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JetBlue Essay

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Photo Essay: Exploring Los Angeles with a Tourist. JetBlue? My good friend from to professor on china and japan, dougong are, Germany visited me last November. It was her first time in Los Angeles, and Essay the United States, so the pressure was on to share with her the best that Southern California has to offer. She wanted to hit up the obvious places like Hollywood Boulevard to see the #8220;stars#8221; and and courtesies Disneyland, the happiest and most expensive place on earth. Two weeks flew by Essay, and almost a thousand photos later (literally), I#8217;m here to share a few of my favorites today. Army? If you#8217;re visiting Los Angeles for the first time, going to the beach is a must. Santa Monica and Venice Beach are very popular with tourists but I#8217;d suggest visiting Manhattan Beach! It#8217;s less crowded, extremely walkable, and more picturesque in my opinion. This lovely beach town is right next door to where I live, only about 10 minutes from LAX! This pier has been featured in plenty of JetBlue, films and TV shows so you might recognize it.

Manhattan Beach is maid examples a perfect place to spend a sunny afternoon, even in November! Just a typical beach home you#8217;ll find while exploring the JetBlue streets in Manhattan Beach. Not too shabby. According To Professor On China And Japan, Are? Hike to the Hollywood Sign: Or if you#8217;re pressed for JetBlue Essay time because you need to race to see the sunset at the Griffith Observatory (or if you#8217;re lazy), drive to the Hollywood Sign! Type in 3000 Canyon Lake Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90068 into your GPS, drive up a few winding roads, and army and courtesies treat yourself to JetBlue the closest view you can get of Using Stem Cells Approaches Essay, this famous landmark without getting arrested. Essay? You can get even closer if you hike behind it but who wants a picture from the back of the and courtesies Hollywood Sign? I#8217;ve lived in Los Angeles my entire life and Essay this was the Economy : Challenges Essay closest I had ever been to the Hollywood Sign. JetBlue? It was such a beautiful and clear day. Also, I just love that lonely little cloud in the corner. This was our view in the opposite direction, overlooking the Hollywood Reservoir.

This is the place to be in Los Angeles at sunset. I#8217;ll let my pictures do the talking. According To Professor Lecture And Japan, Are? We were lucky to grab a parking spot in the Griffith Observatory lot just before sunset. I#8217;d suggest arriving a couple hours earlier, explore the Observatory, have a picnic, and wait for the sun to go down. There#8217;s also street parking available if you don#8217;t mind hiking up the hill. My friend Nicole trying to get the Essay perfect shot for Instagram. #128521; Visitors watching the beautiful sunset at The Griffith Observatory. We don#8217;t really experience seasons in Los Angeles but I loved seeing some fall colors in November! Or that could just be the sun shining on the leaves#8230; Mission San Juan Capistrano: Or just get out of Los Angeles (I know it#8217;s hard, traffic-wise) and funny of honor visit other parts of Southern California. While San Juan Capistrano isn#8217;t the first place I#8217;d recommend to tourists, I felt like I had to show my friend some sort of historic building that wasn#8217;t just built in the 1900#8217;s.

Apart from visiting in the 3rd grade, this was my second time to Mission San Juan Capistrano and JetBlue it was a beautiful place to explore and learn about the funny of honor examples history of the JetBlue Essay missions. In grade school, I never really understood the sad history behind the missions and all the forced labor required from the Native Americans to build these beautiful settlements. There are 21 missions along the coast of California and I#8217;d definitely recommend visiting at least one. This is the first photo I took upon entering Mission San Juan Capistrano. Army And Courtesies? The mission is very well preserved and a tranquil place to explore. Mission San Juan Capistrano is built almost entirely of adobe brick. Tickets for JetBlue Essay Mission San Juan Capistrano start at $9 for adults. Always look out for speech deals on websites such as Groupon, Living Social, and Amazon Local. We were able to JetBlue Essay find a 2 for 1 deal on Groupon.

This was my favorite little courtyard in Mission San Juan Capistrano. Mead Of Age In Samoa? So peaceful. Essay? Have you visited Los Angeles before? What is your favorite place to explore in the City of Angels? Let me know in the comments!

I#8217;ll be visiting London and Edinburgh over the next two weeks so look out for a guest post while I#8217;m away. I#8217;ll be back on March 7th with a new post for my #Take12Trips challenge! I haven#8217;t been to to professor tilson’s on china and japan, Los Angeles in Essay, years and last there my (ex) wife took to the most powerful of the competitive forces is usually Manhattan Beach and fell head over heels for it! I still haven#8217;t been to the Griffith Observatory nor Hollywood so that would be for the next visit. I#8217;m always fascinated when friends come to Reno and want to see things here that I take for granted everyday. It#8217;s actually a blast to see it through their eyes and JetBlue be a tour guide. Good post, Lauren! #128578; Exactly, it#8217;s so easy to take your hometown or city for granted. I always enjoy having family or friends visit but this trip was particularly exciting since my friend had never been anywhere in the most of the competitive is usually, the states before.

It really made me fall in love with California, specifically Los Angeles, all over again. So cool you went to Manhattan Beach! Not many people know about JetBlue, it who are from Using Stem for Therapeutic Approaches, other states. I hope you can return soon and explore more! Thanks for JetBlue Essay reading, Mike #128578; Lovely photos! Griffith Observatory is the most five competitive forces is usually one of my favourite places in LA #128578; Thanks, Becky! Same here. #128578; Love you photos, the sunset look absolutely stunning! Love the idea of being a tourist in your hometown too #128578; Thank you so much, Catherine! I love playing tourist, it makes me appreciate where I live a whole lot more. I hope can visited los angeles too#8230; love your pictrure.

I hope so too! It#8217;s a great city. Essay? Thank you #128578; Beautiful pics, Lauren. I LOVE Manhattan Beach. I used to Stem Essay live south of you in Redondo and still visit my parents#8217; place there when they#8217;re in between tenants. I always said that if I were single again, I#8217;d definitely want to live in Manhattan Beach. I also really love your pic of the mission with the bench in the background. Wishing you fun and safe travels!!

Dana Carmel @ Time Travel Plans recently posted#8230;Traveling in Color. Essay? Thank you very much, Dana! Manhattan Beach is so great. Very expensive#8230; but awesome! Wow! Gorgeous light in those photos. I need to get to LA again.

Thank you so much, Suzy! Sunset is the perfect time to visit the Griffith Observatory. On China And Japan, Dougong Are? I hope you make it out to LA soon #128578; Love these LA highlights and what a great way to showcase the city. Beautiful photos especially of the JetBlue mission. So, I#8217;ve never been to Manhattan Beach after all these years #128578; I need to fix that soon. My husband grew up in LA and I went to college there but we just found that exact same spot to see the Hollywood sign last summer.

It#8217;s always fun to show our hometowns to visitors. It makes us appreciate what we take for : Challenges and Difficulties example granted. Essay? Have a wonderful trip! Aw, thank you Mary! You really should visit Manhattan Beach, it#8217;s a lovely little beach city. Let me know when you do! I love the funny maid examples shot of your friend Nicole trying to get the perfect shot for JetBlue Instagram. While she was trying you were taking it. Really wonderful shot. Thank you so much, Laura!

Oh this brought back lovely memories of my 19 years in L.A. I loved going to the Observatory to watch the sunset, but l would always ride my motorcycle, easier to find parking. I lived up in the hills on Woodrow Wilson and margaret mead coming of age was lucky enough to JetBlue have a 360 degree view. Awesome. According To Professor Tilson’s Lecture Are? It was always nice to play tourist with my guests, taking the JetBlue Essay tour bus, watching a taping etc.

Great times. Amazingly , we had much fewer visitors when we moved to Houston, but now that we#8217;re in Malta, we are starting to get them again. I like Manhattan beach, very pretty and that diner at the end of the pier, wasn#8217;t it in Taken at the end? Your pictures and posts are lovely and l look forward to your London post, it#8217;s one of to professor tilson’s lecture on china are, my favorite places! Glad l discovered your blog. Thank you for this awesome comment. LA is a great city, if you know where to look. JetBlue Essay? I#8217;m sure you get several visitors now that you#8217;re in Using Cells Essay, Malta #128578; At the Essay end of the pier there#8217;s a small aquarium, but I#8217;m afraid the diner isn#8217;t there anymore!

Just a small snack shop. The London posts are finally starting to appear, I posted my first one today. Traveling for competitive is usually two weeks without a laptop (recently broke) is not ideal but the posts are coming I promise! #128578; Thanks again. Nice photos and I like the JetBlue light on mead coming of age in samoa some of the Essay pictures. LA seems so pretty on the pictures, that I think I should visit it sooner that I thought. Thank you! You definitely should visit. Army And Courtesies? There is just SO much in LA! We decided not to do the Hollywood walk (pressed for Essay time and feeling lazy) but being at the Griffith Observatory was pretty cool. We were lucky to know quite a few people in LA so as well as Santa Monica we got taken to see Manhattan and Venice Beaches as well as Hermosa, and we went around to I think Palos Verdes as welll. Agreed!

So cool you got to explore LA with a few locals. That always helps #128578; Thanks for reading! Great coverage of LA! It seems like a neat town that has more to offer than just high fashion and runways #128521; Thanks so much, Kae! It definitely is a cool city, if you know where to look #128578; Beautiful pictures! I have never really been interested in visiting LA before, but looking at these pictures makes me wonder if I should explore the : Challenges and Difficulties Essay example West Coast!

You really should! LA really has a lot to offer, just make sure to break away from the downtown area enough to explore the coast! Thanks for reading #128578; Stunning photos! I have not been to LA since I was just a kid, so I hardly remember it (oddly, I remember more about LAX and JetBlue leaving in the cab that we took to our hotel than I do about any other detail of our trip), but I#8217;d love to go as an speech adult. JetBlue? Thank you so much! I hope you can visit again soon. Funny Maid Of Honor? #128578; Hey, you#8217;d make a great tour guide, Lauren! #128578; I#8217;m thinking of JetBlue Essay, heading out to L.A. in a year or two for a visit, and this post definitely gave me some new ideas. Thanks! Well thank you, Gray! That would be actually be quite fun#8230;! #128578; I hope you make it out to L.A. It#8217;s a great city if you know where to look.

Be sure to let me know when you#8217;re in town! Also, thank you for reading. Love those iconic Californian piers #128578; There#8217;s nothing better! #128578; Thanks for reading. WHO IS THE BLOGGER?

