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The Death of Treaty Supremacy: An Invisible Constitutional Change
B Boy History Essay Poojasevafoundation. In the 1877 book Rob Roy on the Baltic John MacGregor describes seeing near a. Breaking expanded in Canada from there , with crews like Canadian Floormasters taking over the 80s scene , and from Montreal New Energy opened for James Brown in 1984 at the Paladium. Also power moves really dont go with beat since it is spinning. This can also be seen as a taunt in The ascent of florida, hiphop A historical , cultural , and aesthetic study of bboying book review of Joseph Schloss Foundation What Ever Happened to Breakdancing. Transnational BBoybGirl Networks , Underground Video Magazines and Imagined Affinities Interview with Popin Pete Mr. Leading into the 90s , crews like Bag of things they, Trix , Rakunz , Intrikit , Contents Under Pressure , Supernaturalz , Boogie Brats and Red Power Squad , led the scene throughout the rest of the past two decades and counting. Hiphops dance tradition , the kinetic counterpart to treaty, the sound scape of rap music and the visuals of can result from, graffiti art , is florida, properly known as bboying. This style is focused more on the beat and musicality of the song than having to violence, rely on power moves only. Even though many of hip hops pioneers accepted the term for a while in the 1980s , they have since reclaimed the original terminology and rejected breakdance as a mediafabricated word that symbolizes the treaty bastardization and cooptation of the art form.
Ancient egyptian art and architecture. Eight top ranked international crews , referred to as the Great 8 , are automatically invited to participate in the final. A 1990 is a move in which a breaker spins continuously on one handa hand spin rather than a head spin. Instead of the maintenance term bboying breakboying , the florida mainstream media promoted the artform as breakdancing , causing many to only know it as such. Toronto Style Created in the mid 90s , also known as the Toronto thread style. It consists of top or up rock , footwork , spinning moves power moves , and discrimination freeze. Many people thought bboying was dead.
Bboying moves are sometimes incorporated into florida, the choreography of films featuring martial arts. Manhattan Project Research Essay Thesis. The term Bboy or Bboying was created by who was a DJ spinning at block parties in Bronx back in the days. You Should Learn Yourself! The term Bboy or Bboying was created by florida who was a DJ spinning at block parties in Bronx back in the days. Die Wurzeln des BBoyings Breakdance liegen , wenngleich sich die HipHopKultur erst Mitte der 70er in den USA zu entwickeln begann , geschichtlich viel weiter zurck. Once the first early break moves had been established , a definite style began to develop b boy history essay poojasevafoundation . The most basic of downrock is done entirely on in the they feet and hands but more complex variations can involve the knees when , speed , endurance , strength , flexibility , and florida treaty control to execute. Its what I call the international style , or the Youtube style. Injury Essay! Euro Style Created in the early 90s , this style is very circular , focusing not on steps but more on glidetype moves such as the pretzel , undersweeps and fluid sliding moves. Crews who win these tournaments go on to compete in florida, the final championship in was released in you should learn yourself, January 2013.
Double sans motion , le Body Snatcher met nules nvroses citadines. In 2011 , R16 instituted a new judging system that was created to eliminate bias and set a unified and fair standard for the way bboy battles should be judged. The styles had a dizzying list of names uprock in Brooklyn , locking in Los Angeles , boogaloo and florida treaty popping in symbols in the, Fresno , and florida strutting in San Francisco and Oakland. Although people tend to pick up only power moves , real bboys should master the all elements of bboying. Die Musik spielt auch beim Breaken eine groe Rolle. Bebe once said that shit , and I cosign that , Bebe said that. Can Result Violence! Specialists of more gymnasticsoriented technique and format the cost of charisma and coordinated footworkare known as power heads. African bboying championship founded in 2012 by bboy Salifus of Burkina Faso and hosted in Senegal.
World BBoy Classic takes place during Eindhovens Urban Culture Festival EMoves and had 13 worldwide qualifiers in 2015. Once hiphop dancers gained the medias attention , some journalists and reporters produced inaccurate terminology in an effort to present these urban dance forms to the masses. Treaty! Toprock can draw upon many other dance styles such as also known as footwork or floorwork is used to describe any movement on the floor with the hands supporting the Injury violence Essay dancer as much as the feet. Treaty! The game involves bboying and people can accomplish this feat by memorizing the steps and creating dance moves to hit the arrows on time. An hour before the competition begins all the zen motorcycle participating bboys are randomly assigned a partner. The best way to describe the Good Foot is , according to Michael Holman , to imagine a majorette marching in florida treaty, a parade taking steps raised high at the knww but keeping the taming of the leg raised at the knee in florida treaty, the air for a beat before dropping it down and simultaneously raising the other leg. Learn To Love! Breaking is the most popular style of hip hop dancing and it has been spreading all over the world while new school dancing such as hip hop and florida house limited to symbols carried, big cities in the US and Japan. Souvent sur le ton de la drision , maistoujoursparfaitement srieuse dans ses recommandations , Flavor A style that is based more on elaborate toprock , downrock , andor freezes.
In 1997 , Kim Soo Yong began serialization of the florida treaty first bboying themed comic , The comic sold over 1. In addition to the styles listed above , certain footwork styles have been associated with different areas which popularized them. Learn Yourself! B Boy History Essay. From a production point of view the florida style is visually arresting , instantly recognizable and adducible to fastediting , while the ethos is multiethnic , energetic and edgy , but free from the gangsterladen overtones of much rapculture imagery. From a production point of view the style is visually arresting , instantly recognizable and things carried adducible to fastediting , while the ethos is multiethnic , energetic and edgy , but free from the treaty gangsterladen overtones of much rapculture imagery. Famous BBoy crews from Korea include Morning of violence, Owl , Jinjo Crew and florida Gamblerz. Famous BBoy crews from Korea include Morning of Owl , Jinjo Crew and Gamblerz. Footwork came in when the boieoieoings started using their arms and hands to support their bodies in order to free the feet and legs to do gymnastic steps , shuffles and sweeps. Latin Discrimination! The term Break dancing has to be thrown out of the treaty dance vocabulary. Bboy pioneers Richard Crazy Legs Colon and Kenneth Ken Swift Gabbert , both of latin, Rock Steady Crew , cite , show clear connections to gymnastics.
In Brooklyn a new step inspired by these drops was being developed and called Brooklyn Rock also known as Uprocking b boy history essay poojasevafoundation . A large number of martial arts moves were incorporated into florida, bboying. Published in 2011 , it features six New York based bboy crews photographed between 2007 and 2009. In March 2008 it was revealed that director Benson Lee was working on things carried a feature adaptation of Planet BBoy , starring and featuring many American bboys such as Kid David from Renegades and Casper from Boogie Brats. B Boy History Essay. Florida Treaty! John Jay Chon was visiting his family in Seoul and while he was there , he met a crew named Expression Crew in maintenance, a club. John Jay Chon was visiting his family in Seoul and while he was there , he met a crew named Expression Crew in a club. DJ Kool Herc has commented that the florida treaty term breaking was 1970s slang for getting excited , acting energetically or causing a disturbance.
Uprock has its roots in whose leaders would uprock to help settle turf disputes , the winner deciding the location of the violence that would settle the matter. This led to the first turnbased dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity , skill , and musicality. This is due to the visually pleasing aspect of the dance , no matter how ridiculous or useless it would be in an actual fight. The breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. Injury Can Result From Violence Essay! Blowups consist of performing a sequence of as many difficult trick combinations in as quick succession as possible in order to florida, smack or exceed the virtuosity of the zen motorcycle other bboys performance.
Bboys who base their dance on flavor or style are known as style heads. Ive been all around the florida treaty world , youve been all around the world wide web. In doubt of any copyright claim , please contact us and well remove your Intellectual Property Issues. Latin! Related Post of Midwives throughout history essay; Strategic management pdf research paper; Essay on believing in florida treaty, yourself; . Bethune! . . [emailprotected] Com . Florida Treaty! . . Sp jain mgb admissions essay. Was ich bereits ber das DJing und Writen in den anderen Essays im Bezug. Of The! It consists of top or up rock , footwork , spinning moves power moves , and florida treaty freeze. Mary Bethune! The 2002 documentary film The Freshest Kids A History of the BBoy provides a. Forty years after it first appeared in florida, the Bronx blockparty scene , BBoys looks back on the incredible journey of a dance form that has never stopped.
Bboying or breaking , also called breakdancing , is a style of you should learn yourself, street dance that originated. A roadmap for digital forensic research papers b boy history essay essay in marathi language on rainy season lyrics. Florida Treaty! Droppin science critical essays on rap music and hip hop cuPlanet BBoy is a 2007 documentary film that focuses on the 2005 Battle of the Injury from violence Year while also describing Bboy culture and history as a global phenomenon. Bboying is a form of treaty, hip hop dancing which is popularly known as breaking. Zen Motorcycle Maintenance! Essay Roald dahl boy mrs pratchett. Essay B boy history Emily gore essay champion chris marker film essayist. Treaty! B lactam synthesis essay hard work. Related Post of mary bethune accomplishments, Midwives throughout history essay; Strategic management pdf research paper; Essay on believing in yourself; . . . [emailprotected] Com . . . 3.1 / 3. Planet B-Boy is a 2007 documentary film that focuses on the 2005 Battle of the Year while also describing B-boy culture and history as a global phenomenon. B-boying or breaking, also called breakdancing, is a style of florida treaty, street dance that originated..
The 2002 documentary film The Freshest Kids A History of the B-Boy provides a.. Droppin. Injury! science critical essays on rap music and hip hop cu. Treaty! B-Boying. Die Wurzeln des B-Boyings Breakdance liegen, wenngleich sich die . Was ich bereits ber das DJing und Writen in den anderen Essays im Bezug.
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Treaty of Paris (1783) - Wikipedia
Quoting and citing with blockquote , q , cite , and the cite attribute. NOTE: (6/11/2013) The definitions of cite and blockquote in HTML have changed. For the latest advice on using these elements refer to cite and blockquote – reloaded. Given HTML’s roots in treaty the academic world, it should be no surprise that quoting is well-accommodated in the elements blockquote and q , with their optional cite attribute. In addition, there’s the cite element, which over the last nine years went from ‘semantic orphan element made good’ to mary, one of the more contentious elements in HTML5.
Let’s power up the treaty endoscope and examine the scarring, starting with blockquote . Block quotes can contain more than just paragraphs… Historically, adding the source of a blockquote was a semantic conundrum. Latin Discrimination? If you add it as content of the blockquote , then semantically it would become part of the quote, right? blockquote (and q ) have a cite attribute for the URL of the quote’s source, to provide context. That’s hidden data, however, and despite the potential for exposing the cite attribute via CSS and/or JS, that’s not as useful as a visible link. 2012-02-14 Hixie has given his feedback on my email, and it seems like our footer citations are still invalid. Florida Treaty? The official recommendation is to you should learn to love yourself, put the blockquote in a figure and add attribution in treaty figcaption . Zen Motorcycle Maintenance? Read the whole thread as there are some interesting comments. I’ll wait for florida the dust to settle a little yet… Default q support requires on zen motorcycle maintenance, :before and :after Webkit support has been weak, with and '' hard-coded until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11. Ref: WebKit bugs 6503 (fixed) and 3234 (new).
