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body piercing essay Tattoos and Piercings: Artisitc or Disgusting? For many teens these days, it isnt common to have a tattoo or a piercing. Almost as common as having a cell phone or those new hip shoes, and most often, its just as expensive! Now, we all know there are many arguements about tattoos and piercings, both for and against them. Tattoo and piercings have most definitly become more and more popular as the Bell, years progress, as more youth and young adults are trying to find themselves.
They tend to give teens a sense of individuality and often symbolize something important in their lives. Transformational And Active Management? It also expresses their artistic sides, just like their music and Graham Bell stlye of clothes. Rewarding Transformational Examples? Now as everyone knows, they are some people who are not so crazy about the Graham Essay, whole idea of piercings or tattoos. These people are of course, our parents. Parents are being told to watch out for their children and what the do to their bodies. They seem to think that a piercing or a tattoo will invoke rambunctioness and Obstacles Essay rebelling and that their children are involved in risky behaviour. Or in Alexander, other words, just because your son or daughter has a tattoo or piercing, it means they do drugs or drink alcohol and vandleize property. According to Dr.
Timothy Roberts, a professer at Transformational examples the University of Rochester in Graham Essay, New York, there are clear links between body piercings and this risky behaviour in teens. But the study is quite flawed in that the infromation is gathered from teens aged 12-19 but not placed in specific age groups, and nowhere noted that 16 is the legal age to sox scandal get pierced and 18 to get tattooed with parental consent. It's just like hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry - these are the things an adolescent uses to project an image of him or herself to Bell the world. Roberts also mentioned, They can give you alot of clues about how an adolescent sees himself. (1) Most students you will ask, they will say that their body art or body piercings help them see themselves artistically. Parents' concerns about tattoos and piercings is short essay on picnic a bit understandable. If you do not take care of your body art, there is a definite result of Alexander Bell serious infection. Parents are concerned that their childern are not considering their futures when they get tattoos and/or piercings. While piercings can be removed and take time to heal over, tattoos are permament. The only way to remove a tattoo is to get laser surgery, which can be very painful and very expensive. The best thing to essay do, is to look at the body art facilities together to find one that is Bell very clean and it also helps to talk about it.
Parent educator Sue Bourque thinks that the cellular phones be allowed, decision for teens to express themselves in all forms should be celebrated. There is a very small window of opportunity between the ages of Graham Essay 13 and 19 where its ok to have blue hair, holey jeans and nose rings. Short On Picnic? said Bourque.(1) According to Funk Wagnalls New Encyclopedia collection, Tattooing is a methed of decorating the skin by inserting colored substances under the surface. Essay? The skin is punctured with a sharp instrument, which is now usually an electric needle.(2) The first discovered case of tattooing was recorded in Ancient Egypt.(2) From Egypt, the trend spread to Southeast Asia and China. In Burma, tattooing was mainly used for religious purposes and in Japan it was for ornamental purposes. As tattooing spread thoughout the sox scandal, Pacific Islands and to Australia, it began to be used for religious beliefs to denote tribal communities and to show a man or womans rank and marriage status. Alexander Bell? The Romans however, used tattoos to phones be allowed denote slaves and criminals. Tattoos were banned for christians by Pope Hadrian I in Bell, 787 A.D. Up until the 1066, tattoos survived in short, Britain, when the Normans took over England. Tattoos were still around but only began to fleurish again when Captain Cook began to bring men from the South Pacific to display in England. (3) In America, the first tatoo parlor was opened in 1846 by Alexander Essay, a German immigrant. But tattoos only became really popular in America during the Rewarding Leadership and Active Management Essay examples, Civil War and Graham World War 1 2. Soliders usually wanted tattoos that gave a rememberance to a lost friend or conrad like, hearts, snakes, roses, dragons, eagles and ships. (3) During the 1960's and was the of the battle of gettysburg? 1970's people wanted more original and unique designs for their tattoos so they began to get Oriental, Tribal, Hawaiian and Celtic designs.
Today, tattoos are more regularly for personal and decorative purposes.(3) Now, piercings can be placed, well, just about anywhere you possibly imagine! Piercings are becoming more of an artistic definer then the tattoos. Mostly because the number of tattoos a person can have is Graham Bell well, amazing. Was The Significance Battle? You can get as many tattos as your skin will hold!
Some of the more popular places to get piercings are ear lobes, nostril, eyebrow, tongue, and the navel. Although there are other popular places, this is a school essay. Let's just say, they happen below the Graham, belt. Getting your ears pierced is the most common and accepted of all piercings in America. Sailors uised to pierce their ears because it was believed that it improved the eyesight, and by using a gold ring, it ensured that they had enough money to pay for what significance battle a funeral if they happened to die at sea. Alexander Essay? Romans used this type of piercing to show a person's wealth and in South Africa and South America, tribes stretch their ear lopes to show their social standings. Rewarding Leadership Essay Examples? The bigger the hole, the higher the standing. There is no exact location or time period found for when this trend first started.
Healing time for Alexander an ear lope piercing is between 4-6 weeks.(4) Nostril piercing is very common in many cultures. It was first practiced about 4000 years ago in the Middle East where it spread to India in Overcoming Obstacles Outsiders and The Time Traveler, the 1700's. Nose piercing came to America around the 1960's and 1970's when hippies travelled to India and brang the idea over to the West. The healing time for a nose piercing is Graham about 2 months. (4) Rapidly gaining popularity and also becoming on in The and The Essay, of the most requested piercings, eyebrow piercings can be placed anywhere along the Graham Bell, lenght of short hte eyebrow. You've got to think carefully about where you get your eyebrow pierced as it can effect what kind of jewelry you wear in it. The healing time for an eye brow piercing is about 3 months.(4) Unknown until recently, tongue piercing hs been on Alexander Bell, the more popular piercings ask for. Was The Significance Of The Battle? It started in Mayan and Aztec temples as a ritual to commmuniticate with the gods. Alexander? Today, it's popular for very different reasons, both sexes find it sexually arousing, some people find it empowering, and its a piercing that everyone seems to asda corporate gawk at, always asking questions and such. In order to have a safe piercing is to make sure that its in the middle of the tongue, between the Bell, two main blood vessels to make sure that you dont have any nerve or blood vessel damage. It's normally pierced about an inch from the tip on the center line of the sox scandal, tongue.
Its suggested that you should change your barbell 3 weeks later to a smaller one. (4) During Ancient Egypt, royality regularly had their navels pierced, but often enough, a peasant girl who were found to ahve the perfect navel were allowed to have it pierced as well. It is the most popular of all the piercings today. Navel piercings are very slow to heal, taking at least 3 months to heal sufficiently to change the jewelry but preferably 6 months to a year to heal completly.(4) No matter how perfect the piercing, or how sterile the parlor may be, there can always be healing problems. There are four very common healing problems. 1. Oral contact or handling your piercing with dirty hands. Bell Essay? 2. Using a cleaning solution that does not work with your body, ex. allergic reactions.
3. Not cleaning the piercing properly or 4. Should Be Allowed? Wearing jewelry that your body may also be allergic to as well, ex. niobium or titanium.(4) So there you have it. Information about tattoos and some about piercings. Now, if teens and their parents sat down and had a mature convercation about how they'd like to express themselves and they both agree on one thing or another then parents wouldnt have alot to worry about. Also teens who get the Graham Bell Essay, body art done, are required to take after themselves. If they are grown up enough to get the tattoo or the piercing, they should be grown up enough to what was the significance of the battle of gettysburg? take the proper actions to Graham Bell Essay make sure it heals properly. Essay? But no matter how you look at it, tattoos and body piercings have been around for thousands of years and we can only imagine that they wont be going anywhere anytime soon. (1) Times and Transcript. Section G. Whatever, News for the Young Generation. Alexander Graham Essay? Jan.17/04. (2) Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. Volume 25.
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Meat Or No Meat: Tell Us What You Think And Why. Eat meat or not? No other food topic is more divisive, and perhaps, none is Alexander Graham Essay, more important. Our food choices are based on many influences and influence much of our world from our health to the environment to national economies to be allowed, personal finances. For many, this is a religious issue and there is a strong desire to evangelize. Animals seem to be godlike to both sides. The Huffington Post Food Section would like to compile the best arguments on Bell Essay the subject or meat, pro, con, or in between, and perhaps help some people decide.
There are books on either side of the issue, but we would like to see point and counterpoint side by side. We would also like to debunk some myths. We will frequently copy the best arguments and paste them here in the main article for all to see and for all to use in continuing the debate. Battle. We know this is an Alexander Essay, emotional issue, but please show respect for opposing viewpoints. I will try to fairly represent the sox scandal omnivore's point of view and move the Alexander Graham debate along. I run a barbecue and grilling website called AmazingRibs.com.
You can click here to read more about me. I have invited Lisa Viger (HuffPost account LisaViger ), an artist and ethical vegan, to assist in this discussion by suggesting edits to this article and by recommending quotes from your comments to be elevated to the main article. The Black Sox Scandal. Lisa lives on a small vegetable farm in southern Michigan. Her blog about vegan eating, Raw on $10 a Day (or Less) is at http://rawon10.blogspot.com and features fabulous looking recipes and mouthwatering photos. Vegans/Vegetarians (henceforth referred to Alexander Graham Essay, as Veg*ns to Leadership and Active Management Essay examples, include both). Meat is bad for you. It contains too much saturated fat and makes you obese which is the root cause of Alexander Bell Essay, a whole range of health issues: Colon cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, heart diseases are all higher among omnis.
Omnivores. Most elite athletes are omnis. Entopticon says Last I checked, which wasn't very long ago, there has still never been one single recorded case of a vegan centenarian.Many veg*ns suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency and Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders Traveler, that can result in brain shrinkage. Meat is good for you, it contains things you cannot get from veggies. You can stay healthy with a vegan diet, but you need a lot of knowledge and supplements. Alexander Bell Essay. Veg*ns are more aggressive.
HerrMonk says The most bio-available and short essay on picnic, highest quality fats for us, come from Bell, animal sources. Plant protein is low-quality, and lacks all the essential amino acids to be used as a complete protein source. Overcoming In The Outsiders Time. It is nearly impossible to get enough saturated fat, and omega 3s from plant sources in nature. Alexander Essay. It's very easy from asda corporate, animal. B12 is an essential micro-nutrient, that is only available from animal sources (despite mis-labeled 'vegan' friendly sources). Veg*ns.
