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Business Plan for SBA, Bank or Grant Funding. Leon? An average Level 2 plan will include the following 26 sections: The cover page generally has your company logo, your contact information including name, address, telephone number, and e-mail address. Quotes Runner? We build our business plans with a linked table of contents that is done in a manner so that if any changes are made to the text, the page numbers can quickly be updated. A summation of the business plan and the first thing an investor will read, the executive summary entails the market need, the solution the leon smith company will bring to it, and how it will accomplish this. It includes a short description of the company's products and starbuck vision services, the size of the relevant market, how the company is uniquely suited to succeed, and the amount of investment being sought. Usually one or two pages in length, it is a brief yet important opportunity to persuade the leon garfield smith reader to delve deeper into the document.
This section is done by our business plan writers. This section generally includes bullet points of your company's goals. These goals may include market capture rate, financial profitability timelines, and new product launch dates. A clear and movie concise statement defining your company's mission. A listing of the steps required to achieve the company's stated mission.
This section includes information regarding where the leon garfield smith company will be located and how the company will be structured. A summation of the principal owners and their company share. Pre-Operating Source and Use of Funds. The pre-operating source and use of funds section details the expenses, assets, inventory, investment and debt needed to facilitate the company's business objectives. The pre-operating expenses and funding occur before the company receives revenue. This section is starbuck vision completed by our financial consultants.
This section describes the company's offering in the marketplace. It presents standard product and/or service descriptions, and how these differentiate the company from what is currently on the market. This is also the leon area to detail any proprietary products or processes, intellectual property, exclusive designs, patents, or other innovative offerings. If relevant, it will outline why the management is to be specially suited to bring the product to market, grow the company, help turn it around, etc. This section is done by our business plan writers. Detailed information on the company's immediate surroundings including: population, households, families, age, income, and other useful statistics. Tables and graphs are used to display the information above.
This section is done by smith our business plan researchers. This section includes information on Serving in the Should to be in America Essays U.S. Smith? sales per state and sales per employee per starbuck vision, state. Specific information for your state and city will be detailed in a custom table. Leon Smith? This section is done by our business plan writers. Top Tapestry Segments for your area.
The U.S. Census Bureau has created a list of tapestry segments that help businesses identify customers living in their area. This information is very important and includes a detailed description of the type of people who live in your area. This section is done by our business plan writers. This information includes a variety of data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau and customized to the individual business and location. It may include some or all of the following: population, growth, school enrollment, education attainment, marital status, region of birth, language spoken, employment status, how they commute to work, occupation, industries occupying the on Immigration workforce, and garfield smith class of worker. Mitnick? This section is done by our business plan writers. Marketing initiatives and a web operations summary are detailed here. This describes how customers will be reached, including specifics such as marketing channels, methods of advertising, campaign strategies, and strategic partnerships utilized.
This section is smith done by our business plan writers. The SWOT analysis is included to provide an honest assessment of a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It explains internal and external factors, and Serving in the Should Continue to be in America Essays positive and negative forces affecting your company. This helps investors see the current state of a company and it also is an excellent tool for self- assessment. The history of the garfield company and its owners is St John Fisher Essay explored, including how they will use their experience to implement successful business strategies. For larger operations, this will include a summary of management gaps as well. This section is done by our business plan writers.
Provides an overview of your financial situation and financial projections. This section is completed by garfield smith our financial consultants. The revenue forecast section details the revenue that the company will receive and the direct costs. Comprehensive graphs illustrate the amount of revenue and gross margin each line item contributes. This section is completed by our financial consultants. Kite? The personnel forecast breaks down the payroll expense line on the income statement, and provides total headcount, average salary per category and total pay per category. This section is leon garfield completed by our financial consultants. The income statement is also known as a profit #38; loss statement. This table breaks down revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, depreciation, interest, taxes, and bottom-line earnings for Reform, the first five years. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The statement of cash flow illustrates the smith company's cash received and cash spent for a five-year period.
The table is Should to be in America broken down into three main categories: operating, investing, and garfield smith financing. The operating activities report the company's business operations. Investing activities detail the company's property, plant, and equipment transactions. Financing activities account for the company's paid-in capital and debt. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The balance sheet includes the company's assets, liabilities, and of the shareholders' equity for a given time-period. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The break-even analysis details two different break-even points. The operating break-even accounts for the company's revenue and expenses on the income statement.
The investment cash flow break-even takes the operating break-even one step further by including the garfield inflow and outflows of the cash flow. The investment cash flow break-even looks at all transfers of money, except investments. This section is what was the significance of gettysburg? completed by our financial consultants. The best and garfield worse case analysis illustrates what the company's financial statements might look like with an increase or decrease in revenue. This section is completed by Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher our financial consultants.
Year 1 monthly forecast illustrates the company's first 12 months, after the pre-operating stage. This section is completed by our financial consultants.
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ns essay AFGHANISTAN: THE MAKING OF U.S. POLICY, 1973-1990. by Steve Galster. The year was 1979. The country, of course, was Afghanistan.
And one decade later, some people who had believed in that message were celebrating one of the most sensational U.S. victories in the history of the Cold War: the withdrawal of 100,000 demoralized Soviet troops from Afghanistan, marking the first time that the leon Red Army had withdrawn under fire from a nation it had occupied since World War II. The Afghan socialist revolution, it seemed, had failed. At the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Director William Webster and movie, his euphoric Afghan Team toasted ten years of effort and garfield smith, a multi-billion dollar project to support the anti-communist, Muslim Afghan rebels, in what had become the CIA?s largest and most successful covert operation ever. On Capitol Hill, Congressman Charles Wilson (D-Texas), a legislative champion of the anti-Soviet guerrillas, boasted that the United States had learned in Afghanistan that it could reverse Soviet influence anywhere in the world. And at the White House, President George Bush hailed the withdrawal as a watershed in U.S.-Soviet relations. Six thousand miles away from the kevin celebrations, however, the war in Afghanistan raged on. Washington and Moscow?s clients, using U.S. and Soviet-supplied weapons, continued their internecine struggle for power, adding more civilian casualties to the 1 million who had already died. Although peace had broken out between the superpowers, the smith legacy of their long and starbuck vision, bitter rivalry lived on in the rocket-prone city of leon garfield smith Kabul, Pakistan?s crowded refugee camps and the war-ravaged villages in the Hindu Kush mountains. The Relevance of Afghanistan. How is it that this underdeveloped, tribal-based country, tucked deep inside the rugged crossroads of Asia and deemed strategically insignificant by the United States for quotes runner, decades, became a battleground for the bloodiest superpower proxy war of the 1980s? What stimulated the United States to develop a sophisticated insurgency support operation for leon smith, a rebellion led by Islamic religious leaders and movie, fought by mountain tribesmen?
What was the nature of the debate among U.S. officials and congressmen as to what the garfield smith rebels, beset with ethnic, tribal and personal rivalries, could accomplish against Essay Reform, the armed forces of the Soviet Union? What effect did this war have on Pakistan, the most important U.S. ally in South Asia, which played a crucial role in the war by providing sanctuary for the rebels and 3 million Afghan refugees? And what lessons have the garfield smith U.S. intelligence and defense communities drawn from the what was the of the of gettysburg? Afghan conflict and applied to the emerging U.S. strategic doctrine of Low-Intensity Warfare? Why did the Soviet Union spend ten years, billions of dollars and 15-20,000 lives trying to prop up a government that seemed constantly on the verge of collapse? Was Moscow?s intervention, as some have claimed, originally part of a grand design to seize oil fields and leon garfield, warm water ports in starbuck vision the Persian Gulf region, or merely a move to protect a new socialist government in a country contiguous to smith its sensitive southern border? Why did Mikhail Gorbachev eventually call the Red Army home, leaving the Afghan government to fend for itself against starbuck vision, formidable odds? And how did the Afghan government manage to hold onto power without Soviet protection? No student, professor or journalist trying to answer these and the many other questions related to the Afghan war can do justice to their research without reviewing some of the thousands of pages of State Department cables from Kabul, Peshawar, Islamabad and Washington; intelligence reports from the garfield CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA); correspondence between Congress and the executive branch; field reports from Agency for International Development (AID) officials in Pakistan; and starbuck vision, other previously classified materials found in this document set. An overview of U.S. policy during Afghanistan?s last 17 turbulent years both provides some context for approaching these questions and smith, demonstrates the Essay usefulness of these materials to those trying to answer them. The Tenets of U.S. Policy toward Afghanistan.
Although Afghanistan experienced massive changes between 1973 and leon smith, 1990--four coups, the intervention and withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces, the exile of one-third of its population as a result of the war, and one million deaths?U.S. policy toward Afghanistan throughout this period actually remained the same: to prevent excessive Soviet influence. Serving In The Military Should In America Essays. Specifically, this meant denying the Soviet Union a foothold in garfield smith Afghanistan from which to launch aggressive actions in the region. Afghanistan by itself was of little importance to the United States. But the runner area around it?the Persian Gulf and the sea lines and ports of the Indian Ocean?was deemed critical, and U.S. policy toward Afghanistan consistently reflected a regional policy that sought strong and friendly ties with Iran and garfield, Pakistan. Hence, the two factors shaping U.S. policy in Afghanistan also remained consistent: the U.S. perception of Soviet goals in Afghanistan, and the balance of power in the region. Until the kevin mitnick fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979, the United States was able to project its power into leon South Asia and protect its interests there with confidence.
In exchange for massive military assistance, the Shah provided the United States with access to military bases and intelligence facilities, helping to safeguard the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf to the free world while preventing potential Soviet advances toward the Gulf or Indian Ocean. At the same time, Soviet relations with Afghanistan did not appear to threaten U.S. interests. Since the USSR shared a long border with Afghanistan and because the kevin mitnick United States enjoyed friendly ties with the other states in the region, U.S. officials viewed Soviet policy in Afghanistan as part of a defensive strategy. Smith. A National Intelligence Estimate written in 1954--one year after the United States helped restore the Shah to his throne in Iran?stated that Soviet attention to Essay on Immigration Afghanistan is garfield smith part of a general effort to counter recent Western (particularly US) gains in the Middle East-South Asia area.(2) Washington decided, in Fighting: St other words, to treat Afghanistan as a buffer state. Throughout the 1960s and the 1970s, relations between Moscow and Kabul grew stronger, as the USSR became one of Afghanistan?s largest sources of foreign aid.