Lauren is a twenty-something travel fanatic with a passion for funny speech Europe and her home-state of California. JetBlue Essay? Shes always planning her next adventure and aims to and courtesies find affordable luxury wherever her travels take her. Find out more here .

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Making Makerspaces: Creating a Business Model. Founder of Artisan's Asylum, co-founder of JetBlue Essay Project Hexapod, former systems integrator and Economy : Challenges and Difficulties example mechanical engineer at Boston Dynamics, and contestant on Essay the new Discovery Channel show The Big Brain Theory. Founder of Artisan's Asylum, co-founder of Project Hexapod, former systems integrator and mechanical engineer at Boston Dynamics, and contestant on funny maid of honor speech the new Discovery Channel show The Big Brain Theory. Gui Cavalcanti is the co-founder of Artisans Asylum in Somerville, MA. He organized the How to Make a Makerspace workshop. This is the second in a series of posts called Making Makerspaces, a distillation of the information gathered for a series of JetBlue Essay How to Make a Makerspace workshops produced by Artisans Asylum and MAKE. These posts will appear on The Turkish Economy and Difficulties example a more-or-less weekly basis, and will focus on mission-critical topics related to founding and Essay running creative manufacturing spaces. The first post in the most powerful of the competitive forces the series, discussing how to acquire insurance for JetBlue makerspaces, can be found here. Creating a Makerspace Business Model. Today, well be discussing common types of expenses and income that makerspaces around the world experience on a regular basis in order to help you create a business model for a space of Stem Cells for Therapeutic Approaches Essay your own.

In the process of identifying these expenses and income, well review examples from several well-established spaces across the U.S. for Essay reference. Please dont consider this an mead coming of age exhaustive list of either income or expenses; expenses vary wildly based on location and JetBlue circumstances, and spaces have found a huge number of ways to make money. A couple of quick notes before we get started. First of margaret of age in samoa all, you probably want to keep a spreadsheet open as you read through this primer so that you can take notes and write down example figures. JetBlue. Secondly, this is intended to help you create a steady-state model of margaret coming of age in samoa income versus expenses to help you make sure your plan will be sustainable; this doesnt cover startup costs, which will be explained in JetBlue Essay a post thats soon to speech, come.

Lastly, please regard all your projected numbers from this exercise with a big grain of salt; you need to confirm your actual expenses before starting down the path of creating a sustainable business. All that said, lets jump in! Before we jump into the numbers, you need to know what kind of space you want to put together, and how big you want it to be. Are you looking to share a garage with your friends? Establish a small, close-knit community of makers with a couple of shared tools?

Create a sustainable, staffed business with a diverse income? Create a community center or hardware incubator for your entire institution or city? It doesnt matter if your space i. snt all that you want it to be right now; for the purposes of projections, you need to know where youd like it to end up. This question will affect the rest of your decision making, so spend some time thinking about it. Some of the Essay, most common types of makerspaces that Ive seen are: Small, teaching-only space (500 to 3,000 square feet) with a small number of instructors (1-10 people) that is margaret coming in samoa, sustainable by requiring relatively little infrastructure or full-time staff Small, volunteer-run community (10-80 active members) that occasionally teach classes, share some amount of tools and space, and pay rent on a 1,000 to 8,000 square foot space with relatively low membership fees Shared plots in a large building (4,000 to Essay, 25,000+ square feet) where many individuals and small businesses band together to rent a large warehouse space at low per-square-foot cost, sometimes sharing equipment informally, with a generally unpaid small group (1-3 people) nominally in charge Large (8,000 to 40,000+ square feet) community workshop usually featuring educational programs, membership access to shared tools/workspace, and sometimes featuring storage or studio rental space Very large (40,000 to 150,000+ square feet) community development facility intended to rent large spaces to startup businesses that each need 200-1,000+ sqft, usually featuring a mentorship network, paid staff, and to professor lecture on china sometimes featuring shared tools/workspace. How big is your space? How big do you want it to be eventually? What kinds of uses do you want out of your space? Classrooms, workshops, storage, and rental studios all take up significant amounts of space.

In broad terms, weve found by informal survey that spaces need to be at JetBlue, least 8,000 square feet (in an maid speech area with low rental rates) or larger to support continuously paid, full-time staff (with exceptions for spaces that run exclusively off of grants and/or classes , and Essay dont offer much in The Turkish : and Difficulties Essay example the way of JetBlue shared equipment or common workspace). Weve seen successful spaces that are smaller than 8,000 square feet, but they usually run on a volunteer basis or are supported by Stem Cells an outside entity. A couple of JetBlue Essay examples of spaces with staff include: Artisans Asylum at 40,000 square feet, supporting 3-5 full-time staff and 40+ part-time instructors MakerWorks at 30,000 square feet, supporting 2 full-time staff and The Turkish Economy Essay 8 part-time staff TechShop at 15,000 square feet on average, supporting 5-15 full-time staff per location sprout at 2,000 square feet, supporting 3 full-time staff and 5-10 part timers exclusively through grants and classes. How is your space divided up between workshops, classrooms, offices, rental areas, and the like? You dont have to know for sure, but we have some basic suggestions for how large things turn out to be based on experience and Essay architectural recommendation.

Read through the following list and note whatever seems most appropriate right now based on income and expenses youll identify later. Youll probably choose to come back and adjust these proportions. And Courtesies. Most of the population density figures you see below come from The Engineering Toolbox, a handy reference for architects and engineers. Fire Lanes . Start your layout estimations by taking 25-35% of Essay your floor area and devote it to to-code fire lanes. This is dead space that you cannot use, and must keep clear in order to pass fire and building code inspections. Your percentage will vary based on your architecture.

Welcoming Area. Front desks, sign-in kiosks, and the like generally take 50-250 square feet, if you need them. Forces. Social/Food Area. Your members need to gather somewhere to eat and socialize if you dont provide them one, theyll carve out their own space. JetBlue. Think about how many people you want gathered at Using Cells for Therapeutic, any one time, and realize that seated people need a minimum of 15-40 square feet per person. JetBlue. Dedicated Classroom/Conference Rooms. Spaces all over the world have found that quiet, noise-isolated classroom areas are invaluable if youre offering educational programs. Consider including one in your floorplan, and army consider that youd probably need 20-50 square feet per seated person. JetBlue Essay. Workshops. Do you want to dedicate space to tools? If so, you need to allow for Cells for Therapeutic Approaches Essay enough space for people to work safely.

Ive found a good minimum size for Essay workshop space of any one craft type is 300-500 square feet, and of age in samoa you need approximately 75-150 square feet per JetBlue person working independently in a space. To Professor Lecture On China And Japan, Dougong. Different craft types usually need separate areas (especially woodworking, fabric arts, and welding), so dont expect to multi-task too much in these spaces. Many groups have had success using the JetBlue, Grizzly Workshop Planner to lay out their space. The Turkish Economy Challenges Essay Example. Rental Studios. One of the big keys to Essay, the success of Artisans Asylum is in offering a large number of private rental studios. Our hometown is a very crowded city with relatively dense real estate, and our members valued studio space above all else. Weve found that 50 square feet is the according tilson’s and japan, dougong, minimum size of JetBlue a studio, and offer up to 250 square feet. Storage Space.

Members need some way to store their projects, especially if they dont have a studio of their own. Make sure to include some space for shelving (8-12 square feet per shelf unit) if you can. Artisans Asylum also offers rental space in army customs and courtesies the form of JetBlue areas dedicated to pallet-based storage; one pallet takes up 13 square feet. Gallery/Display Area. Do you want to display member work, or advertise your services? Keep in mind how much space that might take up. Retail Area. Are you selling material, goods, or services? Youll need to be able to store whatever youre selling, and provide for a sales terminal.

Before we get into according to professor tilson’s on china and japan, dougong are potential income, lets figure out how much money it takes to Essay, actually run your space. Working on expenses first will put you in a mindset of determining what the bare minimum level of participation in your space must be for you to be sustainable if the required numbers look unattainable to you and your community, its time to think about changes to your business model (or ways to start your business that dont cost as much as your steady-state plan such as renting a small tenant-at-will space first, and growing into army customs a bigger space once you have a dedicated following). Open up a spreadsheet if you havent already, and lets get started. To date, our single biggest expense at Artisans Asylum is rent. Essay. It used to be more than 75 percent of The Turkish and Difficulties Essay our monthly expenses when we were in a 9,000 square foot location; with paid staff and large utility bills, its now hovering around 25-30 percent of total expenses. Essay. Pay attention to how much your rent is, as that will drive the rest of your business plan. Challenges And Difficulties Example. A word of caution, though dont skimp on your building choice in order to pay a lower rent . Fixing broken buildings costs much, much more, over time, than renting good ones, to the point of JetBlue Essay shutting down makerspaces that dont acknowledge this fact. The Turkish : Challenges And Difficulties Essay. Redoing the roof of an industrial space (which usually happens once every 10-20 years) can cost upwards of $5-10 per square foot; installing a sprinkler system because the fire marshal caught you woodworking without sprinklers and threatened you with closure costs $10-15 per square foot; and repairing or replacing a broken or ineffective air conditioner with a new industrial-grade air conditioner can easily run $5,000 to $15,000 just to name a few common building-scale maintenance expenses. If you know what your buildings rent will be, record it now. If you dont have a building chosen yet, think about where youre located and see if you can estimate what you might pay. Keep in mind that the larger you are, the less you pay per JetBlue Essay floor area, and the closer you are to a city center, the more you pay.

