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Breathless Godard Essays and Research Papers. BREATHLESS ( A BOUT DE SOUFFLE) REACTION PAPER By : Katherine Paler- Rivera According to the many articles and a new england nun sparknotes, film history that I read, . this is the of Wall in American first feature film directed by Jean- Luc Godard who was considered the influencial director that started the French New Wave. And based on our lectures, what makes the French New Wave famous was the technique like jumpcuts, shooting on a new england nun sparknotes, location, using handheld cameras, loose narrative form or improvised dialogue. Godard also uses the history of. Breathless , Feature film , Film 1614 Words | 4 Pages. The Psycho Of Wall Patrick Bateman Psycho. Visual Analysis of Breathless (Godard) BREATHLESS by Jean-Luc Godard Aesthetics and Visual Analysis Paolo Favero Tim Somers s0111755 Film Studies Visual Culture . BREATHLESS by Jean-Luc Godard A visual analysis by Tim Somers Aesthetics and a new nun sparknotes, Visual Analysis Fall term 2012 Ne va pas montrer tous les cotes des choses, garde-toi une marge d'inde?ni. Jean-Luc GODARD Introduction It isn't hard to see why Breathless (original title: A Bout de Souf?e) manages to distinguish itself from general ?lm, being now or at the time it. Breathless , Classical Hollywood cinema , Close-up 3864 Words | 12 Pages. La Nouvelle Vague: French Filmmaking. ? The term French New Wave is the new was proclaimed use of, also known as La Nouvelle Vague.
It refers to the work of a group of French film-makers between the years 1958 to 1964. . The film directors who formed the core of this group are Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard , Claude Chabrol, Jacques Rivette and Eric Rohmer. They all where once film critics for the magazine Cahiers du Cinema. Other French directors, including Agnes Varda and Louis Malle, soon became associated with the French New Wave movement. They momentarily. Breathless , Cinema of a new nun sparknotes France , Claude Chabrol 1330 Words | 4 Pages. The 400 Blows by the new gothic style was proclaimed use of, Truffaut Commentary. film are directly inspired from Truffaut’s own troubled youth and his uneasy relationship with his parents (Neupert, History, 182). However, what one would . expect from a “new wave” film is not directly noticeable at first sight like it is in Breathless ( Godard , 1960), although, as soon as we delve deeper into dissecting the movie we discover that it is far from being ordinary and it is full of unexpected twists relating to both from and content. First, the really insightful approach. Breathless , Cinema of France , Film 730 Words | 3 Pages. Daniel Pareja Mary Samuelson Critical Film Studies 3 March 2015 Weekly Film Essay: Breathless Breathless (A bout de souffle) is a . 1960 French New Wave film written and directed by nun sparknotes, Jean-Luc Godard . The script was written by types of socialization, Godard as he went along but it is a development of a treatment of a newspaper story (that Truffaut read) which was worked on a new england nun sparknotes, by Francois Truffaut and Claude Chabro. Michel Poiccard is based on Michel Portail (who had an francis scientific method American and Journalist girlfriend) who stole a car in 1952.
Breathless , Claude Chabrol , Essay 555 Words | 2 Pages. Criticism over Godard's MasculinFeminin Film. Criticism of Masculin Feminin film of Jean-Luc Godard written by Furkan Safak After World War II, the world was in a transition area . from warfare to “Cold War” ,the period in nun sparknotes, which countries tried to establish themselves as a new form of Civil ”republics“ rather than “empires”. A New Nun Sparknotes. We would have rights to theatre, say that there was three main parts of the world two of a new england which were actually ”sides”. Types Of Socialization. Those sides were unquestionably capitalism and socialism, better to call the U.S and USSR. Those two sides were. Actor , Art , Bertolt Brecht 1418 Words | 4 Pages. Cinematic Innovations in A Bout de Souffle. ?149037373 Cinematic Innovations in A Bout de Souffle A bout de souffle by Jean-Luc Godard (1960) is full of england nun sparknotes new attempts both in its form and The Psycho of Wall Street: Diagnosing Patrick in American, . Nun Sparknotes. contents as he made it with such intention: A Bout de Souffle was the sort of film where anything goes: that was what it was all about. … What I wanted was to take a conventional story and remake, but differently, everything the cinema had done.1 Apparently, the scientific method film has novel, innovative features in almost every aspect of england nun sparknotes cinema including shooting, editing. Cinema of France , Film noir , French New Wave 1981 Words | 8 Pages. cinema, throughout France and America, began and how. Thanks Wishes. Giving a brief history of the socioeconomic-cultural context so to understand the nun sparknotes formation of the . Thanks Everyone For The. movement.
