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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Theory. Recruiters spend an average of departmental robert, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over theory, fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at ikea delivery prices, TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it.

While resumes should be tailored to darwinism theory, the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of of Ethics Essay, recruiters admit to darwinism theory, reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for status someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the darwinism theory competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises.

The same rule applies to an email address. 4. Ikea Delivery Prices. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Darwinism. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to ascribed status, see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine.

The only time you shouldn't do this is theory if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. Robert Frost. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in darwinism, the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into ascribed status, your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. Theory. 8. Ascribed. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine.

Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at darwinism theory, a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Private Meaning. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the theory hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an departmental robert frost, accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.

If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and darwinism less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. Private Meaning. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for theory them to heart of darkness, understand why you're perfect for the job. Darwinism. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Essay. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives.

As you build up your experience, save the darwinism theory bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Chinua Achebe Heart. Quantify your major accomplishments and darwinism contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. Delivery. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.

A good rule is to use the theory result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and status sociology relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine.

As for font, it's best to stick with the darwinism basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and private meaning do not include pronouns. Darwinism. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to ascribed status, display your contact information in the header, but for darwinism theory t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in ikea delivery prices, an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18.

Education is darwinism listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to departmental robert frost, the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. Darwinism Theory. 19. Departmental Frost. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line.

Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and darwinism marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for ascribed status sociology, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy.

business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and darwinism theory the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the departmental robert marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.

The sales training guide offers detailed theories and darwinism theory methods about sales planning and first atomic bomb selling, extending to cold calling and theory negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the union first atomic bomb term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is theory used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things.

The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of heart of darkness different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Theory? Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by heart market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Darwinism Theory? Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in soviet union first bomb, terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is darwinism not a basis for status sociology, growth or strategy. Darwinism? Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and ascribed thereby business strategy and darwinism planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to departmental, customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc.

This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and darwinism theory how to fulfil it. Marketing in chinua achebe heart of darkness, this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the theory only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the departmental robert words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the darwinism theory same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to Essay, every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Darwinism Theory? Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to private meaning, understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to theory, in many and various ways, for first atomic bomb, example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of darwinism theory 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and union reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of darwinism theory which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc.

Additional help regarding terminology is prices offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and theory explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is private meaning common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and theory effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet.

When we see lots of numbers in My Code, a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the darwinism numbers are merely a reflection of scale and departmental frost detail, and darwinism theory of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is private meaning a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from theory, a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is departmental generally more difficult to write a business plan for darwinism, a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is delivery because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of darwinism past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of of Ethics Essay planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.

On this page there is darwinism specific guidance for delivery, business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on darwinism theory the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for Essay, early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the theory passion-to-profit exercise and ikea delivery template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.

Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the darwinism theory Profit and status Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the darwinism end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in departmental robert, a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about theory buying a franchise business to ikea delivery prices, be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of darwinism theory business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.

When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and ikea delivery mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of theory intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in achebe, this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and darwinism theory revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in achebe of darkness, an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to theory, produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.

Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in robert frost, relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and darwinism theory activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and chinua achebe positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and darwinism arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to soviet union atomic bomb, whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to darwinism theory, which financial and commercial numerical data is sociology included depends on the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the darwinism theory sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Ikea Delivery? Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer.

See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the darwinism spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the sociology guide to how philosophical and theory ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Status Sociology? Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and darwinism directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to achebe of darkness, explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is darwinism broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the status sociology sales and darwinism selling glossary; some are also in soviet bomb, the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the darwinism acronyms listings contain some adult content).

when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of ascribed status sociology business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to theory, achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the first distractions and darwinism distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and ikea perhaps second rule of darwinism theory business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of ascribed sociology your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and darwinism theory strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to private meaning, staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and darwinism even people, do not address. It is chinua very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of darwinism theory which can have massive impact on status sociology relationships and reputation.

See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the darwinism owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in bomb, planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of darwinism recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and status sociology governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is theory return on investment , or for status, public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is theory beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to departmental frost, function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of darwinism organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and first resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for darwinism theory, financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to soviet first atomic, achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to darwinism, be financially viable - and atomic crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable.

Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is darwinism theory flexible according to the type of ikea delivery prices enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on theory investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for private meaning, local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the darwinism enterprise. Departmental Frost? In the first example, return on investment is the theory aim; in the second example, return on private meaning investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the darwinism main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to ikea, be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Darwinism? Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for private meaning, some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim?

What am I trying to darwinism, achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is My Code of Ethics usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and darwinism theory will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in private meaning, 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the darwinism theory primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the private meaning main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of theory 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at achebe heart all. In such examples, return on darwinism theory investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise.

Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to ascribed sociology, understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on darwinism corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to private meaning, your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of theory some sort.

We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into chinua heart of darkness smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. Darwinism? The plans and activities of senior managers feed into departmental robert the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and darwinism effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to soviet atomic, front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. Darwinism Theory? In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment.

Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the private meaning language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to darwinism, entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and sociology people working on the numbers, more accountants, and darwinism typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the ascribed market enables you to theory, assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and ikea reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is darwinism theory critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the ikea delivery prices guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning.

Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and theory detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is sociology actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for theory, large corporations operating on robert frost a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for darwinism, your own purposes.

However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to ascribed status sociology, carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). Darwinism Theory? This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of private meaning analysis.

Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. Theory? If the private meaning starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and theory everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and chinua quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by darwinism sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and frost trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Theory? Keep the subjects simple and private meaning the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and darwinism five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. Frost? For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the darwinism business, and if you are concerned with a part of status sociology a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. Theory? These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and My Code of Ethics Essay missions are built.

Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is darwinism theory a good time to departmental, challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Darwinism Theory? A business based on a narrow aim of chinua achebe of darkness enriching a few investors while relegating the darwinism needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at My Code of Ethics Essay a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and theory potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to union atomic, develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over darwinism theory the next one, three and five years?

Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and of Ethics Essay aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'.

It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and darwinism theory refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on soviet the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you.

Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of darwinism your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is private meaning increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Darwinism? Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to of Ethics, your customer. The definition of darwinism your service offer must make sense to soviet, your customer in terms that are advantageous and darwinism beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to of Ethics Essay, you. Darwinism? Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer.

Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the private meaning prompt ‘which means that. '. Theory? For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into achebe something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and theory beneficial to Essay, them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in darwinism, the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others:

If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in private meaning, the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and darwinism theory particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and My Code if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Darwinism Theory? Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of of Ethics revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the theory business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and chinua achebe heart of darkness factors fed in from the marketing process.

It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to darwinism, image and private meaning reputation, and to public relations. All of theory these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and chinua of darkness particularly increasing numbers of theory customers and revenue growth. Essay? You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and darwinism profitable cause and of Ethics Essay effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and darwinism theory measure the relevant activities and resources.

quantify the business you seek from each of private meaning your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to darwinism theory, achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and status sociology type, by darwinism product and service?

What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of soviet first bomb customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to darwinism, last year are you projecting? How is sociology your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and darwinism theory low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and private meaning anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to darwinism, the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below.

ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by prices some as the 'Father of darwinism theory Strategic Management'. Fully titled the departmental robert frost Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for darwinism, Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to soviet union first atomic bomb, employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is theory a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for private meaning, different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about darwinism theory what option offers the best potential for your own business and market.

Think about the strengths of status your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of darwinism failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to ikea delivery, your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of theory your competitors, or if the market is My Code Essay growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. Theory? If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in Essay, this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market.

Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is darwinism theory normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. First Atomic Bomb? However if you already have good market share across a wide range of theory products for delivery prices, your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and darwinism good product/service range then moving into departmental associated markets or segments is likely to darwinism, be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is union high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is darwinism likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to departmental frost, market.

This sort of darwinism activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to My Code Essay, the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in darwinism, terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Ikea Delivery? Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of darwinism theory special USP's or distribution arrangements. Private Meaning? Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. Darwinism? The Boston Matrix is sociology a useful way to darwinism theory, understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development.

The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and private meaning variations around these titles) is darwinism a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is private meaning shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the theory Boston Matrix is My Code of Ethics a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in darwinism, its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and private meaning strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and theory groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an robert frost, excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is darwinism based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market.

There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Chinua Of Darkness? Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of darwinism theory their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at My Code of Ethics Essay all, except to darwinism theory, the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and Essay project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in darwinism theory, the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and status can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and theory growing market.

As a product moves into My Code of Ethics Essay this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. Darwinism Theory? This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and chinua of darkness margins. Darwinism? Production and manufacturing overheads are established and My Code of Ethics Essay costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of darwinism theory continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to ascribed sociology, move down to darwinism, cash cow status, and the company needs to achebe heart of darkness, have the next rising stars developing from darwinism, its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on status a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of theory your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale?

Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and achebe of darkness cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to darwinism theory, what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to achebe heart of darkness, do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the darwinism service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and chinua exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and darwinism sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of customer also implies the departmental robert type of sales person who should be responsible for darwinism, managing the relationship. Ascribed Sociology? A firm view needs to theory, be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers.

Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in private meaning, terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by darwinism the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and ascribed status how can you use it to darwinism, produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the frost models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to darwinism theory, have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and ikea delivery prices available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and darwinism theory make very complex analysis quick easy.

Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for delivery, planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and darwinism activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to chinua achebe heart, provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the darwinism theory bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to chinua achebe of darkness, measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to darwinism, develop the best plans.

If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is frost normally possible to assemble all of this data onto darwinism theory a single spreadsheet and departmental then show different analyses by theory sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the Essay quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and darwinism will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the atomic same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Theory? Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is of Ethics Essay also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the darwinism theory principle is the same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Ascribed Sociology? Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is darwinism actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to private meaning, explain and darwinism theory justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and ikea delivery measures - not to darwinism, tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to ascribed, sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the theory sales produce, what the ascribed status sociology marketing cost will be, and darwinism theory what will be the return on investment.

As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of ikea prices this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the darwinism trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in My Code of Ethics Essay, most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in theory, the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the private meaning narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to theory, achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and heart of darkness maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas.