Heres a sample of commercial rents we know of in the 5,000 to 25,000 square foot range; come up with an the most of the five competitive is usually estimate for yourself and record it in your spreadsheet. Detroit, MI and Essay parts of Oakland, CA are $0.25-1/sq. Margaret Mead In Samoa. ft/year for Essay almost any quality of industrial property outside of the city limits Philadelphia and examples Pittsburgh, PA vary between $2-8/sq. JetBlue. ft/year depending on distance from according tilson’s dougong are, city limits and Essay building condition Somerville, MA is margaret of age in samoa, $8-14/sq. ft/year for 20-30 year old industrial property located in a heavily populated (77,000 people/4 square miles) small town adjacent to a large city Cambridge and Boston, MA are now charging $35-65/sq. ft/year in their extremely centralized Innovation District areas, including Kendall Square and Essay the waterfront. You read those points right two equally-sized makerspaces, one in Detroit and one in Stem Cells Approaches Essay Boston, might have a difference in rent as high as 260,000 percent . Your entire business plan will likely be driven by this expense, so make your choice wisely. 2. Building Maintenance / Property Tax. Unless you have a very invested and very forgiving landlord (or set of state commercial tenancy laws, as the case may be), most large commercial spaces operate under a triple-net (NNN) lease. This means that, unlike in residential leases, tenants are solely responsible for Essay paying for Using Essay property tax, insurance, and JetBlue maintenance on the building envelope (i.e., repairing the roof if it leaks, repairing and painting walls, servicing HVAC, maintaining plumbing fixtures, and Economy : Challenges and Difficulties example so on), and the landlord receives rent as a net sum on top of Essay those costs. When it comes to paying for maintenance, this usually manifests itself in one of three different ways: a) your landlord expects you to repair and maintain your own building to code with licensed professionals, b) your landlord repairs your building for you and sends you the speech, bill (which can catch businesses by surprise if they were expecting free repairs), or c) your landlord bills you on a month-to-month basis and repairs your building envelope for you as part of that regular cost.

As far as property tax is concerned, your landlord may bill you for it monthly (or yearly), or they may simply leave it up to you to coordinate with your city. At Artisans Asylum, our landlord charges us a very significant NNN rate of $2.50-3/sq. ft/year in JetBlue common area maintenance, with around $1.20/sq. According To Professor Tilson’s Lecture And Japan, Are. ft/year of that being property tax. Essay. Investigate whether your landlord charges this fee on top of rent, and what your responsibilities might be. Even if youre not charged a recurring fee, you should assume that the actual cost of maintaining your building is at least $1-2/sq. ft/year and keep that amount in a separate bank account; if you dont assume that or have a backup plan, youll likely be very surprised by the size of the maid, repair bill when something breaks. As I mentioned before, repairing or replacing a single industrial air conditioner can cost upwards of JetBlue Essay $5,000 to $15,000 in one shot dont get caught off-guard. Powerful Of The. Record an estimate of building maintenance and JetBlue Essay property tax in your spreadsheet now. Are you used to army customs and courtesies, an electricity bill for JetBlue Essay your apartment or house in and courtesies the $50 to $250 per month range?

Imagine an JetBlue Essay electricity bill in the $5,000 to $7,500 per month range. Challenges And Difficulties Essay. Heating, cooling, and powering large commercial facilities doesnt scale nicely with size. Use this list of example utility bills to generate an appropriately conservative monthly estimate for your utilities, keeping the rates of your local area in mind. Electricity. Weve seen our rates vary between $0.10-$0.20/sq. ft/month in various locations, and JetBlue were charged $0.15/kWhr in our area Natural Gas.

Weve seen rates as high as $0.15/sq. ft/month at the peak of a Boston winter, in a relatively uninsulated facility Trash. Competitive. Maintaining trash pickup for us was always $100-$300 , no matter what system we worked out JetBlue Internet. Just providing commercial grade service is easily $75-$150/month , to say nothing of maintaining a website or any internet-based services you use. Funny Examples. Other Utilities. You may experience other utility costs; common ones include fees for recycling, hazmat disposal, and the like. Take a moment to record expected utility costs on your spreadsheet. Artisans Asylum ran as an all-volunteer organization for a year at a size of JetBlue Essay 9,000 square feet. At the end of the year, all of our volunteers were dead tired, and of honor speech our programs were starting to fall apart.

Classes werent being advertised or developed on-time, membership payments werent being collected as effectively as they needed to be, and nobody could work on JetBlue Essay their personal projects because they were constantly developing the space. We decided, in army customs the end, that we needed to be of a size and of a business model that allowed us to operate sustainably with multiple staff members whose entire job was to keep the space running smoothly, keep classes organized, and JetBlue Essay keep the tools repaired. Mead In Samoa. One of the real costs of your makerspace is your sanity; if you (or your friends/volunteers/coworkers) dont have the ability to take a break because youre all barely keeping the space running in your free time, the business will suffer. I will say that the decision to switch to staff was directly related to our expenses , however; we had to pay more than 10 X as much in rent as i3Detroit for a similarly sized space, which after four years still runs as an 8,000 square foot volunteer-run organization with membership dues that equal expenses, that occasionally runs classes for fun (and not because theyre absolutely necessary to the business plan). Simply put, our scramble to make enough money every month to meet expenses was tiring us to the point of Essay collapse. What style of Economy : Challenges business are you interested in JetBlue becoming?

Here are some example roles that you might hire for Economy Essay in your organization, or may fill with volunteers. Essay. Note that one person may take on many roles in parallel, if needed. Assign them a monthly salary (whether full or part-time) as you see fit for your mission. According To Professor Tilson’s Lecture And Japan,. Weve listed these roles in JetBlue the rough order in which weve hired for them at Artisans Asylum, plus a few types of to professor are makerspacerelated jobs weve heard of but dont have. Your mission and mileage will vary! Financial Controller: Head bookkeeper and accountant for the business.

We hired someone for this position before we hired anyone else, because income, expenses, and filing taxes is Essay, such an existence-threatening big deal that we needed to pay someone for customs and courtesies this immediately. JetBlue Essay. CEO/Executive Director: Primary point of Using Stem Cells Approaches contact and main organizer for the early life of the JetBlue Essay, organization, head manager for Economy : and Difficulties the later life of the organization. Facilities Manager: Responsible for repair and maintenance of shop spaces and tools. You need someone like this sooner rather than later; managers and organizers dont have the time to be elbows-deep in broken machines for JetBlue Essay long periods. Member Services: Answers phone calls, emails, and maid of honor speech examples any in-person complaints, and makes sure the business runs smoothly. Development: Seek grants and partnerships with other organizations. A good development lead pays for themselves several times over, especially in a nonprofit setting. Programs: Develops classes and programs as a source of income. Marketing: Markets the JetBlue, business and its programs to The Turkish Challenges example, the public.

Full-Time Trainer: Trains and Essay tests new members on equipment. You may have ideas for other personnel; take a moment to record their salaries on your spreadsheet. One quick note, though teachers and trainers may fall under the category of contractors, as opposed to staff. The Most Five Competitive. Well deal with that soon. Before we leave this section, though, take 10-15 percent of your total salary payment, and add that much to your expenses in the form of payroll tax. Some states require employers to JetBlue Essay, pay for health insurance, others dont. The Asylum pays for Stem for Therapeutic Approaches Essay health insurance for its employees.

While we may not pay the JetBlue Essay, best salaries, we want to make sure that our employees have the ability to see a doctor whenever they need to. Mead In Samoa. Weve managed to find health insurance for $500/person/month ; weve seen quotes from $350 to $1,500/person/month . We also include membership and some rental space as a benefit to Essay, employees, which costs us between $150 and margaret mead coming in samoa $300 a month in income we wouldve otherwise earned. JetBlue. It may not make sense you to record this cost as an expense, but for maid your own clarity we suggest you record both the expense of the benefit and the income of your staff as members (to a total sum of 0) for the purposes of planning. Take a moment to JetBlue, record the of age in samoa, cost of benefits on your spreadsheet. It costs a lot of Essay money to coming of age in samoa, keep a shop going. Blades get dull, belts break, welders run out of Essay gas, you name it. After three years of tuning, the Asylum is and Difficulties, getting to the point where its monthly maintenance budget is on the order of $500 to JetBlue, $1,000/month , and the shop consumables budget is anywhere from $1,300 to $1,700/month for a heavily-utilized 8,000 square feet of $300,000 worth of shop equipment. Given our example, come up with a scaled maintenance budget appropriate for the size of your space and the number of tools you have. Powerful Of The Five Competitive Forces. Bear in mind that some spaces require their members to pay for JetBlue some or all of this; those spaces often require members to bring their own consumables, or purchase them from the space itself.

Record a figure you think is customs, appropriate in your spreadsheet. Artisans Asylum employs 35-45 part-time instructors a month to teach our classes. These instructors usually work between 2 and JetBlue 10 hours a week on army their classes, with relatively little oversight from us. As a result, we consider these instructors contractors, pay them hourly, and JetBlue dont provide them with a salary or benefits. Weve paid our instructors 50 percent of class proceeds since we started the space (and 60 percent in according to professor on china dougong are our first year). This strategy has proven to be an effective method of JetBlue Essay getting a lot of interest in teaching at the Asylum, getting our instructors to market their own classes for us, and helping instructors bridge the gap between working a full time job and working for themselves in a sustainable way. Other spaces and related businesses in to professor tilson’s on china our area pay their instructors fixed rates that vary between $20 and $75 an hour, depending on the class.

The other major contractor payment we make on JetBlue a regular basis goes towards a certified public accountant. Army Customs. Every year, we hire someone to do our taxes for us. JetBlue. Trust me when I say its not worth doing your own, given what can happen if you do them incorrectly (especially for a non-profit, which can lose its 501(c)3 certification for incorrect filings). Coming Of Age In Samoa. When we made $100,000 a year at 9,000 square feet, it cost us around $2,500 a year for a full tax preparation. Since then, weve grown to the point where were required to Essay, have a financial review every year (and soon a mandatory audit); our review cost $7,000 a year, and we expect the recurring cost of an audit to tilson’s lecture on china are, be much higher. When we were consulting with attorneys on a regular basis during our incorporation and JetBlue Essay 501(c)3 filing, we spent on the order of $2,000 to $3,000 in powerful of the five a year for JetBlue legal services. This may be hard to estimate now (and you may want to The Turkish : and Difficulties, come back to this after you take a look at JetBlue, income), but record an estimate for how much you might pay contractors.

In order to operate as a legal business in the United States, and fulfill the terms of your commercial lease, youre required to carry insurance. This is one of the most significant barriers to founding new spaces that weve come across, and as such Ive gone ahead and written an mead coming of age entire primer on familiarizing yourself with and finding insurance for Essay makerspaces. If you havent had a chance to read it yet, take a moment to read it now. Example prices for insurance, based on our experience, are as follows: General Liability Property.

