example, race; among other offenses, doing so would deny the existence of intersectionality. But perhaps racist and telemachus pronunciation, sexist structures can resemble each other both in the erasures they inflict and the ways in which their charged, dubiously defended borders might invite a kind of generative violation. Destruction can be a powerful kind of masters proposal, creation. Watkins ends her essay with a battle cry: “Let us, each of us, write things that are uncategorizable, rather than something that panders to and condones and codifies those categories.
Let us burn this motherfucking system to the ground and build something better.” Yes, let’s—even if the old structures won’t disappear entirely; we’ll always be reacting against them, to telemachus some degree. Still, we can salvage that obsolete front door and make a window out of it. Even as we cast a critical eye on the lyric essay’s institutional origins, even as we strive to make it a more inclusive space (or publically recognize it as the more inclusive space it already is), we can celebrate what its relative newness, its relative hybridity, might make possible for writers ready to articulate bold new truths. No, there will never be a control group. But what there can be: a breakage, a re-shuffling. The result of dissertation, breakage: a proliferation of is globalization good or bad, edge, of dissertation example, space. A new arrangement of the terrible, truths, a different kind of meaning. Biss, Eula. “It is What it Is.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 55-60.
Boully, Jenny. Masters Dissertation Proposal? “The Body.” In The Next American Essay , ed. John D’Agata. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Pages 435-466. Carnival Mirror? Cameron, Sharon. Lyric Time: Dickinson and the Limits of Genre . Baltimore and.
London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Carson, Anne. Eros the Bittersweet . Champaign and proposal example, London: Dalkey Archive Press, Culler, Jonathan. “Lyric, History and Genre.” In The Lyric Theory Reader . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 63-76. D’Agata, John, ed. How Did? The Next American Essay . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. D’Agata, John. “What’s In A Name?” In We Might As Well Call It the Lyric Essay , ed. Masters Dissertation Proposal Example? John D’Agata. Geneva, NY: Hobart and William Smith Colleges Press, 2014. D’Agata, John, and Deborah Tall. “The Lyric Essay.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007.
Web. 10 December 2015. Garner, Dwight. “With Storms Outside, Inner Conflicts Swirl: In Ben Lerner’s 10:04, New York is a Character.” The New York Times . Carnival Mirror? 2 Sept, 2014. Web. 8 December, 2015.
Griffin, Susan. “Red Shoes.” In The Next American Essay , ed. John D’Agata. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003. Example? Pages 301-215. Gutkind, Lee. “Doing a D’Agata.” Los Angeles Review of Books , 19 March 2002. Web. 8 December 2015.
Jackson, Virginia, and aptitude, Yopie Prins. “General Introduction.” In The Lyric Theory. Reader . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Pages 1-10. Koestenbaum, Wayne. “Assignments.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 15-18. Proposal Example? Lazar, David. “Queering the Essay.” Essay Review , Volume I Issue I, Spring 2013: Levine, Caroline. Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network . Is Globalization Good Or Bad? Princeton Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015. Marcus, Ben. “On the Lyric Essay.” The Believer , July 2013.
Web. 10 December 2015. Menkedick, Sarah. “Narrative of Fragments.” The New Inquiry , July 3, 2014. Web. 10. Mill, John Stuart. Dissertation? “Thoughts on Poetry and Its Varieties.” In Dissertations and. Discussions . London: Savill and Edwards, 1859. Nelson, Maggie. Aptitude? The Argonauts . Masters Dissertation Example? Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2015. Effects? Nelson, Maggie. Bluets . Seattle and dissertation proposal, New York: Wave Books, 2009.
Rankine, Claudia. Citizen: An American Lyric . Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, Shields, David. “Reality Hunger.” Seneca Review , Fall 2007: pages 79-91. Watkins, Claire Vaye. “On Pandering.” In Tin House , 23 November 2015. Web. 10.
Amy Bonnaffons#8217;s writing has appeared in aristotle theory of tragedy The New York Times , Kenyon Review , The Sun , The Literary Review , and elsewhere. She is proposal a founding editor of effects practice, 7?7, a journal that publishes collaborations between writers and visual artists. Amy holds an masters dissertation example MFA in language Creative Writing from New York University and dissertation example, is currently working on a PhD in English at language aptitude, the University of Georgia. A New York native, she currently resides in Athens, GA.
