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The lion and the jewel playwright

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the document-based question on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over and the, sample questions and example essays. 1st Corinthians? This will help you to get a sense of what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Ill briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course.

Lastly, Ive provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in your own preparation process. The Lion Jewel? Without a doubt, the Essay Reform best sample resources come from the College Board. The Lion Jewel? This is who wrote 1st corinthians, because they are the the lion playwright ones who design and administer the AP exams. Causes Of The? This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from jewel playwright, previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic!

They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the is globalization good or bad College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and jewel documents. It will be much easier for you to see how the information from the A Modest Proposal Essay documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Have a score. The Lion And The Playwright? Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is.

With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of is globalization good, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by and the jewel playwright, Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and Jazz 2015. This means there are only and the, two official College Board set of sample essays that use the current rubric.

Look here for the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from Essay on Immigration, 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the scoring guidelines). When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and jewel the samples from 2016. If you want to Jazz Essay, see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. To look at these questions, click Free-Response Questions for a given year. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright? For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click Sample Responses Q1. Note that these use the old rubric (which is historiography, integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the the lion and the playwright quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and some of the a hanging by george orwell particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to re-grade the essays in the sample according to the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in your prep later on. Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time.

AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six core points and then three additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief historical background section before the jewel playwright documents. Orwell? There are more documentsup to twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an the lion playwright emphasis on grouping the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in is globalization good or bad the new rubric.

The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to and the, look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. Samples by of the revolution, year: You can get samples in the old format all the and the way back to 1st corinthians, 2003 from the College Board . The Lion And The Playwright? (Click Free-Response Questions for the questions and good Sample Responses Q1 for the samples.) If you want to check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the the lion jewel playwright new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of A Modest, course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the lion and the jewel playwright the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Or Bad? Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format.

This means theres not much to be gained by looking outside the College Boards extensive archives. However, the the lion jewel playwright New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of who wrote 1st corinthians, your documents. And The Jewel? Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for causes the 2017 test.

This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the and the jewel playwright seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the old format there were seven core points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the Proposal Swift Essay sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: There are more documentsup to ten. Jewel? The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on grouping the a hanging by george documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric. And The? There is orwell analysis, also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to the lion, identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so youll need to click separate links to get the question and documents and then the responses.

If you want to take a look at Jazz historiography Essay some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from and the, AP European History. Who Wrote 1st Corinthians? The historical content is the lion and the jewel playwright, different, but this will give you an who wrote 1st corinthians idea of how the new rubric is the lion and the, implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to who wrote 1st corinthians, start using them and and the how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric . This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study processmaybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Who Wrote 1st Corinthians? Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and jewel scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, youll know those are skills to work on. Keep giving points for the thesis and then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit?

You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on causes mexican building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ. And The Jewel Playwright? Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to Essay Reform, grade the essays like an and the AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is A Modest Proposal by Jonathan, a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g.

AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by jewel playwright, the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is still going to who wrote 1st corinthians, be a good essay under the 7-point scalebut there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. The Lion And The Playwright? Having multiple sets of eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you wont have an on Immigration Reform official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to the lion jewel playwright, this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on of the a sample set every few weeks to a month to the lion, check in on Essay your progress towards thinking like an AP grader.

In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in and the jewel playwright a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to by Jonathan Swift Essay, check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to the lion, be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the by george analysis most work. So for the lion and the jewel playwright a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own . Towards the end of or bad, your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours!

The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to and the jewel, using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Orwell? Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over jewel playwright, and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at by george analysis least a couple even if you only have a month to and the, practice. On Immigration? There you have it, folks.

With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on the lion jewel playwright preparing and writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from Essay, our complete list. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright? Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on historiography Essay the best notes to the lion and the, use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out who wrote 1st corinthians her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by and the playwright, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift Essay is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on the lion and the jewel playwright social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of Essay on Immigration Reform, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and the lion and the jewel playwright we'll reply! Series: How to Jazz historiography, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in jewel playwright a variety of historiography Essay, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out the lion jewel playwright our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the 1st corinthians latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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M. L. Stapleton, Reading and Teaching Ovid’s Amores and Ars amatoria in the lion jewel playwright a Conservative Christian Context of an essay published elsewhere, with editorial changes. Read the other version and tell me which one you like better. I taught for many years at a mid-sized state university in the American south. The courses I offered included sophomore surveys of pre-Enlightenment world literature in translation designed for Essay, the general student as well as classes devoted to early modern British authors for English majors and the lion and the playwright minors who planned to become public schoolteachers. The community of 15,000 in which the institution locates itself doubles in population with the by Jonathan students included, most of whom hail from the exurbs of the two major metropolitan areas three hours from campus in different directions. The Lion And The Jewel. The town itself features eighteen Baptist churches along with an historiography approximately equal number of other Protestant denominations and their sects. It is also the and the playwright seat of the Essay sole county within a one hundred mile radius in which one may legally buy alcoholic beverages. Those who read English paraphrases of Ovid with me in these somewhat unlikely circumstances were not classics majors, nor did they enter my courses with an abiding interest in the ancient world or literary study.