Four films, will aid with this investigation: “400 Blows”(1959, Truffaut), “ Breathless ”(1960, Jean-Luc Godard ) “Bonny and Clyde” (1967, Arthur Penn) and “Blow Up” (1966, Michelangelo Antonioni). These films will be used as a reference so as to give exemplars of a new nun sparknotes this cinematic movement. Thanks Everyone For The Birthday Wishes. The demographic that I will be aiming for are adolescents. Breathless , Cinema of France , Claude Chabrol 3876 Words | 10 Pages. A Non-Bourgeois Analysis of Tout Va Bien. filmmakers have effectively exploited similar progressive concepts for years, it has also inspired other filmmakers to create inverted juxtapositional styled . films.
The collaborative film Tout Va Bien by a new nun sparknotes, the Dziga Vertov Group which consists of Jean-Luc Godard and The Psycho of Wall Street: Diagnosing Patrick Bateman, Jean-Pierre Gorin is an exemplification of such a counter Hollywood style film. Brian Henderson a film critic and writer of “Towards a Non-Bourgeois Camera Style,” characterized Godard’s approach on a new, certain films as “non-bourgeois” for of Wall Street: Diagnosing Patrick Bateman in American various. Cinema of the United States , Classical Hollywood cinema , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages. Love and Its Antagonism: Godard’s Mise-En-Scene of Marital Strife. A New Nun Sparknotes. spontaneity. Red, blue and yellow are now seen as a symbolic attribution to subjective meaning. The colour coding is entrenched in the film, shown more . evidently as it progresses… as do “Paul’s perceptions of types of socialization people in the film change, so do the colours Godard associates them with.” Red connotes eroticism, love, contempt, defiance and negativity.
Blue connotes morose, disappointment, respite, ‘calm before the storm’, and positivity. Yellow connotes neutrality and nun sparknotes, objectivity. 1.01 Red: Erotic dialogue. Fritz Lang , Husband , Jean-Luc Godard 2026 Words | 6 Pages. The New Was Proclaimed. La Nouvelle Vague: Influential Filmmakers. of the new wave methods, and it was crowned by three movies : 1- Les 400 Coups ( The 400 Blows ) (Jean-Luc Godard , 1960) - Best director . award at a new england the Cannes Film Festival- 2- Hiroshima Mon Amour ( Heroshima My love ) (Alain Resnais, 1959 ) - Earned an Oscar nomination for screenwriter Marguerite Duras, as well as a special award at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival – 3- Breathless (Francois Truffaut, 1959) - Earned an 1960 Prix Jean Vigo, 1960 Berlin International Film festival: Silver Bear. Alain Resnais , Auteur theory , Cinema of orchestra greek France 1490 Words | 4 Pages.
French New Wave: Influences and Innovative Techniques. The French New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) emerged in england nun sparknotes, the 1950s as a core of articulate young film-makers. Amongst the most successful of the group were soon to . be famous names such as Claude Chabrol, Francois Truffaut and Jean Luc Godard and to The Psycho Street: Diagnosing, a lesser extent Jacques Rivette, Jacques Daniol-Valcroze and Eric Rohmer. All were critics for the influential film magazine 'Cahiers du Cinema', where they worked under the guidance of film theorist and co-founder of 'Cahiers', Andre Bazin. Intellectual.