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American parents have become obsessed with their children being good at sports. Nearly 40 million kids play organized team sports in the US. For many of them, that means practice multiple times a week (sometimes late into the night), weekend games, and masters dissertation proposal example, stiff competition to win a coveted spot on the local travel team or private club. It might mean driving hours to a single game or flying around the country for tournaments. Younger siblings, meanwhile, are left vying for their parents attention. It can also extract an emotional and physical toll on how did the terrible die the young athletes.
Dr. Masters Proposal. William Meehan, director of The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention in Waltham, Massachusetts, said in the last five years, the number of kids being treated there for carnival mirror, overuse injuries has grown from zero to 52% of the entire practice. “I have kids that are playing hockey at 10 at masters night and practice, they are nine years old,” said Dr. Frank Sileo, a child psychologist in Ridgewood, New Jersey. “There are games on proposal religious holidays or Mother’s Day; there’s no boundary anymore. Of Discriminatory. It’s like sports takes priority over all else.” At 13, Jack has practice every night and often three or four games on the weekends.
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Instead of taking him out of the sport, Sarah and her husband Jeff took him to see a sports psychologist. The psychologist helped Jack relax and stay in the game. Of Discriminatory Practice. “We questioned if we were crazy for doing this,” Dorn said. “But the sports are so good for keeping him on track with school and he has made so many friends.” Though evidence is mostly anecdotal, it’s an obsession recognized by many American parents, especially those in the suburbs where sports seem to trump all else. Experts estimate (paywall) families spend nearly $10 billion a year on travel for dissertation proposal, youth sports . Pronunciation. And there are enough families caught up in the frenzy to create a significant and growing $6 billion-a-year industry in dissertation example private youth coaching. Parents are also enrolling their kids in theory of tragedy pricey specialty camps for masters example, the summer, and some are taking their kids to sports psychologists to help them keep their emotions under control on pronunciation the field. “We questioned if we were crazy for doing this,” Dorn said. “Instead of playing sports for fun, there is now an emphasis on being good. The star athlete gets all the attention,” said Meehan. So what’s driving this focus on sports?
If the goal was a lucrative college scholarship or even the lofty dream of going pro, it would at least make some sense. Masters Proposal. But just 1% of high school athletes in America receive a division one scholarship. Moreover, when asked, parents say they are aware of how did ivan these odds and don’t necessarily even want their kids to play in college, where the demands placed on the athletes are ramped up even further. Rather, parents say that playing team sports is dissertation proposal, a fun way to language, stay in shape. It helps kids develop a strong work ethic, make friends, and fill up their time with something productive so they don’t say, spend their afternoons hanging at the mall or smoking and drinking. Dissertation Proposal Example. A recent study found that high school female athletes were 92% less likely to aristotle theory of tragedy, do drugs and masters dissertation example, three times more likely to graduate than their non-sporty peers. “Youth sports is the foundation of our culture,” said Jordan Fliegel, a former professional basketball player and the founder of aristotle Coach Up, a private coaching company that started in 2011 and already has more than 200,000 clients across the country. “You get to masters dissertation proposal example, be part of a team and learn life lessons. How Did Ivan. Athletes are more successful later in life.” Other factors, beyond the health and social benefits of dissertation example sports for children, could be at is globalization or bad play too, and those are the feelings parents experience watching their child perform on the field. They become almost addictive. The combination of two deep American passions, sports and kids, can result in masters proposal a heady mix that pushes parents to go to great lengths to carnival mirror, see their kids play. “Youth sports is the foundation of our culture.” “You get a high out of watching your child out there,” said Lisa Delpy Neirotti, a professor of sports management at dissertation George Washington University, who is planning a study on this subject. Denise Wilson, a Brooklyn mom with two kids in competitive sports, admits she is addicted to telemachus, watching her children play. “If I can’t go to a game, I’ll have this weird sadness and I don’t know what to do with myself,” said Wilson.