By and large, they were there merely to fulfill a requirement. This was hardly their fault. This environment poses special problems for the instructor who teaches material with erotic content such as the Ars amatoria . Some students of a conservative Christian bent, like the devout in other cultures, express puzzlement and outrage when class texts do not reflect or validate their perspectives. And The. Many have no idea that the Bible has historical, artistic, and editorial traditions, or that scriptural literalism is itself a type of theology. Most find medieval religious literary conventions incomprehensible and hypocritical: that lyrics addressed to the Virgin and to the domina of historiography fin’ amors may draw mildly sexual imagery from the and the jewel playwright same wellspring; that some cathedral schools used flores (lines excerpted for memorization and study) from the Ars amatoria , a few quite graphic (Hexter 72, 77), and that the causes of the mexican revolution first partial English translation of the Ars was a book of precisely this type, The flores of and the jewel Ouide de arte amandi with theyr englysshe afore them (1513); that Petrarch could be a practicing Christian who nonetheless admits in Jazz a poem that his passion for Laura outweighs his sense of the the lion jewel playwright Passion during Good Friday mass; that his fourteenth-century French contemporary, the author of the Ovide moralisé , allegorizes the brief account of who wrote Jupiter, Danaë, and Perseus in and the the Metamorphoses as typological precursors of the Holy Ghost, the Blessed Virgin, and the baby Jesus. At the same time, to stereotype these students as intolerant is of no pedagogical value and therefore downright counterproductive. Actually, many Bible readers, as a result of their studies, have learned valuable inter- and intratextual hermeneutical skills unknown to their peers: the ability to read texts closely; a tolerance for simultaneous and contradictory interpretations within a literary work; and a patience for allowing meanings to manifest themselves gradually to the individual, as well as the by george orwell knowledge that communities of jewel playwright readers together negotiate and make meaning. They know, therefore, that group discussion of of the mexican revolution literary texts is necessary and exhilarating. Other problems are gender-related though universal. No instructor would wish his or her praise of Ovid’s subtle poetics in the lion and the jewel the Ars to be mistaken for an endorsement of the rogue masculine ethos of seduction, or for the work to be misunderstood as entirely about physical love.

The conscientious female professor would naturally not want to appear to Jazz Essay, invite a type of attention that she surely wishes to avoid. The Lion Jewel Playwright. Her male colleague needs to use complementary tact so that he does not create, however inadvertently, a classroom atmosphere that some of his female students might perceive as hostile to them. Yet the greatest pedagogical problem may well lie with the nagging perceptions that even the most dedicated faculty member may find herself sharing with her less conscientious peers. That is, students who take a course for compulsory distribution credit should not be condescended to because of 1st corinthians their lack of respect for learning, an attitude that professorial negativity only jewel playwright, exacerbates. Many of the young men and women I taught were products of test-oriented public school systems with rigidly unimaginative curricula that were just inches from violating church-state separation, whose governing boards, with the happy endorsement of the communities they served, firmly committed their budgets to football instead of academic programs or teacher salaries.

Worse, a majority had parents who had not encouraged them to by george orwell analysis, become independent readers in their formative years and who certainly did not encourage critical thinking. On arriving at the university, furthermore, these students received uninspired advising and therefore had no idea why they were doing what they were doing. Empathy, patience and humility are therefore required for one professing Ovid in such an environment, and for other reasons besides those above. Students are often forced to learn in an academic milieu in which virtually everything has been predetermined“radical determinacy,” if you will, that stifles the critical thinking so crucial to independent learning. The only writing model that the the lion and the playwright members of Proposal Swift a given class may have previously learned is the reductive tripartite list thesis that fuels the and the jewel mechanical five-paragraph essay.

The sole reading model: learn the plot of the “story” (a term that can also mean “play” or “poem”) and summarize it so that the act of meeting the page with the eyes can be verified. Students must sometimes also unlearn more pernicious educational vices, conceptual in nature: the good idea that moral questions are simply solved and unambiguous, e.g., adultery is always wrong; that writers always have a hidden message that they alone know, which the instructor, as the sole authority in the classroom, should reveal; or, if the notion of radical indeterminacy one proposes as a counterweight to their previous experience is the lion, truly operational, the validity of everyone’s opinion, including the instructor’s, is arbitrary; and, most important, that a student should finish a given academic task as hastily as possible because it is at best boring, at worst, worthless. My institution fostered this unhappy paradigm. I therefore concluded that my primary task was not to promulgate the is globalization good study of Ovid per the lion jewel playwright se to those who elected my courses or to prepare them for elite academic careers. My ethical perception of my job dictated that I use any means to encourage critical thinking and to teach analytical-argumentative writing skills. Essay Reform. Assigning texts that were controversial and even offensive to some of my students was salutary for these purposes. The Lion Jewel Playwright. My approach was (and is) broadly heuristical, learning by discovery: large-class discussion, group work, student presentations, and writing, writing, writing. The Ovid of the Ars (the praeceptor Amoris ) and causes of the of the Amores (the desultor Amoris ) provides a paradigm of writerly indeterminacy in any language, eminently useful as a teaching tool. How does one resolve the the lion and the playwright early statement of the a hanging orwell desultor that he is the lion playwright, not a circus-rider of love ( Amores 1.3.15) with his subsequent revelations (e.g., 2.4) that this is exactly what he aspires to be? He seems to follow much of the by Jonathan Swift advice that the praeceptor offers both men and women in the Ars , which proves disastrous for playwright, his attempt at a love life. 1st Corinthians. Some of the material in this latter text contradicts itself or otherwise cancels itself out.

How much efficacy, then, does the sage counsel of the learned doctor actually have? Many medieval writers, most notably Chaucer and Jean de Meun, speak reverently of the the lion Ars as a trustworthy, even infallible guidebook to love, a position that few moderns would be likely to hold. Of The Revolution. Does this suggest that people from the distant past read differently? Did Ovid actually “mean” any of this? Is he the same person as the the lion jewel playwright praeceptor ? Although such questions may appear naïve and jejune to those steeped in the lore of the good site, they can be fresh and invigorating to the novice, especially when he or she is challenged to find textual evidence as support for arguments that must be logically structured to be credible for and the jewel, an academic audience. That Ovid might not be writing autobiography or expressing his own deeply held opinions surprised my students, especially when I made available to them his famous disavowal of the Ars from Tomis ( Tristia 2.353-58): “I assure you, my character differs from my verse (my life is moral, my muse is a hanging by george orwell, gay), and most of my work, unreal and fictitious, has allowed itself more licence than its author has had. A book is not evidence of the writer’s mind, but respectable entertainment; it will offer many things suited to charm the and the jewel ear” (Wheeler-Goold 81). They asked why a writer should not be what he writes. Or Bad. Isn’t this just special pleading, considering the circumstances?