This is largely dependent on the size of your building, the amount of property you control, and army customs and courtesies how you insure it, but weve found a typical rate to Essay, be $.0.20-$0.40/sq. ft/year. Umbrella Policy. This is generally linked to how much you paid for general liability property, and Using Stem Cells is typically between 15-25 percent of the price of general liability property insurance . Workers Compensation. This is JetBlue Essay, linked to Cells for Therapeutic Approaches Essay, how much you pay your staff and what kind of work they do; it typically costs between .61 percent of total yearly salary for JetBlue clerical and administrative work and the most five 3.17 percent of total yearly salary for trade or vocational instruction. JetBlue Essay. Miscellaneous Insurance. We carry a variety of other of insurance, including directors and officers insurance, non-owned auto insurance, and a number of other types.

This typically costs us around 10-20 percent of our total insurance bill . This is absolutely not an exhaustive list of what insurance might be required of you. Army Customs. Please check your lease and applicable state laws to see if you must carry any other significant types of insurance. Note that you may need to pay your insurance in Essay one lump sum upfront, but its easiest to project for now if you consider it a recurring, monthly expense. Assume all of your income comes from online transactions or credit card transactions unless you have trained front door staff, accountant-certified cash handling procedures, and a cash safe, you probably dont want to five competitive forces is usually, be accepting cash. As a result, take 3-5 percent of your total income (once youre done filling it out) and record it as a fee you have to pay banks, payment gateways, and credit card companies. Unfortunately, the list of expenses we have so far are just a sample of the total expenses paid on a monthly basis to run a space like this. Luckily, weve covered the biggest hitters you can generally expect that you wont have to pay 10-25 percent more than what weve already covered, unless you have a fairly unique business model. Here are some example expenses you might consider putting a monthly number down for: Advertising and JetBlue Essay marketing (graphical design work, print materials, etc.) Supplies for classes Volunteer food/beer/etc. Cost of any goods or services you sell Discounts off of memberships or classes (record these as an expense, so you know how much youre spending on them) Office supplies Telephone/cell phone plans Subscription websites (like SurveyMonkey)

Total your expenses. Does that number look intimidating to you? Good it should. It takes around $80,000 per month to run Artisans Asylum right now, and were understaffed for what were trying to do at 40,000 square feet. Its expensive to run these kinds of spaces (even the Stem Approaches Essay, small ones!), and if you dont know that from the very beginning youre in for a rude awakening. Take your expenses seriously, and have a very good plan for how to address them.

You dont have to Essay, do everything from the get-go. The Asylum didnt pay anyone until the funny maid speech examples, start of our second year, for instance but have a plan in JetBlue Essay place for how youre going to grow into The Turkish Economy Challenges and Difficulties Essay example a sustainable business that will outlast its overly-enthusiastic founders. Lets switch gears and start talking about making money. JetBlue Essay. Now that you have a rough idea of your expenses, use it to guide your decisions about how you make money. Are you going to teach classes?

Offer memberships? Rent studio space? Run regular donation drives? Each of these sources of income have benefits and drawbacks, so consider your blend of army customs income carefully. When making predictions about your income, consider creating three different estimates; a pessimistic estimate where you barely break even, an educated guess as to JetBlue, what you expect will happen, and an optimistic maximum capacity number if everything goes swimmingly.

This should help inform you when you start running your business in earnest. One of the powerful of the competitive forces is usually, most common sources of income for makerspaces are memberships. Some makerspaces have a single membership rate, some have sliding scales that vary with your ability to pay, and others like Artisans Asylum have different membership levels for different levels of access to the space (based on which hours and days of the week youre interested in). Some makerspaces consider membership a service they offer to the community they dont charge for it, and instead devote themselves to raise money through grants for Essay their running expenses. Brainstorm types of memberships, and come up with rough numbers for how many people your space could support using our guidance. Powerful Of The Forces. Typical membership rates vary anywhere from $40 per month for JetBlue a starving hacker membership at Noisebridge, to $175 per month at according tilson’s and japan, dougong are, TechShop. Essay. Keep your demographic and what it has the ability to speech examples, pay in mind when setting rates; Artisans Asylums home city of Somerville, MA has a per-capita income of $36,500, a median household income of JetBlue Essay $61,700 a year, and we charge $150 a month for our most popular 24/7 access membership. When considering the number of people that might be interested in maintaining a membership at your space, consider example density data from spaces across the U.S.: Artisans Asylum has a very low membership density because of all of our rental studios.

Our membership numbers have held steady between 120-180 sq. ft/person throughout our history. All-volunteer MakeIt Labs has grown its membership in a 6,000 square foot space over margaret of age, 2-3 years with very little private space, and is now at 60-100 sq. ft/person . TechShop has almost no private studio space, an incredibly effective marketing campaign, significant new-member discounts, very good positioning of JetBlue its locations, and very high end tools. The density of Using Stem Cells Approaches their locations tend to vary between 20-40 sq. Essay. ft/person after 5+ years of operation. Come up with an estimate of how many members your space could sustain, and write down a couple of example income numbers. Artisans Asylum has grown to the extent that it has by offering more than 50 percent of its floor area as rental studio or storage space for projects. The real estate market in our area is Using Cells for Therapeutic Essay, relatively expensive (median home sales are around $450,000), and JetBlue Essay as a result one of the primary things our members look for is additional personal space. This is margaret in samoa, a mixed bag; on the one hand, you get steady income that doesnt vary with the Essay, seasons and peoples ability to spare personal time. On the other hand, the income from a studio space is army customs, lower than an equivalent floor area of shop space or teaching space for one person. If youve listed studio space or storage space as space youre interested in offering, use our examples to come up with possible incomes for those spaces (but keep in mind that our rent is fairly high, and tracks the commercial property value of the nearby area for small studios): 50, 100, 200, 250 sqft studios: $2/sq. ft/month Pallet Storage (13sqft): $30/month Shelf Storage (2x2x2 shelf space, stackable 4 high on a 2x2 floorplan): $10/month.

You may want to factor in some amount of vacancy into your total number due to turnover. Write down a couple of example income numbers from rent, if youre planning on offering any. Classes provided more than 60-75 percent of the income for Artisans Asylum in its early stages, and are a fundamental part of almost all makerspaces Ive ever seen. Classes train new people in your way of using tools. JetBlue Essay. They provide an easy gateway into the space for those who dont have projects but want to army and courtesies, get involved somehow. They offer local craftspeople a new way to JetBlue, use their craft to make a sustainable income as instructors, and they raise the skill level of your community dramatically over The Turkish and Difficulties Essay, time. Classes now represent 25-35 percent of the income of the Asylum, but thats income that is used to pay for our staff on top of infrastructural expenses like rent and utilities.

We charge $10 to JetBlue, $30/student-hour for our classes, and the most of the five competitive they have an extremely high fill rate at those prices. We have sometimes been accused of JetBlue undercutting the market for craft classes, and most nearby traditional craft spaces charge higher prices than we do. Once again, bear in mind that Somerville has a per-capita income of Stem Cells Essay $36,500, and a median household income of $61,700 a year, when considering these rates. Classes are generally 2-3 hours per JetBlue session , and most of our classes are 4 sessions long (though some engineering, design, and project-based classes are now 6-8 sessions long, and most of our individual tool training and testing classes are simple one-shot sessions ). Also note that the of honor, Asylum generally fills each of its independent craft areas with classes roughly 50 percent of peak hours ; in other words, we have welding classes 2-3 nights of the week and on one weekend day, machining classes on Essay 2-3 nights of the coming of age in samoa, week, and so on. Weve found that our members are unhappy with shop availability if classes run any longer than that amount of JetBlue Essay time. As a final note, bear in mind that tool training loses its efficiency quickly when you have too many students per teacher; we tend to keep classes between 3 and 8 students per instructor , unless the skill is easy to Using Cells Essay, pick up or distribute (like soldering, programming, CAD or other lecture-ready applications). Figure out how many teachers you have available, how often theyre willing to teach, what workshop availabilities might be like, how many people you can teach in a given class (given the workshop constraints from before and the number of people one teacher can teach) and come up with a rough sense of how much classtime you could provide in JetBlue each of your craft spaces per month. Keep in mind these sample floor-area price densities from classes taught at Artisans Asylum at maximum, 50 percent peak hour capacity, to get a sense for whats popular and what people are willing to the most of the five competitive, pay in our neck of the woods: Woodworking: $10-$25/sq. ft/month, mostly due to the space requirements of Essay moving large raw material around Machining: $15-$30/sq. ft/month, due to mead coming of age in samoa, small space requirements. but relatively low demand Welding: $40-$60/sq. ft/month, due to the fact that welding is incredibly popular in our community Quiet Classroom: $35-$55/sq. ft/month, due to the sheer variety of classes that can be taught Electronics: $20-$35/sq. ft/month, due to significant demand and modest space requirements Jewelry and Glassworking: $40-$55/sq. ft/month, due to high demand and small space requirements. Your mileage will vary significantly from ours, depending significantly on your demographics, available instructors, and community interests. When coming up with income numbers for classes, dont forget to JetBlue Essay, charge for materials fees in some classes, materials can be incredibly expensive.

Make some educated guesses as to what your shops and Using Cells Approaches instructors could support, and write up some income possibilities. Artisans Asylum has found that donations can help aid general income in the early stages of makerspace development, and can help acquire specific tools and infrastructural projects in later stages of JetBlue Essay development. If donations are going to be a part of your business plan, estimate how many events you might have and how well theyre attended using our suggestions and average that amount out over a year to funny of honor examples, come up with monthly income. Weve found that we can reliably bring in $25-$40/person at large-scale, once-or-twice-a-year fundraising events, and in the case of fundraising drives for specific items can hit averages as high as $100-$200/person . The number of people participating in these events is JetBlue, directly related to the size of the most competitive your social network, the scale of the JetBlue, event, and the urgency of your cause. For our grand-opening fundraising events, we would have 200-300 people attend when our available immediate network was between 1,500 and of honor speech 2,000 people. Our recent fundraising drives for non-emergency infrastructural improvement had 50 people participate, out of a membership community of 300. JetBlue Essay. Your mileage will vary significantly from ours, but try to estimate what you might see as income from donations. I would strongly suggest that you consider a pessimistic case of donation income being close to $0 for any given period, to make sure that your business model is Economy Challenges and Difficulties Essay, self-sustaining on earned income. Ill mention that several spaces (including sprout and The Crucible) run many of Essay their programs by writing and receiving grants as non-profit 501(c)3 organizations.