The United States, while working to minimize Soviet influence, raised few objections. Leon. In 1962, the State Department reasoned that US fostering of active hostility toward the USSR [could] only serve to weaken Afghanistan?s ability to Essay survive.(3) In 1976, the leon smith annual State Department Policy Review stated that Afghanistan was a militarily and politically neutral nation, effectively dependent on the Soviet Union. Still, it concluded that the United States is not, nor should it become, committed to, or responsible for the ?protection? of Afghanistan in any respect.(4) The balance of power in the region favored the United States, and no significant Soviet threat to that balance was seen emanating from Afghanistan. This set of circumstances?which in U.S. policy parlance is described as regional stability?changed dramatically in 1979. The Shah of Iran abdicated his throne in January, allowing an anti-American, Islamic government to baba kite take power. Ten months later, the Soviet Union deployed 100,000 troops to Afghanistan, putting the Red Army within striking distance of both Pakistan and a potentially vulnerable Iran. The balance in the region had shifted. Leon Garfield Smith. Soviet policy in starbuck vision Afghanistan, which was previously perceived as benign, was suddenly described by leon garfield the White House as the baba gravest threat to world peace since World War II.
The Early Years: 1973-1978. To gain a full understanding of smith these changes, one needs to go back to the early 1970s when the Footprint Fighting: Fisher Essay power of Afghanistan?s monarchy was waning. Afghanistan at this time was one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 1974, the World Bank estimated Afghanistan?s per capita GNP to be $70, ranking it 73rd among a list of 83 underdeveloped countries.(5) To make matters worse, Afghanistan suffered a terrible drought in 1971-1972. Foreign aid, from such countries as West Germany, Iran, the United States, and especially from the USSR, helped alleviate the country?s economic woes. Foreign aid alone, however, could not resolve Afghanistan?s emerging political conflicts. Many Afghans, particularly the progressive urban elite, had grown impatient with the garfield country?s leader, King Zahir Shah. The king had ruled Afghanistan (sometimes as only a titular head) since the age of 19, when his father was assassinated in 1933. The United States was aware that political discontent was on the rise in the country. In 1971, the U.S. Embassy in battle Kabul reported that [t]here has been increased leftist activity which can be attributed to increased disillusionment and frustration with the existing social/economic conditions and the apparent inability or unwillingness of the leadership to tackle boldly the nation?s problems.(6) Perhaps the garfield smith most disgruntled and significance battle, organized of the country?s leftist groups was the People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The PDPA had been founded in 1965 by a group of garfield 30 Afghans in Kabul. Its political orientation was Marxist, with many of its members looking to Moscow for guidance and inspiration. Many PDPA members, in fact, had studied or received military training in the USSR. During its early years, the PDPA was torn by movie quarrels and plots between its two leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal. The two leaders agreed on the basic objectives of the party, including a number of socialist political and economic reforms. They both also complained of Afghanistan?s backward nature, pointing not only to its underdeveloped infrastructure but also to garfield a maldistribution of wealth and land which, they claimed, was perpetuated by traditional tribal and baba quotes runner, religious customs.
Taraki and Karmal disagreed, however, over how to remedy these problems. Taraki and his followers argued for radical socialist reforms using whatever means necessary to implement them; Karmal and his supporters advocated the gradual introduction of socialist change, working within the state system, incorporating along the way different elements of garfield Afghan society. What Was The Significance Battle Of Gettysburg?. Karmal and several colleagues had even served as parliamentary members during the king?s rule, earning themselves the nickname royal communists. In 1967, Karmal split with the party and formed his own faction, also called the PDPA, but usually identified by the name of its newspaper, Parcham (banner). Parcham continued to strive for the same kinds of socialist reforms pursued by Taraki?s rival PDPA faction, Khalq (masses), also named for its newspaper, but the two competed for leon, power nevertheless. By the starbuck vision early 1970s, Karmal had all but abandoned his non-confrontational, almost cooperative approach toward the government. The Zahir Administration had shut down the Parcham newspaper, quashed Parcham demonstrations, and arrested party members and put them in jail. In response, Karmal increasingly sang the same anti-monarchy tune as the Khalqis. Parcham and Khalq were not the leon only groups opposed to the Zahir Shah Administration. The king?s cousin and former prime minister, Mohammad Daud, had his eyes on starbuck vision the royal palace, as did several other former officials and smith, relatives of the king.
Realizing that a race was on Serving in the Military Should Continue Voluntary to replace Zahir Shah, Daud, along with members of the military and Parcham, coordinated a takeover attempt. On July 17, 1973, while the king was vacationing in Italy, Daud, along with key military officers and the minister of leon interior, who was a Parcham sympathizer, launched a successful, nearly bloodless coup, declaring an baba kite runner, end to the monarchy and the beginning of a republican government. The exact nature of Daud?s relations with Parcham during this time is still not clear. Did the two agree on political objectives for Afghanistan, or did they merely create a marriage of leon garfield convenience? In any event, after ousting the Footprint Fisher royal family, Daud initiated some of the progressive reforms which his leftist supporters had demanded. His commitment to leon a reformist program and to his early backers was shortlived, however. Over time, Daud consolidated his personal power by purging the government of leftists, replacing them with members of in the Military in America Essays his own powerful Mohammadzai clan. He also sought more economic independence from the Soviet Union by exploring closer ties with Iran and the United States. He was careful, however, never completely to shun the Soviet Union. As the CIA noted, Daud was happiest when he could light his American cigarettes with Soviet matches.(7) The U.S.
Embassy in Kabul observed that Daud, in his changes, was leaning neither left nor right, but Daudward. In pursuit of leon smith personal power and a more independent foreign policy, Daud managed to alienate Afghanistan?s socialists, moderates and religious fundamentalists. It was the latter which initially proved to be Daud?s most militant opponents. While some Afghans were being influenced by Marxism, others were diligently studying the Koran. Many of what significance of the these Afghans entered Kabul University?s faculty of Islamic law, while others pursued their Islamic studies in Egypt where they came into contact with and were influenced by the Muslim Brotherhood, an leon garfield, organization which seeks the imposition of strictly Islamic governments in all Muslim countries.
Some of those Afghans who studied in Cairo, such as Burhanuddin Rabbani, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, came back to Kabul determined to galvanize opposition first to Zahir Shah and Fighting: Fisher College, then Mohammad Daud, both of whose governments they criticized as corrupt and un-Islamic. This group of Afghans wanted to integrate modernization and Islam to counter the leon garfield smith disruptive influence of what significance of the battle both capitalism and communism. Rabbani recruited from Afghanistan?s Muslim Youth Organization and helped form the leon Islamic Society party, Jamiat-i Islami. Jamiat organized anti-government protests and other Islamic dissident activities. When Daud cracked down on Jamiat activists, Rabbani and other Muslim leaders fled for the Afghan countryside and eventually to Pakistan where they received arms to starbuck vision fight the Daud government. U.S. officials knew very little about these Afghan rebels and doubted they could pose a serious threat to the Daud Administration. Some of the names listed in State Department cables were those of leon garfield people who, years later, would receive covert aid from the United States in their jihad, or holy war, against the Soviet Union. But it was Pakistan, which had its own reasons to Footprint St John Essay fear Daud, that helped these rebels get their start.
Especially alarming to leon garfield smith the Pakistanis was Daud?s pursuit of a popular cause called Pashtunistan. Roughly half of Afghanistan?s population are ethnic Pashtuns, including Daud and practically every other leader in Afghanistan?s history. Millions of baba kite Pashtuns also lived on the other side of the garfield smith Afghanistan-Pakistan border, an artificial line drawn by the British during the Essay on Immigration Reform height of their colonial rule in India. These Pashtuns, living in Pakistan?s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), looked forward to leon garfield the day when they would join their ethnic brethren in controlling their own homeland, Pashtunistan. Since Pashtuns dominated Afghan politics, they could only gain from pursuing such a goal, and Afghan leaders, in turn, won favor among Afghan Pashtuns for pursuing it. What was appealing to Daud and other Afghan leaders, however, represented a real threat to Pakistan. Pashtunistan, if ever realized, would cut deeply into the NWFP by annexing a good portion of Pakistan. Even if the border with Afghanistan remained intact, calls in Military Should to be Kabul for Pashtunistan always had the potential for stirring unrest in Peshawar and other parts of Pakistan?s frontier. Expatriate leaders such as Rabbani, an ethnic Tajik, and garfield, Hekmatyar, an Islamist who sought to unite Afghans belonging to Military Continue to be Voluntary in America Essays all ethnic groups through Islam, provided Pakistan with a minor tool for keeping Daud off balance if he chose to pursue an aggressive Pashtunistan policy. Meanwhile, as Islamic fundamentalists rebelled against Daud?s atheistic reforms, Daud continued to purge more leftists from the government, banned political opposition in 1975, and strengthened ties with Iran and the United States. The United States welcomed and encouraged Daud?s new foreign policy moves.
In 1977, the State Department, remarking on Daud?s closer ties to Iran, stated that he had made significant contributions to the improvement of regional stability?thereby helping to fulfill another principal U.S. objective.(8) The Saur Revolution. Despite U.S. approval, Daud?s authoritarian rule had alienated too many at home. In particular, PDPA members, Parchamis and Khalqis alike, had grown impatient with Daud and were anxious to leon smith see him removed from power. Khalq members criticized their Parcham rivals for having deluded themselves into thinking that the PDPA could have worked with Daud after supporting his takeover. By 1977, Khalq and Parcham formally agreed to bury their differences and united to form one People?s Democratic Party of Afghanistan; Soviet pressure reportedly played a role in the unification. Further PDPA infiltration of the military, especially by Khalqis, put the party in starbuck vision a good position to influence events if and when Daud lost his grip on power. That day came on smith April 17, 1978, when Mir Akbar Khaibar, a member of the Serving in America PDPA and a vocal critic of Daud, was assassinated, possibly by Daud?s minister of interior.
Thousands of mourners turned Khaibar?s funeral into an anti-government rally which prompted Daud to clamp down further on the PDPA, arresting numerous party members. His response provoked PDPA supporters in leon garfield the military to take action. On April 27, the military in collaboration with the PDPA overthrew Daud, executed him, and replaced his republican government with a socialist one, which proclaimed the coup as the beginning of the kevin movie Saur [April] Revolution. Prelude to Intervention. The socialist and pro-Soviet bent of the leon smith new government caused U.S. officials some concern as they wondered whether Moscow had played a secret role in the PDPA takeover. U.S. Embassy officials in Kabul, however, detected no Soviet hand in the coup and suggested a cautious approach to the new government. These officials recalled that while Daud had been busy consolidating his personal power and pursuing new foreign ties, he had neglected the domestic reforms that many Afghans, particularly the progressive intellectuals, had demanded.
Also, religious leaders and intellectual, or Islamists, including those who had already taken up arms against Daud, had been neglected or repressed. The PDPA was in Military Voluntary Essays a better position than the leon garfield smith Islamicists to seize power because of its stronger influence over the military and within the capital city, Kabul. The Khalq-Parcham unity was apparently not very solid. The new government, the starbuck vision Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), was dominated by Khalqis, due mostly to Khalq control of the military. Soon after the April takeover, Khalq?s two main leaders, Nur Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, quickly consolidated Khalq rule by imprisoning a number of their Parcham rivals while sending others off to foreign diplomatic posts.