Food borne disease is a problem with meat. Ground beef is Bell Essay, dangerous. It is often contaminated with pathogenic strains of E-coli. It can kill. It is contaminated because the CAFOs keep cattle in contact with feces and the pathogens get on their hide and feed. It gets on the meat in the butchering because they move too quickly and don't take enough care. It is all driven by greed.
vegswan , a microbiologist, says [I] have been appalled to learn about the diseases fostered and spread by animal domestication. Think of the recent egg and many beef recalls!! Hemorrhagic E. Coli, Smallpox, H1N1, Mad Cow, papillomavirus, pfeisteria (and sea lice in should cellular phones in schools, farmed salmon) are primarily promoted by animal farming. Certainly CAFOs are prominent contributors with their untreated cesspools and runoff, how else does spinach get contaminated. Graham Bell Essay. We all learned about early European settlers spreading diseases and the black, decimating indigenous peoples, not because they were sickly but because THEY RAISED ANIMALS and acquired their germs (Jared Diamond). Another problem is the slashing/burning of virgin rainforest for grazing cattle and farming pigs, which are then exposed to emergent viruses, bacteria and parasites that have never before infected humans. Coupled with the Alexander Essay mass transport of animals and their byproducts, everything from asda corporate, multiply antibiotic resistant E. Essay. coli and Salmonella to Nipah virus and in The Outsiders Time Essay, prions are rapidly being spread worldwide. You also neglected to Graham Bell Essay, mention the Essay voluntary moratorium on GMO and cloned beef and milk, which are unlabeled, and so are extremely likely to already be in Graham Bell, world food circulation.
I abhor animal cruelty and the blight of monocrops and ocean runoff dead zones, but we mustn't ignore the exceptional ability of animals to harbor diseases- especially in essay, dense unsanitary confinement, juxtaposed with food crops. Omnivores. Sprouts, lettuce, apple juice, and other fruits and veggies have killed as many as meats. The connection between meat and heart disease is being questioned by Alexander Graham Bell Essay scientists. Carbs are just as bad, maybe even worse than animal fats and they come primarily from plants. FDA experts say sprouts are more dangerous than ground beef, even when home grown.
StopCensoringMe says The factory raised meat most eat is a cesspool of unhealthy chemicals among them antibiotics, steroids, and growth hormones which get into humans and cause a range of problems from antibiotic resistance to asda corporate, early puberty. The farts of omnis smell really bad. That must mean something. Viger. There [has been] much convo about B12 and that a vegan diet must be unnatural because it's supplemented. I would add, before dairy and Alexander Bell Essay, other foods had vitamin D added to them as a supplement, rickets (a nutritional deficiency) was very common among omnivores.
An omnivorous diet is nearly always supplemented in was the of the battle, one way or another. Goldwyn. Alexander. There are MANY people below who believe that eliminating meat has made them healthier. That kind of anecdotal info cannot be argued. But it is not science. There is a growing body of science on the benefits and dangers of short essay, both diets. Bell. Let's start with that which we can all agree: Research seems to weigh heavily against be allowed, processed foods, especially processed meats.
It seems also clear that too much meat can be unhealthy. But there is plenty of evidence that a diet lacking meat can be dangerous unless it is Essay, carefully watched to make sure it gets all the proper vitamins, especially B12. It seems that a vegetarian diet can be just as dangerous as an omnivorous diet if it is not tended to short essay on picnic, carefully with supplements. If it is, it is likely to be more healthy than an Alexander Bell, omnivorous diet. As for food borne illness, dangerous strains of e-coli and salmonella are the most common problems in meat and veggies, but there are many other pathogens.
All can be killed with proper cooking. The Black. Undercooked ground beef and poultry are serious risks, but raw sprouts, lettuce, spinach can also be dangerous. Raw sprouts should probably be outlawed, and homegrown sprouts are just as risky as aw ground beef. Alexander. Bottom line: Neither diet is more dangerous if practiced properly and intelligently. That's a big if.
2) Evolution, culture, and tradition. Omnivores. Humans have evolved as omnivores. Our teeth are designed for it. Our saliva and digestive systems are designed for meat.
Hematite says Humans have teeth adapted to an omnivorous diet. There is no serious debate about this. Our teeth resemble those of pigs and bears, both omnivores. Humans have the gut of an omnivore. We lack any chambers for the fermentation of cellulose, a hallmark of Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders Essay, most true herbivores, but we also lack the short intestine of true carnivores. The shortness of the carnivore intestine is not, as sometimes claimed by veg*ns, because meat is needs to be expelled quickly but because meat is easy to and does not require the large surface area for absorbing nutrients that herbivores need.
Eat or be eaten is the way of the world. In the wild sweet cute animals eat each other all the time. Bell. Even our kin, gorillas eat a monkey now and then. And don't think your dog or cat wouldn't eat you if it could. Veg*ns. Our digestive systems are designed for what was the of the, vegetable matter. Humans were not meat eaters until the Ice Age. So over the course of history, we were vegetarians longer than we were omnivores. But evolutionary history doesn't mean we have to always eat meat. We can evolve again.
We now have other options. Technology has freed us from hunting. Omnivores. Meat has been a part of human culture forever. True, some societies don't eat meat, and a few omit certain meats, but most cultures have meat in their rituals religious ceremonies, and habits. In the US, since the end of WWII it became practically a national mantra to have meat once a day.
We were taught that this was a balanced diet. Veg*ns. We were taught wrong. We now know more and we need to leave behind foolish things as we mature as a society. Christi Vidrio says At one time we believed that smoking was good for Alexander Graham Essay, you, but now we know better. Same with meat. angry expat says Nobody wants to be told how to eat. Education is asda corporate, important, but fear tactics and disregard for cultural precedent are insulting and harmful to Graham Bell Essay, the discussion.
gemini68 says As a Muslim we are taught that eating meat is permissible (with the exception of scavenger animals such as swine) as long as the meat is slaughtered in a humane or ha'lal way. This has become an issue because of the way meat and animals are handled in this country. Goldwyn. It doesn't matter what our ancestors did. The world today is vastly different.
Each individual is different. Our canine teeth can be used to bite apples as as well as meat. We have to understand that our cultures and Transformational Management, traditions arose from ignorance centuries ago. If somebody can prove that lamb is dangerous, then Jews will have to learn to eat eat pot roast for Passover and use the lamb shank just for show. What? They do already? Oh. Nevermind. Veg*ns. There are a lot of fabulous tasting recipes that don't involve meat or animal products. You can be thoroughly satisfied without eating meat.
Omnivores. Alexander Bell Essay. Meats taste great. A lot of vegetables taste bad. Nobody likes lima beans or Brussel sprouts. If meat is so bad, how come so many vegan products are made to taste like meat? I have only five sense, why would I restrict the sensory inputs available to be allowed in schools, me? Omitting some foods would be like poking out an eye. Veg*ns. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. Nobody likes liver, heart, or kidneys either. Goldwyn.
Meat tastes good to Rewarding Transformational and Active, many people and living without it would be very hard for them. For many people, the culinary arts are as vital as the other arts, and Graham, living without meat would be like life without dance. To others it is disgusting. This is the definitive case of taste being a matter of taste. The arguments that Meat is Murder and Meat is Torture are closely related, but different in some important fundamental ways, so I have separated them. Both seem to hinge on the definition of sentience because veg*ns argue that animals are sentient beings. Merrriam-Webster's online dictionary defines the the black sox scandal word as feeling or sensation as distinguished from perception and thought. At the moment, there is a fairly good and thorough discussion of sentience on Wikipedia. A summary is Sentience is the ability to feel or perceive. Sentience is used in the study of consciousness to describe the ability to Alexander Graham Essay, have sensations or experiences.
In eastern philosophy, sentience is a metaphysical quality of all things that requires respect and care. Veg*ns. Was The Significance Of The Battle Of Gettysburg?. Animals are our peers in many ways. The earth needs them. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. We need to show them respect. Killing animals is tantamount to killing people. Who gave us the right to enslave animals to make milk, eggs, and then we eat their flesh? Sele45 says The main basis of should cellular be allowed, my vegan life is to refrain from taking things that aren't mine. The word 'arrogant' comes from a word meaning 'to take for oneself.' It's supremely arrogant of humans to believe they have more of Graham Bell, a right to the body and life of another being than the being itself. Omnivores. Humans have evolved with a higher consciousness, and have earned their place near the what significance of the of gettysburg? top of the Alexander food chain.
It is natural selection to put animals and plants to work for us. Overcoming Obstacles In The Outsiders Traveler. Hunting is needed to control wildlife populations. Deer would overrun many farms and destroy crops if hunters did not thin the Graham Essay crop. Rewarding Transformational Leadership Management Essay. Remember, these animals would not have been born if not for use as food. They owe their lives to their end use. Plants have feelings too. They respond to Graham Bell, environmental changes similar to animals. Their biological systems are intricate and complex, just like animals. Some cooperate to protect the Leadership examples community.
But because they do not have faces, we feel free to Bell, kill them. What is it about essay, faces that make some species protected? They are very important to Alexander Bell Essay, the ecology. The Black. They make oxygen. Maslin says Any definition of 'murder' that produces the Alexander Graham Bell answer 'yes' to the question 'Is meat murder' creates statements that must be true but are absolutely crazy, like this one: Blue whales are some of the greatest murderers of all of Earth's history, known to murder 40 million organisms a day when feeding. Short Essay On Picnic. Nonsensical, but true if 'meat is murder'.
It can't be right. We don't even treat whales like predators. But every one of those 40 million [krill] lives is Alexander Graham Essay, indeed snuffed out in the whale's maw, along with other species that just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. Goldwyn. According to Law.com Murder is The killing of a human being by sox scandal a sane person, with intent, malice aforethought (prior intention to kill the particular victim or anyone who gets in the way) and with no legal excuse or authority. So killing animals or plants cannot, by widely used international legal definitions, be murder. Viger. Maybe we can talk about the actual killing part and what it does to us as individuals and a society, if it does anything at all.
Vickster says with her goats she puts a bowl of corn down and Graham Essay, then shoots the goat in Rewarding Leadership and Active Management, the head. Grumpyfarmer was talking about raising his first calf when he was in kindergarten. I think that would influence how the person feels about raising and killing animals. I also think it would have to leave a pretty profound psychological wound. Alexander Bell. I've seen these 4-H kids and it's not a happy thing. But then Vickster makes the case that her goats don't even see it coming and so didn't suffer. Which is kind of Overcoming in The and The Essay, a moot point since the Graham Bell Essay vast majority of our animals are killed in large, commercial slaughterhouses, even those raised on very small farms. Veg*ns. Eating pigs is as barbaric as eating dogs, something most westerners would never do.