We discovered that they shared some critical perceptions with early commentators: “Of Ouidius Naso his banishmente, diuers occasions be supposed, but the common opinion and the most likely is, that Augustus Cæsar then Emperour, reading his bookes of the art of loue, misliked them so much that hee condemned Ouid to the lion and the jewel, exile”(Churchyard tpv). This critic, like my students (and Augustus), identifies a writer with his work, especially that composed in of the revolution the first person. What he writes about might not have really happened, but in some sense must be true. As a result, he bears responsibility for what he says and must accept the consequences of self-expression. Therefore, the named object of and the jewel affection in the Amores must also be real, albeit pseudonymous, a concept that the or bad commentator E. K. in Edmund Spenser’s The Shephearedes Calender (1579) explains: “Ovide shadoweth hys love under the the lion and the jewel name of Corynna, which of some is supposed to be Julia, the [e]mperor Augustus his daughter, and who wrote 1st corinthians wyfe to Agryppa” ( Shorter Poems 34-35). The concept of the persona be damned, regardless of the anguished statement of Ovid from jewel, exile. “Corinna” was a real person, and her admirer’s love for her was true. My students suggested that there was no other reason to write about her. Some moralized that a poet whose verses recommend adultery and celebrate sexual freedom deserves what he gets, regardless of subsequent, convenient disavowals. We should judge a writer on what she says, and 1st corinthians surmise what she thinks, the and the playwright consequence of Jazz Essay her professed ownership of her text. Although I did not think it my duty or place to the lion and the playwright, challenge my students’ moral tenets, such a reductive argument struck me as worth answering, in one case with an essay assignment. If I, the instructor, ask you to by Jonathan Essay, choose a passage from the Ars amatoria to analyze in a short paper, and then circulate the finished product to the lion and the jewel, your peers, should they be able to make assumptions about your character and Jazz Essay morality, based on the excerpt you select and your analysis of it?

Would it be fair to say that your piece of the poem can be read as a kind of horoscope, revealing something secret and unknown (even to yourself) about you? Naturally, I did not expect such discussions and writing prompts to the lion playwright, produce a result from students that would magically convert them to a liberated and capacious position about life and is globalization good or bad literature. Indeed, I would have been disappointed if their textual interpretations had interacted with my criteria like the ingredients of a foolproof recipe, producing a pan of twenty-four perfectly symmetrical brownies. I hoped for some outrage. And The Jewel. Some students applied themselves with enthusiasm and others resisted. Some produced good essays and some did not. Yet the act of who wrote thinking itself and jewel the writing process were valuable, I hope, to them and immensely so to me, germane experience for who wrote, future intellectual challenges. This constitutes the real value of confronting, through writing and discussion, a complicated text such as the Ars . The instructor may learn how to be a better teacher for her future students. This Ovidian exercise in indeterminacy can also be useful in the English literature classroom.

In an early modern survey course, it seems criminally negligent not to and the jewel playwright, remind students that a syllabus of canonical texts constitutes only a hanging by george analysis, one interpretation of the period. They need to the lion and the jewel, know about other authors besides Shakespeare, other forms of writing besides sonnets and tragedies, and other writers from different epochs and cultures whom the syllabus authors read, imitated, and 1st corinthians emulated in the complicated nexus that we call intertextuality. To enable my students to the lion and the jewel, explore these issues and broaden their perspectives as well as my own, I explain and illustrate one motif that Ovid repeats in three texts in orwell different forms, the secret seduction of a married woman in playwright front of her husband, which includes the humorous device of writing on the table in wine. A Modest Proposal Swift. The praeceptor Amoris explains his strategies for the lion and the jewel, executing this feat in the Ars amatoria (1.571-72); the desultor Amoris recounts his performance of it in by Jonathan the Amores (1.4 and playwright 2.5.17); Helen chides Paris for the same behavior in the Heroides (17.75-90). The first exercise asks students to compare and contrast these repetitions of the same material and to A Modest by Jonathan, ask them to note certain differences. Is his praeceptor serious about this as a romantic strategy? How successful, ultimately, is the desultor in jewel playwright his adulterous relationship with Corinna, especially in who wrote his use of this device?

Why should Ovid also ventriloquize himself as a female speaker, Helen of the lion and the jewel playwright Troy, no less, and then have her show mild disapproval of the same behavior? How do we square these conceptions of orwell moralitynot so different from those of the lion jewel Augustus, as legend has itwith our own? Again, I did not expect simple answers to a hanging by george orwell analysis, such difficult questions. I just wanted my students to see that authors are not always consistent in their ideas and opinions and, more radically, that this does not often matter to them. After we discovered the immense ambiguity beneath what seems to be a simple problem or question of influence, we turned to Spenser’s very obvious, even showy manipulation of all three Ovidian uses of the material in the 1590 version of The Faerie Queene 3.9-10. His allusively named adulterers, Paridell and Hellenore, carry on in front of the lion jewel playwright her husband, the causes despicably possessive and jealous Malbecco, conveniently (from his wife’s perspective) blind in one eye. Spenser knows that adultery is the lion and the jewel playwright, wrong, too, yet does not entirely castigate Paridell as he seeks “to intimate / His inward griefe, by meanes to Jazz Essay, him well knowne” with “all that art he learned had of the lion and the jewel yore” (29), ostensibly the advice of the 1st corinthians praeceptor : Now Bacchus fruit out of the siluer plate.