Meanwhile, they moved quickly to implement radical secular reforms, ranging from marriage decrees to land reform laws. A treaty of friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union was signed in December 1978, which brought more Soviet aid and leon garfield smith, advisors to Kabul. The Khalqi reforms served to ignite strong opposition from most of the deeply traditional and Islamic population. The security of rural women, for example, often depended on a sizable dowry, which was significantly reduced under new marriage laws. The land reforms, which were meant to on Immigration Reform help small farmers, were opposed by many for having alienated them from their former landowners, on whom they had always relied for help in smith growing and selling their crops. A number of disenfranchised landowners along with many religious leaders either took up arms against Essay, the Taraki-Amin government or left the country. Some Afghans fled to Pakistan to join the Islamic Afghan dissidents such as Rabbani and Hekmatyar. Some of the smith more prominent new rebels included: Sibghatullah Mojaddedi, who came from a well-known family of Sufi leaders, had ties to the royal family, was related to a prominent PDPA official (a valuable connection for most rebels), and formerly taught Islamic law in Kabul; Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, who was also tied to the royal family, was a Pir, or spiritual leader, and starbuck vision, who until his departure from Kabul owned a Peugeot car dealership; Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi, who came from a prominent religious family and served in parliament in smith the 1960s where he criticized secular influence in Afghanistan, physically attacking, at one point, another member of parliament, Babrak Karmal.
There were other rebel leaders operating in the Afghan mountains or out of Pakistan. An important one, Yunus Khales had escaped from Afghanistan in 1974 after writing a book that criticized the Fighting: John Essay Daud Administration. Unlike some other rebel leaders, Khales depended more on his genuine tribal support than his religious aura to galvanize Afghans in leon garfield smith his home province of Nangarhar to oppose the new government in Kabul. These leaders, along with Rabbani, Hekmatyar, and another who joined in 1980, Abdul Rabb-ur-Rasul Sayyaf, formed their own parties and would eventually unite to form the Sunni Islamic Afghan rebel alliance, or the Peshawar Seven as they would later become collectively known as. These party leaders called for a jihad, or holy war, against the PDPA. Many other Afghan dissidents helped lead the charge against the Kabul government, including numerous commanders in the Afghan mountains, like Ahmad Shah Masoud. The Shiite Afghans also played an important insurgency role in the western half of Afghanistan. Some of the Shiite parties based their operations in mitnick Iran where they received support from Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?s government. It was the Peshawar Seven, however, who would grab the world?s attention, partly because the government of Pakistan, the leon host to most rebels and refugees and Fighting: John College Essay, the foreign journalists writing about them, chose to recognize their parties as the only legitimate ones in Pakistan. The United States, in the meantime, had found itself facing a policy dilemma with the PDPA?s ascension to power in Afghanistan.
This dilemma was summed up in a secret memorandum to Secretary of State Cyrus Vance following the April takeover: We need to take into account the leon garfield mix of nationalism and communism in Serving Continue in America Essays the new leadership and seek to avoid driving the smith regime into baba quotes kite runner a closer embrace with the Soviet Union than it might wish. Yet the memo also pointed out various factors favoring a hard-line approach to the new government: [A]nti-regime elements in Afghanistan will be watching us carefully to see if we acquiesce in or accept the communist takeover. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and leon garfield, others of our friends in the area will see the situation clearly as a Soviet coup. Serving Military To Be In America Essays. On the domestic front, many Americans will see this as an extension of Soviet power and draw the parallel with Angola, Ethiopia, etc.(9) As a result, the leon United States compromised, maintaining correct relations with the Reform government while keeping channels open to leon garfield smith the opposition. As dissatisfaction with the PDPA mounted within Afghanistan, however, the United States grew increasingly uncomfortable with the new government and starbuck vision, its radical reforms. Leon Garfield Smith. To make matters worse, in February 1979, the U.S. ambassador, Adolph Dubs, was taken hostage by anti-government Shiite Muslims who demanded the release of a political prisoner. On Immigration Reform. Afghan police clumsily stormed their hideout, and Dubs was killed in the ensuing shootout. Smith. Afghan authorities stonewalled U.S. requests for an independent investigation of the killing. Congress in turn refused to replace Dubs with another ambassador and threatened to cut aid to the DRA.
In March 1979, Afghans in the western city of Herat responded to rebel calls for a jihad by massacring hundreds of DRA officials and Soviet advisors who were in charge of introducing the starbuck vision women?s literacy program there. Afghanistan was beginning to draw attention from the outside world, including Washington. Leon. At the baba runner White House, National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned President Carter that the Soviet Union, with its hundreds of advisors in Afghanistan to assist in smith reforms and counterinsurgency operations, had territorial designs on Afghanistan and possibly the Essay Reform whole South Asia region. Brzezinski and others worried that the USSR might take advantage of its presence in Afghanistan in garfield smith order to influence events in neighboring Iran or Pakistan, two traditionally pro-American countries that for years had helped safeguard U.S. interests in the region, namely access to oil and mitnick movie, the containment of the Soviet Union. If the DRA were able to consolidate its power, Brzezinski argued, then the Soviet Union might turn Afghanistan into leon garfield smith a launching pad for aggression in the region. Weeks after the starbuck vision Herat uprising and while President Carter was absorbed by the Iran hostage crisis, Brzezinski pushed a decision through the leon smith Special Coordination Committee (SCC) of the Essay National Security Council (NSC) to smith be, as he put it, more sympathetic to those Afghans who were determined to preserve their country?s independence.(10) Although deliberately vague as to what this meant, the evidence indicates that Brzezinski called for moderate covert support for Afghan dissident groups which had set up headquarters in Pakistan. Some, such as forces under the command of Rabbani and Hekmatyar, had been operating out of Pakistan without much outside aid for years. Serving Continue Voluntary In America Essays. According to a former Pakistani military official who was interviewed in 1988, the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad had asked Pakistani military officials in April 1979 to recommend a rebel organization that would make the best use of smith U.S. aid. Kevin. The following month, the Pakistani source claimed, he personally introduced a CIA official to Hekmatyar who, while more radically Islamic and garfield smith, anti-American than most Afghans, headed what the Military Should to be in America Pakistani government considered the most militant and organized rebel group, the Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar).(11)
Freedom of Information Act requests for leon, records describing these meetings have been denied. But CIA and State Department documents seized by Iranian students during the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran in November 1979, reveal that, starting in April 1979, eight months before the Soviet intervention and immediately following Brzezinski?s SCC decision, the United States had, in fact, begun quietly meeting rebel representatives. Although most of the on Immigration cables and memoranda released to date show that U.S. officials politely turned down rebel requests for U.S. assistance, others reveal CIA support for anti-DRA demonstrations and close monitoring of garfield Pakistani military aid for rebel parties based in Essay on Immigration Pakistan?s NWFP. Brzezinski?s decision to help the rebels was curious in light of Soviet activities in Afghanistan at the time.
According to declassified documents and this author?s interviews, Soviet officials thought the Khalqi leadership was moving too fast with its reforms and urged Taraki and Amin to moderate the pace of change and broaden their political base by including non-communists in the government. This approach, however, was more amenable to Parcham leaders who, unfortunately for Soviet officials, were not in power. When Khalq leaders sidestepped Soviet advice, Moscow sought other means to induce political change, meeting with former members of the garfield smith monarchy and other non-communists to Essay seek their participation in the DRA government. Soviet and other East bloc diplomats in Kabul kept the U.S. Embassy informed of their efforts. The ruling Khalqis, particularly Hafizullah Amin, had little use for leon garfield, Soviet counsel. The government responded to the growing opposition with increasing brutality, and Essay on Immigration Reform, the PDPA?s base continued to narrow. Amin, who as the defense minister was in charge of the leon smith failed counterinsurgency operations, became the focus of Soviet frustrations.
State Department intelligence learned that, in August 1979, Moscow had decided there was no practical alternative in Afghanistan to the rule of Taraki and kite, Amin but that Soviet officials had resolved to leon garfield smith support the more moderate Taraki against Amin. In the same month, a high-ranking Soviet military official, General Ivan Pavlovskiy, led a fact-finding mission to Afghanistan to assess the stability of the was the of the government. In September, Taraki, on garfield his way home from a Nonaligned Movement conference in Cuba, stopped in Moscow where he and Soviet officials reportedly discussed Amin?s future. Amin, perhaps sensing a coup, had Taraki arrested upon his return and kevin movie, executed him soon after. In October, General Pavlovskiy returned to Moscow and presented the Politburo with a grim picture of the garfield smith situation below their border.
The Khalqi government had lost control of 23 of Afghanistan?s 28 provinces to various rebel forces. Left with Amin, the Soviets drew up plans for military action. By late November 1979, Soviet forces were moved to the Soviet Union-Afghanistan border. Warsaw Pact forces were also placed on an advanced state of readiness. Footprint Fighting: St Essay. Two Soviet battalions were quietly flown into an airbase near Kabul during the first week of December, laying the garfield smith groundwork for what was to significance follow. On Christmas Eve 1979, tens of thousands of Soviet troops riding in tanks and armored personnel carriers stormed across the Amudarya River into the rugged Afghan countryside, while thousands more flew into the Kabul, Bagram and Shindand air bases, bringing with them exiled Parcham leaders, including Babrak Karmal, who had been hiding in Moscow. Within days, Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and replaced by Karmal who formed a new Parcham-led government. Superpowers and Doctrines of Hegemony. The Soviet invasion symbolized, ironically, the limits of Soviet influence in Afghanistan. Unable to stabilize the government through political means, Moscow attempted to do so with military force, much the same as the leon garfield smith United States had done years before in Vietnam. To many observers in Washington, D.C., however, Afghanistan was beginning to look like another pawn on the Kremlin?s chessboard.
The invasion coincided with the decline of U.S. influence in Iran and other Third World countries such as Angola and Mozambique in 1975, Ethiopia in 1977 and Nicaragua in baba kite 1979 where pro-Soviet governments had seized power. Leon Garfield Smith. It also coincided with an election year in which President Carter was coming under attack from conservatives for was the of gettysburg?, failing to prevent these Soviet gains. Many of these U.S. observers argued that the global balance of power, particularly the leon garfield geostrategic balance in quotes kite runner South Asia, had shifted in favor of the garfield Soviet Union. Essay Reform. The new dominant U.S. perception of Soviet foreign policy, as evidenced by Afghanistan, was that it was expansionist in nature: the Brezhnev Doctrine of protecting socialist allies, U.S. conservatives claimed, had been logically extended to include expanding Soviet influence beyond the Warsaw Pact. This view was best summed up in a Defense Intelligence Agency report issued days after Soviet troops entered Afghanistan: The key motivation that propelled Moscow?s move was to leon garfield smith bring its long-standing strategic goals closer within reach.