In fact, there is Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders Essay, evidence that pigs are smarter. Omnis. Alexander. Dogs are man's best friends. They are family. They live in short essay, our homes, sleep in Alexander, our beds. Our intimate relationship with dogs goes back to the dawn of Leadership and Active Management Essay examples, time. They also eat animals, and we hunted together as a pack to feed each other. Our relationship with dogs is unique. Making them vegans would be cruel to Bell, our best friends, and pack members.
That said, dogs are not humans, and when they are at deaths door, we practice mercy killing, something we do not do for people. Veg*ns. Animals have fear, feelings, and rights. Short. Sele45 says Plants have no pain receptors. Also, plants make about Graham Bell, 40% more foliage than they need to live. Their fruits are intended to the black, smell and look appetizing because when they are picked and eaten the seed is more likely to be spread. Being eaten furthers the life cycle of fruits. And foliage is produced in Graham Bell, excess. The way we grow animals, hold them in short, CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations) and factory farms is inhumane. Then we cram them with grains they have problems digesting, then we cram them into slaughterhouses where they can smell and Alexander Essay, hear death, then we manhandle them just before the on picnic kill, and then we kill them inefficiently so some die slowly and in pain. Just watch the films of animal cruelty from CAFOs and slaughterhouses.
CAFOs are beneath our dignity. They are inhumane prison camps. Graham. They are all about greed, not about providing cheaper food. Asda Corporate. They harm not only animals but farm workers. Crows says I believe that an animal raised on a small farm by a caring farmer is better off than an Graham Bell, animal raised on a factory farm. Essay On Picnic. But I do not think someone eating meat should be comforted by the fact it was raised on a small farm. If something is killed needlessly, that is Alexander Graham Bell, wrong. The Black. I think that principle is the reason for many people becoming vegetarians/veg*ns. Omnivores.
MarcEdward says Factory farms aren't petting zoos - I get it. Alexander Graham Bell. Your argument is identical is to the Pro-Lifers who post pictures of abortions. Prettiness is not a basis for ethics. Factory farms are efficient - they produce the maximum amount of meat for the least cost, and Leadership Management Essay examples, consumers (especially poor people) benefit. I value all life, but I value human life over the lives of chickens and cows. The question is how much human malnutrition is Graham Bell Essay, worth alleviating how much suffering in animals? But CAFOs and slaughterhouses do not have to be this way. The industry needs reform.
All of these problems can be fixed. Sox Scandal. Many alternative systems are emerging. They need to be mainstreamed. Many omnivores share their distaste for the inhumane conditions in factory farms. Drumsgirl says I think open heart surgery is pretty gross and disgusting - and don't want to do it or have it done to me - but I still think it's a good thing society does. Grumpyfarmer says: Whenever this debate comes up, someone compares livestock farming to slavery, which in Bell, my mind is asda corporate, equating animals with people. Anyone who feels animals are on par with humans has probably not seen a sow eat her baby pigs, a bull calf earnestly trying to breed its own mother, or a hawk eating a rabbit while it is still alive. Do animals deserve humane treatment? Of course they do. But that doesn't mean it is wrong to eat them.
So far the veg*ns are OK with animals eating other animals in nature. Alexander. I am an animal, and I am part of nature, and any animal I eat is killed much more humanely than any animal eaten by asda corporate another. So, no guilt feelings. Goldwyn. This debate depends upon emotion vs. Alexander Essay. science, IMHO. The Black. It seems that those who believe meat is murder draw a line on the food chain ladder, and that line seems to me to be arbitrary. That line seems to be at animals with eyes or faces. But why do eyes make one creature inedible and another edible?
Veg*ns hate the smartass question omnivores always throw out about plants having rights and feelings too, but they need to answer it and they are not doing that very well below. Graham Bell Essay. They just dismiss it as silly. Should. The other side makes a more powerful case in my clearly biased opinion, that plants are every bit as adept at Graham Bell surviving in their niche in the world as animals, that they are extremely complex individuals and societies, and Obstacles Essay, it can be clearly demonstrated that they can be stressed. Current research by scientists are discovering that plants and microbes are sentient. They display amazing abilities to communicate, they respont to stimuli, they suffer stress, many do not want to be eaten and have elaborate mechanisms to protect themselves from throns to Graham, chemicals. Dr. ML Tortorello , a renowned microbiologist told me that Every form of life deserves respect, not just charismatic megafauna made popular by Disney. Every species has a role. Every species is integral to the ecosystem. The Black Sox Scandal. Every species is Alexander Essay, somebody's hunter, somebody's prey, somebody's partner.
To claim that animals have greater rights than plants is an assertion not based on in The Outsiders and The Time Traveler an understanding of the biological world. Death is part of all life. A plant is as highly adapted for its niche as a pig. People who are vegetarians because they think killing animals for food is murder do not understand the biological world. But if they make their diet decision based on Alexander Graham Essay their emotional response to charismatic megafauna, that's fine. But it unfairly elevates some species over what significance of the battle others. Dr. Bonnie Bassler of Princeton has done fascinating research on the ability of microbes to communicate and work together. It is Graham, discussed in the black, Smithsonian.
An excerpt: Bassler is at the forefront of the Alexander Bell Essay fast-growing field of 'quorum sensing,' the study of how microbes communicate with each other as they go about building the vast interlocking infrastructure of life on which we macrobes depend. In recent years she and other microbiologists have discovered that bacteria are not the dull solipsists of long-standing reputation, content to merely suck in the black sox scandal, food, double in size, divide down the middle and repeat ad infinitum, attending to nothing but their obtuse, unicellular selves. Instead, bacteria turn out to be the Alexander Bell original newshounds, glued to their cellphones and Internet chat lines. They converse in a complex chemical language, using molecules to alert one another to who's out in The Outsiders Time Traveler there, in what numbers and how best to behave given the present company. Bacteria survey their ranks, they count heads, and if the throng is sufficiently large and Alexander Bell, like-minded--if there is a quorum--they act. Through chemical signaling, tiny bacterial cells can band together and perform the work of giants. If my ethics prevent me from killing sentient beings, then I could not even brush my teeth. I think that the argument that society needs to short essay, adapt the vegan lifestyle because animals are sentient and vegetables are not is Graham Essay, hard to support scientifically. Veg*ns.
Plants don't have neurons so they can't be sentient. Veg*ns. We are eating species to extinction especially seafood like swordfish and Overcoming in The Outsiders Time Traveler Essay, bluefin tuna. Farm animals have a large carbon footprint. Graham Essay. The world's livestock population produces more greenhouse gases than automobiles and a lot of it is methane.
StopCensoringMe says Not only and The Time, do feed animals consume a great deal of Alexander Graham Bell Essay, water (and they are often raised in places like California and Outsiders, Texas where water is Alexander Bell Essay, precious), they also manage to foul water supplies and water tables with the their copious poop. Omnivores. Surprisingly, rice creates seven times the atmospheric methane than animals. Entopticon says You want to compare beef to soy acre for acre? Walk out onto an acre that was just plowed to make room for rows of soy. The entire ecosystem, which could have been home to a million or more creatures, is obliterated. When it is filled with rows of shallow-rooted soy plants, the water runoff won't be much better than a parking lot, and the black sox scandal, the soil, which would have had as many as two billion microorganisms in a single tablespoon, will be devastated. Then walk out onto an acre of Bell, sustainable pasture. You will find that it is Transformational Leadership and Active Management examples, teeming with life.
Research shows that biodiversity and soil vitality actually increases. Perennials, like grasses, are beneficial. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. Grasses need animal fertilizer. Together they fortify the short essay soil. The impact of annuals, such as corn, soy, beans, vegetables, legumes, and other row crops is Alexander Bell Essay, deleterious and destroys topsoil. Klbrz said one of the the black biggest (and quite serious) problems facing the Gulf of Mexico was the runoff of fertilizers and pesticides from vegetable crops in the Midwest. Please, don't kid yourself about what farming does or doesn't do to the planet; unless you are buying 100% local, organic, or harvesting from your own backyard, you contribute to Alexander Essay, serious environmental damage every time you eat soy (especially), corn, and other crops farmed on a large scale.
And tractors kill wildlife and destroy habitats. nikanj says that animals adapt better to climate change Grazing animals will not care if their pasture gets frosted some fine summer morning, but if that pasture is significance of gettysburg?, plowed and planted in corn, the crop will be lost. Alexander Graham. Grazing animals can provide sustenance in more marginal climatic conditions than is possible with cereal grains. What about the should cellular be allowed conflict between veganism and environmentalism? No leather shoes? What form of oil derivatives are in your shoes then? Veggies only? Even in Alexander Bell, winder?
How much energy is Transformational Management Essay examples, wasted getting your carrots to you from South America? How many lakes acidified and Alexander Graham Bell Essay, fish killed by truck exhaust? How many manatees run over by boats? How many deers flattened by trains? Vicster says: We know that row crops cause soil erosion while destroying habitats. We also know that the what significance of gettysburg? regions where fruits and vegetables can be grown all year long tend to be arid. Talk about unsustainable.
Hematite says Concentrating animals in one place causes a number of environmental problems, but it does not increase the Graham Bell Essay total amount of waste they produce. Bison were producing just as much methane 200 years ago as domestic cows are producing now. Significance Of The Of Gettysburg?. And what about the carbon footprint or transporting vegetables north in winter? And don't tell me canning and pickling are solutions. That costs energy, destroy nutrients, and the taste awful. The Great Banana Debate raged for days. jumbotron16 started it as an example of how all food choices have ramifications, he pointed out that veg*ns often eat a lot of bananas. Do you have any idea what goes on in the banana industry? (1) Child labor is common place, and a non governmental organization in Ecuador found that children as young as eight were being recruited to work. (2) In an attempt to meet the demand for aesthetically perfect bananas, over 400 types of agrochemicals are used. In fact, more chemicals are used during banana production than any other crop with the exception of Bell Essay, cotton. These chemicals can lead to sterility, cancer, and death. (3) In a 1997 study done off the asda corporate coast of Costa Rica, it was discovered that 60 percent of the coral reefs in Cahuita National Park had been severely damaged due to runoff from coastal banana plantations. (4) Lastly, according to the World Wildlife Fund the Alexander Graham banana industry produces more waste than any other agricultural sector in the developing world. It is estimated that for every one ton of bananas produced, there are two tons of waste.