He on the table dasht, as ouerthrowne, Or of the fruitfull liquor ouerflowne, And by the dauncing bubbles did diuine. Or therein write to lett his loue be showne; Which well she redd out of the learned line,

A sacrament prophane in mistery of wine. The parochial Protestantism of my students at my former institution tended to prevent their recognition of the the lion and the significance of this final line, at least potentially blasphemous to A Modest Proposal by Jonathan, any pious Roman Catholic. Jewel Playwright. Yet they certainly noticed how Hellenore then very suggestively spills her own wine in her lap, not so much quenching her ardor as demonstrating the futility of cooling it off, “Shewing desire her inward flame to slake” (31), obviously aroused by Paridell’s deployment of the Ars . She later deserts her husband and, after her lover in turn abandons her, takes up with a herd of satyrs who proceed to enjoy her with her full cooperation, which her cuckolded mate secretly witnesses as he pursues her (3.10.43-53). I then ask students to write an essay in which they consider two problems: how does Spenser transmute his profane material, and to what purpose? Why does he, a Christian author in other contexts, use it so approvingly? He shows an amusingly critical, even heartless attitude toward Malbecco and does not seem to Essay, condemn Hellenore, as a vintage observation by Helen C. Gilde implies: “there is the lion and the, nothing perverted about her sexualityonly about what causes her to express it in such ways” (235). A seventeenth-century survey course could well feature a less specific conjunction of the Ars with English literature as a classroom motif. I found some success with the type of poetry classified under the carpe diem tradition that exemplifies the aforementioned rogue masculine ethos of A Modest by Jonathan seduction: John Donne’s “The Flea” and “Elegy: On His Mistress Going to jewel, Bed”; Thomas Carew’s “A Rapture”; Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress.” These authors, thoroughly steeped in Ovid’s erotic works, fashion speakers who adopt the amorality of the Essay on Immigration praeceptor and playwright desultor . However, rather than facetiously addressing a group of ignorant pupils in the ways of who wrote 1st corinthians love or recounting their experiences to a neutral third party as their classical predecessors do, they speak directly to the lion and the jewel, women with amorous condescension and supercilious logic to persuade them to feel privileged in submitting to their advances, as in mexican revolution Ars amatoria 3. An assignment can be crafted using virtually any section of the Ars or any one of the Amores as a prompt to explore how writers such as these emulate their predecessors. Just as instructive is to and the jewel, ask one’s students to go back a half-century and read the soon-to-be canonical Isabella Whitney’s “The admonition by the Auctor, to all yong Gentlewomen: And to al other Maids being in Loue” (1567): Some vse the who wrote 1st corinthians teares of Crocodiles, contrary to their hart: And yf they cannot always weepe, they wet their Cheekes by the lion jewel playwright, Art.

Ouid, within his Arte of loue, doth teach them this same knacke, To wet their ha[n]d, touch their eies: so oft as teares they lacke. Why haue ye such deceit in store: haue you such crafty wile: Lesse craft the[n] this god knows wold soone. vs simple soules begile. And wyll ye not leaue of: but still. delude vs in this wise:

Sith it is so, we trust we shall, take hede to fained lies. This example was particularly piquant for the many students in who wrote a course I once taught who were, like Whitney, young women reared in morally conservative households, themselves the objects of unsolicited masculine attention. This author had enough Latin to read the the lion playwright Ars and identifies herself as a recipient of exactly the same kinds of blandishments that carpe diem poets proffer. Some of my readers found Whitney’s sarcasm amusing. Men who use the Ars as a guidebook for the seduction of is globalization good or bad impressionable, love-starved maids deserve to the lion and the jewel playwright, be mocked, because their prey would be seduced just as easily with less effort. Is Globalization Good. Some feminine voices, my students were pleased to discover, were raised against the lion playwright, the monolithically masculine poetical beast. Some of who wrote my students still resisted the idea that a text such as the Ars is worthwhile or appropriate material precisely because it contains sexual content, even when presented with maximum professorial caution and empathy, and for one good reason that may be invisible to one reared in the 1950s in the lion northern, more secular climes. They have been inundated with the concept of the significance of physical love. Those born during the Reagan presidency, or after, and who wrote who have come of age in the last decade have learned that sex is the playwright most important thing in the world, an idea promulgated, somewhat grotesquely, by two cultures that wash over them: Protestant fundamentalist on a hanging by george orwell analysis, the one hand and the lion jewel playwright celebrity-driven popular “culture” on Essay on Immigration Reform, the other. From these sources, the contradictory, even psychotic message they receive about sexuality is one that those of us who remember Willie Mays or how Jacqueline Kennedy sounded on television did not get during our own adolescence.

They must participate in sexual congress to gain the love of their peers and take pledges of the lion jewel abstinence from it to ensure the love of their parents. To them, Ovid’s intimations that the physical component of sexuality can be comical and supremely unimportant may sound subversive indeed. For one teaching his erotic poetry in this milieu, then, it is advisable to cull one of the flores that Renaissance schoolboys knew from the Metamorphoses and to use it as an emblem: “ars adeo latet arte sua” (10.252): so did his art conceal his art. Anonymous. The flores of Ouide de arte amandi with theyr englysshe afore them: and two alphabete tablys . London: Wynkyn de Worde, 1513. Churchyard, Thomas, tr. Who Wrote. The Thre first bookes of the lion jewel playwright Ouid De Tristibus, translated into Englishe . London: Thomas Marshe, 1572. Gilde, Helen C. “Spenser’s Hellenore and Some Ovidian Associations.” Comparative Literature 23 (1971): 233-39. Hexter, Ralph.

Ovid and Medieval Schooling: Studies in Medieval School Commentaries on Ovid’s “Ars Amatoria,” “Epistulae ex Ponto,” and “Epistulae heroidum.” Munich: Arbeo-Gesellschaft, 1986. Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene . Who Wrote. Ed. The Lion And The Playwright. A. Mexican Revolution. C. Hamilton. Text ed. And The Jewel. Hiroshi Yamashita and Toshiyuki Suzuki.

London: Longman, 2001. The Yale Edition of the Shorter Poems of of the Edmund Spenser. Ed. William A. Oram, Einer Bjorvand, Ronald Bond, Thomas H. Cain, Alexander Dunlop, and Richard Schell. New Haven: Yale UP, 1989. Wheeler, A. L. ed. Ovid : Tristia [ and ] Ex Ponto . The Lion And The Playwright. 1924. 2nd rev. ed.

G. P. Goold. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1988. W[hitney]., I[sabella]. The copie of a letter, lately written in meeter, by a yonge gentilwoman To her vnconstant louer . Essay. London: Richard Jones, 1567. Copyright Modern Language Association of the lion and the America.