Control of Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College Essay Afghanistan would be a major step toward overland access to the Indian Ocean and to leon garfield domination of the Asian sub-continent.(12) Reasoning that aggression unopposed becomes a contagious disease, President Carter warned the Soviet Union on Reform January 23rd, 1980, that [a]n attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region [would] be regarded as an assault on smith the vital interests of the mitnick movie U.S. and [would] be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.(13) Journalists labeled this powerful warning the Carter Doctrine. Leon. Since, however, the United States was neither interested in nor prepared for Essay on Immigration Reform, a war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan or the Persian Gulf, Carter looked for alternative ways to slow down a potential Soviet drive and garfield, make Moscow pay a heavy price for its intervention. He called for international economic sanctions against the USSR and a boycott of the Olympic games being held in Moscow, sought military access agreements with several South and Southwest Asian countries, and provided more covert aid to starbuck vision the mujahidin. Not all U.S. officials believed that the leon smith Soviet intervention was part of an expansionist drive. Fighting: John College Essay. While no declassified documents reveal any criticism of rebel military aid, some officials subsequently recalled in leon smith this author?s interviews that they had advocated quiet diplomacy with the Soviet Union in order to provide the Kremlin with a way out of what they believed was a political and starbuck vision, military miscalculation.(14) Moscow had its own critics as well. Leon Garfield. According to interviews with Soviet officials, days after the intervention, Soviet foreign affairs advisors pleaded with the Kremlin leadership to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. These advisors did not believe the intervention was worth ruining d?tente with the United States, Europe and China.
What is more, the deeply traditional and Islamic Afghans, in their opinion, were not yet prepared for socialism.(15) Cold War attitudes, however, prevailed in both Moscow and Washington. A combination of fear, pride and superpower obligations caused the leader of the free world and the vanguard of socialism to struggle violently over a destitute country the size of Texas for St John, the next ten years. Political vs. Military Solution. Carter?s reaction to the Soviet invasion received widespread approval among policy-makers. Hard-liners, including Carter?s opponent in smith the 1980 presidential elections, Ronald Reagan, had warned numerous times that the Soviet Union was on a roll in the Third World and had to be rolled back. Moderates thought the intervention, regardless of its purpose, was an egregious act for which the what battle USSR should pay a price. All agreed that the Soviet Union should withdraw from Afghanistan. The question was how to convince Moscow. Congressional conservatives opposed negotiations, distrusting the Soviet Union?s willingness to leon garfield negotiate in Essay Reform good faith. According to their view, the USSR would not withdraw unless and until it felt the costs of its occupation.
Most U.S. moderates and liberals fell into leon garfield line with their conservative colleagues, supporting covert aid to the Afghan rebels, with virtually no one advocating diplomacy as a means of resolving the significance battle of gettysburg? conflict. The State Department believed that the rebels could probably continue tying up some 85,000 or more Soviet troops but that they were fragmented, lack[ed] effective national leadership, and garfield smith, certainly [could not] force a Soviet withdrawal.(16) After minimal deliberation at the White House, Carter opted for of the battle of gettysburg?, a two-track approach, supporting moderate levels of covert aid while seeking a forum for leon smith, a negotiated settlement. Carter?s loss to Reagan in the 1980 presidential election signalled the end of the negotiation track. Significance Battle. The new president favored a distinctly hard-line policy toward Afghanistan. Reagan sought to make the Afghan rebels and other anti-communist insurgencies the smith centerpiece of the Reagan Doctrine, an aggressive initiative designed to increase the kite cost of Soviet support for Third World socialist governments. While few believed that the Afghan rebels could force a Soviet withdrawal, Reagan and his advisors hoped to tie Soviet troops down in Afghanistan?s Hindu Kush mountains until the cost of occupation became unsustainable. The key to this objective was Pakistan. Since the overthrow of Mohammad Daud, Pakistan had played host to thousands (and eventually millions) of Afghan refugees and rebels who had fled their war-torn country for make-shift tent villages in the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Without the garfield smith cooperation of Pakistan?s military government, led since 1977 by Gen. Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq, the rebels would have had no sanctuary from which to launch their operations. The Carter Administration had cut aid to Pakistan in 1977 because of concerns about Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College its nuclear program and General Zia?s disdain for human rights and democracy.
There was ample evidence to suggest that Pakistan was actively developing an atomic bomb. In addition, the Carter White House, with its public emphasis on respect for human rights as a precondition for foreign aid, was forced to respond to Zia?s well-known history of brutal and dictatorial actions. The general had originally attained power by overthrowing Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. After promising elections within 90 days of the takeover, Zia postponed them indefinitely and eventually had Bhutto executed. To the United States, however, Zia?s record of human rights abuses paled in significance when compared to leon garfield the Soviet move into starbuck vision Afghanistan. Literally days after the Soviet invasion, Carter was on the telephone with Zia offering him hundreds of millions of dollars in economic and military aid in exchange for cooperation in helping the leon garfield smith rebels. Zia accepted this quid pro quo, but his government remained wary of Washington?s stated commitment to protect Pakistan from possible Soviet strikes across its border. The Reagan Administration was able to gain Pakistan?s confidence by offering a huge, six-year economic and kevin movie, military aid package which elevated Pakistan to the third largest recipient of U.S. foreign aid. The Reagan White House had equal success in persuading Congress to accept Zia as a new ally.
The conservative, Islamic general who was still pursuing a nuclear weapons program and seemed uninterested in ever holding elections was now a fellow freedom fighter boldly in charge of a front-line state. Although Zia spoke in concert with U.S. objectives of supporting Afghan self-determination and opposing the Afghan puppet government, he and leon smith, his military had their own agenda in Afghanistan. Zia chose to favor the more radically Islamic rebel groups who, in some cases, were no more popular or representative than the PDPA. In The Should Continue Voluntary In America Essays. He was able to divert a disproportionately large share of garfield smith U.S.-supplied weapons to these groups, especially the most radical one, Hizb-i Islami (Hekmatyar). Later in mitnick the war, this would cause significant problems for the rebel movement. Whether the United States blindly yielded to Zia?s favoritism of the fundamentalists or was in connivance with it is garfield smith still in question.
The relationship between the CIA and Pakistan?s Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), the arm of the military responsible for distributing CIA-purchased weapons to the rebels, is not well-documented. This author?s interviews with Pakistani officials indicate that U.S. officials in Pakistan were continually advised by ISI officials that Hekmatyar?s Hizb-i Islami was the most effective rebel organization, although some officials from in the Should Continue, Pakistan?s Foreign Ministry apparently differed with that assessment. Many secular Pakistanis outside of the government worried that foreign aid for Afghan fundamentalists such as Hekmatyar also served to bolster the conservative Islamic forces in leon smith Pakistan, including the military. Available documents and what significance of the battle, chronology show that during the ten-year Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, U.S. officials developed a stronger relationship with Pakistan?s generals than with either the foreign ministry or the civilian opposition. Congress and Covert Aid.
Afghanistan presents a unique case of congressional involvement with a covert aid program. Garfield Smith. Whereas a divided Congress often impeded the baba Reagan Administration?s efforts to leon smith aid the contras in Nicaragua, congressional hard-liners, riding a wave of bipartisan support, consistently and successfully pushed for Essay on Immigration Reform, more covert funding for the Afghan rebels than the White House ever requested. Hence, the debate regarding Afghan aid was relatively narrow in scope although not without tension. While everyone seemed to smith support Afghan self-determination and a Soviet-free Afghanistan, several members of Congress, backed by conservative lobbying groups, criticized the Essay on Immigration administration for not pursuing vigorously enough a mujahidin military victory over the PDPA. It was the smith CIA, ironically, that cautioned against too much covert aid for the rebels. Serving Military Should To Be Voluntary In America Essays. Officials from CIA headquarters in leon garfield Langley, Virginia, including Deputy Director John McMahon, warned Congress that too large a military support operation for the rebels might provoke Soviet retaliation against Reform, Pakistan and leon garfield smith, would certainly be subject to leakages and corruption. The CIA was especially resistant to calls for Footprint Fighting: College Essay, providing the mujahidin with U.S.-made weaponry. Traditionally, the garfield Agency purchased foreign, usually Soviet-styled, weaponry in order to plausibly deny U.S. involvement if the significance of the of gettysburg? need arose. Throughout the Afghan war, the CIA purchased Soviet-designed weapons from Egypt, China and garfield smith, elsewhere and transported them to Pakistan. Cables reveal that Chinese and Egyptian AK-47 rifles and SA-7 anti-aircraft missiles arrived in Pakistan as early as 1980.
This covert purchasing process not only Essay covered U.S. Garfield. tracks, but ensured the availability of weapons that were compatible with the kind captured by the rebels from Serving in the Military Voluntary in America Essays, their Soviet-supplied enemies. In 1984, Congress passed a resolution, introduced by Senator Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts) and Congressman Don Ritter (R-Pennsylvania), which called for effective U.S. material aid for the rebels in garfield smith their fight for freedom from foreign domination. Several legislators, particularly Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-Texas) and Senator Gordon Humphrey (R-New Hampshire), tried to use the Tsongas-Ritter resolution to increase the what was the of the of gettysburg? size and leon garfield smith, quality of the rebel covert aid program. While Washington and Moscow poured more weapons into Afghanistan, United Nations officials relentlessly pursued a diplomatic solution to end the war. In 1982, the U.N. Secretary-General, Javier P?rez de Cuellar tasked Diego Cordovez to find a way for the United Nations to mediate a political settlement in Afghanistan.
For the next six years, Cordovez shuttled back and in the Military Continue to be in America Essays, forth from leon smith, New York to South Asia to kite the Soviet Union and to Geneva. He tried to leon convince the numerous parties to quotes the conflict?the Afghan government, the various rebel groups, the Soviet Union, Pakistan, the United States and Iran?to narrow their differences so that they could agree on a set of principles or conditions under which the Soviet military would withdraw from Afghanistan. Cordovez and smith, his U.N. colleagues brought Pakistani and Afghan government representatives to Geneva on numerous occasions to discuss conditions for a political settlement. Since Pakistan did not recognize the quotes runner Afghan government as legitimate, Cordovez literally had to move back and forth between hotel rooms because Pakistani officials refused to sit at the same table with the DRA representatives. Compounding Cordovez?s difficulties was a strong sense of mistrust between the superpowers. On a number of occasions it appeared that Pakistan and Afghanistan were ready to leon sign an agreement that would prohibit Pakistan from allowing material aid for the rebels to pass through its territory in mitnick movie exchange for a Soviet withdrawal. Garfield Smith. One or both sides, however, would consistently pull out at the last minute, raising suspicions that either Washington or Moscow was unsatisfied with the timing or conditions of the accord. To most U.S. officials, these U.N.-sponsored proximity talks looked hopeless or even frightening. In March 1983, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger reportedly expressed alarm at the prospect that the following round of Geneva negotiations might result in a settlement.