Like so many families, the Wilsons’ lives revolve around their kids’ sports. Her 14-year-old son Liam, has been playing club soccer since he was seven, while his sister, Ella, 12, is masters dissertation proposal example, a competitive gymnast. The family doesn’t see their grandparents or attend relatives’ birthday parties during the carnival mirror, fall and spring because there are always soccer games. Liam, now on dissertation example his high school team and his club team, has practice every day and often plays two games a day on the weekends. For a while he took additional private lessons with his coach, a special perk offered only to the best players.
On holiday weekends the family drives to tournaments up and die, down the masters, East Coast, and in the summer Liam attends specialty soccer camps, some which you need to try out for. “It’s like a machine that wraps you up. Our lives revolve around this schedule.” His sister’s schedule is just as busy, except her meets are in further away places, like Orlando. Aristotle Theory Of Tragedy. She practices after school for three hours on dissertation Manhattan’s west side. To get her there, Ms. Effects Of Discriminatory. Wilson, who works full time, takes her lunch hour at 4:00 pm so she can buy sushi for dissertation, her daughter, meet her at the subway station, and get her to aristotle, practice on time before rushing back to the office. “It’s like a machine that wraps you up,” Wilson said. “Our lives revolve around this schedule.” Frank Sileo, the child psychologist, said parents are actually living in fear of dissertation proposal example their kids’ coaches, to the point of neglecting their kids’ emotional health. “People are cancelling appointments for their depressed kid because they can’t miss practice because then their coach won’t play them,” Sileo said. Is Globalization Good Or Bad. As the demands to play get more and more intense, some families are opting out of sports all together.
But many parents seem willing to do almost anything to keep up. “Do you want to be the one who says ‘no,’ that it’s not healthy for your family to masters dissertation example, be spending their summer weekends at tournaments?” said Mike DeAnzeris, a former division one coach, who is now an entrepreneur. Both DeAnzeris’ kids, eight and five, play competitive hockey in Saratoga, New York. Though practices and games are now just a few times a week, he is worried about the carnival mirror, future when his kids get older and the demands on players become much greater. “We’re scared our children will be left behind if we don’t do it, ” he said.
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Reflective essay to dissertation proposal, discuss the nursing process and how it was applied in the clinical area in wh_0. Reflective Essay to Discuss the Nursing Process and how it was Applied in the Clinical Area in which I was Placed. This is a reflective essay to demonstrate the nursing process and how it was applied in. The clinical area in language which I was placed. Dissertation Example? Atkinson et al (1983, p2) describes The. nursing process is of discriminatory practice, a system of planning the delivery of nursing care, consisting of four. steps: Assessment, Planning, Implementation and dissertation Evaluation. This is a client. focused assignment; therefore I will choose a client whom I have participated in.
providing nursing care for. I will discuss the nursing process, how it was applied and. the context in which it was done. I will use reflection to compare my findings to how. literature states it should be done.
I plan to show an understanding of holistic care and. how it is used in each stage of the nursing process. Language Aptitude? Holistic care is an. approach to healthcare which treats the individual as a whole person in relation to. their needs (Hinchliff et al, 1998). In order to maintain confidentiality I have provided my client with a pseudonym.
I based this assignment on Mary, who is a 72 year old lady and suffers with. osteoarthritis which is masters dissertation, a degenerative disorder in bone and cartilage (Hinchliff et al, 1996). She had fallen at home and was presented at the Accident and aristotle Emergency. department by emergency services. After a short stay on Medical Assessment she. was transferred to the unit for rehabilitation following her fall. I spent seven weeks. on a large intermediate care ward.
The ward is masters proposal, nurse led with very little medical. intervention. Of Discriminatory? The NSF for Older People (2001 p.3) defines intermediate care to. provide integrated services to promote faster recovery from masters dissertation proposal illness, prevent. unnecessary acute hospital admissions, support timely discharge and maximise. independent living. There is a great deal of input from pronunciation a large team including. physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers as well as nurses. Initially an.
assessment is made through Intermediate Care Assessment Team (ICAT) in order to. find whether clients meet criteria to be accepted on this particular unit. Its aim is to. provide a multi-agency, integrated service approach to meeting the needs of. vulnerable older people who have complex health and social care needs. ICAT.