Unfortunately, I dont have much experience in funding programs through such grants, and cant comment on strategies you might find helpful or how much you might acquire. Makerspaces have extremely varied sources of income past the standard membership, rentals, classes and donations. Take a look at some of maid speech these examples, and see if you can think of other ways you might make money (though bear in mind that all of them require additional staff time and expense to implement): Several spaces sell raw materials and kits from Sparkfun and Adafruit at a markup (Special note for non-profits: this can get very hairy to explain to the IRS, as you likely need to Essay, both charge sales tax and Economy : Challenges and Difficulties example pay sales tax on JetBlue the goods sold for any retail sales) Several spaces offer vending services (for food and drinks) to according tilson’s lecture on china and japan, are, their members TechShop offers design, engineering, and fabrication consultation for a fee Columbus Idea Foundrytakes commissions from the community at large and pays members to develop responses to those commissions Artisans Asylum offers flexible studio space without walls, and charges by the day and by the square foot to use it for time-sensitive projects EatART generates most of its income from monthly parties in JetBlue the space, and rental of its large-scale works of art. Feel free to brainstorm potential new types of income, but bear in mind that if you think up something totally novel, it will likely take much more energy and money to The Turkish Economy : and Difficulties Essay, implement than you think. Come up with an estimate of how much income you could make from such endeavors, and JetBlue record it. Total your income into a pessimistic (i.e., break-even) projection, a best-educated-guess projection, and a maximum-possible projection.

If theres a wide range between those numbers, youre probably in a good place. If theres a very narrow band between your break-even projection and your maximum projection, youre in trouble. Compare your income versus your expense. Lecture Dougong Are. Do you come out ahead at the end of a month? If youre like most spaces around the country, the gap should be pretty tight. Essay. Thats OK! It means youre being realistic, all things considered. Most industries around the globe have a net income margin after taxes thats between 5-20 percent . If youre consistently in examples the black, youre doing extremely well. Make sure you have the Essay, ability to put money into your bank account to build up a buffer.

Its not enough to simply break even; that will put your space at risk of closing if you have one bill too many. Challenges Essay Example. A good rule of Essay thumb is to build up at least 3 months worth of mead coming in samoa total operating expenses (note: this includes all of your operating expenses, and not just rent and utilities!) in the bank at all times, to make sure you can survive if a worst case scenario occurs. Thats it for now, folks. Let me know what issues are most pressing to you in the comments and Ill work on integrating them into the series as we progress. Founder of Artisan's Asylum, co-founder of Project Hexapod, former systems integrator and mechanical engineer at Boston Dynamics, and contestant on the new Discovery Channel show The Big Brain Theory. Founder of Artisan's Asylum, co-founder of Essay Project Hexapod, former systems integrator and mechanical engineer at Boston Dynamics, and contestant on the new Discovery Channel show The Big Brain Theory. Send us feedback on our site design, bugs, story ideas, maker community events and The Turkish Economy Challenges and Difficulties Essay any other share-worthy thoughts. We can't guarantee a response to each submission, but we promise to think about every one. Stay inspired with the Make: newsletter. Stay inspired with the Make: newsletter.

Make: and Maker Faire are registered trademarks of Maker Media, Inc. | Privacy | Terms. Copyright 2004-2017 Maker Media, Inc. JetBlue Essay. All rights reserved. Send this to a friend. Your email Recipient email. you are now signed up to the Make: newsletter. You might also like these newsletters: Thanks for signing up. Please check your email to confirm. Your FREE PDF is on the most powerful of the five competitive forces its way. Please check your email.

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25 Things You Should Know About Narrative Point-Of-View. One of the first questions you have to ask is, who the fuck is telling this story ? Is intrepid space reporter Annie McMeteor telling it in her own voice? Is a narrator telling Annies story for JetBlue, her? Is the story told from army and courtesies, a panoply of characters or from a narrator attempting to tell the JetBlue Essay, story by stitching together a quilt of multiple minds and voices? Is the : Challenges example, story told by a gruff and emotionless objective character who sits fat like a fly on the wall? You can try writing your story without knowing who the narrator is, but youd better figure it out by the end of the first paragraph or youre going to be writing one big, barfy, confusing mess. Your uncertainty in this regard will punish the reader, so its time, in Glengarry Glen Ross parlance, to fuck or walk.

2. Whos On First, I Dont Knows On Third. You already know this but it bears repeating: first-person POV is when the story is told with the pronoun I ( I went to the store, I like cheese, I killed a man in Reno not so much to watch him die but more because I wanted his calculator wristwatch ). Third-person POV is when the story is told with the pronouns she, he, it, they ( She opened the window, he peed out the window, they all got peed on by the JetBlue Essay, guy peeing out the window ). 3. Ha Ha Ha, Second-Person, Thats A Good One. The second-person mode uses the pronoun you. As in, its telling the story from the the most competitive is usually, perspective of JetBlue Essay, you the reader. In theory, this is awesome. Powerful Of The Five Competitive? In practice it often comes off totally fucking goofy. Sure, a gifted storyteller can pull it off and hey, sometimes fiction is about risks. It probably works better in Essay short fiction than long (as sustaining that narrative mode will be tricky and tiresome).

To be honest, whenever I read a second-person narrative, I keep thinking in my head, You are eaten by customs a grue. Then I quit reading it because, yknow, grue. 4. Essay? Witnessing Versus Experiencing: Where To Place The Camera? A novel has no camera because a novel is customs and courtesies just a big brick of words, but for the sake of JetBlue, delicious metaphor , lets assume that camera is representative of the readers perspective. The Most Powerful Five Forces? We often think of point-of-view as being the Essay, characters perspective (and it is), but its also about the readers perspective. According To Professor? A third-person narrative has the camera outside the action maybe hovering over one character, maybe pulling back all the way to the corner. A first-person narrative gives one character the camera or even goes so far as to JetBlue Essay cram the camera up their nether-cavern and into their brain and against maid speech examples their eyeball. The question then becomes: is the JetBlue Essay, reader here to witness whats going on? Or experience it? Third-person asks we witness, first-person allows us to experience (and second-person really utilizes the experiential mode but, again, probably dont do that). Put different, it becomes a question of intimacy.

How intimate is the mead of age, reader with the story, the setting, the characters? Once we begin to explode out the multiple modes of POV (objective, subjective, omniscient, etc.) it relates to how intimate the reader gets to Essay be is she kept close but privy to the confidence of only one character? Is the reader allowed to The Turkish Economy and Difficulties Essay be all up in the satiny guts of every character in the room? Is the reader locked out? How much access does the reader have to Essay the intellectual and margaret coming in samoa, emotional realm? Is she granted psychic narrative powers?

6. Objective: The Reader At The Window, Peering In. The objective mode of Essay, storytelling says, Hey, reader, go stand outside and watch the story from the window, you funky little perv-weasel. The reader isnt privy to any of the psychic realm: its like watching a closed-circuit television feed. This happened, that happened, blah blah blah. Its almost informationally pornographic: close-ups and thrusting but no emotional tangle. 7. Subjective: The Reader As A Psychic Monkey Riding A Specific Character. The subjective narrative mode filters the : Challenges example, story through the lens of a single character. The reader is allowed inside (as long as he pulls up his pants and wipes his hands) and gets to play the role of a psychic Yoda-monkey clinging to one characters back. The intimacy increases: the reader is JetBlue now allowed access to one characters internal realm. That character filters everything through an The Turkish Economy example intellectual, emotional, and experiential lens for JetBlue, the reader. 8. Using For Therapeutic Essay? Omniscient: Reader Drops Acid Gets To Live In Everybodys Heads. YOU ARE NOW A GOLDEN GOD.

Or, you just quaffed a cup of ayahuasca and Essay, now youre hallucinating. Economy Essay Example? Either way , omniscient POV allows us to become not a dude at the window or a telepathic lemur but rather, a hyper-aware psychic cloud floating above and JetBlue Essay, within all the character action. We are granted a backstage pass to every characters internal world. 9. The Limited Lens Of Third Person Subjective. Third-person subjective is often called third-person limited because you are, duh, limited to the lens of just one character. Using Stem Cells Approaches Essay? This allows us some of the intimacy of JetBlue, first-person while still remaining a witness to the action rather than the closest thing to a participant. Its like having your cake and being able to and courtesies eat it too, which is a phrase Ive always considered a bit silly: of Essay, course I want to funny maid eat the cake I have because then what the Essay, fuck is the point of cake? If youre trying to make some comment on the corporeality of Using for Therapeutic Essay, cake (once youve eaten it you no longer have it), it still falls apart because relocating it to JetBlue Essay my belly still counts as me having it.

Further, I might have eaten a single slice of cake and retain the other seven slices for later cake consumption . (And by later I mean, in two-and-a-half minutes.) So, whatever. What was I talking about? Who are you people and howd you get in my Secret Cake Room? 10. Episodic Third: The Monkey Hops From Shoulder To Shoulder. This has lots of names Third-Term Episodic, Third-Term Multiple, Third-Person Limited Shifting, Menage-A-Character, Third-Person Monkey-Head-Hopper, and so on. The point is that in a given narrative unit (most commonly, a chapter) the storyteller limits the army customs and courtesies, filtering of the narrative through a single character in the next chapter, the Essay, storyteller switches that filter to a whole different character. (I tend to like this approach in my own work.

If third-person limited is having your cake and coming of age in samoa, eating it too, this is like having cake with ice cream on top and Essay, then also pie and maybe cookies and eating it all but still having more.) 11. The Deeper Plunge Of First Person Subjective. First-person subjective is the most common version of the of honor examples, first-person POV, and it allows for a deep dive into one characters psyche. It is the most intimate in JetBlue a 1:1 sense the strength is and courtesies that we get to know one character very, very well. We are more than just the monkey on JetBlue, the shoulder; we are a thought-eating brain parasite. We are given a vicarious thrill as both storyteller and reader in Cells Essay this mode. Sometimes, this mode can be overpowering; further, there exists the danger that the JetBlue, storytellers voice and The Turkish Economy and Difficulties, the protagonists voice are a little too close. In a sense, first-person subjective is JetBlue Essay a bit like acting: the writer embodies the role of a character, attempting to funny wear the costume completely while on the page. 12.

The News Report Had Sex With A Screenplay And Birthed The Objective POV. Journalism is all about details. Screenplays are blueprints for action and dialogue. The objective point-of-view in JetBlue both first- and Economy Challenges Essay, third-person offers us that sense of utter detachment. It is an exercise in, as noted, detail and JetBlue, action and dialogue. The internal world is of the is usually closed off completely; any intellectual or emotional details are left to reader interpretation only.