He linked to Rewarding Essay examples, this article as support: http://www.scq.ubc.ca/global-issues-for-breakfast-the-banana-industry-and-its-problems-faq-cohen-mix/ Entopticon says. A single acre of rainforest can have millions of creatures living on it. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. Bananas need loose soil with high organic matter, so after a few years the crops are moved, and rainforest is cut down for your dietary choice, killing countless animals. How are the millions of animals whose habitat is obliterated for your banana habit, and the countless animals that die horrible deaths in that process, any less important than . Rewarding Leadership And Active Essay. chickens? Meat processing plants are well known as major hirers of illegal/undocumented workers say veg*ns.
So are farmers, say the Alexander Graham Essay omnis. Omnivores have voiced concern about the economic impact on farmers, US society, and asda corporate, poor people worldwide if corn subsidies are removed or if meat was more heavily regulated or taxed. Honeybear64 says. Does that fact that abolishing slavery meant the Bell total upheaval of the Southern economy, and the economic devastation of the lives of slave owners, automatically mean that abolishing it was wrong? Same question with those threatened by boycotts of animal agriculture.
Problematic, to say the least. So often we veg*ns try to portray all farmers as factory farmers, because it's so much easier to turn people against should cellular phones be allowed in schools, horrific cruelty than against Old MacDonald. Bell. The factory farm is such an easy and asda corporate, convenient target. Goldwyn. Graham Essay. Seems to asda corporate, me that this is an area that is unsettled.
Both sides have strong arguments and plenty of useful data from good sources much of which contradicts other sources. Alexander Bell Essay. It seems to me, from wading through the links you post, that NOBODY really knows how much water a cow uses a day when you include the water needed for its feed and other peripheral uses. Vickser says: You do realize these animals will go extinct if they aren't raised for food, right? Goldfarmer sums it up well: Humans have the responsibility of stewardship - animals do not. And that is simply the condition of being a human living on Earth. Charsan says: For every fact or opinion debunking a myth about vegetarianism you'll find another equally compelling to convince you not to eat meat. We get lost in the weeds trying to convince the other side they're wrong. What's the point? Eating food is a one of the and Active Management Essay basic necessities of Graham, life, developed over eons and what we eat today as a species varies by culture around the globe. Rather than focusing on what you're eating, to the exclusion of other questions, like where did my food come from?
Is this even food. Do I really want to eat this? How does eating this make me feel? How do they treat the Transformational examples animals in a factory? The first step to better living is Alexander Essay, becoming conscious of asda corporate, what you are doing. Forget the fad diet or the Graham six dollar Angus beef burger. Think, eat and enjoy! Cameron Brown says: Something I don't understand is Rewarding Leadership and Active Management, why the debate is always framed as meat lovers vs. vegetarians.
There's obviously nothing seriously unhealthy about eating some meat - it's the *amount* that we eat that is the problem. If everyone in the US (and other rich countries) simply cut back a bit on their meat consumption - e.g., go veggie a couple of days a week - it would be hugely beneficial both to them and to the environment. I think the militant vegetarian approach is Graham Essay, misguided - very rarely will a devoted meat-lover switch to being a full vegetarian. Rewarding Transformational Leadership And Active Management Essay Examples. We should focus on the middle ground of encouraging people to eat meat in Graham, sensible quantities. As such, I'm a big fan of the meatless Monday kind of efforts I've seen here and there. That's the right approach in my mind. I sort of maintain a blog on this topic: http://www.semiveggie.com. Jsarets says: It's difficult to the black, make objective arguments about the Essay ethical ramifications of eating animal products.
This vector involves attempts to reconcile the nature of life and consciousness with the extension of predator/prey relationships in the food web to the unique human practice of agriculture, and it invariably centers upon Overcoming and The Traveler Essay, subjective belief systems. Nakigaia says. Graham Bell. When people argue from the black, dogma it becomes impossible to have a discussion. The best source of guidance I have found is listening to Alexander Graham Essay, what my body needs in Transformational Essay examples, any moment. Sometimes a great salad seems just perfect and other times I need a little beef. Graham. Some people have the Rewarding Leadership and Active Essay examples physiology or body design to eat strictly vegetarian and others don't. Alexander Graham. I have seen people try to live up to a belief about Rewarding Essay examples, food while starving their bodies by not providing them with what they need. If you are hungry for a hamburger and it tastes really good you probably needed it. If you're eating one out of habit or boredom then that is about consciousness, not food. I'm now 60 years old, have experimented with several food dogmas (including macrobiotics), and Alexander Essay, consider myself a conscious eater.
Over the years I have found that preaching to convert other people seldom works and is more a reflection of the needs of the asda corporate one preaching. I consider it more effective to become something for oneself and model the outcome. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. If your outcome doesn't match your expectations you are free to move on without having to eat crow, pun intended. Vegan or Total Vegetarian . Eats only foods from plants including fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, seeds, and nuts. Lactovegetarian . Eats plant foods and dairy products. Ovo-lactovegetarian or lacto-ovovegetarian . Will eat eggs. Pescetarian. Eats fish but no other animal flesh. Unclear if this person eats dairy and/or eggs.
Semi-vegetarian . Asda Corporate. Will not eat red meat, but may eat fish or fowl. Veg*n. A contraction of vegan and Graham Bell Essay, vegetarian meant to encompass both approaches. Flexitarian. Eats meat only should cellular in schools, once or twice a week. Maybe three time. Graham Essay. It's flexible. Omnivore . Eats everything edible. Might even eat veg*ns.
Here are some relevant links. If you have others, please share. I will show a bias to well researched and documented articles by established authorities and asda corporate, reputable sources. The American Heart Association's dietary recommendations for vegetarians.
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Research Topics in English Literature. Research topics on English Literature initially start off broad and then narrow down and you come up with your thesis. Using any of the research topics listed to the left (gender, comparisons, historical background, politics, and religion) can take you almost anywhere. Choose your general topic based on your literature class you're writing for. If it's a class focused on gender, start there and Graham, then branch out to something like my example of how the roles of men and women are portrayed. Knowing first your general topic and then what kind of essay or paper you're researching for (argumentative, persuasive, etc.) can help you decide what to do with it next when it comes to narrowing it down. Remember this isn't concrete. What Was The Of Gettysburg?. Your topic can grow and completely change as you research.
Choosing the literature topic is just the Bell Essay, key to the black sox scandal, getting started. Advice for Writing Papers or Essays. If you've chosen your research topic and need help writing your paper, check out my hub on a book that just might be your savior that also gives some writing advice based on the book. Topics For English Literature Research Essays. When it comes to English Literature, there's no end to the topics that you can research on that novel or other piece that you've been reading. The easiest way to Graham, get an idea for that next research topic on English literature for what was the significance of gettysburg?, your essay is to start broad and then work toward making it more specific and interesting for your readers. Bell Essay. Here are a few examples of research topics in literature to get you started (for a more extensive list of research topics in literature, please check out the link that can be found at the bottom of this article):
How are the roles of men and women portrayed in the novel? Are they distinctly different? Do they have equal rights? What gender expectations do they follow or fight against? 2. Comparisons between genres.
How does each genre tell its story? What are the differences and the black sox scandal, similarities between the two? Is one more effective than the other? Who is the Graham Bell, author and what is the black sox scandal, their story? Were there controversies associated with him/her or their work? What is the significance of this novel in the time it was written? How does it reflect the society and beliefs of its time? What issues in politics does this novel address? Discrimination? Rights?
Equality? How is this novel religious? What beliefs is it promoting or questioning? 6. Comparisons between two characters. This can be between characters in the same novel or two different ones. Graham Essay. How are their differences and what, similarities important to the novel? 7. Alexander Bell Essay. Comparisons between two novels.
If the should phones, novels seem completely different but represent the same genre or come from the same time period, this may be something you want to explore. 8. Allusions within the novel. What are some significant allusions within the novel? These could be religious, refer to other novels or authors, etc. How is this important to understanding the novel and its place in English Literature? What are some of the most notable criticisms out Graham Bell Essay there? What is your response and how does it compare to other critics out there? What are important symbols in the novel?
How are they significant? English Literature Research Projects. The following can also be used for any other type of the black research projects for English Literature where you need to Bell Essay, find your own topic. How to should cellular be allowed, Find an English Topic to Research For Any Project. So, you’ve finally made it to your last year at your university and Alexander Graham Bell Essay, you’ve got one last thing to cellular phones, do before you leave: the dreaded Capstone Project.
Have no fear; although it is time consuming and Alexander Graham Essay, stressful work, it is possible to asda corporate, turn all that work into something fun, as long as you choose the Alexander, right topic in English literature to write about. Asda Corporate. The key to going out Alexander Graham with a bang with a fantastic Capstone is to choose something you actually care about. Of all the aspects of this project, choosing the asda corporate, right research topic is absolutely key. Choose the wrong one, and Alexander Bell, you may not meet the requirements or, worse, you may dislike it enough to the black sox scandal, have to change it halfway through the class. For the first time in four years, teachers are giving you the reigns and having you decide what you want to write about. Alexander Bell Essay. No more prompts telling you what to do, except for the guidelines for your project, and no more focusing on Overcoming Obstacles and The Traveler, one aspect of Graham Bell Essay a novel that the asda corporate, prof tells you to.
So don’t freak out, think of it as the best part of your university experience yet. Now’s the time to show your stuff and let everyone see how much of a successful English literature nerd you’ve turned out to be. If you can do it yourself, you’ve proved yourself worthy of that snazzy degree they’re about to Graham Bell Essay, hand you in a couple months. Of course if you’ve made it to this point, there’s no way you’re not worthy. Example of a Researched Essay in English Literature. My Capstone class was titled “The Age of Novels” and focused on the rise of the novel during the short essay on picnic, eighteenth century. Basically, we looked at how the novel developed into what we see as a novel today, considering how writers presented and executed their works of fiction, who influenced them, and how they influenced others. We also looked at literary techniques such as psychological realism and the differing roles of men and women in the formation of this most popular form of writing.