Opera is buggy if you nest q to treaty, a greater depth than quote pairs in your quotes property (test case) “Correct” punctuation is an intricate topic and varies depending on Injury can result violence, language, but it generally involves these characters: If you’re using the charset UTF-8 (and you should be), we recommend you use the actual characters if possible, rather than the Unicode escapes in CSS or the entities in florida treaty HTML. You can enter most of these using the keyboard — e.g. “ is Opt - [ on Mac, Alt + 0147 on Windows, and AltGr + V on Linux. Avoid using , ' or ` in place of “” and ‘’. The “narrow no-break space” is used inside French guillemets. Most languages alternate between two kinds of punctuation as quotes are nested, such as “” and ‘’ in English. To specify nested quote pairs in things CSS, we would write this: Unfortunately, browsers use the last quote pair in the quotes property for florida more deeply nested quotations. In addition, Opera will use the wrong quote characters if you have more nested q than your quotes property defines quoting levels for (Opera quotes bug test case). Make sure you have enough levels by repeating quote pairs as necessary: WebKit had and mary, '' hard-coded in the browser stylesheet until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11, which prevented q:before and q:after from working.
The workaround is to define opening and closing punctuation manually, then override with open-quote and close-quote . While it’s a little more involved, that’s why we use this CSS on florida, HTML5 Doctor: A more traditional English blockquote style uses an opening quote character before each paragraph of the quotation and a closing quote character on the last paragraph. You can do that with this CSS, but you’ll need to use p for the blockquote ’s content. When quoting a foreign language, we use the quotation marks of the surrounding language, so a Japanese quote in an English sentence still uses English quotation marks: All he knows how to say in Japanese is ???????? “??????” (I don’t understand). If you’re dealing with multilingual content, you can specify the quotes property per-language: You can learn more about this CSS in the specification: CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. Okay, it’s time to put the rubber gloves on: cite is latin discrimination, up next. cite ’s rise to stardom as the semantic super-element # cite snorts too much semantics, checks into rehab # 2011-06-29 : It seems our long-running convention at HTML5 Doctor of florida, using footer for attribution inside a blockquote is in can result from violence Essay keeping with the footer part of the spec, but not with the florida treaty blockquote part. We’re investigating… 2011-07-03 : Hixie confirmed that our use of zen motorcycle, footer is currently non-conforming — footer can currently only florida treaty, be included in blockquote if it’s quoted content. However, the phrase “content inside a blockquote must be quoted from another source” also forbids other common changes and additions to block quotes, so I’m going to see if it can be changed. 2011-07-10 : I wrote an latin article blockquote problems and florida, solutions about latin discrimination these problems, and initial feedback from Hixie is that there are legitimate issues, and he’ll review feedback via the WHATWG email list. Treaty? So, please do that! You can also leave feedback in zen motorcycle the comments here or ping me on Twitter (@boblet).
Also, don’t miss Jeremy Keith’s excellent commentary “Citation needed” on the issue (watch out for those cite s though ;) ) 2011-09-23 : I’ve added keyboard shortcuts for punctuation characters to the punctuation table, for default (typically US) keyboards. 2012-02-14 Added a note about Hixie’s reply to the article. This article was written by florida treaty, Oli Studholme . Induction? He works as a developer for florida Information Architects, Inc. in Tokyo, Japan. He wrote “Beginning HTML5 and can result from violence Essay, CSS3—The Web Evolved” (Apress) with Rich Clark, Divya Manian, and Christopher Murphy. He also writes at oli.jp and treaty, tweets as @boblet. ????!^^ 70 Responses on the article “Quoting and citing with blockquote , q , cite , and the cite attribute” FWIW, validator.nu now shows a warning if you use the cite attribute:
Warning: The cite attribute on the blockquote element is not supported by browsers yet. (See what I did there?) Great article. One thing though: the second example in the list of historical cite uses seems a bit odd. Mary Bethune Accomplishments? You say that it’s not valid in HTML5, but then later in the article you give the exact same example as being a valid one! Having read the example again and florida, again, I’m pretty convinced it is a valid one… zOMG, people actually made it to the comment form?
I applaud you, sirs! @Mathias — oh yeah, I should have mentioned that. Thanks! Still, if you’re using it for shrew induction your own nefarious purposes don’t let a validator warning stop you! ;) @Dylan — D’oh, I must have been in florida treaty auto-pilot mode when I did that. Thanks to mary bethune accomplishments, your eagle eyes it’s now updated (with a shoutout) Also, courtesy of a prompt from @iandevlin, here is the TL;DR version: blockquote , q and cite are cool yo. But cite is only for titles (not pplz). blockquote + footer ftw! ;) Nice article! Correction: The Japanese language example has an extra q end tag. Very good article!
I had missed the part about footer inside of blockquote before. But I’m not sure about treaty your ”nyan”-example: In Japanese cats say q lang=ja-latnnyan/q Is that really a proper use of the q -element? What’s the source of the “quotation”? The Japanese language? I think we should use this:
In Japanese cats say span lang=ja-latnnyan/span In Japanese cats say i lang=ja-latnnyan/i And then we might want to add quotation marks as well. I just noticed some cleaver use of scoped style -elements in the article. Very appropriate – in a way – although it doesn’t really work in any browsers yet, but – I’m sorry to zen motorcycle, say – not valid! At least that’s what the W3C validator says (among other things). Glad to florida, see a solution to this. For a long time, I’ve just been using a cite element (without wrapping p) in the blockquote, which isn’t particularly accurate. I can update ReMarkable to use this method instead. For some personal reflection on practical use of the abbr, dfn and zen motorcycle, cite elements (which all quickly fall into the “semantics for the sake of semantics” problem you describe), see my article Me, Myself and I — or: Abbreviations, Definitions Citations Revisited” http://camendesign.com/abbr_redux.
@Zev #038; Bertil — I must be slow today, have edited that example six times so far _ @Bertil — I think style scoped is in WebKit nightlies now (if not close) @Bertil #038; Kroc — see the addition at the top of the article. I need to email the florida treaty list about symbols things carried it as IRC feedback was a little divided. There’s a decent argument for this pattern, so now I have to make it :) Also, good article Kroc. I read it while writing this. I had a quick discussion with Oli about using the treaty Person Schema with blockquote to add some semantic meaning to the Author’s name. You can check out my original gist and symbols they carried, Oli’s fork which includes a few improvements and comments. Sadly I’m one of florida, those who used the cite / incorrectly for the attributing the person to discrimination, the quotation… time to go back and florida treaty, fix that one! Thanks for Injury the clarification, now bookmarked for the reference and reminder when needed! Also, good article Kroc. I read it while writing this.
Indeed. I’d like to see that article by florida treaty, Kroc here at HTM5 Doctor. From Essay? It would fit in very well. And then I’d get to treaty, comment on it (there are a few points I – probably/possibly – disagree with). The suggestions in my article came directly from writing and in the, editing a few megs worth of florida, raw text used on my website, which bought up lots of you should learn to love, edge-cases and curious questions about semantics; so whilst I wouldn’t say my choices would suit everybody, they have at treaty, least been trialled in a background of text. My complaint about the ABBR article you published here on HTML5Doctor was essentially that you weren’t following your own advice, as I know that I practically went insane trying to mary, use those rules on megs of text before I came up with my own to take back control of my sanity.
But, I will definitely say that cite still remains the weaker out of the three and I appreciate this article for treaty being far more square. If you would like, my article could be further adapted withfeedback from the mcleod bethune doctors to better suit a broader audience. I strongly believe that a key part of learning HTML5 is learning HTML4 *properly* and eschewing spans and divs for semantics where possible. What I can’t seem to get my head around, is florida treaty, whether links should go inside or outside of the cite-elements. I.E., should you write. I lean towards the second, as you cite the maintenance work, and you link to that. The naughty question… because HTML5 “forbids” us (which I have never respected) to use the cite for author, how do we declare the author of something.
I never understood why we didn’t created a “person” or “author” element at the same time cite had been “clarified”. That depends on whether or not you are citing the link or linking the citation. If you are quoting the movie Aladdin and treaty, linking to the Wikipedia article, a href=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aladdin_(1992_Disney_film) rel=nofollowciteAladdin/cite/a Here, the citation is being linked to the Wikipedia article. If you are quoting the Wikipedia article for the movie Aladdin: citea href=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aladdin_(1992_Disney_film) rel=nofollowAladdin/a/cite
Here, the link is being cited. Great article Oli, thanks! @William — cite outside a for me, because then cite logically contains the cited work’s title and a link to it. This’d give you better info if you e.g. make a script scraping for you should to love yourself cite d works. However Charles’ take on it is also good.
@all — I’m following up on using footer in blockquote . Florida Treaty? I think it’s perfectly cromulent, but we probably need Hixie to weigh in as one of the element’s definitions will need to be changed. Loved the article. Mcleod Bethune? It’s like “perfect”. I didn’t know all this. Treaty? Now I will use this method to make my blockquotes and you should learn to love, cites. Thanks for writing this :) Massive article, i would say blockquote is greatly artistered is this article.
While I applaud the noble efforts to make the web more semantic I am sorry to break the bad news: only florida treaty, standaristas who blog will ever correctly use the blockquote, q and cite elements. The rest of the world has trouble with the latin correct usage of even the treaty most basic of HTML elements. And even then the standarista community can’t agree what is the correct usage and what’s not. This is similar to the header and footer elements that are so generic people will use them for all kinds of can result, purposes, thus obliterating any real-world usage (e.g. when writing screen-reading software) you really didn’t break a big secret. What is interesting in this discussion is not if people will markup by treaty, hand their html for quotes. Zen Motorcycle? They will not.
OK. This is treaty, set. What implementers can do with HTML quote features is a lot more interesting. A few use cases. 1. Select a text on a Web page, bookmarklet to publish on a blog. I did it.
A prototype. 2. Select a piece of maintenance, book in florida a ereader, and publish to your blog, with all the can result violence Essay markup already done. 3. Mailing list threading. 4. Online forum threading. 1. Creating a quote engine that will index online all quotes and then able to answer questions such as, give me all the quotes by Victor Hugo. Karl, the problem is that if the treaty markup pattern is not widely used, writing software that depends on it is useless. How many quotes will you be able to spider on the internet if you depend on the cite tag?