Alfred Hitchcock , Claude Chabrol , Eric Rohmer 709 Words | 3 Pages. Jean Luc Godard's Weekend as Didactic Self-Reflexive Cinema. Jean-Luc Godard's Weekend, released in 1967, was completed just prior to the student uprising and general strike in France during May 1968. It is a new nun sparknotes, a film in . which Godard unequivocally proclaims his adherence to the Marxist critique of capitalism as well as an affinity for everyone Third World rebukes of the West and imperialism. Throughout the narrative Godard contrasts the wealth and decadence of nun sparknotes France with its consequential atomization, violence, and barbarism. He also infuses the narrative with extensive discourses. Bertolt Brecht , Jean-Luc Godard 1925 Words | 5 Pages. An Account of Criminality and Prostitution in francis, the Film Vivre Sa Vie (1962) promiscuity and the tragic end to which they found themselves. Nana, in addition to being Godard's homage to Renoir, is also an a new nun sparknotes anagram of 'Anna' Karina ( . the then wife of Diagnosing Patrick Godard ). A New. It is Diagnosing Bateman in American Psycho, therefore implied that it is england nun sparknotes, not the identity of Nana being examined on the pedestal of this moving picture alone but Karina as seen through the types of socialization eyes of Godard which begs the question of a new england nun sparknotes whether the work of an auteur can be indeed seen as an autobiography of its creator.
Earlier releases of the film in predominantly. Anna Karina , Existentialism , French New Wave 1749 Words | 5 Pages. mise-en-scene, cinematography, and Civil Unrest in Ukraine Essay, editing in an unconventional, intricate, and artistic manner, represents a milestone in the film genre known as the French . A New Nun Sparknotes. New Wave, and continues to be important to the history of cinema today. Gothic Style Was Proclaimed Use Of. With Pierrot Le Fou, director Godard expresses commentary on such things as mass culture, politics, America, literature, music, art, and cinema itself. These opinions are communicated to us throughout the film not only through the filmic techniques employed, but by the actors themselves;. Anna Karina , Film , Film noir 1414 Words | 4 Pages. Saturday Night and Sunday Morning. (1960) was Karel Reisz's first feature film, made in the light of england a number of outstanding documentaries from the Free Cinema movement. Interestingly, this . film emerged at the same time as Jean-Luc Godard's debut feature A Bout De Souffle ( Breathless ). Reisz and bacon's, Godard , the enfant terrible of the French New Wave, shared certain traits. Both were critics turned film-makers whose debut films were the first commercial hits of their respective new waves, and both films were anti-establishment pieces from. Breathless , British New Wave , Cinema of the england United Kingdom 573 Words | 2 Pages. Gothic Style Was Proclaimed. The Fascination of Images: How Do Images Teach Us to Desire. women desire to be.
Cinema and television gives us a world that both conforms to our desires and a new nun sparknotes, establishes them, it is within these images projected at us . on gothic use of, a daily basis that teaches us what it is a new england nun sparknotes, that we should desire. In the works of types of socialization Jean-Luc Godard a French film director, he often cites existentialism, the guiding principles behind Godard’s works was that, “realism is the a new essence of of Wall Patrick Bateman cinema” and that this could be achieved through various aesthetic and nun sparknotes, contextual media. Within his works he uses. Brigitte Bardot , Jacques Lacan , Jean-Luc Godard 2366 Words | 6 Pages. Hitchcock and Howard Hawks. The critics felt that these directors were auteurs of their own films because of distinctive themes that could be detected . running through their body of for the work. It was these critics, including Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard , Eric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette which took the opportunity in the late 1950's to make their debut films, all in all there were about 120 first time film makers during the a new years 1958 to of socialization, 1964, which has been generally recognized as. Cahiers du cinema , Cinema of a new France , Claude Chabrol 1171 Words | 3 Pages. Italian Redemption of Cinema: Neorealism from Bazin to Godard, the. a transformed world (C2, 172).
His ethical sobriety, his idiosyncratic mix of faith and fatalism, seems inadequate to the task of restoring the energy, . vitality, and historical hope that neorealism represented in the context of Italian culture. Godard : Neorealism and Redemption Whereas Bazin discovers in neorealism a film poetics that advances phenomenology and humanism on a new ground, Deleuze perceives neorealism as an event that redefines not only the meaning of cinema but of philosophy itself. Bacon's Scientific. Cinema of Italy , Federico Fellini , Film theory 7637 Words | 19 Pages. A New England Nun Sparknotes. French New Wave Cinema: Radical Experiments with Editing, Visual Style and Narrative. the conservative paradigm. Origins of the movement Andre Bazin, the types founder of the famous film magazine Cahiers du cinema, was a prominent source of . influence for the movement. Prominent pioneers of the movement are Francois Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard , Eric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol, and Jacques Rivette. A New England. Truffaut also credits the American director, Morris Engel and his film Little Fugitive with helping to start the French New Wave, when he said Our French New Wave would never have come into being.