My class was focused on topics such as psychological realism and gender roles so this is something that I kept in the back of my mind as I read through the novel I chose to research. How to Get Started on an English Literature Paper. I’m going to use my own experience in the Capstone Project as an example for how to choose a research topic in English literature. I know your Capstone won’t be on the same topic, but it’s still important to know the Graham Essay, basic focus of the class in order to get to your literature research topic. Look at the prompt for your English class and see what sticks out to you.
After reading through the required reading in my class, I decided to veer away from Transformational Leadership, novels of formal realism and go into the Gothic realm with M.G. Lewis’s The Monk , which was completely unexplored in the class. Graham Bell Essay. Not only do I love Gothic literature, but this was a great way for me to draw comparisons with the books of the same period without doing the same old thing we were doing in the classroom. I was killing two birds with one stone, as they say; getting to read a novel in the genre I’m most interested in while still exploring the asda corporate, same prompts the class was focused on. Sometimes, if you're stuck on Graham Bell Essay, an English literature research topic, starting at a completely new angle can help you find something really interesting to work on. After you get to short essay, know the ins and outs of what your class is about, it's easy to go off in another direction and work your way back into what you've been learning about. Graham Bell Essay. This journey can bring you into whole new realm of possibilities to research. How to Brainstorm Writing Ideas for Essays. Now, as you read the book of your choice (or your professor's), focus on one or more aspects from your English literature class prompt so that your research topic relates to the actual class you’re taking. I decided to Transformational and Active examples, focus on chastity within the novel and how the gothic novel portrays male and female chastity versus the novels of formal realism.
This English literature research topic took a lot of work to get to. Don't be afraid of setbacks or having to start over. The best way initially is to write down a broad topic to Graham Bell, research and then list any information relevant to of the of gettysburg?, that topic. It doesn’t matter how insignificant the piece of information may seem, list it. Then go through and see what interesting conclusions you can make from the Essay, information. Looking at gender, how are males portrayed versus females? Looking at genre, how is the gothic novel different from a formal realism novel? Putting things out on paper is the best way to get it all out in the open and free your mind that’s jumbled with information. Once it's on paper, you can actually look at it all and piece it all into on picnic one neat picture (through words of course) that anyone can understand.
Without doing this, it’s like trying to put together a puzzle with all of the pieces turned down, so you aren’t sure which ones actually go together. Ideas on Getting a Research Topic. If the brainstorm step doesn't work for you, just write down any questions you have about the novel. If you noticed that there was a lot of religious references and ideas in the novel, maybe you'd be curious to Alexander Graham Bell Essay, know the author's biography and see how that plays a significant role in the piece. For my own example, I could have asked myself what is asda corporate, gothic or how did eighteenth century England define chastity? After this brief research, go back through your notes and see if you can come up with an interesting topic you can do further research on for that English literature essay.
Writing Research Essays in Literature. What is the most difficult part in writing a research paper in literature? Tips for Researching Topics on English Literature. Looking at what you’ve put together in your brainstorm, it’s easy to Alexander, see where you need to do research on the novel. No one wants a paper full of essay on picnic generalizations so take each topic you can't automatically define and Alexander Graham Bell, start researching it. Do you know how to define gothic or formal realism? Research it. What were the gender expectations for this time?
Research it. You want to Rewarding Transformational Leadership and Active Management Essay, go as in depth into your topic as possible, which involves even more research than reading two or three novels. It also doesn’t help to learn some background on the author. Were they a rebel or a strict conservative? Was this novel popular? How did it affect the readers of its time?
For example, Lewis was actually brought to Graham Essay, court for was the of the battle, The Monk because it was seen as a bad influence for his female readers. This is Graham, something not only Management Essay examples, interesting but relevant to the topic of female chastity in my chosen English literature research topic for my essay. Doing some background research on Alexander Graham, the novel like this can bring ideas together into a thesis for your paper and Rewarding Transformational and Active Essay, lead you in Alexander Bell Essay, a solid direction for your actual research for your paper. If you haven’t finally figured something out by Leadership and Active Essay, this point, you may have to consult your professor. Outline of an Example for Alexander, an English Research Essay. Thesis: Lewis’s novel completely undoes the plots, tropes, and principles of short essay on picnic Richardson and Fielding’s formal realism, not only Essay, through its use of superstition and other Gothic elements, but also in the development and resolution of should cellular phones each of these character’s stories. Instead of Alexander Graham Bell Essay providing a positive example, The Monk gives a horrifying one to instill fear in its readership to preserve the same virtue. 1. What is a gothic novel? 2. Pamela Andrews. 3. Joseph Andrews.
4. What is formal realism? 5. What is a gothic novel? 6. Gothic novel versus formal realism. 8. Joseph Andrews. 10. Pamela Andrews.
How do you know it's a good research topic on phones, English literature? Test it with an outline. If you aren’t sure you’ve got the Alexander Bell Essay, right topic to come up with a twenty-some-odd page essay, outline what you’ve got so far. I like to do a very basic outline, starting with my thesis (in its rough draft form of course) at the very top. Next I write what each paragraph will be about.
If it’s a twenty page paper, you may write about two to three paragraphs a page so you will need to have at was the significance battle least 10 paragraphs. Knowing what each paragraph is supposed to be about, making writing their topic sentences a little easier. Sometimes you may find that a research topic is broad enough to Alexander Graham Bell Essay, be able to split into two paragraphs, this is the black, handy if you couldn’t initially list at least ten topics. For example, just saying Pamela Andrews for one of my paragraph topics doesn't cover what I want to say. I may just give a brief overview of her character or provide why her character is Alexander Essay, significant to formal realism. Example of short a research topic turning into a topic sentence:
1. What is a gothic novel? “It is important, when studying this novel, to examine what defines a Gothic novel in relation to Alexander Bell Essay, eighteenth-century definitions of novel-writing.”. This leads to asda corporate, questions of “why is this important?” and, of course, “what is Gothic?” which brings you into Essay the paragraph and gives you your first two major points you need to cover. Just remember that the key to choosing a research topic for English Literature is to start broad. Read the novel and remember to focus on your own class's focus or on whatever interests you most. Should Phones Be Allowed In Schools. From there, you can branch out to almost any research topic, it just takes some work to get there.
List of Research Paper Topics in Literature. The amount of potential research paper topics in literature are nearly endless. Graham Bell Essay. Here is a good start at coming up with topics of your own with a few examples for inspiration. The Gothic Novel: What is asda corporate, Gothic Literature? What Is Style in Alexander Bell, English Literature? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links.
by Virginia Kearney 16. How to asda corporate, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Alexander Graham Bell, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. shah zaib yousafzai 5 weeks ago. Helpful information to write a research paper.
I want to slect symbolism in tale of two cities by Charles Dickens. But couldn't find out the exact statement. . Can you help me plz. very informative it help me a lot of selecting an topic for Rewarding Transformational and Active Management, my master proposal article thanks you so much. Plz suggest any topic about Essay, English literature for on picnic, my project. any good topic about the difficulties of students in English subject? sir i do want to get help regarding my topic for reseach,would you plz help me. Jannat butt 4 months ago. I need a good and easy topic for my synopsis in English literature plzzzx help me any one. i need a research about (the old man and the sea)theme of hope , please any one help me. khalidmehmood 6 months ago.
please help to suggest the topic about english literature,, i want to Bell Essay, write a thesis . very helpful informations thank you so much. Carolinrini 8 months ago. I have taken the changeling and the duchess of malfi comparison as my research topic can u pls help me. Really useful and genuine. I need a current topic for research in English Language rather than Literature. I need a good topic on Literature. Please help me anyone.. For sometime now, I hardly read, just scan, but this one I did. Very cohesively propounded on the art of writing. For those still seeking help, like myself:
1-need to read the phones, text. 2-get familiar with the main events. 3-know the characters. 4-the various roles played by Bell Essay, the characters. 5-overall impression of the text - tragic,comic,tragic-comic,none. 6-get the undertone on : politics,gender,economy,religion; read on the period of the writer; compare with yours. 7-note the various plots within the main. 8-be aware of the Leadership and Active examples, language impact with reference to Alexander Essay, the readers' and writer's time. 9-read on current affairs - find the topics most interest you. 10-befit the topic in your text.
Hopefully you guessed the short essay on picnic, right one. Dr Anupma Srivastava 3 years ago from India. Informative hub. Graham Bell. It is really very tough to choose topic for writing. Very informative and helpful for the beginners/strugglers . you have put your ideas in should cellular phones be allowed, a very systematic manner that will help others to choose their topics of research. Graham. thanks. Please share more topics.
plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz suggest me any good english literature topics for my thesis and also for my two friends ,i have to submit my thesis in the first week of july. I hate research papers, especially for English literature, but this was really helpful for was the, me to Alexander Graham, come up with my own essay topic. Omg you saved me. My teacher told me I had to come up with 4 research topics on English Literature to write about over the next month. Should Cellular Be Allowed. I am a fan of Alexander Bell English Literature but I had no idea how to the black sox scandal, go about Alexander Bell Essay, finding research topics on the subject. and now I do. Thanks, Lisa! bhise pradeep 4 years ago. It is wonderful page. very useful tostudent. busyguru 5 years ago from what of the battle, U.S.
Wonderful advice on organizing your thought process before committing concrete idea to paper. :) ravindrapatil 5 years ago. good ideas for beginners in Essay, the area of research in English studies and essay, encouraging at the same time. thank you! James Paterson 5 years ago from Scotland. Great Ideas and information, thanks for Graham, sharing. Significance Battle Of Gettysburg?. jimmy. LisaKoski 5 years ago from WA. Thank you! I fixed the typo ;) Cheds 5 years ago from Maine. This is a wonderful hub packed full with information that will be useful to me, and many others. Graham Essay. Nice work!
You do have one typo at the beginning. You left out the T in Suggested. Woops! Joan Whetzel 5 years ago. For my college Lit class, my topic was a comparison of short stories by O. Henry. Short Essay On Picnic. Though therer are plenty of other authors our there who have written short stories that can also be compared. I love your other suggestions though, and Graham, like angela_michelle, I wish I'd had this article available when I took that lit class.
Angela Michelle Schultz 5 years ago from United States. Oh boy, if only had I had this when I was going for my english degree. Would have been so helpful. LOL Great job! Anastasia Kingsley 5 years ago from Croatia, Europe. Lots of Leadership and Active great detail, original photo (with lovely pink fingernails) and plenty of examples, much like a well thought out recipe. Bookmarked and voted up + beautiful. Judith Hancock 5 years ago from Alexander Graham Essay, UK. There's lots of useful information, as well as some great practical examples.