Not many. All of your examples rely on correct usage. Of course this is a chicken and egg problem. If HTML would be taught properly in schools in the future etc. Shrew? etc. @Wolf — I agree with you that the problem is florida, education, so I’m puzzled by your cynicism in your comments above. That’s what we’re trying to carried, do on florida, HTML5 Doctor, after all! :) Also, you missed two very large and important groups: software (e.g. DreamWeaver) and tool makers (e.g. editing toolbars in CMSs), and service providers (e.g. academic journal tools). You Should Learn? I try to follow the advice a wise sage once gave me, just do the best you can. In some small way I hope people reading this article can benefit from it! @All — I’ve made some changes to the article regarding the ongoing footer in blockquote saga. Treaty? It looks like the spec will change, so please chime in with your feedback and they carried, ideas!
Once again, you’ve made my day. Thanks for florida the great info!! Cite is simply one of the most problematic tags in HTML5 at the moment. Latin? I get all other, but this one always makes me think way too much to be used naturally. I’m currently working out the florida treaty system to things, semantically markup works cited in a few of florida, my articles, but it seems so damn complicated with all those changes and “cite wars” … duh. Also I notices recently that wikipedia is using normal ol/li for their references as they often just link to sources without naming them. Just grabbed the styling you’ve placed above and mcleod bethune, had all sorts of issues with special characters. Rather than have another run into this again I thought I could repay your help in a small way and offer my edits:
Thank you for everyone’s hard work with this issue, can’t wait to florida, find out the latin discrimination resolution of the footer inclusion! @lizlux — we live to serve :) happy to hear it helped. @Marcin — needing to overthink can be a sign that you should just go with the simplest option ;) but yeah I hear ya! @Jon — the character escapes in your comment will work fine, but you shouldn’t need escapes if you’re using UTF-8. Check your page’s encoding and treaty, confirm the browser is getting UTF-8. Check your text editor is saving UTF-8. Discrimination? Finally I always use: as the first line of my CSS files. If you have a 100% UTF-8 workflow you should only need character escapes for characters with special meaning in CSS, which Mathias Bynens covers in CSS character escape sequences. Hixie has given his feedback on my email, and it seems like our footer citations are still invalid. The official recommendation is to put the florida treaty blockquote in a figure and add attribution in figcaption . Zen Motorcycle? Read the florida treaty whole thread as there are some interesting comments. I’ll wait for the dust to settle a little before updating this article (and possibly every spec quote on HTML5 Doctor :| ) I’m a bit confused as I’m using the H5BP template framework and the CSS file included?
I can see the meta charset is set to shrew, utf-8 there and in both the treaty web.config and .htaccess? However, this comment is in the web.config, should this be changed? !-- use utf-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html -- mimeMap fileExtension=.css mimeType=text/css/ Thanks nonetheless, all help is greatly appreciated! @Jon — The settings in symbols in the they your text editor and .htaccess file are the most important, as these will trump other declarations. Confirm the pages on your site are UTF-8 and are being served as such first, using that link I posted or Firefox’s Page Info dialog. Treaty? After that you can work backwards to see if something is breaking your UTF-8 workflow. That academic-style journal citation is zen motorcycle, all kinds of florida treaty, trouble.
How are you supposed to Injury can result, distinguish between: — cite for the name of the article being cited (which should—in my reference style of choice—be recte and treaty, “in double quotes”); — cite for Injury from violence book names (which should be italicised and not quoted); — cite for journals (of which only the florida treaty journal name itself should be italicised and from violence Essay, quoted, with issue number, etc., being recte and florida treaty, not quoted); and. — cite for monograph series (which should be recte and not quoted)? In your example here, only the Injury violence Essay name of the journal is cite d. That means the article referred to is not marked up as a cited work at all; and also that identifying information such as volume number (which is florida treaty, necessary to identify the taming shrew source) is put outside the citation. If HTML5 wants to cater to academic citations, it needs to get its working hat on and add something like a type attribute ( cite type=article/monograph/journal/series/etc. Florida? ) that we can style our CSS by. And it needs to you should, come up with an author and/or source tag, too. :-] But I’m not sure about your ”nyan”-example: Is that really a proper use of the q-element? What’s the source of the “quotation”?
The Japanese language? I’d say that’s valid and proper enough—the source is, of florida treaty, course, the cat! ;-) ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? Kanojo wa Nihongo ni neko wa nyan to naku to itta. See anything missing there? ;-) (Ironic that my carefully [re]constructed quotes for the Japanese example, which I’d made sure to mark as lang=ja ended up being English quotes after all! Is lang stripped/not allowed from comments?) @Janus — thank you for discrimination taking the time to florida treaty, format you code :)
How are you supposed to distinguish between… The class attribute for styling, microdata or RDFa for semantics. That means the article referred to of the shrew induction, is not marked up as a cited work at florida treaty, all; and also that identifying information such as volume number (which is necessary to identify the source) is put outside the of the shrew citation. What would you expect to happen if this information was marked up? What is the florida use case, and what benefits would you get? If HTML5 wants to cater to academic citations. I suspect academic citations of the type you’d like would be outside HTML5’s scope, but they can be addressed with microdata or RDFa. like a type attribute that we can style our CSS by. The class attribute suffices for this.
it needs to come up with an author and/or source tag, too. re: author , Hixie has mentioned a potential “credit” element for attribution, but is learn, waiting to see how figure is treaty, used. For authorship you could use b or span , with semantics added via e.g. the hCard microformat or microdata. re: source , you can use a in the surrounding prose, or blockquote ’s cite attribute for an explicit source, if it has a URL. Regarding that accursed cat example, I think I’ve corrected the mistake you spotted and fixed your comment (let me know if not), and mary bethune, will add lang to the allowed attributes list. Can’t remember why I mixed q and “”, probably just to show you can, as the previous nested example is all q . damn uuu neko-chan! :) The class attribute for styling, microdata or RDFa for semantics. What would you expect to happen if this information was marked up? What is the use case, and what benefits would you get? Well, what’s the purpose of marking something up with cite to begin with? Styling is one thing, of course, but semantically, in the given example, what’s being cited is the florida article, not the book.
The book is what you need if you want to read the mary bethune article. I guess the use case would mostly be for something like extracting HTML5 markup to XML or something similar, where only the citations themselves would be kept. I admit, it’s a bit far-fetched, and probably outside the scope of HTML5. But for scholarly publishing online, it would be great if it were there. If ever I do need to treaty, venture in maintenance that direction, it looks like I’ll have some reading to florida, do, catching up (read: learning the basics) on RDFa, hCard microformats, microcards, etc.—all technologies that I am woefully ignorant of. (As for poor ????, the mistake I spotted was simply that the word[s] “????” was/were missing in the kanji version of the examples, but present in the romaji and English versions.) what’s the purpose of marking something up with cite to begin with? Indeed :) There are things we could do with formatted academic citations, but currently I’m unaware of anyone actually doing anything, which makes cite merely a semantic and medium-independent way of indicating the work being cited. Sure, visually this means italics, but because we’re using a semantic element a screen reader could also convey this via inflection, for example, which i or span class=cite-journal wouldn’t. Once people start actually doing stuff (= real world use cases), there’ll be some cowpaths for maintenance WHATWG to consider paving. For those to whom academic citation is important, I recommend investigating the Schema.org vocabularies for Article and florida treaty, Book (microdata), or the Bibliographic Ontology specification (RDFa). There’s also the citation microformat working page.
We’ve got articles introducing microdata and microformats here too. Thanks again re: that cat. I don’t get it. Why this urge to zen motorcycle, always make things more complicated than they actually are? All you need is a single CSS rule and all your “blockquote cite-attribute is not visible” problems are solved!
Yep, life can be this simple… How should I cite a person as the source of a quote? Is this valid? “Think of secret lagoons, unexplored coves, sparkling turquoise waters, fine white sand, spectacular limestone karst, fresh seafood and lovely people - these things are just a fraction of what you can experience in El Nido. Coron is a one of the best diving destination in florida treaty the world. They have the cleanest lake and some amazing landscape and seascape. Puerto Princesa City on the other hand offers one of the New 7 Wonders of the World. The Underground River tour is you should yourself, just out of this world.” What would be the florida best practice for semantic markup in this case? Shouldn’t the name of the Injury can result from article be cited as well, like with: liciteThe information capacity of the human motor system in florida treaty controlling the amplitude of movement/cite, Paul M. Fitts (1954). citeJournal of Experimental Psychology/cite, volume 47, number 6, June 1954, pp. 381–391/li
Wasn’t there discussion about a main tag? If that gets added, it’s a great place to store the actual quotation in a quoteblock, You know the golden rule, don’t you boy? Those who have the gold make the rules. - Crazy hunch-backed old guy from the in the movie.
Somewhat off topic, or maybe not. I’ve seen it argued that the citation should be placed *outside* the blockquote inasmuch as the treaty citation isn’t strictly part of the material being quoted. Fussy semantics. This is probably a dumb question, and forgive me if it’s been asked in the comments already (I figure the difficulty of ignoring me is a lot less than the difficulty of reading the entire comment thread), but why not suggest that the HTML5 spec define cite to be use case 3 rather than use case 2, with the subparts of the name of the work and the name of the author each optional but another pair of tags for them? E.g. citehypothetical-author-tagJohn Doe/hypothetical-author-tag, hypothetical-title-tagReconciling Purity and Practicality/hypothetical-title-tag/cite or q…you can fool some of the from violence Essay people all of the time…/qcitegt;hypothetical-author-tagAbe Lincoln/hypothetical-author-tag/cite or citehypothetical-title-tagAn Example of the treaty Original Purpose of the Cite Tag/hypothetical-title-tag/cite Would something like this not satisfy both the taming of the shrew purist specifiers who object to cite being used for three different things and the practical authors who object to effectively being told that citations other than the name of a work are semantically irrelevant? Sure, it is a change from the florida treaty original intended meaning, but it seems to me like it would meet everyone’s actual needs. Oops, not used to writing and as lt; and ampgt;, managed to latin, get most of them backwards… let’s try again… citehypothetical-author-tagJohn Doe/hypothetical-author-tag, hypothetical-title-tagReconciling Purity and Practicality/hypothetical-title-tag/cite or q…you can fool some of the people all of the time…/qcitelt;hypothetical-author-tagAbe Lincoln/hypothetical-author-tag/cite or citehypothetical-title-tagAn Example of the Original Purpose of the florida treaty Cite Tag/hypothetical-title-tag/cite Kudos to this article author. Zen Motorcycle? Such a great insight on different kinds of usage of blockquote element.
This is a nice read. For those who need to understand basic blockquotes, here is treaty, my article Using quotes and blockquotes. On “extra” (or extraneous!) info within blockquote. Use an aside tag to stick in taming of the shrew references etc? Actually your idea of using a footer is florida treaty, better; but why not an aside as well or instead?
To much clutter/confusion? Leave blockquote definition “must be quoted from another source” as is, but add, “except where tag semantics indicate otherwise.” The clutter/confusion will inevitably be expressed somewhere. The current spec just means; not in blockquote! ‘Cause its saying if your going to use blockquote so it looks nice and gives meta-information you want to enclose it in latin discrimination a figure tag, and use figcaption for the stuff about blockquote. Basically the spec is treaty, inventing a compound tag with this suggestion, which will lead to taming, clutter/confusion, and questions like; why can’t I put all this stuff in blockquote? When a quotation is inside an article, it is reasonable to use figure as the florida outer wrapper and figcaption as the attribution wrapper. But how about a list of zen motorcycle, quotations which are not inside an article? They don’t serve the florida treaty purpose of illustrating/annotating the context (because there is zen motorcycle maintenance, no context), so figure and figcaption can’t be the wrappers. How do we mark up a list of quotations in florida such a case?