About the same time, Charles Cogan, then the CIA?s official in baba quotes kite runner charge of covert operations in Afghanistan, told a journalist that Pakistan was not about to sign Cordovez?s proposed Geneva Accords at the next round or ever. He added that President Zia accepted the U.S. view that Pakistan?s security is best assured by keeping the Russians tied down [in Afghanistan].(17) On Capitol Hill, similar sentiments were voiced and more rebel aid was appropriated. Until the Soviet archives are open it will be impossible to determine how the U.S. hard-line approach affected Soviet policy toward Afghanistan. Was Moscow supporting U.N. efforts as a smokescreen for its strategy of leon smith subjugating the mujahidin, as Wilson, Humphrey and others argued? Or did increased U.S. aid for the rebels cause the USSR to dig in deeper, suspecting that the United States was not interested in a political solution? Wilson and Humphrey eventually succeeded in galvanizing congressional backing for what significance battle, a stronger rebel military force in Afghanistan. Despite signs of corruption in garfield both the military and humanitarian aid programs as early as 1982, Congress ultimately provided nearly $3 billion in covert aid for the mujahidin, more than all other CIA covert operations in the 1980s combined. Footprint St John. By 1987, the United States was providing the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year, more than what Pakistan itself was receiving from Washington. In 1984, Wilson used his powerful position on the House Intelligence Committee to tack on an additional $50 million for garfield smith, Afghan covert aid and convinced the CIA to purchase high-quality, Swiss-designed Oerlikon anti-aircraft missiles, which could pierce the John College Essay heavy armor of the USSR?s most formidable counterinsurgency machine, the leon Hind Mi-24 helicopter.
The CIA went even further in Footprint St Fisher 1985, purchasing the garfield sophisticated British-made Blowpipe anti-aircraft missiles. And in 1986, due to pressure from was the battle of gettysburg?, several congressmen and smith, a number of bureaucrats at the State and Defense departments, the CIA provided the runner mujahidin with U.S.-made Stinger missiles, the most effective shoulder-held anti-aircraft weapon in the world. It was the first time the CIA had provided U.S.-made weaponry as part of a covert insurgency support operation, and leon, the legislative branch was largely responsible. As a congressional staffer later put it: We finally broke the Agency?s virginity. Refugees and U.S. On Immigration. Policy.
The dislocation of 3 million Afghan refugees in garfield smith Pakistan?one of the most tragic results of the war?was something Congress, the White House and the international community could all agree on: they needed massive assistance. Ultimately one-third of Afghanistan?s pre-war population fled the country, testifying to the destruction and mitnick movie, chaos caused largely by heavy Soviet/Afghan government aerial bombing. For political as well as economic reasons, the United States urged other countries to contribute to the refugee cause. In 1981, the garfield U.S. Embassy in Islamabad asserted that if funding for quotes kite, the refugees were too visible, it would damage the credibility of the mujahidin by focusing attention on U.S. influence in the Afghan insurgency.(18) Dozens of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were willing to help the refugees and rebels as long as they were provided with the necessary resources to leon garfield do so. The United States channeled a significant amount of St John aid through favored NGOs and urged other countries to either aid the same organizations or to contribute to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In the end, no matter who distributed the aid, much of it ended up in the hands of rebel parties, providing them with significant political leverage over leon smith the millions of Afghan exiles. In addition to the humanitarian grounds for providing aid to the refugees in Pakistan, the United States also sought to alleviate political and economic pressure on Islamabad and to help maintain a support structure for the rebels. In 1982, the on Immigration CIA predicted that the presence of Afghan refugees in smith Pakistan would help generate political unrest and St John Fisher College, retard economic development until the end of the garfield century.(19) While many Pakistanis demonstrated great hospitality and tolerance for the refugees, others despised their presence.
Cables from Pakistan reveal violent clashes between Pakistani border tribes and Afghan refugees over scarce resources and political, religious and personal differences. Some disgruntled tribes even took weapons and money from the Afghan government to disrupt rebel supply lines into Afghanistan. In fact, the what significance of the battle of gettysburg? Afghan government?s infiltration of Pakistan and the rebel parties was extensive and leon smith, proved key to its survival. The government?s ministry of state security, known as KHAD, sought to buy or rent the loyalty of Pashtun tribes who inhabited the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area (the tribes often inhabited both sides of the border). Weapons and money were doled out to on Immigration Reform tribal militia who in turn interdicted rebel supply operations based in Pakistan. Garfield Smith. Some tribal leaders responded to Kabul?s material aid with political support, attending government jirgahs (assemblies) and other PDPA-sponsored activities. President Zia tried to undercut the Pakistan-based tribes? support for starbuck vision, the Afghan government by, among other means, conducting selective anti-narcotics sweeps through their home areas. Kabul?s strategy, however, continued to be successful, and ultimately contributed to the rise of Najibullah, the KHAD?s director and the man responsible for this counterinsurgency campaign, to the leader of the DRA in 1986. Other kinds of counterinsurgency operations, including Soviet/Afghan government aerial search-and-destroy missions, as well as insurgency tactics, such as the mujahidin?s hit-and-run attacks on government-held garrisons and cities, were some of the leon smith principal causes of the starbuck vision refugee flow into Pakistan. But it was the aerial bombing that inflicted the most damage. Congress, determined to counter what it called a Soviet depopulation campaign, called for an aggressive cross-border humanitarian aid program.
The Agency for International Development (AID) was tasked with implementing this unorthodox program. The objective of AID?s Cross-border Humanitarian Assistance Program (CBHA) was to provide Afghans inside Afghanistan?civilians and rebels alike?with the means to survive without having to flee to Pakistan. The mass exodus of Afghans had been putting too much pressure on Pakistan, and the empty Afghan villages left the rebels with little material or moral support inside the leon garfield smith country. AID funds went toward building hospitals and schools, growing crops, and putting money in the pockets of local residents. The AID reports are actually some of the richest documents in the collection, describing the mitnick movie situation inside the normally inaccessible parts of war-torn Afghanistan and illustrating some of the bizarre politics of the mujahidin. As part of a pro-insurgency operation, the program was unique and controversial. AID was being used to maintain and build up the rebels? infrastructure.
As one U.S. Garfield Smith. advisor explained to this author in Pakistan: We borrowed a lesson from Mao. The Soviets were trying to drain the mitnick movie sea to kill the fish [rebels], so we?re trying to keep the garfield sea filled.(20) Public Diplomacy and the First Casualty of War. In addition to providing the rebels with military and humanitarian aid, the United States provided psychological support. In 1983, a unique National Security Decision Directive, number 77, was signed into action to coordinate U.S. government agencies to enhance U.S. national security and counter anti-American propaganda through public diplomacy. Reform. U.S. officials had their work cut out for them in Afghanistan where media coverage was hindered by war and propaganda. To overcome these obstacles, the National Security Council, in keeping with NSDD 77, formed the inter-agency Afghan Working Group, which met twice a month to discuss ways of increasing media coverage of the war and generating sympathy and support for smith, the mujahidin. News coverage of the war was indeed limited, especially when one considers that this was the baba quotes runner longest war in Soviet history, the largest CIA paramilitary operation since Vietnam, and, with 1 million dead Afghans, the bloodiest regional conflict in smith the world at the time. Nevertheless, no major American newspaper saw fit to station a reporter in Peshawar, Pakistan, the base of rebel political and military operations, and American television crews rarely ventured up to in the Should to be Voluntary in America the Khyber Pass for a glimpse of the leon smith war.
A major reason for what battle of gettysburg?, this, of course, was the risk involved in reporting a guerrilla war, especially this one. Garfield. A journalist who wished to go inside faced a number of hazards ranging from contracting a serious disease to the chance of being killed in an air raid or ambush. What coverage there was tended to John Fisher College Essay be biased toward the mujahidin. Several factors explain this. Foreign correspondents and stringers who did go to Peshawar or managed to go inside with the rebels encountered thousands of uprooted Afghans who all had horrific stories to smith tell about losing homes and relatives to Soviet/Afghan government counterinsurgency operations. Indeed, craters from Essay on Immigration, Soviet bombs marked the landscape, villages were often emptied of their inhabitants, and many Afghans who found their way to Pakistan walked the streets with artificial limbs, victims of garfield smith land mines. In addition, the Afghan government often proved to kevin mitnick be an unreliable source of information, causing Western journalists to rely heavily on U.S. officials for leon, details of the war.
The DRA in 1980, for example, reported how Walter Cronkite (apparently confusing him with Dan Rather) on a visit into Afghanistan had ordered the execution of two Afghans?Islamic style. That same year the DRA expelled 18 Western journalists for biased coverage. When the baba quotes government allowed journalists to return to the country in 1986, the journalists discovered in Kabul another side to the story: victims of rebel land mines and indiscriminate mujahidin rocket attacks on the capital. Thus, for much of the war most reporters found it physically and leon smith, journalistically safer to rely on Western diplomatic sources in Pakistan, the cover for U.S. officials at the Consulate in Footprint Fighting: Peshawar or the Embassy in Islamabad. Despite the pro-mujahidin slant of Western news coverage, however, U.S. Leon Garfield Smith. officials still complained of its limited nature. In 1985, Senator Humphrey sought to remedy that problem. He pushed legislation through Congress that tasked the United States Information Agency (USIA) to teach Afghan rebels how to film and write about their jihad.
The USIA subcontracted Boston University?s School of Communications to train Afghans in Peshawar to kevin mitnick movie become television and newsprint journalists. This program stirred controversy, drawing criticism from professors at the university and several American journalists who called the exercise in public diplomacy a government propaganda operation. Leon Smith. Documents on the project, which went forth despite the criticism, show how the United States worked with rebel parties, Pakistan, a CBS cameraman and in the Military in America Essays, several private organizations to increase and improve coverage of the war. The United States was also able to influence coverage by taking advantage of Western journalists? inability to cover the war extensively first-hand. Once a week, a USIA officer in Islamabad would read to foreign journalists portions of smith a Situation Report originating from the Embassy in Kabul. These Sitreps were to serve two purposes. Starbuck Vision. They provided U.S. officials at home and garfield smith, abroad with detailed information on the political and military situation in Afghanistan. They also formed part of the Afghan Working Group?s press and public information strategy to Serving in the Should Continue to be Voluntary Essays punch holes in the Soviet news blackout. The press, however, was usually allowed to hear only the first several pages of the Sitrep, which gave a relatively simplistic overview of the situation in the country, paying special attention to government human rights abuses and mujahidin military gains. The following 20-25 detail-filled pages of the smith many now declassified Sitreps depicted a much more complicated and bizarre war being fought on more levels than just that of Soviet-backed communists against freedom-fighting Muslims. Beyond the refugee camps and press conferences in Pakistan, a real and very destructive war was going on inside Afghanistan.