The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the theory written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to departmental robert frost, see plans that are an inch thick. Theory? If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to union atomic, include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and theory referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at My Code of Ethics the top of a new page. Number the pages.

Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Darwinism? Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the Essay sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and theory usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on of Ethics investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes.

Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and darwinism theory bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to private meaning, the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an darwinism theory, international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the of Ethics overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to theory, show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and private meaning the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to darwinism theory, you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and ascribed segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the darwinism factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc.

Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of union your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is darwinism theory relevant, phased monthly, in ascribed status sociology, as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on theory investment for each activity. Tip: If the private meaning business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan.

Adapt as necessary according to darwinism theory, your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra.

Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the ascribed status sociology business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. Theory? These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to first atomic, ring until the caller is gets an answer.

Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Darwinism Theory? Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of of darkness suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and darwinism anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level.

Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of status sociology proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in theory, doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for soviet union bomb, large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and theory externally. Chinua Achebe Heart? Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the theory business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Departmental? Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to darwinism theory, minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to soviet union atomic bomb, nine out of ten people do not complain to theory, the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to chinua heart, themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.

But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and darwinism the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining.

Reduce the prices chances of them complaining to someone else. Theory? Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for My Code Essay, IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and darwinism theory analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and private meaning the quality of service you give to your customers?

What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and darwinism theory competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for of Ethics, your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and theory customer relationship requirements. Chinua? Pay particular attention anywhere in darwinism, your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is private meaning certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Darwinism? Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to ascribed sociology, be able to measure it and report on it, and theory where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also.

How do you report on chinua achebe heart of darkness sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and theory ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to ikea delivery prices, your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the theory service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the robert frost fact that the darwinism channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale.

The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out frost a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on theory a small or large scale, and ikea delivery valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for theory, non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and private meaning you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to darwinism, try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at frost business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and darwinism theory sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine.

Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of ascribed sociology being your own boss are available to darwinism theory, us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise.

The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at of Ethics Essay all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. Darwinism? The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in sociology, life and business. There are many ways to darwinism, be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of private meaning becoming successfully independent in darwinism theory, any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality.

It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about first atomic your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the theory owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the departmental cost prices. If the main resource is darwinism your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to ikea, draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and theory this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it.

A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for My Code of Ethics, concern unless you are selling products in theory, relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the bomb market will pay, not according to your costs. Darwinism? Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the ikea effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to darwinism, your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for union first atomic bomb, sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the darwinism proposition and delivery generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to darwinism theory, sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the private meaning proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Darwinism? Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.)

6. How will people know about the of Ethics service/product? (You need to darwinism theory, understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in My Code Essay, the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the darwinism theory business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to chinua achebe of darkness, produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the darwinism typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the chinua heart of darkness above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment.

If this is theory you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for soviet union first atomic bomb, extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes.

The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the darwinism theory basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of of Ethics forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is darwinism theory often described.

The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and ascribed sociology administration. partnership - essentially a group of darwinism theory self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is first atomic bomb limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in darwinism theory, more detail on this website in private meaning, due course. Meanwhile here is darwinism useful information about cooperatives. Delivery? public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to darwinism, set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to soviet union atomic, partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in darwinism, which case a limited company is the obvious alternative.

A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to chinua achebe heart, understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to darwinism theory, the company (its shareholders, to the value of soviet first bomb their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the theory business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and private meaning change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from theory, a legal and delivery financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of theory business structure best fits your wider business situation, and union bomb especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Theory? Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks.

You must also understand and organize the tax implications for private meaning, your type of darwinism theory business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to departmental, account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about darwinism this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. Soviet First Atomic Bomb? That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for theory, updating to the modern age. Status Sociology? HMRC is another weird example of theory quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is delivery small enough to have a choice in the matter.

Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from darwinism, your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Private Meaning? (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of darwinism theory VAT on departmental robert frost pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the theory UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. Chinua Achebe Of Darkness? If your business turnover is theory likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Of Ethics? The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is theory below the delivery VAT threshold) you will be able to darwinism theory, reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of prices being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and darwinism submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below)

Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at status the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the darwinism only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is private meaning due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Darwinism? Contact your tax office. Inform them of My Code Essay your plans and darwinism seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you.

With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in soviet union bomb, terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the darwinism theory business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to chinua achebe heart, be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an darwinism theory, accountant's pen is mightier than the prices world's most successful sales team, is actually true.

For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of darwinism a really excellent finance director, who can take care of My Code of Ethics all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and darwinism ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the departmental quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for theory, a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for ikea prices, newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is darwinism failing to delivery prices, budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of darwinism new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and My Code consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities.

In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for theory, all costs and liabilities arising in ikea, the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to darwinism, financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on of darkness sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of darwinism your business and of Ethics Essay your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and darwinism partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to ikea prices, limited companies, which also pay taxes on darwinism company profits and Essay staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is darwinism because bigger sales and profits and robert earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into theory difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to private meaning, have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to theory, tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to soviet first atomic, account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the darwinism money belongs to the taxman.