I agree with Matej Cepl about the academic citation. “The information capacity of the human motor system in taming controlling the amplitude of movement” should be in cite, since that is the work being cited. You wouldn’t, in general, cite an entire journal. And, even if you did, you should perhaps be including the volume and issue numbers in cite. I don’t know if you noticed or not, but as of florida, this writing, the zen motorcycle ‘blockquote + figcaption inside figure’ style is given as an example on treaty, the HTML5 blockquote spec page. Guess this is the mary mcleod best option we’ve got for now. Something terrible has happened! Or possibly something great. I’m not sure. The semantics of the cite element has changed in the latest version of the Editor’s Draft of the florida HTML5(.1) specification. Now it says.
The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. It must include the title of the work or the name of the author(person, people or organization) or an URL reference, which may be in taming shrew induction an abbreviated form as per the conventions used for the addition of citation metadata. and the following example is given: pIn the words of citeCharles Bukowski/cite - qAn intellectual says a simple thing in a hard way. An artist says a hard thing in a simple way./q/p Hence, now it is again allowed to use cite to florida, mark up names, at least when referring to learn to love yourself, an author of a ‘creative work’. Why has this been changed? Will the change survive? What will be the case in the HTML5 Recommendation planned for treaty next year (2014)? Why has this been changed?
Will the change survive? What will be the case in the HTML5 Recommendation planned for next year (2014)? Thank you for symbols things carried your response, Steve. I think I prefer the old meaning of the cite element (the one only permitting titles). The reason is that I am really fond of the exactness, cleanness, simplicity, and ease-of-use that version brought to the HTML5 specification. I think of it mainly in this way: In written English, as well as in many other languages, you use italics for a number of different reasons. In hypertext documents, you can embed information about the precise reason why a phrase is in italics: * emgt for stress emphasis, possibly the most common case. Often alters (or clarifies) the meaning of the text. * citegt for florida titles (books, articles, films, …). * dfngt for the defining instance of a term.
* igt (with class attribute) for phrases in languages different from the language of the surrounding text. * igt (with class attribute) for Latin names of species. * a few other cases. I think this is wonderful. In this case, it is extremely easy to zen motorcycle, use cite right — it’s used for titles, nothing else. It also makes perfect sense to have a specific element for this purpose, since you usually want to display titles in a different way visually (typically in treaty italics), so you certainly need some markup here. And why not make it semantic, and make the wonderful list above come true? As noted in the article (to which this is a comment), HTML 2.0 gives exactly this meaning to the cite element.
Unfortunately, the text in other HTML specifications and proposals is more diffuse: In HTML+, an academic citation is given as the only example. In HTML 3.0, the text talks about ‘citations’ and ‘italics’, and the only example is a book title. In HTML 3.2, ‘citations or references’ is used to describe the element. Zen Motorcycle Maintenance? The same applies to HTML 4.01, and the examples (quoted in the article) are about referring to external sources (in one case, using a custom ID syntax). Personally, I feel that the use of cite in florida “my” way (the HTML 2.0 and the original HTML5 way) is discrimination, semantically different from the one about giving ‘references’ to florida, external sources. (It also happens to be two different things typographically: titles are usually in italics, while ‘references’ might be given in discrimination various formats.) So I don’t really like the idea to allow both of florida treaty, these uses: it would make the element, essentially, meaningless from a semantic point of view. (And even if we ignore the part about of the shrew induction semantics, it would not be painless to use the element in florida treaty actual web pages when it comes to the default formatting, since book titles should be in italics while names of people shouldn’t, generally.) Marking up titles is discrimination, important, generally. For instance, the text.
doesn’t mean the florida same thing as. “citeViolence/cite (=a book or an shrew induction article, perhaps?) is good.” It’s a feature of florida treaty, written human language, essentially, that titles should be marked up in some way, in the same vein as stress emphasis and defining instances. Giving references in an academic paper, or referring to a person or URL, doesn’t feel like the same thing (and generally requires different formatting). At least not exactly . Additionally, the mary accomplishments current HTML5 text apparently considers it to be a ‘creative work’ if a person mutters something to himself.
I guess my main points are the following: The restrictive version of the definition. * is much easier to apply right; * has a very precise semantics; and. * is very useful in practice, since you do need some markup to affect the treaty formatting. The new version of the definition. * is used for many different cases, and it is not as easy to tell if a borderline application is appropriate or not; * can mean a number of similar, but not identical, things; and. * can be useful in practice, but you might need different class es to make only some of the taming instances be rendered in italics. Of course, since the treaty new version is more inclusive, you (may) get more markup, and hence more semantics.
But, again, a computer program can’t tell the different types of applications from each other (title, URL, name, full citation, ISO ID?). Well, they are all references, in some sense, so I certainly agree you do gain something, but we will “never” be able to latin, mark up everything anyway. Do we really need an florida element for marking up every possible ‘citation’ or ‘reference’ in a broad sense? Well, certainly not for class -less formatting, at least. Sorry my post became so long…
I think I prefer the old meaning of the element (the one only permitting titles). Mary Mcleod Bethune Accomplishments? The reason is that I am really fond of the exactness, cleanness, simplicity, and ease-of-use. When updating the definition of cite we looked at florida, how it is you should yourself, used and how authors want to use it. I understand the allure of a definition that restricts cite to titles of works, but it has not and is not being used for florida treaty this purpose in the majority of instances. Symbols Carried? So the treaty theoretical purity of the of the restriction does not translate into usage in the real world, so it of little use to potential consumers of the florida treaty semantics.
you usually want to display titles in a different way visually (typically in italics), so you certainly need some markup here. The visual presentation should not effect the semantics of the element. if you look at how search engines such as Google (used for URLs in search results not italicized) or Bing (used for URLs in search results not italicized) use cite, they override the default visual presentation. Does this mean its no longer a citation? * is used for many different cases, and it is not as easy to tell if a borderline application is zen motorcycle, appropriate or not; * can mean a number of similar, but not identical, things; and. * can be useful in florida practice, but you might need different classes to make only mary accomplishments, some of the instances be rendered in italics. It is treaty, used for one case: The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. The information that reference consists of is of the induction, broader, but its broadness means that it actually reflects usage in the real world. I would suggest the granularity you seek is better provided using metadata (microdata, RDFa), as it is known to florida, be useful and taming induction, consumed in practice. Also the use of classes to provide such granularity is fine and encouraged if its useful for the author: Authors can use the class attribute to extend elements, effectively creating their own elements, while using the florida most applicable existing “real” HTML element, so that browsers and other tools that don’t know of the extension can still support it somewhat well.
This is the tack used by microformats, for example. Thank you again for your time, Steve. I do understand your arguments and they certainly make sense. I suppose, to some extent, this it is a choice one has to make: either you make the taming standard theoretically simple, beautiful, and logical, or you make the best you can without ‘breaking’ millions of existing hypertext documents. If I understand this correctly (yes, for some reason I do find the new text harder to understand), the new version is strictly a ‘superset’ of the old one, in the sense that every valid use of cite according to florida treaty, the last version is also valid according to the new version? For instance, on my website, I have a navbar (a UL with a set of LIs each containing a single hyperlink). One of the links is latin, citeAndlos langtan/cite ; this link will take you to the homepage of my (Swedish-language) book Andlos langtan . This was perfectly in agreement with the old version of the spec., but I suppose it is still valid? Although the navbar doesn’t contain a quote from the florida treaty book, this LI certainly is latin discrimination, “a reference to treaty, a creative work [that, in addition,] include[s] the of the shrew induction title of the work”. So, in practice, I do not have to change any of my habits or existing markup due to this change: I can still use cite to mark up titles of things.
I don’t have to treaty, use it to taming of the shrew, mark up names next to quotes, etc. Florida? (although I certainly could start doing that now). I just recalled an earlier version of the HTML5 text from to love yourself, 2008. Here’s yet another version of the meaning of cite : The cite element represents a citation: the florida treaty source, or reference, for a quote or statement made in zen motorcycle maintenance the document. This is […] wrong, because the title and florida treaty, the name are not references or citations: pMy favourite book is citeThe Reality Dysfunction/cite According to that text, my habit of marking up titles would be wrong. I don’t know when or why that old text was changed to “my favourite”, which is 100 % incompatible with the old one. In terms of valid types of applications, it seems like the you should yourself new version (maybe we should call it “the third one”?) includes both the florida old one (the one from 2008: “the source, or reference, for latin a quote or statement made in the document”) and my favourite (titles of florida treaty, stuff), as well as other kinds of Injury from Essay, ‘references’ to ‘creative works’ (including sounds someone mutters to treaty, himself).
Is it correct to say that the new version is the most inclusive one ever in discrimination an HTML specification? (yes, for florida some reason I do find the discrimination new text harder to understand), the treaty new version is strictly a ‘superset’ of the old one, in the sense that every valid use of according to the last version is also valid according to mary bethune accomplishments, the new version? Correct. Florida? If the text is unclear please do file a bug on the HTML spec, it’s an zen motorcycle editors draft and there for people to comment on and help improve. So, in florida treaty practice, I do not have to change any of my habits or existing markup due to this change: I can still use to Injury can result, mark up titles of things.
I don’t have to use it to mark up names next to quotes, etc. Florida? (although I certainly could start doing that now). There is an example in the spec: pWho is learn to love yourself, your favorite doctor (in citeDoctor Who/cite)?/p Is it correct to say that the treaty new version is the most inclusive one ever in an HTML specification? Well, I would like to think it’s inclusiveness is better defined and they carried, explained than previous versions which were somewhat musrky. Styling is a matter for CSS and does not independently constitute “semantics”. However, it is advisable to style HTML elements according to their semantic differentiation within the document. Florida Treaty? Should one wish to present citations for authors (as opposed to works) differently, microdata (and perhaps RDFa?) has itemprop=author. This is equivalent to the rel=author link relation but not restricted to Injury can result from Essay, hyperlinks. The CSS attribute selector is as follows: Or, for citations that include links to author pages:
As Steve demonstrates, uses of the cite element are many and varied. Florida Treaty? This is in accordance with its broad remit in the English Language, which includes works and authors. citeWikipedia/cite states that a citation can be from taming of the, a published or unpublished source. However, citeyou/cite are welcome to say Wikipedia is a load of dingo's kidneys, and I'd feel duty bound to publish emboth/em views on citeMy Blog/cite. @Heydon Pickering: I’d use However, emyou/em are welcome. It’s stress emphasis. I don’t know what ‘creative work’ “you” is florida, referring to. I’ve always used cite as a source or a reference or to you should learn to love yourself, give credit for florida a quotation.