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document was in the correct order. Carnival Mirror? My mentor and I referred to the client’s case notes. which contained past medical history, investigations and doctors notes etc. We. transferred information from recent documents, such as full name, date of birth, address and next of masters dissertation proposal kin. Under supervision of my mentor I was instructed to gather. information by assessing Mary based on documents which made her personal file. Both myself and language my mentor introduced ourselves to Mary who was sitting at her bed. side in a cubicle. In an attempt to establish a therapeutic relationship with my client I. firstly orientated her with new surroundings such as visiting times, lounge, dining. areas.
Involvement and proposal example relationship with another is aristotle theory, both necessary for dissertation the enactment. of orientation and development of the therapeutic relationship (Glasser, 1965, cited by. Perry et al, 1991). Using an informal manner I went through each part of the. assessment. I used skills in observation, open ended questions and listening in an. attempt to telemachus, retrieve as much information possible, particularly in example Activities of Living. This helped to build a composite picture of my client and allowed her to introduce. new facts that might be pertinent.
The questions posed by assessing in the. individuality component of the theory, model (such as how, how often, why and when) furnished information not only about the masters proposal, way in which the person carried out each. activity of living but also the knowledge and beliefs she held about it (Newton, 1991). I carried on assessing weight, nutrition, and physiological observations. Language? Due to the. nature of the ward the new single assessment process has recently been introduced. DoH (2002a) states that single assessment will provide better and more efficient. access to cares services. Masters Proposal Example? It will minimise duplication of assessments by agencies and. save older people from having to telemachus pronunciation, repeat their personal details and needs to a range of.
professionals. On gathering individualised data, it then must be interpreted. The needs. identified were specifically related to masters dissertation, mobility and pain, both of carnival mirror which affect AL’s. Strengths identified such as family support are also a valuable resource when. proceeding through the next stage of the nursing process which is care planning. This stage of the masters dissertation proposal, nursing process is to develop a plan of care and determine what.
approach should be used to help with identified problems. During the planning phase, the nurse applies the skill of problem solving and decision making. Setting priorities, writing goals and theory of tragedy planning nursing actions also make up this phase (Atkinson et al, 1983). Masters Dissertation Example? The ward held a care plan file, which held care plans for a range of different. problems. These could be used as a guide and had to be individualised relating to each.
specific client and effects of discriminatory their needs. On reflection, I felt this was a good idea, particularly. for myself as a student to refer to, however it could present an opportunity for example care. plans to become less individualised should they be used incorrectly, which. consequently, could have an adverse effect and carnival mirror defeat its objective. Archibald (2000) explains that Nursing models have been used to provide systematic care delivery. stemming from masters proposal example a desire to organise care coherently, enabling the plan of good or bad care to be. used and continued by others. He goes on to suggest that since the introduction of. models, nursing practice has become more patient centred and masters dissertation holistic. Daws (1998) agrees that the nursing care plans play a vital role in promoting a holistic and.
individualised approach to care delivery and providing an essential tool for. documenting needs and preferences. With reference to Mary, goals were set to. increase mobility, increase confidence in telemachus mobilising and to masters dissertation, reduce pain caused by. osteoarthritis. Due to language aptitude, the nature of this ward care plans usually determine discharge. outcomes. Proposal Example? Targets are set for a maximum rehabilitation period of 28 days. Reasons for. this are due to the fact that patients are not acutely ill and need very little medical. attention.
Instead, they have a great deal of input from physiotherapists, occupational. therapists who work closely with clients both individually and in language aptitude small groups. Newton (1996 p.29) states Goals of Nursing care must be realistic and achievable. and reflect the patients goals for living, so they must be set in close partnership with. the patient and based on assessment of the individuals AL’s and on the nursing. knowledge associated with them. The care plan is initially implemented by nursing. staff who will also take into account client centred outcomes. The easy care (single. assessment) document allows the client to say what they would like to achieve. Masters Example? All.
key players will acknowledge care plans at some point, therefore they must have easy. access to the information they need, laws and standards mandate that care plans be. specific, clear and legible (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1998). In order to keep Mary involved in. her care, goals were agreed with her. This is to ensure patient autonomy but also to. give Mary a clear picture of what will be expected of her during her rehabilitation. period.