Cables from Kabul, AID cross-border reports, DIA summaries and journal articles by the few reporters who bravely ventured into was the significance war zones reveal how pockets of mountain tribesmen, toting Chinese automatic rifles and U.S. Stinger missiles, went up against well-armed Soviet and Afghan government forces. Rebel hit-and-run attacks, assassinations of PDPA members, car bombs, rocket attacks on government-held garrisons and cities and other guerrilla tactics were met with massive aerial bombardments, mine-sowing operations, bribes and civic action campaigns from Kabul. Places like Paghman, Khost, the Panjshir Valley, Sarobi, and Jalalabad, where the mujahidin continually bogged Soviet forces down, became familiar names to smith observers of this war just as Hue and Khe Sanh had in Vietnam, where for years Viet Cong rebels tied down U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. But as fierce as they were, the Muj were not the Viet Cong. It is true that U.S. military aid improved the rebels? battlefield performance. One Pentagon report claimed that Stingers forced more tactical and air support changes in mitnick the last quarter of 1986 and the first quarter of 1987 than in leon the previous 7 years of the conflict.(21) Also, more and kevin, better land mines allowed the rebels to leon garfield disrupt Soviet supply lines and ground communications, which were already hampered by the lack of railways and good roads. No matter how much military, humanitarian, or psychological support the United States provided them, however, the mujahidin remained fractious. Movie. It was not uncommon for garfield smith, one rebel group to turn its guns on another. The United States was well aware of rebel infighting even before the Reform Soviet intervention.
In 1979, rebel leaders confided to U.S. officials that they likened the idea of a dissident provisional government to putting five different animals in the same cage.(22) Saudi Arabia managed to stimulate some rebel unity by withholding aid from the various mujahidin parties until they agreed to coalesce and leon smith, form a united opposition front. Yet foreign aid often did more to divide the rebels than to unite them. Baba Quotes. The Saudi government, which deposited many of its contributions into a CIA Swiss bank account, also gave direct support to several fundamentalist groups. Some of these groups practiced Wahabbism, a puritanical brand of Islam which was alien to the majority of Afghans. Iran supported the Shiite rebels, who played an important military role in the western part of the country but were left out of power-sharing arrangements made by the Sunni alliance in Peshawar. Garfield Smith. For its part, the on Immigration Reform Pakistani military doled out a disproportionate amount of leon CIA-purchased weapons to Hekmatyar?s radical Hizb-i Islami party, which often used the arms against rival rebel groups. The lack of unity impeded rebel attempts to kevin movie overthrow the PDPA. The more moderate, or traditionalist, rebel groups, such as those led by Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Sayyid Ahmad Gailani, proposed finding a unifying leader, and they had a candidate: former king Zahir Shah.
In July 1987, a poll conducted among Afghan refugees by the independent Afghan Information Center indicated popular support for leon, Zahir Shah as an alternative head of state for Afghanistan. Hekmatyar and other leaders denounced the poll as propaganda by the monarchists. But U.S. officials had evidence from their own observations and conversations that many Afghans might unite around the former king for an interim period if only to help find a more expedient way to Essay on Immigration negotiate a Soviet withdrawal and leon smith, an end to the war. Many Afghans also believed that the king, who they conceded could have been a stronger leader during his 40-year reign, was someone they could rally around to oppose the unpopular, but powerful, Hekmatyar. Significance Battle. Diego Cordovez and his U.N. team also recognized the leon smith king as a potential key to a settlement and baba kite, kept in regular contact with Zahir Shah?s representatives at his Rome residence. Pakistan, however, refused to grant Zahir Shah a visa and kept a close eye on pro-Zahir activities. Pakistan?s President Zia and his supporters in garfield the military were determined to put a conservative Islamic ally in power in Kabul. U.S. officials and private experts yielded to the Pakistani military?s objective, some supporting it, others rationalizing that the king?s return would do little good. Some of runner these officials argued that as a result of the war, Afghanistan had experienced a social change: political power, they claimed, had shifted away from the tribal leaders, the maliks, and the king?s Mohammadzai clan and smith, toward the mujahidin commanders and mitnick movie, their political/religious leaders in Peshawar.
The Soviet presence and garfield smith, Islam, they reasoned, had united Afghans of different tribes and ethnic groups to fight a common enemy. That unity was soon put to a test. On February 8, 1988, Mikhail Gorbachev surprised the world by announcing that the Soviet Union would withdraw its 100,000 troops from Afghanistan. What Battle Of Gettysburg?. Three days later, in the midst of celebrations in Peshawar, Professor Sayyid Majruh, the man responsible for conducting the controversial Afghan Information Center poll that had shown substantial support for Zahir Shah, was assassinated in his office. His death, still a mystery, was soon followed by garfield smith a string of assassinations and acts of intimidation against other Afghan intellectuals who shared one basic sentiment: they were almost as opposed to a fundamentalist government in Afghanistan as they were a communist one. Divisions among anti-government Afghans would only Serving in the Military Voluntary in America widen further. The Geneva Accords and the Soviet Withdrawal. In some ways the fragmented nature of the rebel movement worked to its advantage for much of the war. Smith. The USSR could find no central rebel base of operations to Essay Reform bomb, no one strategy planning meeting to infiltrate, no single popular leader to negotiate with?or eliminate.
The mujahidin?s steady harassment came from all directions in this war without borders. Leon Smith. Gen. Boris Gromov, the last commander of the Soviet 40th Army in Afghanistan, boasted on his last day in the country that [n]o Soviet garrison or major outpost was ever overrun.(23) In this guerrilla war, however, that proved irrelevant. By late 1986, the Kremlin decided that the war had become too costly. Hundreds of thousands of Soviet men had rotated in and out of significance service in smith Afghanistan and brought home all the signs of a losing, unpopular struggle: low morale, criticism of the government?s Afghan policy, drug and alcohol abuse, and what significance battle, more.
The war also hit home in other ways. Billions of rubles were spent on Afghanistan instead of the garfield smith crumbling Soviet economy. Serving Should Continue Voluntary In America Essays. In the leon troubled Central Asian republics, Soviet Muslims had come into contact with the Essay Reform Afghan jihad when, at various points during the war, rebel bands crossed the sensitive Soviet border to foment unrest among the Islamic population. The impact of the Afghan war on Soviet Muslims? later demands for independence remains unclear. The Soviet Union was also changing its approach toward the Third World.
Gorbachev and leon garfield, his advisors, faced with staggering economic problems, thought that previous Soviet administrations had given too much unconditional support to Essay Reform Third World governments, some of which seemed to rely more on Soviet aid than broadly based domestic support. Gorbachev decided to tie future foreign assistance to garfield smith certain understandings, one being that the recipient government had to concentrate on building a broad base of support before implementing social and was the significance of the battle, economic reforms. Afghanistan, which enjoyed a special position in Moscow?s strategy to protect the Soviets Union?s sensitive southern border, was no exception to Gorbachev?s new Third World policy. In December 1986, Gorbachev informed Afghan President Najibullah in Moscow that the Soviet military commitment to his government was limited.(24) Najibullah returned to Kabul and immediately launched a policy called national reconciliation, an effort to broaden the government?s political support base. He announced a cease-fire and an amnesty for armed oppositionists.(25) But the leon smith war went on. Documents show that some U.S. officials in Moscow, Washington, D.C., and kevin mitnick movie, Kabul remained unconvinced of Soviet intentions to withdraw for quite some time.
In some cases, suspicions of Moscow?s ultimate objectives lingered until the very end of the Soviet pull-out. In November 1988, three months before the leon withdrawal was to Essay on Immigration be completed, a top official in the U.S. Embassy in Kabul claimed that the Soviet leadership might cancel their pull-out to prevent Najibullah?s government from leon garfield, unraveling. Although most of his colleagues disagreed, the diplomat?s suspicion illustrates a point: U.S. policy toward Afghanistan right up to the end of the Soviet occupation was based on a deep mistrust of Moscow?s goals, a mistrust which continued well after the runner withdrawal. Policy-makers argued that if Moscow succeeded in keeping the garfield smith PDPA in power, then excessive Soviet influence in Afghanistan would continue. With Iran still hostile to the United States, regional stability remained threatened. On Capitol Hill, key legislators such as Humphrey, Wilson and others also distrusted the Soviet initiatives.
Months before the U.N.-sponsored Geneva Accords were to be signed in kevin movie April 1988, they galvanized enough congressional support to stop the White House from guaranteeing the agreement until President Reagan had promised to continue arming the mujahidin even after the USSR had withdrawn. As a co-guarantor of the smith accords, the United States was obligated to cut aid to the rebels on the first day of the pull-out. Humphrey and was the significance battle, others protested that this would leave the rebels at a military disadvantage since Kabul would continue receiving aid from Moscow. Secretary of garfield State George Shultz took this matter up with Soviet officials suggesting that both sides cease supplying their respective clients when the withdrawal began, a proposal he called negative restraint. The Soviet Union and Najibullah refused, unwilling to kevin movie accord the Afghan rebels the same legitimacy as the Afghan government. Soviet and leon smith, Afghan officials, however, fearing a possible rebel onslaught following the Soviet withdrawal, tried desperately to negotiate a power-sharing agreement with the mujahidin leaders. The rebels refused, calling the offer a ploy to keep the PDPA in starbuck vision power. Due to congressional pressure and over Soviet objections, the United States created a separate, unwritten clause to the Geneva Accords which stipulated that Washington could aid the rebels as long as the Soviet Union aided Kabul. The United States called this stipulation positive symmetry. Other complications almost prevented the garfield smith signing of the accords. Reform. At the last minute, after the United Nations had convinced the Soviet Union to drop its demand for a coalition government as a precondition to signing, Pakistan insisted on garfield the formation of a rebel-dominated interim government, made up largely of rebel and other non-PDPA elements, before it would sign.
President Reagan called President Zia and assured him that the United States would stand by starbuck vision the rebels until they seized power, and that since the USSR was probably going to garfield smith withdraw with or without an agreement, Pakistan ought to sign. Besides, the White House had been advised that the PDPA would fall to the rebels shortly after Soviet troops had gone. On April 14, 1988, the Serving Continue to be in America governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan agreed?with the USSR and the United States acting as their co-guarantors?to refrain from any form of interference in each other?s territory, and to give all Afghan refugees the opportunity to return voluntarily to their homeland. For their part, the superpowers pledged to stop interfering in Afghanistan, with the USSR agreeing to smith withdraw its troops. Except for the agreement on the withdrawal, the other elements of the battle accords would be rendered obsolete by garfield smith positive symmetry. To Washington, however, that seemed not to Reform matter, for leon garfield smith, a rebel military victory appeared to be right around the Continue to be Voluntary Essays corner. On May 15, 1988, Soviet troops began their ten month withdrawal from Afghanistan. 1. United States Department of State, The Nature of the Afghanistan Opposition, August 16, 1979. 2. David Gibbs, Does the USSR Have a Grand Strategy?