Never simply to mark up a title unless it was a source. So to me this, “cite Aladdin/cite is a great movie, even after 73 viewings. Aren’t kids great?,” makes no sense. If cite was strictly for titles, why not use title instead? Isn’t that more semantic? Also, would have been nice if there were some useful attributes on cite like cite source=”author” href=”” … source could be title, book, movie, play, url, article, post, etc. Sorry about the re-post. For the latin discrimination blockquote, why not redefine blockquote to be the florida treaty container and symbols in the things, q the florida treaty actual quote, followed by latin, a cite? For example, pThis is a longer block quote./p pIt uses paragraph elements./p
That’s surely unnecessary markup? @Rich – Why is florida, it “surely” unnecessary? The objective is to differentiate between information about the mary bethune text that’s being quoted, and a citation that appears as part of the text that’s being quoted. Previously, blockquote was defined in treaty a way that allowed that differentiation (although it was often misused). HTML 5.1 changes the blockquote definition in such a way that it is no longer even possible. The objective is to differentiate between information about the text that’s being quoted, and a citation that appears as part of the text that’s being quoted.
do you have any data as to the frequency of violence Essay, this occurring? I suggest that the change in the HTML spec provides a much greater benefit as it covers a very frequent (57% of the time) pattern of citation information being included in a blockquote . @Steve – No I don’t. Florida? It’s just a principle. My guess is that it’s pretty rare. I guess I don’t really understand what the mary bethune problem is that the change is trying to solve.
If it’s just for the sake of paving a cow path then I doubt its utility, but I’m not particularly opposed to it. I suspect (again, no data) that the blockquote indentation rule tends to encourage authors to put the cite inside the blockquote, so I wonder whether an florida treaty HTML5 endorsed way of permitting that might be sufficient to in the they carried, effect a change in authoring practice. Using the footer element inside the blockquote to treaty, contain metadata about the quote, including its citation seems both natural and pretty harmless since there should be no need to use footer in the quote itself. Accordingly, my preference would be that the blockquote change was limited to maintenance, permitting that. Wow, didn’t even know there is a *that* simple option to put beautiful quotes in the content, yes! :-)
Hey there, I was wondering if this is florida, correct use for a list of blockquotes (as on a homepage testimonials slideshow) : Note to moderators, please erase previous comment :) Thanks Dr. Steve. Is there a way to style blockquote in CSS so that it doesn’t include a line break in its execution? I don’t want extra lines between main text and blockquote. Regarding the use of a reference inside a blockquote element, I think contextual information should be outside, preferably as part of the can result part of the introduction, such as in ‘Regarding the florida blockquote element, the Injury from violence W3C HTML5 specification states:’ before the blockquote for your first example. I think this context-after approach is florida treaty, part of the overall inside-out approach to information presentation that has been inherited from taming induction, print, when it consisted of large tracts of text, interspersed with pictures and florida treaty, tables placed in convenient places for layout, but not necessarily near the text to which it relates, and often not even on the same page. To me, the more sensible way of presenting figures, tables and lists is to introduce them, giving its context, and optionally what the reader should look for zen motorcycle maintenance in it. Florida? This is because if the figure or table is a part of the narrative, then it should be presented right at latin, the appropriate context point.
It would also keep the reader focussed on florida, why the figure or table is being presented. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but unless you guide a reader in what to look for, they may well pick a thousand words that don’t fit with your purpose for the element. Also, people don’t want to latin, waste their time, so they make very quick decisions about treaty whether what is being presented needs to be read/viewed or not, so introducing its context helps them to make that decision. Some examples of introductions are: – ‘A young red pine, with visible roots due to soil erosion:’ – ‘To identify yourself, bring any two of:’ – ‘The damage to the building, as viewed from the south-east corner, is:’ – ‘The sales for last five years, with year-on-year downturns shown in can result from violence red, are:’. I know we have been trained to look first, then read the florida caption, but I think introducing context BEFORE a mass of visual information serves readers better. The reader will then be more aware of the context that text after the element is focused upon. The other consequence of the more granular ‘chunkification’ of information in web content these days, is that there is no reason why a figure or table number is required, when there is a heading closely above it. How many web sites provide a table of figures or tables to use that number?
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channel bio WO 2009125974 A2. The present invention relates to a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector in which excitation light is irradiated on a sample containing a fluorescent substance so as to detect fluorescence generated by the sample and thus analyze various biochemical materials, and an on-line monitoring apparatus of it. Generally, fluorescence is a phenomenon that, when molecules or atoms of a substance excited from a ground state having a low energy level to an excitation state having a high energy level by absorbing energy from an outside is returned to the ground state, light having a long wavelength comparing with an excitation wavelength is re-emitted. A fluorescence analysis is to measure an amount of a specified substance contained in a sample by detecting light generated by the fluorescence using various optical detectors. A fluorescence detector is an apparatus for measuring properties (concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, concentration of carbon dioxide, concentration of specified ion and various characteristics of a biochemical material) of the sample using the fluorescence analysis. In Korean Patent No. 10-0451416, as a conventional apparatus using the fluorescence analysis, there is disclosed an optical system in treaty, a fluorescence detection equipment, including a light source for emitting light; a first shielding film formed with an opening so as to allow the light emitted from the light source to they carried, partially pass through; a band pass filter provided to allow only the light having a predetermined frequency to pass through; a channel for receiving a sample on which light passing through the first shielding film and the band pass filter is scanned; a second shielding film formed with a shielding portion for shielding light emitted from the light source contained in light emitted from the treaty channel and an opening through which light emitted from the sample passes; and an optical sensor for detecting light passing through the second shielding film. However, since the optical system in the fluorescence detection equipment uses only the light emitted from one light source, it is impossible to accomplishments, measure various characteristics at florida, a time.
Therefore, the oxygen concentration, pH, carbon dioxide concentration, specified ion concentration and the various characteristics of a biochemical material can not be measured at a time. Further, since the symbols light source or the band pass filter is different according to florida, the properties, it is necessary to replace the induction light source or the band pass filter, and thus it takes too much time to florida, measure the taming shrew properties and also it is difficult to analyze them. Further, since only one channel contained the sample can be measure at a time, when a plurality of florida samples are measured, it is also takes too much time to you should learn yourself, replace the channels. Furthermore, it is florida required to zen motorcycle, develop a monitoring apparatus for florida treaty, controlling the fluorescence detector through on-line. An object of the present invention is to Injury from violence, provide a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector in which multiple samples are scanned with time difference by light from a light source of a fluorescence detection system having a plurality of channels so as to measure the samples at a time, thereby reducing a measuring time of the samples. Another object of the present invention is to florida treaty, provide a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector which can measure concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, concentration of carbon dioxide, concentration of specified ion and intensity of fluorescence from a biochemical material at a time in one well. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus which can control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector through on-line. To achieve the above objects, the present invention provides a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100, including a light source 10 for emitting excitation light; a light irradiation part 30 for irradiating the excitation light emitted from the light source 10; a sample receiving part 40 in which the excitation light irradiated from the light irradiation part 30 is irradiated on a sample and which has a plurality of of the walls 41 for receiving a sample containing a fluorescent material; and an optical detecting part 50 for detecting fluorescence emitted from the florida treaty sample received in zen motorcycle maintenance, the wall 41 of the sample receiving part 40. Preferably, the light irradiation part 30 is provided with a block 20 which is formed into one body, and includes a light source coupling port 31 which is coupled with the treaty light source 10, an excitation light irradiating path 32 through which excitation light emitted from the light source 10 is transmitted from the light source coupling port 31, and a band pass filter 33 which is coupled to an end or an internal portion of the excitation light irradiating path 32 placed at an inside portion of the light source 10 so as to pass only the taming of the induction excitation light having a special wavelength emitted from the light source 10.
Preferably, the optical detecting part 50 includes a fluorescence path 51 which is provided at the block 20 of the light irradiation part 30 and through which the fluorescence emitted from the treaty sample received in the well 41 of the sample receiving part 40 is transmitted, a band pass filter 53 which is in the they carried disposed at the fluorescence path 51, and a detecting sensor 52 which is coupled to an end of the fluorescence path 51 so as to detect the transmitted fluorescence. Preferably, the treaty light source coupling port 31 and the excitation light irradiating path 32 are provided in plural so as to entirely or independently irradiate the excitation light. Preferably, the excitation light irradiating path 32 is you should to love formed at the surface of the florida treaty block adjacent to the sample receiving part 40 so as to violence, form an treaty, angle of 0 to 90°with respect to Essay, the light source coupling port 31. Preferably, the block 20 is disposed at a lower side of the sample receiving part 40, and a fluorescent sensor film 42 for passing only particular fluorescence emitted from the treaty sample or a fluorescent material for sensing the fluorescence is attached to or coated on latin a bottom surface of the well 41. Preferably, the fluorescent sensor film 42 is divided into or mixed with n kinds or more (n=1) so as to florida treaty, measure various characteristics of biochemical materials.
Preferably, the fluorescence path 51 and the detecting sensor 52 of the optical detecting part 50 is comprised of a single detector or a plurality of fluorescent sensor films 42 in which the you should learn fluorescent dye is florida divided or mixed so as to detect the fluorescence. Preferably, the block 20 is selectively disposed at you should learn yourself, a side portion, a lower portion and an upper portion of the sample receiving part 40 so as to irradiate the excitation light and detect the fluorescence. Preferably, the detecting sensor 52 includes PMT (Photo multiplier tube), PD (photo diode) and CCD (Charged couple device). Preferably, an optical fiber is inserted into the excitation light irradiating path 32 or the fluorescence path 51. Preferably, an end of the optical fiber is worked into an ellipse shape so as to florida, increase an incident amount of the mcleod excitation light or the fluorescence. Preferably, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector further includes a dichromatic mirror 54 which allows to irradiate the excitation light and detect the florida treaty fluorescence using a single piece of the optical fiber. Preferably, the zen motorcycle maintenance block 20 is fixed to a moving table 61 so as to move left and right or forward and backward, so that the light irradiation part 30 and the optical detecting part 50 irradiate the treaty light on the well 41 or detect the light from the well 41. Further, the present invention provides a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus, including a main body 110 in things they carried, which a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 is provided; a data transmitting part 120 which transmits data detected from the optical detecting part 50 of the florida treaty multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 and receives a control signal for mary mcleod, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100; a data receiving part 130 which receives data transmitted from the data transmitting part 120 and transmits the control signal for florida, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100; and a micro-processor 140 which analyzes and stores the shrew induction received data received from the data receiving part 130 and controls the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100. Preferably, the main body 110 is formed with an air inlet port 112 through which external air is introduced and an air outlet port 113 through which air in the main body 110 is treaty discharged, and to love, includes a heater 116 which is provided at the air inlet port 112, an treaty, air inlet fan 114 which is disposed at a rear side of the heater 116 so as to zen motorcycle, suck air heated by the heater 116, an air inlet slot 151, 152 through which the air is introduced by the air inlet fan 114, an air outlet port 153 which is provided at an outer side of the air inlet slot 151, 152 and communicated with the air inlet slot 151, 152 so as to discharge the heated air inside the main body 110, and an air outlet fan 115 which is provided at the air outlet port 113 so as to discharge air in the main body 110 to an outside, and the main body 110 further includes a thermostat 150 for constantly maintaining an internal temperature in treaty, the main body 110.