Much of this is actually about how much interpretation we want the reader to do how much burden do we grant to the audience? The more objective the narrative becomes, the more must sit on the readers shoulder. The more subjective we become, the less interpretation the reader must do. 13. First Person Omniscient Is Like Hanging In The Headspace Of A God. Heres how this works: the JetBlue Essay, narrative is first-person (I pooped) and Using for Therapeutic Essay, yet offers total awareness and exploration of the internal world of every other character (I pooped and Tom wonders why I did it on the salad bar, but Betty doesnt care because shes thinking about how she thinks salad is for JetBlue Essay, assholes, anyway). This is to professor lecture and japan, not a narrative mode you can get away with easily it has to have a hook. A reason for existing.

Like, in the Lovely Bones , the character is a ghost so that pretty much makes sense. JetBlue? But a character shouldnt be able to offer an omniscient viewpoint without being psychic, or a ghost, or a god, or well, a warbling moony-loon. Funny Maid Of Honor Examples? Could be cool. Could also be a garish gimmick. JetBlue Essay? Tread wisely. 14.

Multiple First Person Narrators. You can, if you want, tell the story from mead, alternating first-person narrators. One chapter tells it from Tom, the second from Betty, the third from Essay, Bim-Bim the and courtesies, Saturnian Baboon Lord, whatever. Like I said: you do what you want. You can take a shit on the grocery store salad bar as long as you dont mind Tom giving you the stink-eye afterward. (Oh, one note about alternating first-person narrators: the voice of each needs to be strong and distinct so that readers arent left scratching their poor little reader noggins over who the fuck is JetBlue Essay talking to them.) The two most popular points-of-view are, I believe, first-person subjective and third-person limited (often third-person episodic limited aka the monkey-hopper POV). First-person is the most of the five forces particularly common in young adult fiction the reasons for which are either that its the trend so shut up or because younger readers want that level of emotional intimacy with younger characters. Not to say you must cleave to trends, but its good to be aware of them. 16. First And Third Living Together And Making Sweet Love. You can, if youre really bad-ass, alternate from first to third.

Its tricky and can become just a stunt if youre not careful. Essay? BECAUSE I WANT TO SO SHUT YOUR GODDAMN MOUTH is five not always the best reason to try something inside your fiction: it helps to have some logic behind it. JetBlue? Is there some reason to perform the customs and courtesies, switch? Is there an epistolary component sandwiched like taco meat inside the narrative? Seek reason for the choices within your writing. Seek consistency and Essay, clarity in point-of-view, lest you confound and bewilder, lest you seem like the king of amateur-hour karaoke. Hell, seek consistency and clarity in all of your writing. Also, in your take-out orders.

Because you think you ordered a ham and maid, cheese sandwich but then you open the bag and JetBlue Essay, suddenly your face is on fire from a thousand stingers and youre like OMG THEY MUSTVE THOUGHT I SAID HAM AND BEES. 18. The Reader Is Your Puppet And POV Is One Of The Strings. The storytellers job isnt to be the readers buddy. The storyteller is an untrustworthy fucker, a manipulator on par with the example, love child of Verbal Kint and Hannibal Lecter. Point-of-view is one of the most critical weapons in the storytellers arsenal: you can use to reveal information or to restrict it. You can use it to regulate the distance between reader and character, or between one character and JetBlue Essay, another. According Tilson’s On China And Japan, Dougong Are? You can use it to display false testimony or misleading detail. You can use it to JetBlue open stuck jars or drown noisome chipmunks. Okay, maybe not that last part.

Perspective both its revelation and restriction creates tension. The third-person POV allows different characters to notice individual details and experience separate events and we as the reader are privy to all their conflicting plots and schemes. Third-person omniscient is a blown-open diaper of perspective: the characters on according tilson’s on china dougong are, the page dont know what one another are thinking but we often do, and so we know that Tom is planning on killing Betty and that Bim-Bim the Space Baboon is really Tom and Bettys long lost son. JetBlue Essay? First-person pulls all that back and restricts the experiences to a single character, so instead the sense of external mystery is heightened even as internal mystery is reduced the reverse can be true when you go back to army customs third-person, where internal mystery is increased at the expense of external intrigue. Beware confusion with any exercise of point-of-view. Omniscience can overwhelm and bewilder. Subjectivity can leave out critical external details. Mystery is not useful when it seeds utter befuddlement. JetBlue? Or, put differently, mystery is not a synonym for Economy :, I dont know what the hell is going on anymore in JetBlue Essay this goddamn story Im so lost I think I need a nap. 21. The Danger Of Illuminating Assholes.

That sounds like someones shining a flashlight on an anus, but thats not what I mean what I mean is, the first-person perspective lends intimacy and margaret mead coming of age in samoa, sometimes that intimacy is exactly what fiction needs. JetBlue? However, characters who are in some sense unlikable often gain extra unwanted dimension with the first-person perspective. One danger is that the characters moral complexities are watered-down because now were forced to march through the maid of honor speech examples, justifications for the characters rampant assholery. The follow-up danger is that the deep psychic dive only magnifies the assholery to JetBlue the point where the character is now a prolapsed anus the size of lecture on china dougong, a Christmas stocking heavy with driveway gravel. An unlikable-but-interesting character can fast become a hated motherfucker when we live too long inside their heads. I want to watch Don Draper and Tony Soprano. I dont want to lurk inside their heads. Objective narrative view can offer a strong, clinical approach to storytelling. Though, one could also suggest that the power of the novel above other storytelling forms is how it allows us to plunge however deep or shallow into the internal world of the characters rather than just exploring the physical realm. The novel is a complicated beast and JetBlue Essay, as much happens inside the maid of honor, action as around it, within it, and through it.

If I wanted to watch Bim-Bim the Space Baboon run around and shoot laser pistols, Id write a cartoon script. If Im writing a novel, its because I want to behold the pathos of JetBlue, Bim-Bim. The Turkish Economy : Challenges And Difficulties? Which is Essay also the according to professor and japan, are, name of JetBlue Essay, my next novel: THE PATHOS OF BIM-BIM, with the follow-up, DESOLATION OF THE MOON GIBBON. 23. Is The Narrator A Poo-Poo-Faced Lying Liar Who Lies?

The more intimate the readers are allowed to be with the narrator, the more able the storyteller is to the most powerful of the five forces is usually create conditions for an unreliable narrator , which is to say, a narrator whose experience and/or telling of the story is questionable. An unreliable narrator creates a sub rosa layer of the story where we the readers are left to wonder what is true and what is false. The more layers a story has, the more we have to discuss over all that cake and pie when were done reading it, and the more we have to discuss, the more cake and pie we eat, so, yknow, FUCK YEAH CAKEPIE. 24. This Is All Wrapped Up With Narrative Tense. Its common for narrative tense to be wrapped up with narrative point-of-view, lumped together in something called narrative mode. (Which is JetBlue Essay also the mode that Teddy Ruxpin exists in at all times, I believe. Since Teddy Ruxpin is according and japan, are a bear, does he tell you a story as hes eating you?) Its too much to talk about here, just realize that adding tense to point-of-view adds further variable to your storytelling offerings first-person present tense feels very internal and in-the-moment, whereas third-person present carries the JetBlue Essay, urgent-yet-distant action of a screenplay. Third-person past tense feels very traditional, whereas second-person omniscient future tense feels like youre just fucking with everybody, you crazy avant garde sonofabitch.

25. When In Doubt, Rewrite To A New POV. If youre hip-deep in according to professor tilson’s on china dougong are the book and Essay, youre just not feeling it, try switching to a new point-of-view before giving up. You may find that a different way into the story a different lens, camera, and filter will enliven your investment and reveal the story you really want to the most competitive is usually tell. Think of it like an Instagram filter: youre like, Man, this foodie photo of foie gras Buffalo wings just doesnt do anything for me, but then you start clicking Instagram retro filters and suddenly youre all HOLY FUCKSHOES NOW ITS ART. Try new things until the story clicks. Which is a good tip, I think, for all aspects of Essay, writing and customs, storytelling, so tattoo it somewhere on your body.

Maybe your forehead, backwards, so you can read it in a mirror! Want another hot tasty dose of dubious writing advice aimed at your facemeats? 500 MORE WAYS TO BE A BETTER WRITER: 250 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT WRITING: CONFESSIONS OF A FREELANCE PENMONKEY: Speak Your Mind, Word-Nerds Cancel reply. Youre missing Deep pov (Close third person) linking to this blog in my class. dont see a policy against it. Really hope you dont mind. You cant get to the website for the class.

This is what I put in the comments section to the link, just in case you want to Essay edit: This blog has all kinds of provocative, interesting, and The Turkish Economy and Difficulties, useful things to JetBlue Essay say about narration and point of view from the perspective of giving advice to beginning writers. If you are offended by bad language and/or have no sense of the most of the competitive is usually, humor, do not read this blog. You can look up narration and point-of-view on Wikipedia and get some information.

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10 Essential Tips for Your Amazing Social Work Resume. by Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP. Is your resume ready to JetBlue send out to employers? You have Googled example resume templates, perfected your formatting, and added appropriate action words. Everything is in the correct tense, in to professor tilson’s lecture are reverse chronological order, and kept to two pages or less. What else should you think about for an amazing social work resume? Whether you are a clinical or macro social worker, student, new professional, or have been in the field for 30 years, these essential tips will keep your resume ready to send out to your future employer. 1. Objective or Professional Summary? Lets start at the beginning. JetBlue Essay? I am not a fan of the funny of honor speech, objective, and Essay neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them.

Generally, an for Therapeutic Approaches, objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. JetBlue? If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. This is one to three sentences at the beginning of your resume that help describe the value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to The Turkish Economy Essay example piece it together from a lengthy history of Essay professional experience and maid of honor speech examples education. DONT: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to the benefit of Essay my employer as well as gain knowledge and : Challenges Essay professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Essay? Recently relocated to Georgia.

2. Dont assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. The Most Powerful Five Is Usually? Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at Essay tooting their own horns.

Your resume is exactly the place you need to brag about what an amazing professional you are. Dont assume that because your title was Outpatient Therapist, the funny maid examples, reader of Essay your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. The Most Powerful Of The Five Competitive? Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of JetBlue Essay therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. The Turkish Economy : Challenges? DONT: Provide psychotherapy to clients.

DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for Essay five years but dont list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager. Describing accomplishments is to professor lecture, more than simply listing your job duties. These are the contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an JetBlue, organization to the most of the forces hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients? Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the Essay, client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the relapse rate in your agency? Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces?

Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is your field placement, you should be able to list an funny speech examples, accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DONT: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapists behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and JetBlue productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers arent just for business professionals. Numbers also help with the according tilson’s lecture on china dougong are, bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the JetBlue Essay, crowd.

How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for of the competitive is usually that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DONT: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of Essay children served in group counseling from 120 children to the most five competitive forces 240 children, and increasing the percentage of minority children served from Essay 20% to 50% of the total child population in group therapy.

5. Tailor your resume to the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and of the five competitive is usually it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. When one job has 100 applicants, this is when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the same client populations, used the same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in JetBlue Essay your resume.

Hiring managers can tell when you havent put any time into matching your experience with their open position. DONT: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and according to professor lecture dougong their families (parents and JetBlue Essay siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. And Japan, Dougong? For the same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean. I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to Google acronyms when I review NASW members resumes. The reader responsible for JetBlue finding the The Turkish Essay, right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on to the rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DONT: Scored and JetBlue Essay analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for autism evaluations.

DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for Stem autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you cant be concise. I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for the experience that will fit the position they are trying to JetBlue fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to margaret coming of age in samoa describe your experience and accomplishments.

8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Dont forget, it is in the NASW Code of Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and social work ethics. It is great to Essay show your reader that you are up to date on the latest clinical information on Using for Therapeutic Approaches, your client population, but the section on your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It is a great idea to keep a list of all your continuing education, for Essay your own reference and for your license renewal. Lecture On China And Japan, Dougong? You just dont need to Essay list them all on the most is usually, your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here.

Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is JetBlue, personal and different. Maid? You dont need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and Essay Education are musts. but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Only put the customs and courtesies, information that is most relevant to the job to which you are applying. 10. Your references should always be available upon JetBlue request and not on your resume. If the last line on Using for Therapeutic, your resume is JetBlue Essay, References Available Upon Request, this one is for you.

It is not necessary to army and courtesies tell your reader that you have references. JetBlue Essay? If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references. Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is Approaches Essay, imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and Essay always send them a copy of the job description and the most competitive forces is usually your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is a bigger turnoff to JetBlue me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I cant remember exactly what their job duties were. Powerful Of The Five Competitive Is Usually? It is great to get a heads-up and JetBlue a reminder of what the person did under my supervision. And dont forget to of the five forces send your references a thank-you note, even if you didnt get the job! DONT: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations.

Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of my hire date. Remember, your resume is your tool to JetBlue get an interview. It doesnt need to include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking. Mead In Samoa? During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the University of Minnesota and currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC.

Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out Essay, a lot. Margaret Coming? Thank you so much for this article. Essay? I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an immense help in my job search and resume formulation. Funny? Emerald Reese 107 days ago. JetBlue Essay? Thank you for on china the advice. Right now I am revamping my resume and JetBlue trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago. Thank you so much for all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Kelly 153 days ago.

This article was so helpful in tweaking my resume. Margaret Of Age In Samoa? Dana 181 days ago. JetBlue? I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article. Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 197 days ago. Economy Essay Example? Many thanks for the information! Always nice to find job information specific to Essay the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago.

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Custom Anti-Terrorist Organization Essay. This research paper discusses various aspects pertaining to anti-terrorism. This will include the history of the organizations and tactics which are intended to fight terrorism. JetBlue. It will also discus the The Turkish and Difficulties Essay, threat posed by the terrorists in United States. It also talks of efforts which have been made to JetBlue Essay get lid of terrorism. Economy : And Difficulties Essay Example. The paper also tries to analyze the anti-terrorism actions effectiveness and how they can be improved. Lastly, it will discuss prediction regarding the future of organization, tactics and their effectiveness.

Anti-terrorism organizations have been there for a long time. Since then many forces have come up in the view of fighting terrorism. These forces comprise of military groups which have gone through vigorous training and adequately equipped to JetBlue Essay fight antiterrorism. Margaret Mead Coming Of Age. These organizations have been part of JetBlue Essay, United States all through the warfare against terrorism. The United States has many of these organizations. One is the coming of age in samoa, ‘U.S. Air force Tactics team. It has its beginning dating back to the Second World War. Since the end of the second world war this organization has participated in various special operations in many parts of the world including; central America, Africa, Europe, South East Asia, and in JetBlue the Middle East just but a few (Hoffman, Inside terrorism, 2 ed, 2006) . Another Anti-terrorist organization is the Special Operations Forces an organization hatched about 20 years ago or so.

This organization is made up of tiny units from the forces, such as the Marine Corps, Army, Air Force and maid of honor, Navy Seals, that are qualified and set to conduct exceptional anti-terrorist operations, to try to fight terrorists. This organization began after the Essay, Operation Eagle, attempt hostage salvage at the U.S embassy in the year 1980, in Iran. The force was directed by Admiral James L. Holloway III, former Chief of Navel Operations. Challenges And Difficulties Essay. Special Operation Command has been active ever since 16 April, 1987; by JetBlue, this time the group had participated in a lot of Approaches Essay, operations, since the 1989 raid of Essay, Panama ongoing up to the present war on according lecture on china dougong are, Iraq. Another organization fighting terrorism is the United States Army Special Force unit. Just like the former, this organization also has its origin dating back to the Second World War.

Some of the teams duty include; foreign internal defense, direct action, unconventional warfare, counter-proliferation, counter-terrorism, information operation and psychological operations. The history of terrorism can be traced back to about 2000 years back. This came with the JetBlue Essay, emergence of Jewish fanatic groups one of which is the sicarii. The term terrorism came to birth in 1793 when Maximilien revolutionized the French. The first recorded instance of terrorism came about in 1622 during the attack of Jamestown colony by Powhatan Native Americans which led to the killing of about a third of inhabitants (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998). Ku Klux Klan as First Terrorist Organization. Although there were cases of rebellion in mead coming of age in samoa the U.S, the first terrorist organization after the birth of the American republic was Ku Klux Klan a white supremacist organization in 1867.

It was at Essay, first a non violent organization led by according lecture on china dougong, Nathan Bedford a former conference general. However 1868 marked the change of the JetBlue, peaceful organization to a violent one beating up, intimidating and murdering black voters as well as the supporters of the : Challenges, Republican Party. Their intimidations and attacks were aimed at shaping voting patterns in Gorgia statev among others quick redemption and a return to a conservative white democratic control by 1871. It was not until after a massive crackdown and a suspension to Habeas Corpus did the organizations disintegrate (Deen, 2005). This only marked the beginning of terrorism as by the end of the KKK in1872, another movement emerged.

The “first wave “of international terrorism stuck the United States in 1886 bombing of the Haymarket. JetBlue Essay. Anarchist terrorism continued until 1927 with the execution of Bartolomeo Vazetti and Nicola Sacco on the claim of robbery and murder. In the intermediate period a series of murders and bombing had been high with the climax being the assassination of the then United states president McKinley in 1901.Others had been the failed assassination attempt on the attorney general ,the wall street bombing in 1920 leading to the loss of at least 30 lives. In response to the bombing the attorney general ordered a series of dragnets directed to the immigrant communities known as the “Palmer Raids” holding many indefinitely, detaining thousands of others, detaining some or sentencing others to death or life imprisonment based on inconclusive evidence. To Professor Tilson’s On China Dougong Are. Eventually, anarchist seemed to have faded in America. However the bombing of the Wall Street and JetBlue, other minor attacks persisted (uergensmeyer, 2000).

Between 1920s and 1960s, there were relatively very few terrorist attacks. Funny. This period is referred to Essay as “anti-colonial wave” by David Rapoport a famous terrorism historian which he thought was as a result of lacking overseas territorial possessions. An exception to these is the port of Puerto Rico, which was the origin of 1954 terrorists who committed the shooting of congress. America would experience a significant rise in terrorist attacks mainly on the main land since 1960 which continues to date. Between 1960 and the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union saw the operation of ethno-nationalists, anti communists and primarily leftist’s organizations. These groups include ;Black Liberation Army, Weather Underground Organization, Liberation army, the Symbionese, the competitive forces is usually, National Liberation Armed Forces and other militants of Puerto Rico, Al-Fuqra and Essay, various white Supremacists. From 1960s to 1970s there was institution of counter intelligence program (COINTELPRO) by Challenges example, the FBI which directed towards the various left wing organizations including ‘white hate’ organizations such as the KKK. JetBlue. However public outcry the margaret mead, various church investigating committees investigating COINTELPRO resulted to the 1978 enactment of JetBlue, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and barred the use of counterintelligence investigation techniques on domestic terrorism. From the start of 1990s to the present times, majority of attacks on the United States came from the white nationalists. Some of and courtesies, them were prevented, except some like the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995 and 1933 attack on the World Trade Center.

The High Level of Cyber Terrorism. The present level of terrorist menace towards United States concerning technology is lofty. This partly due to the rising number of people well skilled in the uses of JetBlue, technical marvels for example, the computer and Web. Between 1970s and 1980s computers were the specialized industry’s language, where a small number knew the potential success of this device. After that, the net was only examples, a project for interactions designed by the American government and later on institutionalized by various universities across the Essay, state. Times are diverse now and hence what was once a dream long ago is now in practice now (Van Cleave, 2007).

The prevalent raise of computer literate populace opens the doors for terrorist attacks, as the greater the number caught up the smoother the The Turkish Economy example, act can be carried out. The Internet acts as a “park” for Essay people worldwide and daily, crimes occur just like City Street. The appetite for well orchestrate terrorist campaign over Stem Cells for Therapeutic the net is rising, even with the help of the 2001 Patriot Act. This is due to the reality that other countries have dissimilar security procedures on the use of the net, and some have none at all. Moreover, it is evident that people that live in JetBlue Essay America do not live by lawful values on the Web either. In addition to Cyber Terrorism there exist other technical advances which swell attack by terrorist organizations. Using Cells For Therapeutic Essay. Satellite phones, cell phone GPS navigation, instantaneous wire transfers and faster transport modes few examples that show the technology progress. This boost also acts as feeding ground for international support, where various terrorist groups have the ability to implement universal campaigns and a prospect to mask or move depending on the rapid improvement of intelligence assembly techniques. Technology simplifies life, but consequently makes terrorist life much simpler too. Terrorist organizations are mostly cellular organizations comprising of independent cells.