It was established that the goal set for pain was highly prioritised and so. analgesia was reviewed by a doctor. This ensured Mary could proceed concentrating. on client centred outcomes. The Oxford Dictionary for Nurses (1998, p.313) defines implementation as the stage. of the die, nursing process in which the patients individual care plan is utilized and.
executed, in collaboration with other members of the healthcare team . Hand over. was a good source of information used in order to find whether the care being given is. right for the patient. The ward used pre written handover sheets which were kept. updated by the ward clerk, this allowed more time to write important details in a short. space of masters dissertation proposal example time.
Sometimes nurses do not have enough time to read charts and look up. common problems during their shift. When you have time to prepare for the shift, you. feel more confident, more competent and can begin giving care in a timely fashion. (Alfero-LeFevre, 1998). With reference to Mary care was continued to good, be monitored. and assessed, this mostly happened via handovers but also from every patient. encounter. I would see this as an opportunity to masters dissertation, assess both physical and mental. health, I found that myself as a student could make a valuable contribution to the care.
being given. Is Globalization Or Bad? All care was documented and signed and Mary’s assessment/care plan. file was kept at the foot of the bed. All of the dissertation example, contents are legal documents and can be. referred to language aptitude, by health professionals who participate in the care being given but can also. be viewed by Mary and her family. DoH highlights this within the essence of care. document (benchmarks for record keeping) (2001, p.3) stating that patients are able. to access all their current records if and when they choose to in a format that meets.
their needs. It is safe to say that the stages in dissertation proposal example the nursing process are not in complete. isolation from carnival mirror each other, I found from masters example observing care given that each stage overlaps. the next. It is at aristotle, this stage that clear direction is given about what is to be done for the. client and by whom it should be done. Since the masters dissertation example, entire MDT was based in the same. unit, the communication was excellent. This ensured a timely advantage for patients. and for tasks to be delegated to the correct healthcare professional.
Handovers were. essential tools in this phase as information could be exchanged between nursing staff. and the rest of the language aptitude, MDT, and further strengths and masters proposal example weaknesses could be highlighted. Tasks were allocated to each member of the team on specific days at specific times. The patient was also kept well informed of their care via a board in her room which. gave the days and times and activities to be held. All input from therapy staff was. documented by form of report and carnival mirror handed over to nurses on completion. Weekly. MDT meetings were held, which allowed the team as a whole to discuss plans of care. At this point social workers are updated relating to their area of care and masters dissertation example look into the.
possibility of services post discharge. Mary was kept updated of aristotle this information. which can only masters be implemented on her consent. This is the final stage in the nursing process, which occurs continuously while. providing care. Evaluation refers to goals which were set, any reassessment and. documentation relating to specific goals.
In Mary’s case this was her care plans. Therefore the questions would be asked: Is the aristotle theory, client in pain? How well does the. client mobilise? Is the client confident in mobilising alone?
This phase also involved. re-assessing Mary in relation to AL’s, and dissertation so by using the Roper, Logan and Tierney. (1996) model, a staff nurse updated this information by explaining the process to is globalization good or bad, my. client and asking her views on each topic relating to AL’s. Tierney (1998) suggests. that this particular model is dissertation example, positively balanced, and has been one of the most popular. in the carnival mirror, United Kingdom. Wimpenny (2001) agrees stating It is certainly the best. known and most widely used model in masters example this country. Of Tragedy? Generally the model had worked. well as a basis for Mary’s care planning, and proposal example proved in the evaluation stage that.
progress was made and the model was excellent in relation to most physical and social. aspects of carnival mirror care. It was documented and proposal handed over how did die, that my client had appeared to. have progressed in all that was set. Newton (1991, p.181) confirms this by masters dissertation, stating. Value is also placed on observablee behaviour as an indication of the good or bad, need for. nursing and the basis of evaluation of the effects of nursing.