Preferably, the symbols things they multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus further includes an antifungal filter 160 is florida treaty provided at you should learn to love yourself, the air inlet port 112 and the air outlet port 113 so as to filter internal air discharged from the main body 110. Preferably, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus further includes a vibrator 170 which vibrates the sample receiving part 40 of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and thus stirs the sample received in the sample receiving part 40. since the excitation lights which are respectively emitted from the plurality of light sources so as to have a difference wavelength is irradiated to the wells, it is possible to detect the treaty fluorescence according to characteristics of the fluorescent dyes which generate the fluorescence by the concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, the concentration of latin carbon dioxide, the concentration of specified ion and the like, and florida, thus to analyze various characteristics at a time. Shrew! Further, since the multiple samples are measured in florida treaty, a single device at mary accomplishments, a time while the sample receiving part having the plurality of wells is moved, it is possible to reduce the measuring time. Furthermore, since the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector of the florida present invention is controlled through on-line, it is possible to facilely control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and secure the stability. Furthermore, it is Injury possible to control the plurality of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detectors and provide the florida treaty optimum conditions for reacting the samples in the sample receiving part.
The above and you should learn to love yourself, other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the florida following description of preferred embodiments given in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing a state that a sample receiving part is disposed in a main body casing of a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention. Fig. 2 is you should a perspective view showing a detail structure of a thermostat according to the present invention. Fig. 3 is florida a plane view of the detail structure of the thermostat according to the present invention. Fig.
4 is can result violence a perspective view showing a state that a light source and florida, a band pass filter are provided in a block of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention. Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view showing a state that a well of the mary bethune sample receiving part is disposed at florida treaty, an upper side of the block of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and excitation light is irradiated thereon according to the present invention. Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing a state that the mary accomplishments block disposed at a lower inner portion of the main body casing is moved according to the present invention. Fig. 7 is a plane view of a well of the sample receiving part in florida treaty, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to other embodiment of the present invention. Fig.
8 is a cross-sectional view showing a state of irradiating excitation light and detecting fluorescence using a dichromatic mirror in the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention. Fig. 9 is to love a schematic view showing a structure of a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus according to the present invention. [Detailed Description of Main Elements] 100: multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 1: main body casing. 2: cover 10: light source. 20: block 30: light irradiation part. 31: light source coupling port 32: excitation light irradiating path. 33: band pass filter 40: sample receiving part.
41: well 42: fluorescent sensor film. 50: optical detecting part 51: fluorescence path. 52: detecting sensor 61: moving table. 62: x-axial moving means 63: y-axial moving means. 120: data transmitting part 130: data receiving part. 140: micro-processor 150: thermostat. 160: antifungal filter 170: vibrator. Hereinafter, the embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to accompanying drawings. Fig.
1 is a perspective view showing a state that a sample receiving part is florida disposed in a main body casing of symbols they carried a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention, Fig. 2 is a perspective view showing a detail structure of a thermostat according to the present invention, Fig. 3 is a plane view of the detail structure of the thermostat according to the present invention, Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing a state that a light source and florida, a band pass filter are provided in a block of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention, Fig. 5 is maintenance a cross-sectional view showing a state that a well of the sample receiving part is disposed at an upper side of the block of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and excitation light is irradiated thereon according to the present invention, Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing a state that the block disposed at a lower inner portion of the main body casing is moved according to treaty, the present invention, Fig. 7 is a plane view of a well of the sample receiving part in the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to Injury, other embodiment of the present invention, and Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional view showing a state of florida treaty irradiating excitation light and detecting fluorescence using a dichromatic mirror in zen motorcycle, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention.
As illustrated in drawings, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector according to the present invention includes a light source 10 for emitting excitation light, a light irradiation part 30 for florida, irradiating the excitation light emitted from the light source 10; a sample receiving part 40 in which the excitation light irradiated from the light irradiation part 30 is irradiated on in the things they carried a sample and which has a plurality of treaty walls 41 for receiving a sample containing a fluorescent material; and zen motorcycle, an optical detecting part 50 for detecting fluorescence emitted from the sample received in treaty, the wall 41 of the sample receiving part 40. The multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 has a main body casing 1. Symbols They Carried! The main body casing 1 has a cover 2 disposed at an upper side thereof, so that the sample receiving part 40 in florida treaty, which a sample is symbols accommodated is received in the main body casing 1 in a state the cover 2 is opened, and a darkroom in which light is not entered is maintained in state the cover 2 is closed. In order to culture various microorganisms using the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector, it is important to maintain proper temperature according to treaty, a growth property of each microorganism. Can Result From Violence Essay! Therefore, the present invention provides a thermostat 150 for constantly maintaining the temperature in florida treaty, the sample receiving part, i.e., a small fluorescence detector. In order to constantly maintain the discrimination temperature of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector, as shown in Figs. Florida Treaty! 2 and taming shrew, 3, the florida treaty main body 110 is formed with an air inlet port 112 through which external air is introduced and an air outlet port 113 through which air in the main body 110 is discharged, and includes a heater 116 which is symbols in the carried provided at the air inlet port 112, an air inlet fan 114 which is disposed at florida, a rear side of the heater 116 so as to suck air heated by Injury can result violence Essay, the heater 116, an air inlet slot 151, 152 through which the florida air is introduced by the air inlet fan 114, an air outlet port 153 which is provided at an outer side of the air inlet slot 151, 152 and communicated with the air inlet slot 151, 152 so as to discharge the heated air inside the mary accomplishments main body 110, and an air outlet fan 115 which is treaty provided at the air outlet port 113 so as to discharge air in the main body 110 to an outside. At this time, the shrew thermostat 150 functions to introduce the external air into the main body 110 and discharge the internal air of the treaty main body 110 using the air inlet fan 114 and the air outlet fan 115 so as to perform heat exchange therebetween, thereby constantly maintaining the temperature. The air inlet port 112 is formed into a slit type so that hot air or cold air supplied from the outside is appropriately diffused at a front surface of the small fluorescence detector. In order to discharge the hot air or the cold air supplied to the fluorescence detector outside the to love detector, the air outlet ports 153 are arranged in a raw at a side of the slit type air inlet port 112, thereby discharging the supplied air to the inside of the main body 110.
An antifungal filter 160 is florida provided at an outer side of the air inlet fan 114 and of the shrew induction, the air outlet fan 115 so as to prevent an inside of the small fluorescence detector from being contaminated by germs. The antifungal filter 160 filters the external air so as to remove dusts which may stain the sample receiving part upon the fluorescence analysis and treaty, also to prevent the sample receiving part from being contaminated by the germs, thereby improving accuracy of data analysis and discrimination, reliability. The antifungal filter 160 is typically well-known in the art. As described above, since the present invention has the constant-temperature and antifungal functions, it is possible to provide the optimum conditions for reacting the sample received in florida treaty, the sample receiving part of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector. Preferably, the present invention further includes a vibrator 170 which vibrates the sample receiving part 40 of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and thus stirs the mcleod bethune sample received in the sample receiving part 40. As illustrated in Figs. Florida! 4 and zen motorcycle, 5, the light source 10 emits a desired light beam and includes a light emitting diode (LED), a laser diode (LD), a Xe-lamp, a tungsten lamp and so on.
The light irradiation part 30 includes a light source coupling port 31 which is coupled with the light source 10, an excitation light irradiating path 32 through which excitation light emitted from the light source 10 is transmitted from the light source coupling port 31, and florida treaty, a band pass filter 33 which is coupled to an end or an internal portion of the excitation light irradiating path 32 placed at an inside portion of the light source 10 so as to pass only the of the induction excitation light having a special wavelength emitted from the light source 10. The light irradiation portion 30 is disposed at a block which is formed into one body. The light source coupling port 31 may be disposed at one side surface, a lower portion or an upper portion of the florida block 20. Further, the excitation light irradiating path 32 may be formed from the light source coupling port 31 toward the other side surface, an upper portion or a lower portion of the block 20 so that the excitation light emitted from the bethune accomplishments light source 10 can be irradiated through an florida, entry portion formed at symbols things carried, an end of the excitation light irradiating path 32. In case that the light source coupling port 31 is formed at a surface of the block 20 and the excitation light irradiating path 32 is treaty formed at the other side of the block 20, the block 20 is Essay disposed at a side surface of the sample receiving part 40 so as to detect fluorescence.
In case that the excitation light irradiating path 32 is formed at treaty, the upper portion of the block 20, the block 20 is disposed at of the shrew, a lower side of the sample receiving part 40. In case that excitation light irradiating path 32 is florida treaty formed at symbols things, the lower portion of the block 20, the block 20 is disposed at florida, an upper side of the sample receiving part 40. In the taming shrew drawing, the light source coupling port 31 is formed at one side surface of the block 20 and the excitation light irradiating path 32 is formed to be inclined toward the upper portion of the block 20. As described above, the excitation light irradiating path 32 is formed at the surface of the block adjacent to the sample receiving part 40 so as to form an angle of 0 to treaty, 90°with respect to the light source coupling port 31. Preferably, the light source coupling port 31 and the excitation light irradiating path 32 are provided in plural so as to you should learn yourself, be respectively irradiated with the excitation light emitted from the same light source, or the excitation lights independently emitted from difference light sources. The band pass filter 33 is disposed at an end of the excitation light irradiating path 32 or in the excitation light irradiating path 32 positioned at an inner side of the light source 10. The band pass filter 33 functions to allow only the excitation light having a wavelength proper to the characteristics, such as concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, concentration of florida treaty carbon dioxide, and of the shrew, concentration of specified ion, to be passed. The excitation light having a special wavelength, which passes through the band pass filter 33, is irradiated to the wall 41 of the sample receiving part 40. The sample receiving part 40 is irradiated with the excitation light having the specific wavelength, which passes the band pass filter 33 of the light irradiation portion 30, and thus the sample in the sample receiving part 40 is treaty irradiated with the excitation light. As shown in Figs.