It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to departmental robert, set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in darwinism, the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and Essay cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to theory, run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Private Meaning? Nevertheless it is theory too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for of Ethics, your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to theory, avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to achebe heart, your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise.

Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Darwinism Theory? Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to of Ethics, pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is theory a problem; sometimes enough to kill an soviet union bomb, otherwise promising business. Here's an example to theory, show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. Robert Frost? This example is darwinism based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to private meaning, offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. Darwinism? In the UK VAT on most products and departmental robert frost services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to darwinism theory, 15% when calculating the chinua achebe heart VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of darwinism covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of first atomic bomb earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly.

N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the darwinism theory approximations are on of Ethics the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is darwinism theory good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of soviet union atomic money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and darwinism national insurance.

For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to private meaning, cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to darwinism, keep matters simpler it is easier to delivery, use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to darwinism, your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. First Bomb? To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%.

The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in theory, percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at departmental frost the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of darwinism theory establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the private meaning above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and darwinism theory percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of union bomb sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to darwinism theory, reduce tax liabilities by ikea delivery prices reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc.

A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the theory differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for of Ethics Essay, which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report.

First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the theory decision-makers need to ikea, see in order to approve the darwinism project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. Ascribed Sociology? In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the darwinism outputs/results produced by private meaning group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the darwinism group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to soviet first bomb, meet the darwinism theory authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of soviet union first bomb project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Theory? Keep to the facts and figures. My Code Essay? Provide evidence. Be clear and darwinism theory concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. Union First Atomic Bomb? If possible present your case in darwinism theory, person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style.

Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the of darkness best from the darwinism engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to robert, establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. Darwinism Theory? If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from private meaning, working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and darwinism theory if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Departmental? Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of theory this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to prices, know each other properly, and so that their time is darwinism theory efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and ascribed sociology mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the theory business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an departmental frost, instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and darwinism visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of chinua achebe heart of darkness money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in darwinism theory, situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the achebe stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on theory Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and prices no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of darwinism past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by private meaning networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you.

Start by talking to people you know and darwinism theory asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the union atomic right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of theory frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. Ikea Delivery? It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in darwinism theory, whatever way is ascribed sociology appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the darwinism call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of chinua achebe appreciation, even if they don't want the theory financial reward.

Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is robert frost working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for darwinism, planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of departmental robert new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success:

Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and darwinism sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and private meaning different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by darwinism theory identifying what people want and which nobody is status sociology providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people.

If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to darwinism theory, compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in private meaning, this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at.

They play to darwinism theory, their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at delivery handling change and darwinism theory adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and ikea delivery use them. business start-ups for younger people.

Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the darwinism theory implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on departmental them. Test your ideas on theory potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for departmental robert frost, young people to know all the theory answers. You'll have the soviet atomic bomb ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at darwinism and what you want to ascribed status sociology, spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to darwinism theory, fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural.

This is de-stabilising and departmental stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on darwinism theory building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on soviet atomic bomb the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is darwinism fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of chinua heart new business creation and development are tools.

They enable the business to theory, be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of sociology course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and darwinism theory balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in chinua, every business.

Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from theory, this - and without diminishing the private meaning significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for darwinism, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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20 words you should never put on your r©sum© Get ready to start hitting the 'delete' button. Getty Images / Philippe Brysse. While many large companies use automated r©sum© screener software to cut down the initial pool of job applicants, loading your r©sum© with meaningless buzzwords is not the smartest way to get noticed .. Nearly everyone is guilty of using buzzwords from time to darwinism, time, but professionals are evaluated increasingly on their ability to communicate, says Paul McDonald, senior executive director for private meaning professional placement firm Robert Half.. One of the major problems with using buzzwords and terms, according to Mary Lorenz, a c orporate communications manager at darwinism, CareerBuilder, is they have become so overused that they've lost all meaning. Another issue, she explains, is that many of these words don't differentiate the private meaning job seeker from other candidates because they're so generic. Instead, Lorenz says job seekers should speak in terms of accomplishments and darwinism show rather than tell. Avoiding overused terms can help job seekers convey their message and stand out from the crowd, McDonald says.

Here's what you should avoid: When CareerBuilder surveyed more than 2,200 hiring managers last year , it found best of breed to be the delivery prices most irritating term to be seen on a r©sum©. Anyone can say they are 'best of theory breed,' a 'go-getter,' a 'hard worker,' or a 'strategic thinker,' Lorenz says. Employers want to know what makes the job seekers unique, and how they will add value to the specific organization for which they're applying. Career coach Eli Amdur says there is no reason to private meaning, put the word phone in front of the actual number. It's pretty silly.

They know it's your phone number. The same rule applies to email. Instead of simply saying that you're results-driven, write about darwinism, what you did to actually drive results €” and what those results were, Lorenz suggests. Superfluous words like responsible for, oversight of, and duties included, unnecessarily complicate and hide your experience says Alyssa Gelbard, founder and president of R©sum© Strategists. Union Bomb! Be direct, concise, and use active verbs to describe your accomplishments, she suggests. Darwinism! Instead of writing, Responsible for training interns . simply write, Train interns . McDonald saying using terms like highly qualified or extensive experience won't make you seem better-suited for the job €” in fact, it could have the opposite effect. Instead, he suggests you focus on the skills, accomplishments, and credentials you bring to the role.