All rights reserved. Used with permission.

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50 things you didn't know about Michelle Obama. By Nick Greene in Washington and Melissa Whitworth in the lion and the playwright, New York. Causes! 5:58PM GMT 22 Jan 2009. 1. Her nickname is Miche (pronounced Meesh). And The Playwright! 2. Her husband calls her My Rock. 3. Who Wrote! Her father worked the swing shift in the boiler room at Chicago's water purification plant. 4. She grew up with her older brother, Craig, and parents in a one-bedroom, one-bathroom apartment.

She shared the jewel living room with her brother, which was separated by a room divider. 5. She and her brother both skipped a year at school - second grade. 6. Good Or Bad! As a girl, she loved her Easy-Bake Oven, a toy cooker. 7. Michelle was student council treasurer in high school. 8. Jewel Playwright! Growing up, she practised playing the piano so much that she had to be told to stop. 9. Although a great athlete, she shied away from competitive sports because, her big brother says, she hated losing. 10. Her father died of complications from multiple sclerosis when she was in her 20s. 11.

Michelle attended only public schools while growing up in Chicago. 12. She was assigned Barack's mentor when he came to her Chicago firm for a summer job. 13. Her first impression of Barack wasn't great; after seeing a photo of him in is globalization good or bad, the law firm directory she decided he had a big nose. 14.

She declined Barack's first invitations to go out on a date, saying it would be inappropriate. 15. Her father and brother had always said you could tell a lot about someone's character on the court, so before agreeing to date Barack, she asked her brother to take him on on the the lion playwright basketball court. 16. Her university dissertation was entitled, Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community. 17. 1st Corinthians! Barack proposed at a Chicago restaurant and the ring arrived on a tray with the dessert.

18. Their first dance at and the jewel, their wedding was to Unforgettable by Nat King Cole. 19. Santita Jackson, Jesse Jackson's daughter and Michelle's high school classmate, sang at the wedding. 20.

She works out is globalization good or bad, like a gladiator, according to friends. 21. She hates tights - too painful. 22. At the Democratic National Convention in 2004, moments before her husband went on stage to give his speech, she said: Just don't screw it up, buddy! 23.

She watches reruns of The Dick Van Dyke Show . 24. The Lion Jewel Playwright! For breakfast she likes fruit, eggs and bacon. 25. When she got to Princeton she said the tutors weren't teaching French correctly. 26. She refused to accompany her husband for walks in the cold Chicago winters. 27. She is the former associate dean at the University of who wrote Chicago. 28.

On their first date Barack took her to see Do The Right Thing , a Spike Lee movie set in Harlem. 29. Her brother, Craig Robinson, is the basketball coach at Oregon State University. 30. The Lion Jewel Playwright! At Princeton, Michelle majored in sociology. She got her law degree from Harvard. 31. She worked for Chicago's Mayor Daley in the city's office of planning and development.

32. She uses a webcam to stay in touch with Barack while separated. Proposal By Jonathan Swift Essay! 33. She cooks shrimp linguini - her husband's fabvourite meal. 34. Michelle wrote her own stump speech during the campaign and and the jewel playwright delivered it without notes. 35. Michelle made Barack promise to quit smoking if he stood for president. 36.

She plans not to have any more children. 37. She graduated from high school second in A Modest Proposal by Jonathan, her year. 38. She cut back from her six-figure salary with the University of Chicago hospital system to help her husband with his campaign.

39. Michelle makes Barack do the dishes. 40. As vice president of community and external affairs at the University of Chicago Medical Centre, Michelle supervised a five hundred per jewel playwright, cent increase of of the mexican revolution volunteerism in the hospital. 41. She was on the board of six major organisations, including the prestigious Chicago Council on Global Affairs, the and the jewel University of Chicago Laboratory Schools and Tree House Foods; and Vice President, Community and External Affairs at the University of Chicago Hospitals.

42. She routinely drew audiences of 1,000-plus supporters, even when she was campaigning on her own, on the trail. 43. Her inauguration dress was designed by Cuban-American designer, Isabel Toledo. Her green gloves were J Crew and who wrote 1st corinthians her shoes by Jimmy Choo. 44.

After her husband's election to the US Senate, Michelle decided to stay in Chicago with their daughters instead of relocating to Washington, DC. 45. Her great-great-grandfather, Jim Robinson, was a slave in the lion jewel, South Carolina before the Civil War. 46. Hillary Clinton, Laura Bush, and or bad Michelle Obama are the the lion playwright only First Ladies to receive master's degrees.

47. Less than 24 hours after the inaugural balls, replicas of Mrs Obama's dress were being drawn up #x2013; they will be available for sale within weeks, ranging in price from $99 to $400. Who Wrote! 48. At 5 ft 11ins, she is tied with Eleanor Roosevelt for tallest First Lady. 49. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright! Her secret service codename is Renaissance. 50. Causes Mexican Revolution! She has committed each episode of The Brady Bunch to memory. In Michelle Obama. Top news galleries. Martin Chilton selects 30 great one-liners from the comedian and film star Woody Allen.

The best British political insults. A hilarious history of political insults and putdowns, from Churchill to Corbyn. We celebrate and remember the culture stars who have passed away in 2016. Great quotes from White House incumbents: will Donald Trump be joining them? One hundred whip-smart wisecracks.

History's greatest conspiracy theories. From global warming to the lion jewel, 9/11, Shakespeare to Elvis, Diana to JFK, peak oil to Roswell, conspiracy theories abound. In pics: Stunning aerial shots of London's football stadia by photographer Jason Hawkes. In pics: The crumbling remains of the Soviet Union's space programme. Ambitious Chinese inventors take on by george orwell analysis crazy do-it-yourself projects. In pics: Sinkholes, craters and collapsed roads around the world. Large rat climbs on sleeping commuter. Teen pepper-sprayed at the lion and the playwright, Trump rally.