Journal of Peace Research , Volume 24, Number 1, 1987: p. 368. 3. United States Department of State, Elements of U.S. Leon Smith. Policy toward Afghanistan, March 27, 1962. 4. United States Department of State, Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976. 5. Maxwell J. Fry, The Afghan Economy. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1974, p. 4. 6. United States Department of State, 1971 Policy Assessment: Policy Review-A U.S. Strategy for the 1970s, June 26, 1971. 7. United States Central Intelligence Agency, Mohammad Daud: President of Afghanistan, August 13, 1973. 8. United States Department of State, Afghanistan in 1977: An External Assessment, January 30, 1978.
9. United States Department of State, The Afghan Coup, April 30, 1988. 10. In The Military Should Continue To Be Essays. Zbigniew Brzezinski, Power and Principle: Memoirs of the leon garfield smith National Security Adviser . New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983, p. 427. 11. Author?s interview with Pakistani military official, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 12. Baba Quotes Runner. United States Defense Intelligence Agency, Intelligence Commentary, January 7, 1980. 13. Carter Would Fight for Persian Gulf; Seeks to Resume Draft Registration. Washington Post , January 24, 1980.
14. Author?s interview with present and former U.S. officials, Washington, D.C., 1988-1989. 15. Author?s interview with Viacheslav I. Dashichev, Moscow, November 1988. 16.
United States Department of State, Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 1980. 17. Selig S. Harrison, Inside the Afghan Talks. Foreign Policy, Fall 1988: p. 41. 18. United States Department of State, Afghan Refugee Relief Update, November 16, 1988.
19. Central Intelligence Agency, Pakistan: Population Problems and Political Stability, November 1982. 20. Author?s interview with U.S. Embassy advisor, Peshawar, Pakistan, November 1988. 21. United States Army, Impact of the garfield smith Stinger Missile on Soviet and Serving in the Continue to be in America Essays, Resistance Tactics in smith Afghanistan, March 1989. 22. United States Department of State, Nature of the Afghan Opposition, August 16, 1979.
23. United States Army, Lessons from the War in Afghanistan, June 1989. 24. Starbuck Vision. A Diplomatic Solution to Stalemate: Gorbachev Never Wedded to the War. Washington Post , April 17, 1988.
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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and smith do the Essay on Immigration Reform, other exercises. Smith. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the in the Military Continue to be in America, internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good.
It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the garfield, young people get addicted to Serving in the Continue to be Essays online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. Leon Garfield. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is.
I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the Footprint St College Essay, other hand a lot of garfield smith, people are addicted from Fisher Essay sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on smith, the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. What Was The Of The. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.
I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it!
I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in leon garfield smith the hands of the College, right person. One bad aspect of internet is leon garfield, that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is starbuck vision, a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and garfield useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is on Immigration Reform, why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is leon smith, bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents.
If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet.
Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and Fighting: St Fisher Essay read new posts in garfield their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of starbuck vision, your personal data. Leon Garfield Smith. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and starbuck vision scandal photos of leon smith, data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to baba quotes kite runner know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Leon. Internet is Fighting: Fisher College, included.
Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out leon, how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is starbuck vision, a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in leon garfield the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!!
Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on Essay on Immigration Reform, users. Garfield Smith. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is what significance of the battle of gettysburg?, good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the leon, same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the was the significance of the battle, school, or with any ordinary situation. Smith. i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of starbuck vision, people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for garfield few informations?
Internet is useful for everyone, for young and mitnick movie old people. Leon. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the Serving Military Continue in America Essays, internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of garfield, things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. Baba Runner. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world.
To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is garfield smith, many information in the internet. Fighting: St College Essay. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for garfield smith people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to Essay on Immigration lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the leon garfield smith, Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. Serving Military Should To Be. To me, the internet#039;s the leon garfield smith, most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an Footprint Fisher Essay important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the smith, world are using the Internet, including the mitnick movie, elderly.
We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the leon garfield smith, internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to what was the battle the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an leon garfield individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for mitnick movie us. Garfield Smith. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks.
However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and Essay Reform everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for leon it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities.
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critical essays dune seems like an easier proposition than, say, creating a historical. fiction set during the Victorian era. The author of the historical. novel must get the costumes and settings. right, avoid anachronisms, make sure the. language is idiomatic, and never violate. our understanding of how things really. were during the period in question. And. we haven’t even begun to consider mat- ters of garfield plot, character development, etc.
make it all up . Mermaids, flying. buildings, the baba runner, proverbial bottomless. cup of coffee . . . anything goes, as Cole. Porter once said. What could be easier. that imagining a whole new world is, in garfield fact, a project on a. grand scale. Anthropologists sometimes talk about “thin” and. “thick” descriptions of cultures—a terminology originated by. Clifford Geertz, but now borrowed by other fields. Essay Reform! The “thin. description” may describe a certain aspect of a social situation, but lacks the rich contextual information that only the “thick” account can convey.
Frank Herbert’s Dune is the novelistic. equivalent of the “thick” ethnography—indeed, almost a. textbook case of what such a thick narrative looks like. so much sci-fi is woefully thin. It is one thing to postulate the. existence of intelligent life in another part of the universe, it is. a much different (and more challenging) task to situate this. alien culture in a rich world, fully equipped with distinctive. flora, fauna, ecology, traditions, institutions, religious beliefs, ancestral conflicts, technologies, myths and other cultural bric- a-brac. The richness of this contextual framework is what. typically sets the finer works of speculative fiction apart from. Herbert belongs in that select group that includes J.R.R.
Tolkien (and his Middle-earth), C.S. Lewis (and Narnia) and leon smith J. K. Rowling (and her magical variant of Essay Reform modern-day Britain). It. should come to smith no surprise that each of these authors ranks. among the most popular writers of the last century, and has. attracted a notoriously loyal group of fans. Even if “serious” literary critics fail to starbuck vision recognize the achievement of creating the. “thick” description of an smith alternative world from scratch, millions of John Fisher readers clearly appreciate the “degree of difficulty” involved. If fiction were diving, creating a realistic Dune would.
be the equivalent of a backward double somersault with two- establishment here. For them, a work such as Dune —whether. they have read it or not (mostly the leon, latter, let’s be honest)— exists simply to be derided and dismissed. Its popularity and. ardent fan base, far from adding to the book’s credibility, only. serve to starbuck vision make it all the leon, more suspect. Essay On Immigration! I probably fell, unthinkingly, into this same camp, until my strange mid-life. crisis as a reader set in, which led me to immerse myself in the. disdained classics of conceptual fiction—books, let me assure. you, I had not read as a teenager.
Nostalgia for my youth, a. sentiment that sometimes flares up when I listen to the oldies. station on the radio, plays no part in my championing of these. works. Yes, I admit it, I didn't read Herbert, Asimov, Heinlein, Dick, etc. until I had a few gray hairs. narrative archetypes. The novel is set primarily on the desert. planet Arrakis, a barren wasteland which would be worthless. except that it is the source of the valuable spice melange, known for its ability to prolong life, as well as enhance vitality. and alertness. Duke Leto Atreides I has brought his family to.
Arrakis, where he will take over the valuable spice trade. But. this gift is actually a trap hatched by smith, his enemies, Baron. Vladimir Harkonnen and Emperor Shaddam IV. Although the. Duke has a powerful and loyal entourage, the battle for. survival on this inhospitable planet will ultimately depend on. his concubine Lady Jessica and especially his son Paul. different from what we might find in hundreds of starbuck vision pulp fiction.
novels. Yet what distinguishes Dune from your run of the mill. adventure story is the leon, rich tapestry that Herbert weaves. around his plot, and quotes runner his ability to leon smith address big themes—ranging. from ecology to religion—without being heavy-handed. In fact, those who believe that books set on distant planets are mere. escapism, without serious thematic content and the deep inner.
meaning of more serious novels, might be surprised by what. they find inside the covers of Dune . this story—although he wrote books about other subjects, he. kept coming back to the scene of his greatest triumph. Sequels. are a curse of the creative mind. Kevin Mitnick! We often find that the very. imaginative souls best capable of forging a richly conceived.
fictional world are least able to leave it behind and move on to. other projects. One is leon again reminded inevitably of Narnia, Middle-earth and Hogwarts. In the starbuck vision, cases of Tolkien and. Herbert, their sons even stepped in to keep the wheels turning. in the imaginative universes left behind by their illustrious.
sci-fi world, this thick-description novel was slow in finding an. audience. Garfield Smith! Close to what significance battle twenty publishers rejected the novel. (although one reportedly noted that this might be the “mistake. of the decade”), and Herbert was eventually forced to cut a. deal with Chilton, an imprint best known for its auto manuals. Sales were slow at first—even though the book won both the. Hugo and Nebula awards. Many readers were no doubt put off. by the leon garfield smith, sheer size of the quotes kite runner, work, and by the fact that they needed.
to consult a lengthy glossary at the back of the book if they. hoped to understand the fictive landscape that Herbert had. created for their delectation. In short, Dune hovered on the. brink of becoming one of those heinous “two bookmark. Vladimir Nabokov’s Pale Fire , in leon garfield smith which the reader must dance.
back and forth in the text. eventually overcame all of these obstacles. Again like Rowling. (turned down by nine publishers), Herbert demonstrated that. his grandiosity of vision was only a flaw in Essay Reform the minds of those. who proved unable to rise to the occasion. For the readers who.
gave themselves up to the world of Dune —and this is. unmistakably one of those books that you must give yourself. up to, or you might as well not read it at leon garfield all—the supposedly. extraneous trappings of the author’s “thick” description were. the best part of the story. those who make the effort to master its intricacies. It has even. survived a poorly received David Lynch film and Essay Reform a lackluster.
TV movie—and, needless to leon smith say, the scorn of the literati. Yet. the high culture snobs who look down on this book would. perhaps do well to starbuck vision spend some time immersed in its pages. They might just learn something about the leon, possibilities of. “thick” descriptions in literature that they won’t find in the. other books on Reform their nightstand. of literary criticism. principle for fiction is itself unrealistic? After all, there are no Newtonian laws in stories—an apple. can just as easily fly upward from a tree as drop.
to the ground. Characters can ride a magic. carpet as easily as walk. Any restrictions are. imposed by the author, not by any external. reality, however defined.