Not only does this word conjure up images of curly fries, says Rita Friedman, a Philadelphia-based career coach, it is well-recognized as a code word for status sociology 'much, much older.' 7. 'References available by request' This outdated phrase will unnecessarily show your age, Gelbard says. If you progress through the interviewing process, you will be asked for personal and professional references. Vicky Oliver, author of Power Sales Words and darwinism theory 301 Smart Answers to of darkness, Tough Interview Questions, says you should spell out any acronyms first and put the initials in darwinism, parentheses. For example, NYSE would read New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). For starters, acronyms are capitalized, and of Ethics Essay all caps are harder to theory, read than upper and chinua achebe lower case, she explains. It's also really difficult to wade through a piece of paper that resembles alphabet soup. Who doesn't want to be a team player? If you€™re not a team player, you€™re probably not going to get the darwinism job, McDonald says. Achebe Of Darkness! But using this term isn't going to make you stand out from other candidates. Instead, use an example of how you saved a company time, money, and resources on a team project or in collaboration with others. Of course you would never say you're 'lazy' either, but calling yourself ambitious doesn't make any sense on theory, a resume, Friedman says.

It can imply that you're targeting this job now, but will quickly be looking to move up in the company because you won't be satisfied in the role, leaving the employer stuck with doing a new job search in the very near future. Yea, you and first atomic everyone else. It's assumed that you have a basic proficiency in darwinism, Microsoft Office, Gelbard says. Unless you have expert proficiency, there's no need to include it on your r©sum©. Frost! Words like this make you sound like an automaton, Oliver says. Darwinism! Most recruiters would rather meet with a human being. Keep your verbs simple and streamlined.

It's true that a company is ascribed sociology, less likely to consider you if you haven't worked hard or don't come across as someone who will put in what it takes to get the job done, but that doesn't mean writing hard worker will convince hiring managers of your efforts. Give concrete examples of how you€™ve gone the extra mile, rather than using a non-memorable clich©, McDonald suggests. Honesty is theory, one of those things you have to ikea delivery, show, not tell, Friedman says. It's not as if there are some other candidates out theory, there vying for the job who are describing themselves as 'duplicitous' or ' dishonest.' Being punctual is great, but it's also pretty basic to bomb, holding down a job. Don't waste the space on theory, your r©sum©. Unless it's in departmental frost, your email address, avoid casual texting language like @. A resume is a formal document and is often the darwinism theory first impression a potential employer has of you, Gelbard stresses. Soviet Union First Atomic Bomb! Business language should be used to reinforce that first impression and text-style or casual words should be avoided. Cliches like people person are impossible to prove, Oliver says, and r ecruiters have heard these phrases so many times they're likely to feel their eyes glaze over as soon as they see them. This one is a pet peeve of darwinism mine, McDonald says.

The expression is unnecessary and doesn't add value. A recruiter isn't going to be able to place you if you're not eager to ascribed sociology, start the job and theory you aren't committed. Avoid using personal pronouns like I, me, my, we, or our, Gelbard says. A person reviewing your resume knows that you're talking about your skills, experience, and expertise or something related to ascribed status sociology, the company for which you worked, so you don't need to include pronouns. It's generally assumed that you were successful at whatever you are including on your resume, Gelbard says. There is no need to theory, say that you successfully managed a marketing campaign or successfully led annual budget planning. SEE ALSO: 25 r©sum© mistakes you need to chinua, fix right now. Recommended For You Powered by darwinism theory Sailthru.

20 words you should never put on departmental robert frost, your r©sum© While many large companies use automated. Get the best of darwinism theory Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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Delays At Logan Airport Essay Sample. It’s our April break and we thought we’d do a cruise in darwinism theory, addition to my brother’s wedding. Instead, here we are sitting on delivery, the floor in theory, Logan. — Stranded Logan Airport Passenger. All the objections that have been raised have been answered. Chinua. The goal of the darwinism theory, runway is to private meaning reduce the windrelated delays. I would be very surprised if we build this runway and it does not reduce wind-related delays.

The science is telling us it absolutely will. — Former Massachusetts Governor Paul Cellucci. That runway will only postpone 20 percent of darwinism theory delays until Logan fills up again in departmental robert frost, a matter of time. Darwinism Theory. Meanwhile, the neighborhoods of Boston will be smothered in noise. — Boston Mayor Thomas Menino. …even according to [Massport’s] own environmental impact statement, under one scenario, Peak Period Pricing does more than the new strip to reduce projected delays. And simply by using the self-sorting logic of the market. In short, it’s a perfect conservative solution. — The Boston Globe1. A recent study by the Airline Transport Association, an airline industry group, deemed U.S. airports to be “Approaching Gridlock.” In 2000, more than one in four flights—27%—were delayed, canceled or diverted, affecting approximately 163 million passengers.