Disabled great-grandfather denied stairlift and forced to crawl. Elderly wombat rescued after being attacked. EgyptAir crew finally arrive in Cairo. More from the web. Is Globalization Or Bad! More from The Telegraph.

More from the web. The latest news, opinion and analysis. Catch up on the lion and the jewel all the latest football news and results. Historiography Essay! All the latest film trailers, reviews and features. Enter one of and the jewel playwright our exciting new competitions.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. In a dark room, on jewel playwright, a large screen, three Indonesian kids in or bad, matching purple Adidas tracksuits, wrap-around sunglasses and the lion and the playwright, sun-visors are singing a karaoke version of a song by the 1980s pop group The Smiths. Essay. It is equally serious and joyous. The piece is part of Phil Collins's work The World Won't Listen. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright. It is or bad a great work of contemporary art and Phil Collins is an important artist because his work is richly suggestive of a number of significant questions about national identity, popular culture in jewel, a global context, and the role of the mass media in representing these. Another dark room, another projected scene: an Essay, evening view of an obscure rural location. In the near-distance we see an odd elongated piece of architecture: a fragile but imposing shelter, an elaborate cylindrical tent that seems simultaneously out of place and yet somehow at and the playwright, home in this natural landscape. Is Globalization. The images are from French artist Philippe Parreno's curious film The Boy from Mars, and they arise out of his involvement with an environmental art project in rural Thailand.

Yet, watching these images it is never quite clear what, or where, it is that we are observing. Collins and Parreno make use of the lion jewel recognisable conventions of visual art from our own and earlier eras ('portraiture' in the former; 'landscape' in the latter). Yet, both seem as interested in an unfolding, many-staged creative process as they are with any finished product or with the possibilities of an accepted art discipline. As such, they practice types of art, that, as the influential curator Nicolas Bourriaud has argued, remain around the edge of any definition drawing on much from what would customarily be considered beyond the 'frame' of art, urging us to consider the place of art in the contemporary world, while offering up images and experiences characterised by uncertainty or disconcerting intensity. 1. The two examples above were both made in the last ten years. But are they also modern? They were made recently, but being 'modern' means more than merely being up-to-date: it needs to look modern too. For example there's a Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who has spent the last 30 years trying to paint like Rembrandt.

He makes work that is recent but it would not be referred to as modern because it doesn't look like what we expect Modern Art to look like. Instead, it is deliberately old fashioned. So when art historians use the words 'Modern' and causes revolution, 'Modernism' they understand them as meaning something quite specific. (i) When was Modernism? In the the lion jewel playwright sense of Jazz Essay 'modern' meaning up to date, all art was modern once. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright. The innovative artists of the past have always tried new technologies, new media and new styles. Crucially, these new technologies and by george orwell analysis, new mediums allowed for the possibility of new artistic forms. Playwright. For example, when Giotto was painting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1305, his use of Essay Reform fresco (watercolor on wet plaster) as a medium was innovative and modern, and it allowed him to achieve the and the integrated aesthetic scheme of the painting cycle. Over 500 years later Impressionists like Monet were not only responding to by george orwell analysis the challenge of photography and its ability to the lion capture an impression of the world, but also using portable easels and the newly invented, industrially processed, readymade tubes of paint to make pictures outside of the studio in the open air. But, if art has always been modern; does it ever reach a sell-by date?

Can it be that what was once modern can cease to be modern? Other art historical periods do not have the same associated problems. Essay. So, whilst there may be some disagreement as to the specific dates of the Renaissance, Roccoco, Baroque or Neo-Classicism, it can be agreed that they were periods that had beginnings, middles and ends. Perhaps then, one way to think about modern is and the jewel as a period of time with a clear beginning, middle and or bad, end. Thought about in these terms modern might mean the period of 100 years that began with Manet's painting Djeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, which was seen as shocking and rejected from the prestigious Salon of fine art, not only because it was 'badly' painted with rough brushstrokes and inaccurate perspective, but also because it showed a contemporary scene of public nudity.

This period is often regarded as ending with Pop Art in the mid 1960s, when art became increasingly difficult to distinguish from the lion and the, everyday consumer objects and the output of the mass media. What this would mean is that art made after this period would be after, or post, modernism. This is why you will often hear the historiography art of the last quarter of the the lion and the twentieth century referred to as 'postmodern'. However, such neat slicing up of the who wrote 1st corinthians history of art is problematic. The question posed by the cultural critic Raymond Williams When Was Modernism? is a tricky one. On the one hand, art seems to lag behind modernism in other fields. For example modern history is generally seen to have begun around 1500; philosophy with Descartes (who published his Meditations in 1641) or Kant (who published his three Critiques between 1781 and 1790) and the technological boom of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century is also seen as an origin of the lion jewel modernity.

On the a hanging by george other hand, art historians squabble as to where Modernism began; perhaps with the the lion Renaissance when artists began to on Immigration be recognised as 'geniuses' with their own distinct styles, or perhaps with the and the playwright Salon des Refuss in Paris in of the, 1863 and the exhibition of art refused by the academic institutions. As Charles Harrison observed: In writing about art, the term Modernism has only and the been regularly used with a capital M since the 1960s . Before the '60s the term 'Modernism' was generally used in a vague way, to refer to what it was that made works of art seem 'contemporary' whatever that meant. 2. (ii) How is Modernism? Another way of thinking about what modern means in a hanging orwell, art is to jewel think of it as an attitude to making. This uncouples 'Modern' from a specific time and place meaning that art is causes of the mexican not necessarily modern merely because it is new. It would also mean that examples from history could be identified as modern in their outlook, such as El Greco, the playwright seventeenth century painter whom Picasso claimed was the who wrote 1st corinthians originator of Cubism. Furthermore, identifying modern as an attitude means that it can be seen as an incomplete project that can be constantly re-engaged with. This is probably what Jackson Pollock had in mind when he made this claim for the lion and the jewel playwright, his own modernist art: My opinion is causes that new art needs new techniques.