This would be useful for asda corporate, anyone who was totally stuck with how to Essay, start their project or those who just wanted a bit of direction. Bev 5 years ago from Wales. Very comprehensive - lots of ideas for jumping-off points. I should imagine that mindmapping would be a good tool to be able to short, see patterns or links within the topic. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of Alexander Graham Bell HubPages, Inc. HubPages and asda corporate, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out Graham your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for of gettysburg?, an interview, it’s important to Alexander Bell give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable.
The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to significance of the of gettysburg? ultra creative — browse through them to Bell get some ideas for should be allowed in schools, updating your own resume. Alexander! Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in cellular phones in schools, this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to Alexander Graham your name and makes it more memorable. Should Phones Be Allowed In Schools! You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space.
But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for Graham Bell, visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Rewarding Transformational Leadership Essay! Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to Graham Essay symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and asda corporate, frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Bell! Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out.
A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Asda Corporate! Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in Alexander Bell Essay, terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of asda corporate negative space. There seems to Essay be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to and Active Management Essay examples forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them.
This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for Bell, yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of Overcoming in The Outsiders and The professionalism (and an Bell, opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. Essay! For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on Graham, a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to Rewarding Transformational Leadership and Active Management Essay examples be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Bell Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and was the significance of the battle, whittles down the Alexander information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. The Black! If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. Graham Essay! This example by S.N.
Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the short on picnic resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for Alexander Graham, a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Phones Be Allowed In Schools! Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at Bell Essay a glance, tell something about sox scandal you and Bell Essay, complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by sox scandal Rachel Winter. Alexander Bell! If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into short essay your resume.
It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by Alexander Graham Essay using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out should cellular be allowed some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the Graham Bell Essay overall presentation very businesslike. Time! You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in Graham Essay, any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. Transformational And Active Essay! You’ve only got one name.
Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. Graham Bell Essay! For instance, the Obstacles in The and The Essay rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for Graham Bell Essay, his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have.
Need to the black sox scandal show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to Alexander Bell networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of Obstacles in The Time Traveler Essay graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and Alexander Essay, helps you keep everything sharply aligned.
Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to short essay on picnic creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in Alexander Graham Bell, function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of phones experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Alexander! Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt.
If your job history includes working for Overcoming Obstacles in The and The Time, big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on Alexander Graham Bell, your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Was The Of The! Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Bell Essay Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an sox scandal, accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to make a good impression. Graham Essay! If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and asda corporate, custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd.
This resume by Graham Essay Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the on picnic box. Alexander Graham! This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for in The Outsiders Traveler, a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to Graham Bell let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the sox scandal same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents.
Sometimes you have to Alexander Graham Bell do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and the black, a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to Alexander get someone interested in was the significance of the, wanting to know more about Alexander Bell Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to significance of gettysburg? fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Alexander Bell Essay Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and sox scandal, clear headings for each section. Graham! Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest.
Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Overcoming Obstacles In The And The! Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Alexander Graham! Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an accent color. Resumes don’t always have to what was the of the battle of gettysburg? read from left to Alexander Graham Bell right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and essay, make it easier to navigate, similarly to Graham how Orlando Silva designed this template. Leadership! If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from Graham your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on Rewarding Transformational Management examples, display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn.
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!--BACKGROUND=/backgrounds/ltgray_aluminum.gif-- Guidelines for Alexander Bell Writing a Political Theory Essay. Professor Anna Marie Smith. Department of Government, Cornell University. A. The purpose of Transformational and Active, political theory writing. 1. Alexander Essay. The theoretical issues, rather than empirical facts presented on their own, are most important for was the battle us. Graham Bell. Remember that your assignment is designed as an exercise in what was the battle interpreting political theory. Emphasize the theoretical aspects of your answer. Alexander Bell Essay. Empirical material such as historical details and statistical data should be used to support your answer where appropriate, but you should aim primarily to short on picnic demonstrate your ability to argue coherently and effectively within well-defined theoretical frameworks.
2. Make a compelling argument. Alexander Bell Essay. Your goal is to present an short essay, accurate treatment of the basic interpretive facts, but then to conduct a dialogue with the text and to give your opinion on the theoretical problem at hand. For example, political theory essays often deal with a normative issue (known colloquially as the ought question.) Martin Luther King Jr. thought that the achievement of genuine racial equality would require both the elimination of discrimination against African-Americans and the redistribution of income from the wealthy to the poor. A good political theory treatment of this argument would not make any mistakes on the basic interpretive facts that are beyond dispute. It would, for example, trace King's influences back to the civil rights movement and Christian theological discourse. But it would also move into the realm of the should statement as well.
The political theory essay would advance a clear normative argument; the Alexander Bell Essay, author would take a position either for or against King's claim. Now an economist might respond to King argument by seeking to find an absolutely precise measurement of the distribution of wealth in the United States and should cellular be allowed in schools, the developed world during the 1960s. For the political theorist, however, it is the conceptual puzzle implicit in King's statement that commands our attention. According to King, how is the distribution of Graham, income related to racial inequality? What is his understanding of key concepts such as racial integration, freedom and the black sox scandal, democracy? Why did he believe that the passage of civil rights legislation in Graham Essay the mid-1960s had not brought racism to an end? In your opinion, is King's argument persuasive? Note that the reader cannot, in on picnic all fairness, expect the political theory essay to present a correct answer. Bell Essay. The political theory essay attempts to persuade the reader by advancing a compelling argument that is well supported by detailed and Transformational Leadership, insightful interpretive work. 3. Essay. Develop a thesis and sustain your thesis argument throughout the paper.
Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to convince your reader that you are right, and Overcoming Traveler, that you have approached the question in a fair-minded and Graham Bell Essay, thoughtful manner. Essays that are not built on a thesis tend to summarize the text and to wander aimlessly from point to point. 4. Engage with the themes of the course and the texts that we are studying. A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the student author had attended the essay, course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the assigned reading. Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the questions raised in Alexander Graham Bell class and in your texts. You are welcome to take any reasonable position in your essay, but engagement with the assigned texts is mandatory. Think of it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the position from which you will speak in your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading. 5. Define your terms.
Political theorists should aim to define terms with great precision. Political theorists contribute to the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of key political problems. As soon as you introduce a term into short essay your essay, you should define it very clearly. As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims.
Where your argument does depend upon Alexander Bell factual claims, you must state them clearly in a precise manner, and short on picnic, you must footnote your source. 7. Leave yourself enough time to write a full outline and multiple drafts. Graham Bell. I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and “cramming” for exams, but I encourage you to avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. Rewarding Leadership Management Essay Examples. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of reflection and critical revision. Aim to finish the next-to-final draft several days before the Essay, due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of Leadership, days. Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to Graham detect weak passages and problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and hand it in. B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the essay . Emphasize your informed argument. The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of quotations and strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the phones in schools, appropriate reading and that you are thinking independently and creatively about the text. 2. Always remember that the Graham Essay, essay is an academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and Overcoming Obstacles Outsiders and The Time Traveler, sloppy argumentation in their essays.
Do not use the Bell, kind of words, phrases and arguments that you would use in other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an address to a political rally. In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and asda corporate, scholarly tone, the more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the text. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in Alexander Graham Bell Essay which the text advances an argument that is central to your paper. But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary. Do not fill out your answers with long direct quotations from the what of the, text. In short papers up to 15 pages in length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to 50 words in length. Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for Essay this type of paper. 4. For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the essay on picnic, art of the concise paraphrase . You should choose appropriate passages from the text and put them in your own words, taking care throughout the Alexander, paper to capture the nuances of the text, and to footnote the original source. The Black. (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the reader as a simple set of textual summaries. Make the texts work for you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of their arguments.
Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and even contradictory dimensions as well. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the text of a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the argument in your own words, with full notation as required. Your goal should be to make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and from his/her point of view. By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of its argument. 6. You should explore the meaning of each text very carefully . If you are opposed to Essay an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the same token, you must indicate the what significance battle of gettysburg?, weaknesses and contradictions in the texts that you happen to favor.
Any essay that fails to Alexander Graham Bell Essay do this will miss the opportunity to engage in advanced forms of interpretive work. Transformational Essay Examples. The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and closing arguments in a trial. If you agree with the Graham Bell Essay, text without carefully reconstructing its position, then your agreement will come too easily and you will fail to asda corporate note the text's own contradictions and weaknesses. Bell. If, by Rewarding Leadership Management examples, contrast, you criticize the text without considering its strengths, you will be reducing the text to a straw man and engaging in a dismissive reading where subtle, detailed and sensitive commentary is Bell Essay, required. 7. Use the non-expert scholar figure as your target audience. Write your paper as if you will be submitting it to a professor who studies politics, but who is not an expert on the material you are dealing with. This will remind you to use any complicated terminology sparingly, to define all key terms thoroughly, and to avoid taking for granted the meaning of complicated debates and issues. Take care to lead the non-expert scholar through the twists and turns of was the of gettysburg?, your argument, and Graham Bell, make sure that your imaginary reader will regard your work as an accessible and persuasive paper.
Perhaps something that seems obvious to you actually needs more explanation and asda corporate, detailed interrogation. By teaching the non-expert scholar figure about political theory, you will become a better political theorist yourself. As Wittgenstein says, the best way to find out if someone really understands the meaning of a word is to ask her or him to teach someone else about the word and its usage. 8. Anticipate any reasonable objections that your reader might raise, lay them out in the strongest and most empathetic manner possible, and then give your rebuttal. You may find that this process will actually lead you to reconsider your own position and spur you to Essay write a richer and more penetrating paper. 1. Present the different parts of your argument in a logical order.
Explain to the reader in explicit terms why you are proceeding from one idea to the next. In a longer piece (i.e. over 10 pages) use subtitles to help the reader to follow the progression of your argument. Your reader should never have to wonder why a specific sentence was included, or why a certain paragraph came before another one. 2. Personal reflections and autobiographical information are acceptable; in fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and critical race theory writing. (See, for example, the work of Patricia J. Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. You should keep in mind that personal material is never an adequate substitute for theoretical analysis. 3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. 4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into your answer and these references should be noted clearly throughout.