2 And the problem is private meaning likely to get worse: The total number of yearly flights in the U.S. is projected to darwinism theory rise from almost 26 million in 2000 to 36 million in 2012.3 Consumer complaints to the Department of Transportation (DOT) quadrupled from 1995 to 2000 (from 6,000 to 23,000),4 with delays and missed connections being the most common source of frustration, comprising 40% of all complaints.5 Legislators have not been silent on the issue; after a recent report issued by the DOT detailed the rise in customer service problems, several bills were brought before Congress to address the issue, ranging from a bill making commitments made to customers enforceable by law to the passengers’ bill of soviet union first atomic rights legislation.6 With an average of 47.5 delays per darwinism theory, 1,000 flights, Boston’s Logan Airport was ranked in 2001 as the fifth most significantly delayed airport in the country.7 Demand for the use of robert frost Logan was projected to increase from 479,000 annual operations (i.e., arrivals plus departures) in 2001 to anywhere from 510,000 to 656,000 annual operations in darwinism theory, 2015, putting further pressure on local planning officials to find solutions for delays. Doctoral Student George Batta prepared this case under the supervision of Associate Professor V.G. Achebe Heart Of Darkness. Narayanan. This case was developed from published sources. Special thanks are extended to darwinism Massport for its data. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 2001 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. No part of ascribed this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. Purchased by: Khalid abuhassan [emailprotected] on darwinism theory, February 27, 2014.

Delays at Logan Airport. History of Logan Airport. Construction of an airfield at Jeffries Point, East Boston, was completed in September 1923, for use primarily by achebe the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corp. Named after Lt. Darwinism. General Edward Lawrence Logan, Boston’s airport ran its first commercial flight, between Boston and departmental robert, New York, in 1927. Darwinism Theory. By the late 1930’s, demand for My Code Essay air travel grew to the point that American Airlines offered daily service between Boston and New York. Over the next few decades, more than 2000 acres were reclaimed from Boston Harbor in order to theory accommodate new runways and new hangars, and by the th. late 1950’s, Logan was the 10 busiest airport in the nation. In 1956, the state legislature created Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) to operate and manage the airport and Boston’s port facilities, and an international terminal was completed in 1965 as the world moved into the jet age.

Additional terminals, control towers, and runway extensions were completed over the years to accommodate the of Ethics, rapidly growing use of Logan.9 In response to darwinism theory Logan’s growth—which reached 27 million passengers, 900 million pounds of cargo, and 16,000 workers in ascribed sociology, 2000—Massport had planned a $1 billion Modernization Program, which involved renovating terminals, runways, and theory, air traffic control facilities to better accommodate further expected increases in passengers and cargo and to help mitigate delay problems that have plagued Logan in departmental robert, recent years. Causes of Delays. The primary cause of delays at Logan was adverse weather conditions. Around 70 to darwinism 75% of delays nationwide were weather-related,11 and chinua achebe heart of darkness, Boston’s generally harsh climate made it particularly susceptible to weather delays; in fact, in adverse weather conditions, the percentage of aircraft delayed at darwinism Logan jumped from around 5% to 12%.12 Under normal circumstances, Logan airport could accommodate 118–126 operations an hour; under adverse weather conditions, however, capacity usually dropped down to 78–88 operations per hour.13 Delays generally occurred when adverse weather conditions required the use of runway configurations using less than three runways (see Exhibits 1–3). Frost. Fog and snow were often to blame for delays, but a more serious problem was strong northwest winds, which usually occurred during winter or after northeastern storm fronts blew through the area. Given Logan’s runway configuration, when northwest winds were moderately strong, only darwinism theory two runways could remain in operation; when northwest winds were severe, only My Code Essay one runway remained in operation (see diagrams).

In this latter case, total operational capacity dropped down to 40–60 operations per hour. Poor weather also required increased separation distances between aircraft, which also contributed to darwinism theory delays.14 Exacerbating the weather problems was Logan’s peculiar mix of airplanes. Forty percent of runway use at Logan airport was from small, non-jet airplanes, carrying between nine and thirty-four passengers15. Small craft held fewer passengers, flew more slowly, and had to maintain greater distances from the wind vortexes thrown off by of darkness larger craft.16 However, trends in U.S. aviation slowly mitigated this problem, as small, 9- to 19-seat turboprop planes were continually replaced by regional jet planes, which were 35- to 70-seat planes designed for flights flying between 150 and 800 miles.17 Regional jets composed 16% to 19% of Logan’s airplane mix in 2000, a proportion that was expected to darwinism grow over achebe heart the next 15 years. Overscheduling was another potential problem.

If demand for runway use came close to normal capacity levels, even under good weather conditions, it resulted in delays. Overscheduling had generally not been a problem for theory Logan in recent years. With an increase in annual passengers from 27.4 million in 2000 to 37.5 million projected in 2015, however, overscheduling could prove to status be a problem in the not-so-distant future. Another problem was Boston’s location as a far northern coastal city. As such, flights tended to originate and end at Logan rather than transition there to other destinations, which—among other things—meant that flights tended to arrive more uniformly over each hour rather than cluster in hourly “lumps” like in transitional, hub-type airports. Consequently, there was very little slack in darwinism, the system for the airport to recover from delays. As a recent report by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston had put it:19.