1, 5 and 8, the sample receiving part 40 is disposed at an inner upper portion of the discrimination main body casing 1 and treaty, provided with the can result from violence plurality of walls 41 in which the sample to be measured containing a fluorescent substance is accommodated. Preferably, a fluorescent sensor film 42 for emitting only special fluorescence intended to be measured is attached to a bottom surface in each of the plurality of walls 41. At this time, the block 20 is preferably provided at a lower side of the sample receiving part 40. The fluorescent sensor film 42 includes a sensor film formed of a fluorescent dye for florida treaty, detecting dissolved oxygen, a fluorescent dye for symbols things, detecting pH, a fluorescent dye for detecting carbon dioxide, a fluorescent dye for florida, detecting specified ion, and an optical sensor film using a principle of generating fluorescence when a biochemical material is mary mcleod bethune combined with, for example, GFP(Green Fluorescent Protein) which is a protein emitting green fluorescence, RFP (Red Fluorescent Protein) which is a protein emitting red fluorescence or a quantum dot, or simultaneously existed along with it. The sensor film is fixedly attached to an inner bottom surface of each well 41, or the fluorescent dye is florida treaty coated to have a predetermined thickness on the inner bottom surface of each well 41, thereby forming the sensor film. Therefore, if the you should to love excitation light having a specific wavelength passing through the band pass filter 33 is irradiated into the well 41, the sample received in the well 41 and the fluorescent dye contained in treaty, the fluorescent sensor film interacts with each other, and thus fluorescence which is in proportion or inverse proportion to mcleod bethune accomplishments, concentration of the sample is florida treaty generated.
The sensor film formed of you should to love one of the fluorescent dye for detecting dissolved oxygen, the fluorescent dye for detecting pH, the fluorescent dye for detecting carbon dioxide, the fluorescent dye for detecting specified ion and various fluorescent sensor films is provided as the fluorescence sensor film 42 at the inner bottom surface of one well 41, as shown in Fig. 5. Florida Treaty! Alternatively, in other embodiment of the present invention, as shown in Fig. 7, the sensor film formed of the fluorescent dye for detecting dissolved oxygen, the fluorescent dye for detecting pH, the fluorescent dye for detecting carbon dioxide, the fluorescent dye for detecting specified ion and taming of the, the like is florida divided into multiple parts so that various kinds of the fluorescent dyes are provided together so as to measure various biologic characteristics at a time. In The Carried! In this case, the multiple light sources 10 corresponding to the number of divided parts are provided at the block 20 so that proper excitation lights can be respectively irradiated to each divided part. Also each band pass filter 33 which is differently controlled is provided so as to filter only the wavelength of the excitation light according to each characteristic. Furthermore, instead of the fluorescent dye that is dividedly coated on the inner bottom surface of the treaty well 41, the sensor film which is can result from violence mixed with the florida treaty various fluorescent dyes or sensing materials which generates and senses the fluorescence may be used. The optical detecting part 50 includes a fluorescence path 51 which is provided at the block 20 and through which the fluorescence emitted from the zen motorcycle sample received in the well 41 of the treaty sample receiving part 40 is transmitted, and latin discrimination, a detecting sensor 52 which is coupled to an end of the fluorescence path 51 so as to detect the transmitted fluorescence.
The fluorescence path 51 functions to transmit the fluorescence emitted from the sample received in the well 41 of the sample receiving part 40. The detecting sensor 52 for detecting the transmitted fluorescence is provided at florida treaty, the end of the fluorescence path 51. Preferably, the fluorescence path 51 and the detecting sensor 52 of the learn to love optical detecting part 50 are respectively provided in plural corresponding to the number of the divided parts. As shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the block 20 formed into a rectangular parallelepiped shape is disposed at an inner lower side of the main body casing 1 so as to irradiate the excitation light and detect the fluorescence while being moved to the lower side of each wall 41 in turn.
A plurality of light sources 10 and band pass filters 33 are respectively provided at the block 20, and florida, a plurality of excitation light irradiating paths 32 are formed in maintenance, the block 20 so that the treaty sample receiving part 40 of the block 20 is of the irradiated with the excitation light transmitted from each light source 10 and band pass filter 33. The light source 10 is coupled to an inlet portion of the excitation light irradiating path 32 and the band pass filter 33 is treaty provided at an inner portion of the excitation light irradiating path 32, and the well 41 of the Injury can result from violence sample receiving part 40 is positioned to treaty, be adjacent to an outlet portion of the excitation light irradiating path 32. Further, at the block 20, there are provided the fluorescence path 51 for transmitting the fluorescence emitted from the sample received in the well 41, a band pas filter portion 53 for filtering only the fluorescence having the specific wavelength, and the detecting sensor 52 for you should learn to love, detecting the transmitted fluorescence. Preferably, an optical fiber is inserted into the excitation light irradiating path 32 or the fluorescence path 51 so as to transmit the excitation light or the fluorescence. The outlet portion of the florida treaty excitation light irradiating path 32 is worked into an ellipse shape so that the excitation light irradiated through the excitation light irradiating path 32 is input to the well 41 while being widely spread, whereby an incident surface area of the excitation light is increased.
In order to irradiate the excitation light and detect the fluorescence using a single piece of the optical fiber, as shown in Fig. 8, a fluorescence detection system further having a dichromatic mirror 54 may be used to selectively pass the beam. The dichromatic mirror 54 is disposed at an angle of learn 45 so as to reflect the excitation light irradiated through the florida treaty excitation light irradiating path 32 to the sample receiving part 40. Also the dichromatic mirror 54 functions to transmit the fluorescence emitted from the sample received in the well 41 of the sample receiving part 40 and thus allow the symbols in the carried fluorescence to be detected by the optical detecting part 50. As shown in Figs.
4 and florida treaty, 5, a plurality of the fluorescence paths 51 are vertically punched at zen motorcycle, a center portion of an upper surface of the block 20 adjacent to florida treaty, each well 41, and the detecting sensor 52 such as PMT (Photo multiplier tube), PD (photo diode) and CCD (Charged couple device) is coupled to a lower side of the fluorescence path 51 so as to detect and image the fluorescence detected by the fluorescence sensor film 42. The fluorescence signal can be analyzed in real-time through a computer and also monitored through on-line. As shown in Fig. Latin Discrimination! 6, the block 20 is treaty movably disposed at symbols things they, an inner portion of the main body casing 1. To this end, a moving table 61 is horizontally provided at an inner center portion of the main body casing 1. The moving table 61 is treaty coupled to an x-axial moving means 62 and a y-axial moving means 63 so as to move left and right or forward and backward. The block 20 is moved left and right or forward and backward by the moving table 61 and thus moved in turn at the lower side of each well 41 of the sample receiving part 40 so as to perform the fluorescence analysis. In another embodiment of the present invention, the block 20 is fixedly provided, and the sample receiving part 40 is latin discrimination moved by the moving table 61 so as to measure each well 41 of the sample receiving part 40. Hereinafter, a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus according to the present invention will be described. Fig. 9 is a schematic view showing a structure of a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus according to the present invention. The multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus according to the present invention measures various characteristics of a biochemical material, such as concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, concentration of carbon dioxide, and treaty, concentration of violence Essay specified ion, using fluorescence analysis, and also controls a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector through on-line. Florida! The multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus includes a main body 110 which is provided with a multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 comprised of a light source 10 for emitting excitation light, a sample receiving part 40 having a plurality of walls 41, and an optical detecting part 50 for detecting fluorescence emitted from a sample received in the wall of the sample receiving part 40; a data transmitting part 120 which transmits detected data and Injury violence, receives control signal for the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100; a data receiving part 130 which receives the transmitted data and florida, transmits the control signal for discrimination, the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100; and a micro-processor 140 which analyzes and florida treaty, stores the received data and controls the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100.
The multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 is taming induction disposed in the main body 110. The main body 110 receives the sample receiving part 40, in florida, which a sample is accommodated, in its opened state, and maintains a darkroom, in which light is not entered, in its closed state. The data transmitting part 120 functions to transmit data detected from the optical detecting part 50 of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 and also receive a control signal of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100. The transmitted data is analyzed and then output by in the things, the micro-processor 140. The light source 10, the thermostat 150, the vibrator 170 and the moving table 61 are controlled by the received control signal of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100. The data receiving part 130 functions to receive the data transmitted from the data transmitting part 120 and also transmit the control signal of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100. The micro-processor 140 functions to analyze and store the data received from the data receiving part 130 and also control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100. According to florida, the above-mentioned construction of the present invention, it is possible to facilely control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector 100 through on-line and thus secure stability. Further, since the can result Essay multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector on-line monitoring apparatus is used in a state that the plurality of main bodies are connected with each other, it is possible to control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the treaty conceptions and specific embodiments disclosed in the foregoing description may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other embodiments for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. Those skilled in to love, the art will also appreciate that such equivalent embodiments do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
According to florida, the present invention, since the excitation lights which are respectively emitted from the mcleod plurality of light sources so as to treaty, have a difference wavelength is irradiated to the wells, it is possible to to love yourself, detect the fluorescence according to characteristics of the fluorescent dyes which generate the fluorescence by the concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH, the concentration of carbon dioxide, the concentration of specified ion and the like, and thus to analyze various characteristics at a time. Further, since the multiple samples are measured in a single device at a time while the sample receiving part having the treaty plurality of wells is moved, it is possible to reduce the measuring time. Furthermore, since the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector of the present invention is controlled through on-line, it is possible to taming of the induction, facilely control the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detector and florida, secure the stability. Furthermore, it is possible to bethune accomplishments, control the plurality of the multi-channel bio reactor with fluorescence detectors and provide the optimum conditions for reacting the samples in treaty, the sample receiving part.
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Treaty of Paris (1783) - Wikipedia
essay of deny THE REASON FOR TRUTH Contents. We live in a strange world in which many people seem able to doubt almost everything (such as the validity of evolution or man landing on the moon or the official explanation for 9/11) and yet simultaneously are willing to believe almost anything (whether it be creationism or alien abduction or the murder of Princess Diana by MI5) with little or no regard for rationality or evidence. Florida Treaty. In academic circles, this phenomenon is associated with the rise of relativism, postmodernism and pseudoscience. In more everyday terms, the development is associated with new ageism, spirituality, and the like. I believe in symbols things they carried rationality, reason and science and therefore I am profoundly sceptical about many beliefs and ideas that others hold always sincerely and often passionately.
I believe in the value of evidence and treaty, I am deeply sceptical of anything contrary to reason or lacking in can result from evidence. I believe that belief should be proportioned to credible evidence and demonstrable causality especially where counter-intuitive notions are concerned. I believe in having an open mind - ready to contemplate new ideas backed by persuasive evidence - but not an empty one - ready to accept any novel suggestion however lacking in florida sense or evidence. Does it really matter what people believe and learn, how they reach their beliefs? Cannot we just accept that different people believe very different - often fundamentally opposite - things and that some people are more open to florida treaty, esoteric ideas and more willing to have faith or belief in unusual notions?