And the modern artists have found new means of making their statements. It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express this age of the aeroplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the and the playwright Renaissance or of a hanging any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique. The Lion And The Jewel Playwright. 3. Just as the times change, so too must art. Who Wrote. And just as we live in new times, we need a new, modern art to express the age of text messaging, the Internet and global capitalism. The art critic Clement Greenberg offered a slightly different definition of modernism. He claimed that modernist art was art that was about art . The Lion And The Playwright. What this means is that modernist art takes art itself as its primary subject matter rather than traditional subjects such as landscapes, portraits or historical and religious themes. This does not mean that modernist art cannot include traditional subjects, but rather that this is not what the of the art is and the about. Look, for Proposal by Jonathan, example, at the William Scott painting Jug.

The subject matter is a jug and a bowl. Such still life has been a subject matter for art for hundreds of jewel playwright years but Scott has treated the material in a thoroughly modern way. (iii) Defining Modernism. The definition of modernist art that emerges is thus: that it provides a meaningful expression of, and gives artistic and aesthetic form to three things: (i) the specific time and place where it was made, (ii) the medium that it is made of, and (iii) how it was made. We can now ask if this definition can be usefully applied to much of contemporary art. 3 - When, What and How is contemporary art? (i) Contemporary Whatever That Means.

The tricky task of identifying a working definition of 'modern' is accompanied by the equally testing challenge of defining the word 'contemporary'. Indeed, 'recent' might be one easy definition for 'contemporary', allowing us to think of contemporary art as that made within recent memory. Another closely related and very straightforward meaning of 'contemporary', and one that is entirely true to Essay on Immigration Reform the linguistic sources of the word, is 'with the times' (from the Latin 'con', meaning 'with', plus 'temp' meaning 'time'). As such, to the lion playwright be contemporary is to be alert to the conditions of a particular moment in time, to be moving with the tides of living history. And this sense of the word is widely used in who wrote 1st corinthians, understandings of 'contemporary' art. Back in the 1980s, for instance, curators at the Tate Gallery in London decided that the art of the past ten years, on a rolling basis, would provide a suitable set of parameters as they made plans to develop a new 'Museum of the lion jewel playwright Contemporary Art'. 4 'Contemporary' art in Proposal by Jonathan, this regard, comes pretty close to 'modern' art particularly, perhaps, to Jackson Pollock's claim that the art of the lion and the each age should find its own technique. But Pollock's comment also returns us to how 'modern' can be understood as identifying an attitude towards making art, an a hanging orwell, attitude perhaps resulting in a certain type of art. The Lion Jewel Playwright. Certainly, a loose sense of 1st corinthians what 'contemporary art' is like is often evident in the mainstream media.

Coverage of the lion and the exhibitions such as the Jazz annual Turner Prize show, for instance, will often be based on hostile presumptions about the prevailing tendencies in art today, with artists regularly being characterised as pranksters or self-promoting provocateurs rather than masters of jewel a recognisable medium. Orwell. However accurate such pictures are, it is of course essential to the lion playwright remember the vital role played not just by the media but also by the art market in manufacturing particular versions of a contemporary art 'world' (as has always been the case throughout the history of art), with certain forms of art reaching prominence as a result of their marketability. But cast an eye over art magazines such as Artforum and Frieze expensive colour publications packed with ads promoting the interests of the commercial art scene and the difficulty of finding stable commonalities across what is A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift Essay celebrated is quite apparent. Such magazines will often introduce us to much that is overtly 'edgy': radical performance art that claims to question moral norms, for instance; or varieties of activist art that propose creative models of political resistance; or versions of installation and conceptual art that confuse us as to what, and often where, the 'art' actually is. All seem to sit comfortably side-by-side in such publications. Considering such types of widely prevalent art-making, it might seem that the only shared feature is an interest in subverting expectations about what art can and should be. Such tendencies would, of course, be true to a legacy of avant-gardism in the arts, and in our effort to capture something of what is 'contemporary' in the lion jewel playwright, art we could choose to prioritise the continuation of a kind of rule-breaking spirit. Yet, many celebrated contemporary art practices frustrate this view. For a great deal of today's critically acclaimed art is not quite so obviously confrontational or so antagonistic towards older methods or values. Causes Mexican Revolution. If, for the lion playwright, example, a great deal of recent art shows hostility towards principles of aesthetic refinement in art, there remains a significant strain of Essay art, highly regarded by 'contemporary' critics, curators and collectors, that is concerned with retrieving, or positively re-imagining, seemingly outdated notions such as craft and beauty. The paintings of William McKeown for playwright, instance, make a sophisticated and unorthodox case for beauty in art today, hinting to us that this idea is essential as a way of Essay freeing, and at the same time grounding, our imaginations.

Similarly for Isabel Nolan, 'beauty' is to be found in the vulnerabilities of both commonplace and more complex ways of representing or understanding the world around us: her formally diverse work inventively employs traditional craft techniques in capturing moments from and the jewel, everyday life and ideas from advanced science. Much that is well-respected within contemporary art today, therefore, does not correspond to who wrote the prejudices of conservative critics. The Lion Playwright. Crucially, combinations of notionally 'opposed' approaches to art can often be found alongside each other in a single exhibition, or even within a single artist's oeuvre or single work. Historiography Essay. Indeed, commentators on contemporary art have often stressed the diversity of possibilities in art today and the lion playwright, definitions and descriptions of contemporary art will often stress the unregulated openness of this 'industry', acknowledging its resistance to definition and description. As Linda Weintraub has written, contemporary art embraces the maverick and the traditionalist no topic, no medium, no process, no intention, no professional protocols, and who wrote 1st corinthians, no aesthetic principles are exempt from the the lion field of art. 5. Such indications of contemporary art's multiple methodologies are certainly at odds with any belief in Essay Reform, the ongoing refinement of form a principle once central to 'artistic progress'. For the philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, the innovations of and the jewel art after the 'modernist' era have therefore brought about, in effect, an 'end' of art.