That is leon garfield why myths, legends, folk tales and other. traditional stories recognize no Newtonian (or. other) limitations on their narrative accounts. These were the first examples of what I call. conceptual fiction—in other words stories that. delight in the freedom from baba kite runner, reality that. storytelling allows. Conceptual fiction plays. with our conception of reality, rather than defers. center of leon smith our literary (and even pre-literary) culture.
Nowadays it is dismissed by critics and. typically shuffled off into genre categories such. as science fiction and fantasy. Serving Military To Be Voluntary In America! Realism gained. preeminence as a supposedly rock hard. foundation for fiction. From that moment on, Newton's laws (and a million other laws) gave. orders to the imagination, with the leon garfield, stamp of. approval of the quotes kite runner, literary establishment. possible that this trend is reversing, and that.
conceptual fiction is now moving back from leon garfield smith, the. periphery into in the Should Voluntary Essays the center of our literary. If one judges by leon, the comments (and, even more. importantly, the unstated assumptions) of critics. as diverse as James Wood and Michiko Kakutani, then realism is the foundation of starbuck vision our literary. culture, and storytellers ignore it at their own. influential stories of our age, namely the leon garfield, best- known motion pictures. (We will return to the. novel in a second.) Of the 50 top grossing films of. all time, only 7 reveal even the slightest.
tendency toward realism. (And I need to. categorize Forrest Gump , The Titanic , Raider of the. Lost Ark , and Jaws as realistic to even get to. seven.) You can denounce Hollywood as much as. you like, and ridicule the uneducated tastes of. moviegoers. Yet we see what they think of. realism every time we go the local multiplex. from where I am sitting across the great world. wide web. And I am confident that you have.
never debased yourself to the point of seeing and. enjoying any of these megahits. So let's turn to. the novel. Kevin Movie! Is it possible that even the novel—the. serious novel--is now falling out of the.
gravitational pull of leon garfield smith realism? (Ah, I love that. adjective: whenever I hear serious used by a. literary critic, I am reminded of John McEnroe. taunting the umpire at Wimbledon in starbuck vision his whiny. literary works that experimented with language. were seen as harbingers of the future. These. Joycean and Poundian and Faulknerian. creations were singled out for praise and held as.
models for emulation. Smith! These works won awards, were taught in universities, and kevin mitnick movie gained. acceptance (at least in highbrow circles) as. writers, universally scorned by garfield smith, academics and. critics, were working on different ways of. conceptualizing reality. Unlike the highbrow. writers, they did not experiment with sentences, but rather with the possible worlds that these.
sentences described. Footprint John Essay! These authors often worked. in so-called “genre styles” of fiction (science. fiction, fantasy), publishing in leon garfield pulp fiction. periodicals and Footprint College Essay cheap paperbacks. Despite the. futuristic tenor of their writing, these authors. were not seen as portents of the future.
And. though these books sold in huge quantities and. developed a zealous following among readers, these signs of leon garfield commercial success only served to. increase the suspicion and scorn with which. these books were dealt with in kevin mitnick highbrow circles. late 20th and early 21st century failed to leon garfield follow. in the footsteps of what was the significance of the of gettysburg? Joyce and Pound. Garfield Smith! Instead, conceptual fiction came to the fore, and starbuck vision a wide.
range of writers—highbrow and lowbrow— focused on literary metaphysics, a scenario in. which sentences stayed the same as they always. were, but the leon garfield smith, “reality” they described was. subject to modification, distortion and. Garcia Marquez and Salman Rushdie; the. alternative histories of Michael Chabon and.
Philip Roth; the modernist allegories of Jose scenarios of Jonathan Lethem and in the to be in America Essays David Foster. urban mysticism of Haruki Murakami and Mark. of other writers. these works to their pulp fiction predecessors. Cormac McCarthy might win a Pulitzer Prize for. his novel The Road , a book whose apocalyptic. theme was straight out garfield of the science fiction. playbook. Significance! But no bookstore would dare to garfield smith put this. novel in the sci-fi section.
No respectable critic. would dare compare it to, say, I Am Legend (a. novel very similar to McCarthy’s in many. respects). Arbitrary divisions between “serious. fiction” and “genre fiction” were enforced, even. when no legitimate dividing line existed. separation. Literary critics, who should have. been the first to sniff out the phoniness of this. state of affairs, seemed blissfully ignorant that.
anything was amiss. follows in the footsteps of Michael Crichton’s The. Andromeda Strain or Greg Bear’s Blood Music , but. no academic would ever mention these books in. the same breath. Toni Morrison’s Beloved might. have as its title character a ghost and build its. action around a haunting, but no one would dare. compare it to a horror novel—even though it has.
all of the key ingredients. critics and academics) had reached a tacit. agreement. “If you don’t tell people that these. works follow in the footsteps of genre fiction. books, we won’t either. Yet this was merely a. commercial decision. After all, what serious.
reader would buy these books if they had the. taint of sci-fi or fantasy? When would any. Pulitzer or Nobel panel give an award to a book. that was explicitly linked to genre fiction? They. wouldn't. So a charade needed to be played, in. which some works of conceptual fiction were. allowed to sit on the same shelf as the runner, serious.
books (ah, that McEnroe voice again), while. others were ghetto-ized in a different location, whether it be in a library or a bookstore or. something more intangible like your mind. flaw in viewing works of science fiction and. fantasy as similar to other genre books. —have very strict limitations on their plots, characters, narrative structures, etc. A mystery. book must have a crime and a solution to garfield the.
crime. A romance book must have a love story. that proceeds along more or less familiar lines. These formulas must be followed at all costs. were far more freeform. In The Continue Voluntary In America Essays! Almost anything could. happen in leon smith these books, provided they played.
some game with our concept of reality. The only. promises these works made were to movie astound and. delight us. Leon Garfield! This was not a formula—indeed it. was the Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College, exact opposite of a formula. magazines: they were called Amazing or. Astounding or Fantastic or tagged with some. equally ambitious title. . . (my favorite: Weird. Tales ). Ah, what could be grander than.
magazines that forged such extravagant. covenants with their readers? Not even The New. Yorker promises that every issue will be. the genre pigeonhole. And given their focus on. surprising and leon smith delighting readers—rather than.
following strict formulas of plot development and. resolution—it was inevitable that “serious. writers” would begin borrowing from these. scorned writers who existed at runner the fringes of the. largely missed the implications of this. They. prefer to live in leon smith denial. A critic as astute as. James Wood—who ranks, for better or worse, among the kevin, most influential writers on leon literature. of our time—can continue to pretend that the.
“realist” tradition in fiction somehow reigns. supreme. Yet any perspicacious reader should be. able to Essay Reform see that tinkering with reality is the. real driving force in contemporary fiction, and. has been for a long time. between “thin” and “thick” ways of describing. cultures—labels that have since been borrowed. by other disciplines. The “thin” approach focuses.
on a specific aspect of a social situation, whereas. the “thick” perspective also tries to capture the. context as well. perspectives. Leon! And it should come as little. surprise that many of the most notable examples. of “thick” storytelling reside in the world of. conceptual fiction.
J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth, Rowling’s Hogwarts , Gabriel Garcia Marquez's. magical-realist landscapes . . . these all stand out. as marvelously thick, ethnographies of the. imagination. And why the connection between. thick descriptions and fantasy / magical / sci-fi. stories? Because these genres cannot take context.
for granted, as do so many so-called “serious” novels. Essay On Immigration Reform! The meticulous creation of a vivid and. inspired context is usually essential to the overall. effect in any extended work of conceptual fiction. thick description in leon garfield smith the context of Serving in the Should Continue a traditional. narrative—for example, in writing a novel set. during the time of the French Revolution or the. Civil War—the many telling details that. establish the garfield, context are typically drawn from. research rather than from the grand leaps of the.
imagination that created Middle-earth or. Rowling’s magically-charged variant on. contemporary Britain. And when a literary. novel is set in Essay the current day, the approach. taken by the writer is, more often than not, a thin. one, since the context is largely familiar to all. readers. The writer working in conceptual. fiction genres has no such support. One might.
even decide to rename conceptual fiction as. “contextual fiction,” since so much of the leon garfield, power. of these works depend on the author’s ability to. create a powerful context within which the story. indeed, the artistry—involved in creating a. successful work of Fighting: John College Essay “thick” fiction out of smith pure. imagination. Yet how many literary critics will. even deign to notice a book such as Frank Herbert’ s Dune , let alone praise it? The invisibility of this. “thick account” masterpiece in literary. discussions is hardly a sign of Serving Military Should any failing on the.
part of Herbert. Rather it reveals that the. literary world, for all its espousal of open-minded, egalitarian attitudes, has its own unexamined. areas of snobbery and intolerance. things. The “thick” works of conceptual fiction. mentioned above by Tolkien, Lewis, Rowling and.
Herbert are among the most widely read books of. the last century. According to many in the. literary establishment, this must simply be a. sign of the stupidity of the masses. And they. must be especially stupid to read thousands of. pages (since these are usually long books or parts. of series) of such poorly written books. critics might itself be suspect and worthy of. of these works is especially unfortunate, since the.
inclusion of leon garfield smith science is not the decisive factor in. setting these books apart. Otherwise a book such. as Richard Powers' The Gold Bug Variations — which rhapsodizes about Footprint Fighting:, science on smith almost every. page—would be a work of conceptual fiction. It is. not.
At no point is the reader's sense of reality. challenged by Essay, the straightforward narrative. style of Powers' novel, which is a fine book. indeed, but with little in common with the leon, stories. those fans are who proclaim the superiority of so- called hard science fiction—in other words. stories with a large dose of real science in them. Even a quick survey of science fiction books. shows that the Essay Reform, science is almost always bogus, and simply serves as a gateway for bringing. imaginative elements into leon garfield the narrative. The.
greatness of these books does not derive from. their chemistry or physics or genetic engineering. (which almost always prove to laughably wrong- headed a few years after the book is kite runner published, if. not sooner), but in the writer's visionary. reconfiguration of our conceptions of the real. many masterworks of conceptual fiction from. earlier decades, and leon garfield reassess their importance. Authors such as Philip K. Dick, Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Ursula K. Le Guin, J. R. Was The! R. Garfield! Tolkien,
Arthur C. Clarke, Ray Bradbury, C.S. Essay On Immigration! Lewis, Frank Herbert, Robert Silverberg, Alfred Bester, Stanislaw Lem, and many others deserve a new. reading and leon garfield smith a sensitive re-evaluation of Reform their role.
in the evolution of modern fiction. “rehabilitate” these authors. The pulp fiction. environment in which they worked encouraged. sloppy writing and perhaps made it difficult for. these writers to develop to their full potential.
Yet there is more substance to this body of work. than is usually acknowledged, and a sensitive. study of the leon, history of conceptual fiction (which, in any account of the history of the novel, would. link back to Don Quixote, Gulliver's Travels and. Tristram Shandy, among other classic works) is an.
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