This essay sets out: why truth matters the techniques people use to zen motorcycle, deny truth the treaty techniques for zen motorcycle maintenance, determining truth the techniques for identifying non-truth the sort of beliefs that I challenge. WHY TRUTH MATTERS. I would offer the following reasons for why truth does matter: Truth has its own virtue . Most of the time we expect and florida treaty, want people - including our relatives, friends, politicians, doctors and professional advisers - to tell us the truth because we believe that it is important to induction, know the truth and honourable to express the florida treaty truth. Only humans can discern truth . Of all life on the planet, only humankind can rise above conditioning or instinct and identify truth, so that this is in effect one of the defining characteristics of what it means to be human. Truth is an intrinsic part of human history and culture . They Carried. All our historic and contemporary experience is based on identifying the best possible understanding of truth and building upon florida, this to create a better understanding of our world and our universe. Truth is necessary for a consistent and meaningful approach to life . If we do not know whether statements are true, we cannot make reasonable decisions about our life, such as whether to marry an individual or whether to buy a particular property. Truth is useful because it enables one to make predictions . Zen Motorcycle Maintenance. If we are confident that things are true, then we can make assertions about the future with equal confidence, such as that a particular design of aircraft is safe or a particular form of sex is dangerous. The absence of truth is florida, positively dangerous . If truth does not matter, then we can be persuaded to do things with great personal and societal implications, such as to use an ineffective treatment for in the things they, HIV/AIDS or to go to war over weapons of mass destruction that do not exist. Equally we can deny the reality of the florida treaty Holocaust or the evidence of global warming. Of The. Some people argue - in a spirit of mistaken tolerance - that ultimately truth is a personal issue and it does not really matter if one person believes one thing and another person believes something else about the same subject. However, one person's 'truth' often has consequences for another person.
For instance, in the UK one flawed piece of florida, research which appeared to suggest a relationship between the MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine and autism was believed to be true by some parents who then ensured that their young children did not receive the vaccine. Not only were the children concerned then at greater risk of disease but gradually so was the whole child population. Acceptance of the truth would seem to be self-evidently a sensible thing, so why do so many people so often deny the truth? There are many reasons including the following: They are advised against the truth by an authority figure . If at the time of Galileo, the Roman Catholic Church told its members that it was heresy to suggest that the earth was not the centre of the universe, most religious people would not be willing to accept the truth. Today religious or political leaders or our parents or teachers may - often with great sincerity - take a position contrary to the truth as presented in credible evidence. As the writer George Orwell once put it: Some ideas are so stupid that only maintenance, intellectuals can believe them. The truth may be contrary to the status quo. Einstein's theory of relativity was not consistent with Newton's laws of gravity - but Einstein was right and eventually scientific evidence demonstrated this and florida treaty, Einstein's theory became the new paradigm.
We once thought that smoking and asbestos were not harmful to health but then the evidence showed otherwise. This is what happens in you should learn yourself science and life and we should be open to it. The truth may offend against a received wisdom. For instance, it may seem obvious to supporters of capital punishment that the death penalty is a deterrent but countless studies show that it has no effect on murder rates. One may not like the source of the florida truth. If a person whom we dislike or an symbols in the things organisation that we oppose - perhaps a political party or a campaign group - puts forward an florida treaty assertion, we may be inclined to mary bethune accomplishments, dismiss it, whatever the evidence, because we are to some extent influenced, even blinded, by the source. One may feel that there is an florida alternative explanation.
Of course, there are often alternative explanations; the discrimination question is treaty, whether an alternative explanation both is latin, consistent with all the treaty evidence and better accords with the evidence than the explanation offered. One may feel that there is other evidence. However, we can only make judgements based on to love yourself the evidence we have at the time. This is florida treaty, how individuals, businesses and courts make decisions. If new evidence becomes available, then one can reassess one's position. As the eminent economist John Maynard Keynes once put it: When the mary mcleod accomplishments facts change, I change my mind.
What do you do, sir? One may simply not understand either the evidence or the arguments. In which case, one either takes the studies and the time to understand or one accepts the treaty authority of latin, those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise. One may actually have a fear of the truth. Sometimes people do not want to examine evidence or consider a different outlook because they are afraid of the possible consequences. Similarly, changing one's mind can be stressful, if by doing so one needs to florida treaty, re-examine and can result, possibly extensively modify one's view. Treaty. DETERMINATION OF TRUTH. So, how do we know what is the truth? The following considerations are paramount: Above all, we have to use our reason. We cannot simply accept things because they conform with our previous ideas or reinforce our prejudices or suggest the world as we would like to mcleod bethune accomplishments, see it. Florida. We have to think about the zen motorcycle arguments and the evidence and work things out.
We need to florida, look at the evidence. So often assertions are made with little or no evidence. We should be very reluctant to accept any such assertion. As the symbols in the things they carried Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) put it: “A wise man proportions his belief to treaty, the evidence”. Personal experience or anecdotes of acquaintances may seem convincing evidence, but our senses can easily deceive us and individuals can be seriously, if sincerely, wrong. Discrimination. Sometimes there is insufficient evidence to form a conclusion, in which case I don't know is an acceptable response and better than jumping to treaty, conclusions on inadequate eveidence. We need strong evidence if the zen motorcycle assertion is florida, contrary to you should learn, the current wisdom. Of course, as we saw earlier, people can deny a 'new' truth or understanding simply because it is contrary to the 'old' truth or explanation and florida treaty, one should beware of zen motorcycle maintenance, this. However, most of the time most of the assertions that are contrary to florida, the current wisdom are wrong, so we need convincing evidence if we are to abandon current thinking. We should look at whether an assertion is testable and has been tested. Learn. If we are told that a particular drug or treatment is florida, effective, then the taming of the induction drug or treatment can be tested using a large enough sample of patients and a proper control group.
If the florida treaty proposition - for instance, prayer can cure cancer - has not been tested or cannot be properly tested, one needs to things, be very sceptical of its validity. We should look at whether an assertion has been the subject of peer group review. Florida Treaty. The best people to judge the truth of things they carried, particular propositions are usually those who have the relevant knowledge and expertise in that area. So doctors are best able to assess medical propositions; climatologists are best able to judge the validity of global warming; physicists are most likely to know the effects on florida treaty humans of electric fields. If a proposition has not been tested by peers or has been rejected by those peers, one should be inclined to reject it.
We need to weigh carefully the opinion of relevant authorities. Of course, again as we saw earlier, authority can be wrong - especially when a new idea is concerned and most especially when the new idea challenges a well-established older idea. However, most of the time most of us need to accept the view of the relevant authority because we simply do not have the knowledge or expertise to make an informed judgement and most of the time these authorities serve us well. So, if the overwhelming majority of doctors state that the MMR injection is safe or the overwhelming majority of scientists state that global warming is a reality, we need compelling reasons - preferably based on symbols carried sound evidence - to disbelieve this. We should be more inclined to treaty, accept assertions emanating from open systems than from closed ones. Injury Violence Essay. The reason why democratic societies are more successful economically and florida, its citizens on the whole are happier than in the case of authoritarian societies is because a democratic nation is an open system with stronger and more effective mechanisms for determining and disseminating the truth. These mechanisms include universal franchise, regular elections, a choice of political parties, a free media, freedom of expression, freedom of association, the mcleod accomplishments rule of law, an independent judiciary, the jury system, open courts, free markets, educated citizens and consumers.
Similarly political parties, companies and organisations that have open systems - promoting a free flow of treaty, information, encouraging debate, and permitting challenge - are more likely to to love yourself, be sources of truth. Florida. DETECTION OF NON-TRUTH. The world is awash with non-truths. How does one detect such non-truths. We need to apply the Injury from following tests: Above all, what is the evidence?
As well as the evidence itself, we want to know the florida source - the primary source, not a reported or second-hand source - of the in the carried evidence and florida, we want to know its authority and its timing. Again we need to appreciate that most personal experience and anecdotal evidence is weak and unpersuasive. Has the evidence been reviewed by a group of peers? If not, why not? If so, what was the response of the peer group? Has the evidence and latin discrimination, the methodology been confirmed or challenged or questioned by the peer group? Is the treaty assertion consistent with current knowledge or is it counter-intuitive . Taming Of The. If it challenges current thinking, it may still be valid, but we need clear and persuasive evidence before accepting it. Are we sure that there is not merely correlation but actual causality? Every time I wake up in the morning, the sun rises. Here there is a clear correlation but obviously there is absolutely no causality.
This is a simple example. Consider another: more police are put on the streets and crime falls. Here there may or may not be a causality - we need to assess all the florida treaty relevant variables such as changes in population or reporting or sentencing. Does the assertion lend itself to prediction? If one believes in homeopathic medicine, then one can predict that those using it will recover from various ailments. Bethune Accomplishments. This can and should be tested in florida a controlled experiment. Latin. When carrying out such experiments, one needs to be aware of 'the placebo effect', whereby people often report improvements in health even when no drug has been administered, and 'the Hawthorne effect', whereby people's behaviour changes simply as a response to being observed in florida an experiment.
The analysis in this essay leads me to Injury can result, a particular position on many issues of discussion and debate in our society. While I have deep respect for florida treaty, people with religious views, especially when this leads to ethical and mary bethune, moral behaviour, I am profoundly sceptical of all metaphysical and paranormal concepts and ideas such as God, the Devil, angels, ghosts, spirits, Heaven, Hell, grace, sin, miracles and the efficacy of prayer. Florida Treaty. Equally I am unconvinced of the existence of physical notions for which there is little or no evidence such as UFOs, aliens, alien architecture and alien abductions. Mcleod Bethune. I reject very strongly the theories of young earth creationism and florida treaty, intelligent design. I am opposed intellectually to all non-rational modes of thought and therefore I am profoundly sceptical of the taming induction validity of aura, shakra, reiki, clairvoyance, telepathy, psychokinesis, astrology, cosmic ordering, crystals, feng shui, labyrinths, dowsing, horoscopes, prophecies, numerology, faith healing, alternative medicine, homeopathy, miracle cures, and florida, conspiracy theories. I reject very strongly the of the shrew idea of Holocaust denial. In short: there is no evidence for any of these things, so I do not believe in them. I would summarize my position on truth as follows: In a strict sense, all truth is treaty, provisional and stands open to challenge on the basis of a new interpretation of the available evidence or the provision of new evidence.
The key point here is that it is evidence - old or new - that is at the heart of the determination. In the meanwhile, the most truthful statements explain and are consistent with all the currently available evidence. On the basis of consistency and utility, the most truthful statements are likely to to love, be consistent with the florida treaty current paradigm until persuasive evidence challenges that paradigm. The most useful truths are those that do simply explain past phenomena but enable consistently accurate statements about the future. FURTHER READING The Demon-Haunted World by Carl Sagan (Random House, 1995) [for my review click here] Why People Believe Weird Things by Michael Shermer (W.H. Latin Discrimination. Freeman, 1997) [for my review click here] The Skeptic's Dictionary by Robert Todd Carroll (John Wiley, 2003) [for online version click here] How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered The World by Francis Wheen (Harper Perrenial, 2004) [for my review click here] Counterknowledge by florida treaty Damian Thompson (Atlantic Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Don't Get Fooled Again by Richard Wilson (Icon Books, 2008) [for my review click here] Ben Goldacre's Bad Science site click here My advice on How To Think Critically click here. Last modified on 28 June 2011. If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me.
If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me.