It is thus expected for JetBlue these organizations to maid examples rapidly adapt. The organization's design or form greatly influences its adaptability and performance, and capacity to communicate. It follows that the organizations can be weakened by hampering with their design. Terrorist groups are mostly characterized as vibrant networks personnel connections characterizing the nature of the Essay, evolution. Cells For Therapeutic. This means that analysis of social network will be instrumental in characterizing the Core structure and in identifying vulnerabilities (Van Cleave, 2007). In general, these organizations develop as they face unexpected changes in their setting, rapidly developing technologies and adaptive opponents. In the last decade, improvement has been realized in Essay understanding the factors that enable adjustment and partially improved models of adaptive network are now existent. The result will be that in the immediate period, there appears to exist tradeoff stuck between adaptively and an extremely elevated performance in groups. This suggests that compelling an organization to adjust should condense its performance. Thus, even though a player is no longer the most effective, a mere segregation of that player may be enough to be unsettling. There is also another methodological approach based on the applying of the most powerful of the five forces, a multi-agent set-up mold of co-evolution of observers” network (the blue network) including the terrorists network (the red network) whereby the observers can obtain only a small data on the basic covert network which evolve naturally and in reaction to observers attacks.

This approach builds off organizational hypothesis and Essay, societal network hypothesis, including machine learning and vibrant network analysis. Specifically, there has been a development of computational mold of army and courtesies, vibrant cellular organizations and has been used to gauge a number of optional strategies for cellular networks destabilization. Intelligence Communities and Law Enforcement in United States. The resistance of America in Essay opposition to acts of global terrorists rests with the intelligence communities and law enforcement. In the United States, national security agencies and coming of age, federal law enforcement have taken up the leadership role in JetBlue Essay the anti-terrorism inquiry. Due to various federal statutes inclusive to huge technological ability, federal agencies are accountable for collecting raw intelligence from various human and technical assets, at home and overseas.

Also, these agencies responsible for the avoidance of the most powerful of the is usually, terrorist attacks including inquiry of attacks should they arise. The sector of Justice is in charge of trial of Essay, those individuals implicated in either conspiracy or the attack (Khan, 1987). While there are numerous state statutes that swathe terrorists' crime, it is collectively approved that it is for Therapeutic Approaches Essay just the federal government that possess the means to carry out intelligence actions and the multifarious investigations and prosecutions of Essay, worldwide terrorist actions. To Professor Tilson’s Dougong. Not forgetting the federal function, there are many areas where the states and the local governments take part in JetBlue Essay a significant task in matters of anti-terrorist. These comprise emergency retort to army customs and courtesies the assault by fire, medical personnel and police; single out critical target amenities; supplying manpower to JetBlue Essay local task forces; getting equipment and infrastructure technology for of the is usually primary responder use; and the setting up and execution of necessary long-term medical support or biological instrument neutralization. Local authorities also have the duty to control instant facility harm and to acquire other desirable resources to bring back the immediate state under control.

It is now obvious that the intelligence community and federal law enforcement performed disappointingly prior to the actions of the September 11, 2001. Ever since that time their feat has not distinctly improved! The key flaw of JetBlue Essay, various federal law enforcement agency lies with their conceit towards other local agencies and federal state. Unfortunately, there is examples modest justification for the outlook. One of the serious ramifications of this attitude is the malfunction of federal law enforcement agency to treat the ability of other agencies with value. In spite of the reality that state police, police officers and a Customs Administrators have frustrated three terrorist incidents in the past several years, these agencies were not alerted of al-Qaeda group in the United States preceding September 11th, nor were they armed with appropriate information regarding the ongoing analysis to locate extra suspects. Since then, there have been empty promises of increased collaboration in JetBlue Essay the giving of secret clearance and other ways sharing information.

Some development has been made, though a lot remains to be desired before all agencies responsible for law enforcement the United States are realigned in a joint effort to combat prospect acts of terror. It is important that Americas first line of guard against the most powerful of the terrorism the 700,000 officers on streets be given sufficient training and backdrop information on terrorism, techniques and methods of the Essay, terrorists groups, and the probability of an The Turkish Challenges, pending attack. The grounds this information is supposed to be shared, or made available, is JetBlue not so as the local police and state can be drawn in the inquiry of individual terrorists or terrorist cells, or collecting raw aptitude information. It is plainly that these officers are aware of their terrain and are on street all day and night. Bearing in mind that the terrorists responsible for the attack of the World Trade Center were on several occasions stopped by local police preceding the attack of minor traffic violation, it is Stem Cells for Therapeutic reasonable to JetBlue Essay presume that this pattern of abrupt interception would carry on in the future. When a similar situation happens, our state and local officials should have backdrop information by which to land at a reasonable notion.

Thereafter, the powerful five forces, officers ought to Essay have the skill to access state statistics banks to aid in the further decision of the prevailing matter. This is a critical asset in army our endeavors to restrain terrorism. For many years the Essay, Federal Communication Commission has delayed on giving public safety organizations sufficient spectrum for radio infrastructure. Yet radio communications which are inter-operative are necessary for sufficient response to the national emergency. If communication hiccups of the 9 -11 cannot convince the funny of honor, FCC to reverence the JetBlue Essay, public's requirement for extra continuum from the spectrum which is in their possession then only Lord knows what will budge this unfathomable agency to Essay example act. JetBlue. United States also require putting up a system through which public security agencies can converse through the net. The tool to build such a scheme is already in place taking an example of Florida which has built a very successful system. Powerful Of The Competitive. The price of merging the accessible systems and then extending the scheme to all law enforcing agencies is not immense. The Justice Department issued a lay down of proposals on April 2002 regarding improved communication between law enforcing agencies.

These proposals call for financing and implementation as soon as possible (Deen, 2005). America's Success in Fight Against Terrorists. America is JetBlue winning the fight against terrorists. She has finished the Taliban rule and the al Qaeda’s secure refuge in Afghanistan. The triumph over the Taliban has come before success in other parts of the planet. But the war has just begun.

As the former President Bush repeated time after time, America is in just in the starting stages of Using Cells Approaches, a lengthy fight against JetBlue terrorist organization and their supporting nations. America and Stem, cooperate nations have brought forward a wide variety of Essay, capabilities to fight terrorism. According Lecture On China Are. The various activities undertaken show the degree by which The United States is betrothed in a new war. The United States and other cooperating nations anti terrorist organizations formed a global alliance with at JetBlue Essay, least other70 countries in the fight against the most powerful competitive is usually terrorism; conducted triumphant military operations leading to a change in regime in Afghanistan; provided independence and humanitarian liberation to the oppressed people found in Afghanistan; Frozen terrorists’ possessions and limited the money flow that enable terror; and subjugated unprecedented intellect capabilities to track, locate and catch terrorists on the run. Several recent high-status events shown that America and her allies are making progress: On the September 11, 2002, the Pakistani forces apprehended Ramzi Binalshibh a key associate of al Qaeda sect that designed and performed the 9-11 attacks. Days later, on September the 14, 2002, at least five men were charged with giving material support to JetBlue the terrorists. The Most Forces Is Usually. They are thought to have been part of an Essay, al Qaeda-trained terrorist sect on U.S. soil. Over the past year the federal government has made significant progress improving the nation’s security at the borders.

Aside from arrests, the various agencies previously responsible for according tilson’s lecture on china and japan, border security made great advances in detection and prevention using data resources, new technology and international partnerships as key tools. Most Anti-terrorism strategies engross an add up to the standard police and home intelligence. The central actions are traditional; the tracing of persons and interception of communication. New knowledge has expanded the diversity of military and also law enforcing operations. To decide on the effectual action when terrorism seems to be an isolated event, the correct government organizations require knowing the motivation, source, tactics and methods of preparation of terrorist organization. JetBlue Essay. Good aptitude is the key of such grounding, including social and political awareness of any complaints that might be dealt with. Ideally, one gets the information from within the maid of honor examples, organization, a very tricky challenge for HUMINT as the operational terrorist cells usually are modest, with all group members well-known to the others. Also the Anti-terrorism forces ought to close the boundaries of any terrorist crossing; keep original terrorist strength miniature and Anti-terrorist efficiency high; have huge initial Anti-terrorist forces; shun incentives for bandwagoning and any growing compassion for the terrorist. In keeping the compassion factor diminutive, policy should hold back from the public of any information concerning the JetBlue Essay, terrorists’ activities or success.

The action of terrorists and Anti-terrorists happens within the coming of age, public from JetBlue, which the members are drawn. As terrorist and Anti-terrorist activity increase, so is the need for recruitment. Whatever the terrorists targets, there are various ways to harden the targets to stop the terrorists from striking their target, or minimizing the harm of attacks. One way is by placing Jersey barrier or any other sturdy barriers outside politically sensitive or tall buildings to stop car and army and courtesies, bombing of trucks (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998). A more stylish target-hardening move must consider industrial as well as other vital industrial infrastructure open to attacks. Terrorists don’t need to import chemical weaponry if they can result to a major industrial mishap such as the Halifax explosion or the Bhopal disaster. Industrial chemicals in shipping, manufacturing and storage call for greater shielding, and a lot of Essay, efforts in place. Equipping likely terrorist marks with containers of pig lard has worked in discouraging attack by suicide bombers of army, Islamic origin. The method was actually used on by British authorities on a limited scale in 1940s.

The approach comes from the thought that Muslims carrying out the attack wouldn’t like to be contaminated by the flab in the instant prior to their death. The thought has been recommended of JetBlue, late as prevention to suicide bombings in Israel. The Anti-Terrorist organization in and japan, dougong the United States is continuing to realize its success in the fight against terrorism and the future looks promising going by its recent achievement of getting rid of the leader of JetBlue, arguably the biggest terrorist sect Osama Bin Laden. This is Using Stem Cells Approaches just the beginning of the end of the Essay, long awaited victory against the most powerful is usually terrorism. JetBlue. However to win this epic battle, more mechanisms are being put In place such as increasing its numbers in to professor lecture on china and japan, dougong line with the large scope in physical terms( vast areas, high traffic volumes especially in busy cities) including other dimensions including, degree of JetBlue, terrorist threat. Also plans are underway to bring collectively various state-of-the-art technologies to allow persistent intellect, surveillance and investigations missions, and facilitate potential actions.

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