All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to 10 notes per page. 5. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in your footnotes to every source that you consulted while conducting your research and writing the paper. I reserve the right to conduct an internet search relating to any part of your assignment to was the of gettysburg? check for plagiarism. 6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to provide a footnote to them. By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on your own reading. 7. We expect you to Alexander Bell abide by the plagiarism code of the the black sox scandal, university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade. Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to Alexander Bell Essay read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. Double submission is also forbidden. This rule often raises a lot of essay, questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of work that you have done/are doing for another course, please make an appointment with me to discuss the overlap situation.
8. Alexander Graham Bell Essay. Deadlines are meant to essay on picnic ensure that each individual student receives fair and equal treatment. I only give extensions to students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. Please deliver your paper, in hard copy format, to my mailbox on the second floor of White Hall, by 4:30 on the due date. Bell Essay. I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the work that I am placing on reserve for this course.) A. Question: Analyze the media coverage of the LAPD trials related to the beating of Rodney King. The meaning of the videotape was shaped by the defence lawyers in the courtroom. The Black Sox Scandal. According to Crenshaw and Graham Essay, Peller,
What many people did not comprehend was that police brutality, just like discrimination, does not speak for itself. What Significance Of The Of Gettysburg?. This very struggle over meaning is precisely what the intense contestations about race in the law are really about. Bell. Rather than providing some kind of firm ground to what significance battle challenge racist institutional practices, notions of formal equality, objectivity, neutrality, and Alexander Graham, the like tend to obscure the way that race is experienced by the vast majority of African Americans in this society. (Crenshaw and Peller 1993: 64) So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in which the law is used against short them. The student has clearly read the Graham Essay, assigned text by Crenshaw and Peller, but he or she is relying on the quotation too much. The student should put the quotation into should phones in schools his or her own words and then give his or her commentary. The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. The student has merely gone into the text, found some key passages, and Alexander Essay, then pasted them together. What Was The Of The Battle. Although the student has grasped the basic meaning of the text, the more complex aspects of Crenshaw and Peller's argument seem to be eluding him or her. This writing is at a C to Graham Bell Essay B- level. Having examined the general political context for the LAPD trials in should cellular in schools Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media.
At this point, we must insist on Alexander Bell Essay, the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of intensive contestation. The videotape of phones in schools, King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on Graham Bell, face value as objective evidence of the Overcoming Obstacles Time Traveler, the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out that the legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about meaning. Graham Bell. They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in court: they attempted to restrict the category of essay on picnic, legitimate evidence and to re-define unfavourable evidence by placing it in the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of Alexander, racial imagery plays an significance battle of gettysburg?, integral role in the entire system of institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into the normal way of Alexander Graham Bell, doing things. That discrediting process depends in part upon the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of oppression.
Re-contextualize the video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the under-representation of Transformational Management examples, blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is Alexander Graham Bell Essay, only when we take Crenshaw and Peller's warning about the constructed nature of every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the media coverage of the asda corporate, trials. The student's own argument is driving the essay: she is taking a position and defending it; the Alexander Graham Bell Essay, reference to the article is paraphrased accurately and properly noted; the student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the different parts of the short, argument in Alexander a logical order, and Leadership and Active, telling the reader very clearly why she is Alexander Essay, moving from one idea to the next. There is a slight risk that the student is moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by all the quick transitions. Hopefully, the student will return to the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of his or her argument. This section of the paper would merit a grade of A- or better. B. Question: Can a society marked by short essay, a substantial inequality in wealth maintain and Alexander Graham, deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the system is run by rich white men.
We will never get campaign finance reform because the lobbyists for rich white men are incredibly powerful. Short On Picnic. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the student is Alexander Bell Essay, writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of asda corporate, a political theory course. The passage reads like something the Bell Essay, student could have written without taking the essay, course at all. What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is taking for granted that we only Alexander Bell Essay, need to discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and actually exercise that right. The conceptual debates on the meaning of democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is significance of gettysburg?, far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. Alexander Graham Bell. Its ought to be spelled it's.
Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the long form (do not) instead. The term, the system, is a popular clich that is far too vague. Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the Obstacles in The Time, bureaucracy, the private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is Alexander Graham Bell Essay, not defined. Rich white men is sox scandal, not an Graham Essay, academic phrase.
The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about asda corporate wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites? It is plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the writer exactly mean by Graham, powerful? If she or he is referring to the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in an explicit manner. The cited source, the web page, is not an acceptable academic text. Significance. Web page sources must be used very carefully. Data should be drawn primarily from articles and texts that have been published by academic publishers.
Data from the Alexander Graham Bell Essay, publications of (non-partisan) governmental agencies is also acceptable. The latter are often available on the web through the Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. The only type of short essay on picnic, journalistic source that is acceptable is what is called the newspaper of record: in the United States, the New York Times and Alexander Graham Essay, the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and so on are not legitimate. Finally, the asda corporate, essay is skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly.
Again, it is entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Graham, Democrats are in fact influenced by wealthy interest groups first and the black sox scandal, foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from politics, and those feelings of alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether. However, a critic might say that the Graham Essay, presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates. The essay needs to engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at a time, give full and asda corporate, careful treatment to each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the objections of a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the Alexander Graham, next point. This passage is an example of writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse. The tension between the type of inequality that is present in any capitalist social structure on the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is explored in a perceptive manner by Marx in his article, On the Jewish Question. (footnote) Marx was addressing the fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in Europe; they had been barred from should phones be allowed in schools holding office and from practicing most professions and crafts.
In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. Graham. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules. Marx used the unique position of the Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and sox scandal, equality as long as the Alexander Essay, capitalist system remained intact. As we have seen in our discussion of Locke, individual freedom and what was the of the battle of gettysburg?, equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to serve in a public office, and -- where the Graham, franchise existed -- to vote.
But Marx points out that the liberated Jew has only been granted the sort of freedom and equality that are possible in essay market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the same status as every other individual in a capitalist world. That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. There is the citizen half; in this mode, the individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the Alexander Graham Essay, competitor half. In this second mode, the individual puts aside the generosity of spirit and fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in the citizen mode and struggles against asda corporate every other individual to Bell Essay gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into what was the significance of the battle a class group, based on Bell Essay, whether or not he or she owns the should cellular, means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the Bell Essay, citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is abolished and the capitalist system is overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in his Essay on sox scandal, the Origin of Inequality. Once again we have the opposition between the Alexander Graham Bell Essay, two modes within the individual: the and Active, unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to Alexander Graham Essay the key conceptual argument. The sign-posting to other passages in the essay (as we have seen . Significance Of The Battle Of Gettysburg?. ) is Alexander Graham Essay, helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of each paragraph is clearly introduced in the first sentence.
The author is building the argument in a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text. Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Outsiders Traveler Locke, Marx and Rousseau and giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the Graham Bell Essay, author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper. Provided that he or she does so, the paper would probably receive a grade of A. These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes.
Other professors may be looking for sox scandal different elements in the assignments for their courses.
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essays newspeak 1984 Written February 27, 2000; Modified May 9, 2000. If you quote or paraphrase from my essay, please give me due credit. Language as the #147;Ultimate Weapon#148; in Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell, like many other literary scholars, is interested in the modern use of the English language and, in particular, the abuse and misuse of English. He realises that language has the power in Graham Essay, politics to mask the truth and examples mislead the public, and he wishes to increase public awareness of this power. He accomplishes this by placing a great focus on Newspeak and the media in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Alexander Graham! Demonstrating the short essay on picnic repeated abuse of language by the government and by the media in his novel, Orwell shows how language can be used politically to deceive and Alexander Graham manipulate people, leading to what, a society in Alexander Bell Essay, which the people unquestioningly obey their government and mindlessly accept all propaganda as reality. Language becomes a mind-control tool, with the short on picnic ultimate goal being the destruction of will and imagination. As John Wain says in his essay, #147;[Orwell#146;s] vision of 1984 does not include extinction weapons . . . He is not interested in extinction weapons because, fundamentally, they do not frighten him as much as spiritual ones#148; (343). Paul Chilton suggests that the language theme in Orwell#146;s novel has its roots in the story of the Tower of Babel (2).
When God destroys the Towel of Babel, the civilizations which have contributed to the construction of the Alexander Essay Tower suffer ever-after from the Curse of Confusion. Sox Scandal! The Curse both makes languages #147;mutually unintelligible#148;, and alters their nature so that #147;they no longer lucidly [express] the Graham nature of things, but rather [obscure] and [distort] them#148; (Chilton, 2). Orwell#146;s Newspeak , the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four , does precisely that: it facilitates deception and manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the short essay on picnic real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is that #147;each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the world#148; (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to enclose people in an orthodox pseudo-reality and Alexander Bell isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the government in Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to Obstacles in The and The Traveler Essay, cut back the Newspeak vocabulary.
One of the Newspeak engineers says, #147;[we#146;re] cutting the language down to the bone . . . Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year#148; (55). By manipulating the language, the government wishes to alter the public#146;s way of thinking. This can be done, psychologists theorise, because the words that are available for the purpose of Graham Bell communicating thought tend to influence the way people think. The linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf was a firm believer in this link between thought and language, and the black sox scandal he theorised that #147;different languages impose different conceptions of reality#148; (Myers 352). So when words that describe a particular thought are completely absent from a language, that thought becomes more difficult to think of and communicate. For the Bell Essay Inner Party, the goal is to impose an orthodox reality and was the significance battle make heretical thought (#145;thoughtcrime#146;) impossible. #147;In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible,#148; explains the Newspeak engineer, #147;because there will be no words in Alexander Graham Essay, which to express it#148; (55). By design, Newspeak narrows the what of the of gettysburg? range of thought and shortens people#146;s memories. It is therefore ideal for Alexander Bell a totalitarian system, in sox scandal, which the government has to rely on a passive public which lacks independent thought and which has a great tolerance for mistakes, both past and Graham Bell Essay present. #147;To expand language is to should cellular phones be allowed in schools, expand the ability to think,#148; says Myers (353).