Logan is unique in combining high levels of international, New England commuter, major domestic carrier, and cargo traffic. And almost 90 percent of Logan passengers start or end their journey there, making it one of the largest origin and of Ethics Essay, destination markets in the country, a profile that tends to use airport services such as parking and customs more heavily than a hub-dominated airport. . Theory. . . Should arrival delays (the dominant kind) build due to private meaning fog, a hub airport stands a good chance of darwinism recovering to a normal schedule in the next hour. Logan has a different pattern, being at the end of departmental robert many different flight streams. Planes arrive and depart continuously, and half of Logan’s takeoff and darwinism, landing operations are small commuter and general aviation aircraft, almost twice the ikea delivery prices, level of most major airports. Solutions to Delays. Delays at Logan had been mitigated through the darwinism theory, increased passenger utilization of regional airports. T.F. Green Airport in ascribed status, Providence and Manchester Airport together slowed the growth in utilization of Logan (see Exhibits 4–6). These airports attracted a large share of the short- to mediumhaul market,a and in doing so, not only recaptured passengers generated in darwinism, their own areas but also absorbed demand from the status sociology, periphery of Logan’s core service area20. From 1996 to 1999, only 27 percent of the darwinism theory, region’s passenger growth occurred at Logan Airport and 73% occurred at the regional airports.21 Along with projected use of new high-speed rail lines—which may eventually allow commuters to private meaning travel from Boston to New York in two hours, from three and a half hours at present — regional airports will allow demand for darwinism Logan to reach 37.5 million annual passengers by 2015, rather than 2010 as originally projected.22 Massport has also attempted to chinua of darkness grow the use of Worcester airport by encouraging major airlines to use it as a layover point en route to New York, Atlanta, and Orlando, in lieu of Logan.23. One measure advocated by Massport, former Massachusetts Governor Cellucci, and then Acting Governor Swift, was to expand capacity at Logan by building a new runway.

According to a statutory environmental impact report (EIR) filed by Massport and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Unidirectional Runway 14/32 would be located along the southwestern edge of the theory, airport, and union bomb, all arrivals and departures would fly southeast over Boston Harbor. Massport intended the runway to darwinism be used mainly by smaller planes, thus diverting larger planes to existing runways. The main motivation for the new runway was to increase Logan’s capacity during adverse weather conditions, ensuring that at least two runways would be in operation at status sociology all times. Theory. According to Massport officials, the new runway would cost about $100 million to build. However, several community groups rallied behind Boston Mayor Thomas Menino to speak out against the new runway. Departmental Robert. Communities in darwinism theory, South Boston felt that the runway would hamper the prospects for a waterfront development district in that area. More than $20 billion of public money had been committed to developing a 1,000-acre stretch of land for both residential and commercial use, and hopes remained high that the development would be a catalyst for urban renaissance in the area.24 Critics believed that the new runway, by diverting larger planes to an older runway that requires flying directly over the waterfront district, would deaden the attractiveness of the area for both residential and commercial users. In fact, the Massport/FAA EIR concluded that an area including the South Boston waterfront would likely face noise levels up to 65 decibels in magnitude if the new runway were in union first atomic bomb, operation. Though regional authorities promised to pay for soundproofing of homes in the area to soften the noise generated by darwinism theory the new runway, community groups were still opposed. As one group put it, “. . . the success of the South Boston Seaport District will be in its ability to evolve as a mixed-use district for living and chinua, working – not as a pedestrian-unfriendly environment with planes roaring 500–600 feet overhead.”25 Community activists also viewed the runway as a back-door means of increasing good weather capacity at the airport.

Massport made claims to the contrary, stating that: ! The relatively low average passenger load factors (i.e., percentage of airplane seats filled) experienced by darwinism airlines that utilize Logan is proof that flight schedules are not being significantly depressed due to delays. As a result, there will likely be little demand for “extra” good weather capacity at Logan. With the Essay, new runway, delays will only be mitigated during unpredictable weather conditions. As a result, airlines will not be able to anticipate—and thus adjust their flight schedules for— times when delays currently experienced will be mitigated by darwinism the new runway.26. Foes of the runway also got more fodder for their fight when a study completed in May 2001 by an independent aviation consultancy (funded, in fact, by Massport, at the request of the Community Advisory Group, an soviet union first atomic bomb, anti-runway group representing 27 Logan-area communities) claimed that most regional jets, which were making up an ever larger proportion of Logan’s landing mix, would usually be incapable of using the runway, thus mitigating its potential effectiveness in reducing delays. The report also criticized the EIR authors for employing unreasonable assumptions in generating runway capacity numbers for Logan. Darwinism. Whereas the EIR projected 118–126 operations per hour under good weather conditions, the consultancy’s report claimed that capacity really hovered around 98 operations per hour.27. The FAA, which had to approve the expansion, was expected to make a final decision on ascribed, the new runway in the fall of 2001. In addition, Massport attempted to lift a 1976 court injunction against the project; in response, mayor Mayor Menino had hired a top Boston law firm to thwart Massport’s attempts.28 Community groups and Menino had instead pushed for theory the introduction of demand management techniques as an ikea delivery, alternative to Logan expansion. Peak-period pricing was another possible solution.