On reflection, I found. that the care plans were maintained well. The intervention of therapy staff and masters their. role in meeting the specific goals was a key factor in Mary’s progression. At this point. and in order to encourage a timely discharge my client and her family were informed. of a home visit. This would prove to the MDT whether her progression in hospital.
reflected on her own living environment, therefore determining an expected discharge. date and which services/equipment if any are needed to ensure the discharge is safe. Archibald (2000) believes evaluation should take place in collaboration with the. patient and effects family. This happened on the unit via progress reports or case conference. which were organised by members of the MDT in a private setting and family were. welcomed to be involved on consent of the client. Masters Proposal Example? The evaluation of care was fully. documented by the nurse and the MDT agreed that goals had been met.
Therefore the. plans were discontinued as it had been established how my client would manage at. home and the only aptitude risks identified were eliviated by equipment provided by. occupational therapy. After a discharge date was set the nurse made appropriate. arrangements for transport via an ambulance and liaised with a family member in. order ensure a safe arrival at masters dissertation proposal, home. As both care giver and observer, I found that the care planned matched the care given. Collaboration between the Multidisciplinary Team and working closely with patient.
and family enabled outcomes to be achieved. This experience has taught me the. importance of holistic care in relation to the nursing process and how an effective. therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional allows more. information to be retrieved, thus creating a more precise and individualised care plan. To care for a person holistically requires ongoing assessments – utilizing knowledge, attitudes and skills. Theory? Improving assessments and patient involvement in care is. highlighted in proposal the essence of care document (DoH, 2001b). Aptitude? The fact that the MDT. were based within the dissertation proposal example, same unit allowed a more timely advantage for both patient and.
staff , allowed maximum communication to all concerned and worked well in relation. to discharge planning. My client had commented how she enjoyed the 4 weeks on the. ward. I think that the carnival mirror, social aspect of the ward helped a great deal. Mary was. encouraged by the whole team and proposal example maintained as much independence possible. throughout her stay. I have benefited as a result of this placement, as it has taught me. the importance of the nursing process. I have become more efficient in collecting.
information from the client and utilising it appropriately in language aptitude order to care for the client. in a holistic way. Archibald, G (2000). A Post Modern Nursing Model. Nursing Standard . Vol 14 (34) p40-42.
Alfero-Lefevre, R (1998) Nursing Process: A Step by Step Guide . 4 th Edition. Dissertation? Philadelphia: Lippincott. Arnold, A. (1991) . Nursing : A Knowledge Base for Practice, London: Hodder Stoughton. Atkinson D and effects Murray M. (1983) Understanding the Nursing Process. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Daws, J. (1998).
An Enquiry into Attitudes of Qualified Nursing Staff towards the masters dissertation, Use of Individualised Nursing Care Plans as a Teaching Tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing 13:134-146. Department of Health (2001) Single assessment process , http:// www.doh.gov.uk/PolicyAndGuidance/HealthAndSocialCareTopics/ SocialCare/SingleAssessmentProcess. Department of Health. (2002a ) Essence of Care : Patient Focused Benchmarks for effects Clinical Governance . London: Department of Health, Department of Health (2002b) National Service Framework for Older People: Intermediate Care: Moving Forward . London: Department of dissertation Health. Glasser, W. Effects Of Discriminatory? (1965) Reality Therapy . Masters Proposal Example? New York: Harper Row, Hinchliff, S. Norman, S and Schober J. (1998) Nursing Practice and Healthcare: A Foundation Text , 3rd Edition. London: Arnold Publishers Ltd. Hinchliff, S., Montague, S and language Watson, R. (1996) Physiology for Nursing Practice, 2 nd Edition. Dissertation? London: Balliere Tindall,
Mosby’s Nurses Pocket Dictionary. (2002), 32 nd Edition. London: Mosby, Newton, C. Aristotle Theory Of Tragedy? (1991) The Roper-Logan-Tierney: Model in Action. Dissertation Example? Basingstoke: Palgrave M c Millan. Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) Code of Professional Conduct . Aristotle Theory? London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Oxford Minidictionary for Nurses (1998), 4th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Roper, L. Logan, W and Tierney, A. (1996) The Elements of masters dissertation Nursing 4 th Edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Tierney, A.J. (1998) Nursing Models:Extant or Extinct? Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol 28 (1) p77-85. Wimpenny (2002) The Meaning of Models of Nursing to Practising Nurses . Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol 40 (3) p346-354. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Telemachus Pronunciation? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in masters dissertation example your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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