This does not mean, he argues, an end of people making art, but rather an end of a particular way of understanding art that focused on Essay, the constraints of certain disciplines and playwright, mediums. Since pop art, Danto suggests, There is no special way works of art have to Jazz Essay be. 6 It is this plurality of possibilities which most obviously gives us clues as to playwright what contemporary art 'is' today. Yet how we choose to position ourselves in relation to this plurality remains one of the most testing questions for those of us hoping to engage with this era's most challenging 'contemporary' art. (ii) Themes in Contemporary Art. Despite the exciting plurality of A Modest by Jonathan Swift Essay art today, recognisable constellations have emerged around which art practices and debates have become clustered. Participatory art takes the form of artists working with disparate groups of people from different communities. This is not only a way of generating works of art, but is also part of the and the jewel work itself. Here are three examples: Untitled 1992 (Free), a working kitchen in a New York gallery set up by artist Rirkrit Tiravanija; Tenantspin, 1999, a TV channel for the elderly residents of a Liverpool housing estate set up by art collective Superflex; and Pimp my Irish Banger, 2009, a collaborative art project in 1st corinthians, which artist Terry Blake worked with young people from Dublin to paint car doors and and the jewel playwright, bonnets that were later displayed in an outdoor space at the National College of who wrote Art and Design, Dublin.

The art historian Claire Bishop has identified this trend within contemporary art as a 'Social Turn', arguing that while the models of participatory art vary enormously all are linked by a belief in the empowering creativity of collective action and the lion and the, shared ideas. 7 These are forms of art that ask questions about causes revolution who is involved in the making and experience of the lion and the playwright art. Today's art often occurs in particular places and is specific to those places. For example Canadian artist Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice (case study b), 1999-2000, is a narrative walking tour of East London starting at the Whitechapel Library. Participants are given a portable audio player that guides them on a 45 minute tour of the area through local areas like Spitalfields and Brick Lane that are infused with histories of crime, immigration, deprivation and intrigue. In The Birdcages of Dublin, 1999, Danny McCarthy placed five birdcages on the front walls of The Fire Station Artists Studios in Buckingham Street, Dublin. Each cage contained a hidden speaker that played sounds McCarthy had made from field recordings taken from sites around Dublin alongside recordings of analysis bird song. Both pieces put the playwright participants in an active role of interrogating their environments. This art asks questions about where the causes mexican revolution making and experience of art takes place.

Many contemporary artists are interested in the moving image. This can involve using movies for subject matter, but it also means investigating how film and video can alter how we think about the lion playwright art and life. Cinema is a culturally potent medium with particular characteristics as a spectacular experience, as a mode of display, and as a way of representing the world. For example in 24 Hour Psycho, 1993, Douglas Gordon slows down and projects Hitchcock's famously suspenseful chiller so that it takes 24 hours to run. It is good or bad impossible to enjoy the the lion and the jewel work as we would normally; we enter into a different relationship with the familiar work. Our ideas of the passing of time, narrative, memory, and even our boredom threshold are challenged by Gordon's re-presentation of the film. Comparatively, a work such as Twelve Angry Films by causes of the Jesse Jones, 2006, brings out an aspect of 'participation' in film culture, but through a process of collaborative production (working with community groups) and by the lion and the jewel creating a dedicated public space for a hanging by george analysis, screenings in the form of a drive-in cinema.

This art asks questions about how the the lion playwright world is causes of the mexican revolution presented to us through different media, under what conditions and with what consequences? Artists today continue to question what they are making art from and come back to the lion and the jewel querying what art's forms mean. In Box (ahhareturnabout), 1977, James Coleman presented a 16mm film on a continuous loop with an accompanying soundtrack. The film shows disjointed fragments of a bout between two heavyweight boxers with a soundtrack that combines the imagined thoughts of causes of the revolution one competitor with a low, thumping pulse like a heartbeat. It is a disorientating, profoundly physical experience. The grainy and obscure flicker of the film, when coupled with the jarring jump cuts, becomes part of the meaning of the work. It suggests how art always struggles with the translation of human experience into artistic media. Whilst Coleman addresses media that are becoming obsolete in the lion jewel playwright, today's increasingly digital world (film reels, slide projectors), many artists have also returned to one of the oldest artistic mediums painting to continue to ask questions about it.

Elizabeth Peyton, for example, uses images snatched from the mass media (press photographs, television, etc.). The images are used in by Jonathan, such a way that you would never mistake the pictures for photographs; instead they encourage you to think about what it means to put wet paint on and the playwright, a surface and move it around. This art asks questions about what is employed in the making and experience of art. The above examples offer just a glimpse of the rich variety of art being made today. It can take many forms, address many audiences and Reform, raise many questions. It can often be baffling, infuriating and inscrutable. There is jewel playwright more art now than there has ever been, and in by george orwell, a greater variety. As has always been the case throughout history, a lot of it might not be to our taste. And The Jewel Playwright. But the best art, be it from the distant past, the of the mexican modern age or our contemporary times, opens up new worlds for the lion jewel, us; new worlds of thought, of expression and feeling, new worlds of or bad poetic and political possibility. The Lion And The. Art in Essay on Immigration Reform, the contemporary world is art of this world: it can be by turns richly distracting and frustrating, thrilling and testing; it is full of communicative difficulties and new possibilities; it brings the challenging effects of today's reality home to us in all their vivid strangeness. It tells us how soon now really is.

Francis Halsall Declan Long, 2011. Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Rel, p. 25. Charles Harrison, Introduction: Modernism, Problems and Methods, The Open University Press, 1983, p. 15. The Lion Jewel. Jackson Pollock in an interview with William Wright, (1950), in Johnson, Ellen H. Mexican. (ed.), American Artists on Art from 1940 to 1980, Harper Row, 1982. See Tate Glossary, Jewel. Linda Weintraub, Making Contemporary Art: How Today's Artists Think and Work, Thames Hudson, 2003, p. 8. Arthur C. Danto, After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. 47. Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', in Francis Halsall et al., Rediscovering Aesthetics, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. Is Globalization Or Bad. 239.

Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.