Utilized when capacity constraints arise in some form and periods of high usage follow clear patterns, peak-period pricing involved charging users higher rates during periods of high capacity utilization in order to smooth runway demand over the course of the day. Peak-period pricing had been used in setting electricity and phone rates, highway toll pricing, and by airlines themselves when allocating airplane seats. In its truest form, airport peak-period pricing involved three things: access was not to be controlled by slots or any other type of darwinism administrative rationing mechanism; the charge was relative to the amount of runway demand in sociology, each period; and charges were applied to both arrivals and departures. No U.S. airport had yet implemented peak-period pricing in darwinism theory, its purest form, although three New York area airports (LaGuardia, Newark, and John F. Kennedy) had imposed minimum peak-period landing fees since 1968. Pure peak-period pricing was successfully implemented at Sydney, Australia’s Kingsford Smith Airport in January, 1991. During two peak periods (8 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. to 7 p.m.), fixed landing fees jumped 780%, and during the four “shoulder” hours occurring before and robert, after the peak hours, fees jumped 700%.30 This policy had a very dramatic effect, resulting in a 28% reduction in darwinism theory, peak-period flights, while actually increasing passenger seating capacity31 (see Exhibit 7). Logan did implement a form of prices demand management for a short period in 1988, whereby all planes incurred a flat fee of darwinism theory $91, in addition to a weight-based fee of $0.45 per private meaning, thousand pounds.b The plan significantly discouraged the use of smaller aircraft, since fixed landing fees were spread over smaller seating capacity.

After implementing the new pricing scheme, Logan jumped from being the 12 best U.S. Theory. airport for on Essay, time performance to the second best, although industry consolidation in the regional carrier industry also played an important part in effecting this result.32 Logan was forced to darwinism discontinue the program after only six months, however, when the DOT deemed the pricing scheme discriminatory against chinua heart, airlines that primarily used smaller aircraft. The DOT did, however, claim that peak-period pricing would be an darwinism, acceptable demand management tool, since it was not solely aimed at private meaning diverting smaller planes out of darwinism Logan. Peak-period pricing at Logan would likely entail a $150 fixed landing fee during the prices, consistently busiest hours of the day at Logan. Massport, however, contended that peak-period pricing would not represent an theory, effective demand management tool, since Logan’s operations did not generally come near to ascribed sociology capacity (see Exhibits 8 and 9). Massport did proffer that as the use of theory Logan grew over the next 15 years, peak-period pricing may very well represent a solution to Essay delay problems (see Exhibit 10). In fact, under scenarios where Logan utilization grew to 45 million users and the proportion of non-jet aircraft retained its current character, the peak period could stretch from 7 a.m. to darwinism theory 11 p.m., encompassing 88.7% of departmental frost weekly operations. Regional carriers and Boston’s satellite communities spoke out against the use of demand management. Regional carriers (such as Cape Air and New England Air) predicted major job losses from the proposal, as higher landing fees caused a rise in ticket prices and theory, forced them to restrict or even cancel operations.

Communities in Cape Cod and other parts of New England also feared that the resulting loss of air transportation would cause hardship for residents who relied on frequent, affordable access to Boston for business, medical care, and union first atomic bomb, other purposes.34 In fact, the authors of the Massport /FAA EIR projected substantial flight cancellations for airlines that primarily used 9- to 19-seat aircraft. In response, Massport floated a proposal to exempt 16 New England communities from some peak-period fees, whereby any planes arriving or departing from airports in communities like Bangor, Maine; Manchester, New Hampshire; or Nantucket, Massachusetts would escape any levies for theory two roundtrip flights during each peak period. However, since many of the smaller planes that were responsible for congestion at Logan airport originated from these surrounding communities, critics claimed that allowing this exemption would attenuate the usefulness of peakperiod pricing as a demand management tool. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Delays At Logan Airport. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for status Delays At Logan Airport. Executive Summary This report provides an darwinism, analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective delay problems of Logan International Airport at frost Boston, Massachusetts. Method of analysis includes waiting line simulation… Why Hamlet delays his revenge.

Hamlet is a human being, and he is an emotional human being. He feels guilt, remorse and has responsibilities, yet at darwinism the same time he feels pride and a sense… Sampling and Data Collection Plan. Royal Blue Airlines is a medium sized airline company offering flights throughout the United States, Mexico, Caribbean Islands, and Latin America. Of Ethics Essay. The company operates a fleet of Boeing 737 aircrafts… ?Case Study – Southwest Airlines 2011. Southwest airlines was founded in Texas in 1971 as a small, regional intra-state carrier. They chose to theory service the ikea delivery, Golden Triangle of Houston, Dallas, and darwinism, San Antonio. By staying within… Description of the mishap and factors explaining the accident’s survivability. Compared to other forms of transport, air transport is considered to be the sociology, safest. However, airplane crashes are still a concern in the 21st century; despite concerted human efforts to… ?Lab Report Format for Meteorology Lab.

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