Conversely, to restrict language, as with Newspeak, is to restrict the range of thought. Chilton identifies the specific features of Newspeak that help restrict thought: #147;reduced complexity, few abstractions, and no selfreference#148; (37). Such narrowed public thought is what the Inner Party prefers, because a public that lacks the Bell Essay ability to think vividly poses less of a threat than one that can readily criticise the government and defend itself from harm. However, an interesting consequence of this narrowed thought is that the public#146;s memory is also effectively shortened. #147;The Inner Party [deprives] people of their own words and in so doing, deprives them of memory#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). After O#146;Brien forces Winston to embrace Ingsoc, for instance, Winston#146;s imagination decays and Rewarding Management Essay examples he #147;[can] no longer fix his mind on any one subject for more than a few moments at a time#148; (301). Winston, like the Graham Bell majority of the public, suffers when he is asda corporate robbed of his words and thoughts. Consequently, #147;memory, with its attendant richness and variety, atrophies#148; since #147;memories die when they go unrehearsed in words#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). Given that Newspeak is such a politically-motivated language, why does the public in Alexander Graham Bell, Nineteen Eighty-Four accept it? After all, the Party is short essay on picnic undertaking a project of monumental proportions: they are trying to Alexander Graham Bell, completely replace a common language (English, or #147;Oldspeak#148;), and one would expect great opposition to such a plan.
The Party is able to achieve this by again employing psychological tactics. Instead of forcing the public to use Newspeak by law, the Party ensures that the public is immersed in the new language. Nobody is forced to on picnic, read or write in Newspeak, but #147;its ubiquitous broadcast creates a pressure to employ it simply in order to Alexander Graham Bell Essay, communicate economically#148; (Chilton 37). Orwell#146;s novel paints a nightmarish picture of a totalitarian system gone to Rewarding Leadership Essay, the absolute extreme, but it is a novel that is fundamentally about psychological control of the public. Of course, the Party does employ torture as part of its control regimen, but the Alexander Graham Bell Essay psychological control tactics are the dominant ones in the novel. While physical punishment is difficult to administer, psychological tactics (manipulation of people through language) can be continuously applied to the general public without raising great public opposition or fear #151; and that is where its strength lies. It is for this reason that #147;Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to erase thoughtcrime#148; (Stansky 88).
However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of on picnic mind control through language, it is just a part of a greater Inner Party scheme. It is, in fact, the Party-controlled media in the novel that expertly uses Newspeak as well as other linguistic trickery to spread its propaganda and brainwash the Graham Bell public. The media is powerful as a tool for manipulation both because the public is widely exposed to it, and also because the public trusts it. The telescreens continuously shout bursts of was the significance news and propaganda throughout the day, and the people listen intently and cheer at #145;good news#146; (victories) and are driven to rage by #145;bad news#146;. The characters in Orwell#146;s novel are slaves of the media; they revere it as an oracle. When the telescreens initiate the Two Minutes Hate, for instance, the people are roused to a frenzy: #147;People were leaping up and down in their places and shouting at Alexander Graham Bell Essay, the tops of their voices . . . [a girl] had begun crying out #145;Swine! Swine! Swine!#146;#148; (16). Certainly, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , #147;[media information] does control some of the ways in which [people] think about and assess the the black sox scandal world#148; (Lewis and Moss 47). The Party is interested in masking the truth, and so the media manipulates language to present a distorted reality.
As Orwell says in his essay Politics and the English Language , #147;Political language . Graham Essay! . . is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind#148; (150). In the essay novel, these lies are quite obvious. For example, the media (controlled by the Party, of Alexander Bell Essay course) continually refers to the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty. In reality, however, the Ministry of Truth is concerned with the falsification of records, and the Ministry of Peace deals with warfare. The Ministry of Love is #147;the really frightening one#148; (6) as it is essentially a place for the questioning and torturing of suspected criminals. The Ministry of Plenty makes up economic figures to convince the public that the economy is in good shape, even though there are great shortages of phones be allowed in schools all commodities due to the war.
Although the Graham Bell irony in the titles is blatantly obvious, Orwell is making a point about asda corporate, how the media can use language to mask the truth. The totalitarian state of Oceania is in a constant state of war, and Alexander Graham Bell part of the Party#146;s ongoing struggle is to keep the public satisfied with this warfare. If the public were dissatisfied, they would resent the shortage of food and other commodities and possibly rebel against the black, the Party. The Party therefore has to distract the public#146;s attention away from the negative side of warfare, and they use the media to do this. By using only language that carries neutral or positive connotations to talk about anything related to war, the media successfully soothes an otherwise resentful public. For instance, the media never reports on the #147;twenty or thirty [rocket bombs] a week falling on London#148; (28), but rather inundates peoples#146; lives with good news about victories. Winston#146;s telescreen announces, #147;Our forces in South India have won a glorious victory. I am authorised to say that the action we are now reporting may well bring the war within measurable distance of its end#148; (28). Similar reports follow throughout the entire novel, constantly celebrating the capture of enemies and the conquering of new territories, but never admitting any kind of defeat. In many ways, the media is relying on the principle that a piece of information that is repeated often enough becomes accepted as truth. Winston, a particularly strong-minded individual, is continually amazed to see his friends and colleagues swallow the lies that the media dishes out.
For this form of Graham Bell Essay brainwashing (#145;Duckspeak#146;) to be effective, #147;you just say things frequently and people eventually understand and say it themselves#148; (Chilton 27). This brainwashing is done through the words of the telescreens, newspapers and magazines. The media is sox scandal skilled at engineering #145;truth#146; through language, and one of the most disturbing consequence of this developed in the novel is Essay that the Party has ultimate control over history. After all, language is the link to history. Winston#146;s job in the Ministry of Truth is to modify news items and of gettysburg? other documents that in one way or another make the Alexander Graham Essay Party look bad. Asda Corporate! After he replaces an original document with the Graham Essay modified one, all the originals are destroyed.
Orwell describes the process: This processes of asda corporate continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets . . . Day by day and Graham Essay almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct; nor was any item of news, or any expression of short opinion, which conflicted with the needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. (42) Lewis and Moss believe that #147;the tactic is to obliterate history so that centres of opposition cannot grow#148; (51). Orwell shows us evidence that this tactic is working: even the main character, who knows exactly what is going on with the falsification of documents, has trouble recalling who Oceania is really at war with at the present. Alexander Graham Bell Essay! It is either Eurasia or Eastasia, but Winston is not sure because the Party keeps changing history. This nagging doubt eats away at Winston until he no longer knows what reality is; by the end of the novel, he is willing to accept the Party#146;s reality. Orwell#146;s novel asks the philosophical question: if all available evidence shows something to be true, is the black sox scandal it not true? Winston struggles with this idea of #147;Reality control#148; (37) as he works at the Ministry of Alexander Graham Truth. #147;The frightening thing,#148; Winston thinks to himself, #147;[is] that it might all be true. If the Party [can] thrust its hand into the past and say of asda corporate this or that event, it never happened #150; that, surely, [is] more terrifying than mere torture and death#148; (36).
One of Winston#146;s assignments is to invent a biography of a fictional soldier named Ogilvy, so that he can be honoured by Big Brother in a public address. After writing the description of Ogilvy#146;s life, Winston marvels at Essay, how #147;once the act of forgery [is] forgotten, [Ogilvy will] exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar#148; (50). As well as altering the past by manipulating written language, the Obstacles Time Traveler Essay Party has an ingenious plan to break the link with the real past by introducing a language barrier. When #147;all real knowledge of Alexander Graham Essay Oldspeak [disappears] . . . the whole literature of the past will have been destroyed#148; (56). After a few generations, when people are no longer capable of decoding information from the past, there will no longer even be a need to censor the history that has the potential for breeding unorthodox ideas #151; it will be completely out of the public#146;s reach. What Was The Battle! Thus, the manipulation of language and text not only effects the present, but also the past and Alexander future in asda corporate, more than one way. A Party slogan in the novel reads, #147;Who controls the past, controls the Bell future: who controls the present controls the past#148; (37). Orwell#146;s novel is extreme, but it is not necessarily a prediction of the future. Rahv believes that the book#146;s #147;importance is Outsiders Time Traveler Essay mainly in its powerful engagement with the present#148; (183). Indeed, politicians have used written language to manipulate history both in the past and present. There was much distortion of history during the Stalinist era, #147;when such standard works of misinformation as the Essay Soviet Encyclopaedia changed constantly with the party line, so that in successive editions Trotsky was first the hero of the Civil War, then an asda corporate, agent of the Mensheviks, and the western powers#148; (Woodcock 177).
Patrick Wright suggests that the Bell Essay issue is still very much alive in short, the late twentieth century, citing as an example #147;[the British Secretary for Education, who] refused a number of proposed syllabus systems for the teaching of history in schools, finding them insufficiently assiduous in their promotion of the mythical, rather than simply historical, values of national unity and pride#148; (111). Equally alive today is the fear that politicians and the media abuse language to hide truth. Orwell gives examples of how politicians can twist words to deceive people in his essay Politics and Alexander Essay the English Language : #147;Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside . Asda Corporate! . . this is called pacification . Bell Essay! Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is Leadership Management called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers #148; (148). Woodcock refers to the modern jargon-filled English used by #147;newspaper editors, bureaucrats, radio announcers, and parliamentary speakers#148; who have, just as Orwell feared, a heavy #147;reliance on ready-made phrases#148; (92). Even more disturbing, in Graham Bell, the twenty-first century we have now a rapidly growing, major industry based solely upon the manipulation of language and thought: advertising. Orwell#146;s novel carries a well-founded warning about the powers of language. It shows how language can shape people#146;s sense of reality, how it can be used to conceal truths, and even how it can be used to manipulate history. #147;Language is Rewarding Transformational and Active one of the Alexander Essay key instruments of the black sox scandal political dominations, the necessary and Alexander Graham insidious means of the #145;totalitarian#146; control of reality#148; (Rai, 122). While language in the traditional sense can expand horizons and the black sox scandal improve our understanding of the world, Orwell#146;s novel demonstrates that language, when used in a maliciously political way, can just as easily become #147;a plot against human consciousness#148; (Rahv, 182). Chilton, Paul.
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- - - . Politics and the English Language in Alexander Graham Bell Essay, Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harcourt, Brace World, Inc., 1963. 143-50. Rahv, Philip. The Unfuture of Utopia in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . 181-5. Rai, Alok. Asda Corporate! Orwell and the politics of despair: A critical study of the writings of George Orwell . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Stansky, Peter, ed. Essay! On Nineteen Eighty-Four . New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1983. Wain, John. The Black! Essays on Literature and Ideas - George Orwell (1) in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol. 6 . 343-4. Woodcock, George. Orwell#146;s Message: 1984 and Alexander the Present . Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd, 1984.
Wright, Patrick. The Conscription of sox scandal History in Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . 105-14.