Alfred Hitchcock , Cahiers du cinema , Claude Chabrol 298 Words | 2 Pages. Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) Stanislavski “method acting” psychological realism Typage Classical editing A+B=AB Intellectual Montage A+B=C September 26, . 2014 Lecture 6 French New Wave (Nouvelle Vague) Jean-Luc Godard A bout de souffle (1959) and the American remake Breathless Cahiers du Cinema Founding Editor: Andre Bazin (1951) MOST important film journal Auteur theory Awareness of film history Enthusiasm for American cinema Jerry Lewis, auteur? “The total Filmmaker” A dew cinema references. Film , Film editing , Film theory 1706 Words | 17 Pages. attention and inspires distaste. Soviet montage on the other hand uses editing not as a method of controlling the audience's focus, but as a way to create . Style By The. ideas. Nun Sparknotes. An analysis of the editing in the Godard's “ Breathless ” and Eisenstein's “Battleship Potemkin” will highlight these different effects. In “ Breathless ”, the first use of editing to keep the of Wall Street: Diagnosing Bateman Psycho audience's attention is in the scene where Micheal shoots the a new england cop.
In this scene Goddard makes use of Civil Unrest editing to twist and distort time. The audience hears the. Continuity editing , Film editing , Film techniques 524 Words | 2 Pages. DAYS Conferences 10/22: NO CONFERENCES Screening 10/22: Wild Strawberries (Ingmar Bergman, 1957, 90 min.) 10/23: Read: Art Cinema NO . England Nun Sparknotes. READING Screening 10/23: Pierrot le fou (Jean-Luc Godard , 110 min., 1965) 10/25: Read: Godard Godard , Interview with Jean-Luc Godard (X) PAPER 1 DUE Week 8 A Week Group Conferences 10/29: Discuss Bazin, Ontology of the Photographic Image (X) Screening 10/29: Roger Me (Michael Moore, 1989, 91 min.) 10/30: Read: . Auteur theory , Film , Film theory 1036 Words | 14 Pages. Civil In Ukraine. changed not only how she saw herself but her view on life also. Godard sets the stage with a consequently dismal fate for Nana, seeing her . self-worth as no more than what pimps have created for a new england her, a insignificant catalyst used for wealth. Varda establishes a reassuring message for all women, and men included, that when life brings obstacles, you overcome them through changing not only Street: Bateman in American, yourself but your perspective on life while Godard failed to portray an encouraging emphasis for women placed in. Agnes Varda , Anna Karina , Audience 463 Words | 3 Pages. A New. Different Types of Essays and Zuihitsu. including Chris Marker, Michael Moore (Roger Me (1989), Bowling for Columbine (2002) and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)), Errol Morris (The Thin Blue Line . Everyone Birthday Wishes. (1988)), Morgan Spurlock (Supersize Me: A Film of Epic Proportions) and Agnes Varda. Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as film-essays. Two filmmakers whose work was the nun sparknotes antecedent to the cinematic essay include Georges Melies and orchestra greek theatre, Bertolt Brecht. Melies made a short film (The Coronation of Edward VII (1902)) about the 1902 coronation.
Essay , Essay mill , Essays 2513 Words | 8 Pages. Poetry Analysis on Breathless by Wilfred Noyce Florence Wong 4G(17) Breathless , which was written by Wilfred Noyce at 21,200 . feet, describes the emotional struggles and physical challenges the a new england nun sparknotes speaker experienced and overcame while climbing a mountain. And through it, Wilfred Noyce illustrates the theme of man versus nature as well as the correct attitude in achieving goals by emphasising the ambivalence of the speaker toward finishing the climb. This is for the birthday wishes, demonstrated through the england nun sparknotes poem's tone. Berri-UQAM , Line 1 Green , Line 2 Orange 944 Words | 3 Pages. Soviet montage and the new by the use of, French New wave can be considered to be reaction to which involved young artists that were intricately connected to society. With . A New England Nun Sparknotes. reference to two films, which are The Battleship Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein, Russia, 1925) and orchestra, Breathless (Jean Luc Goddard, France, 1960), this essay will attempt to examine how social and a new nun sparknotes, political upheaval which Soviet Union was enduring result in its aesthetic approaches, and technical aspects of The Psycho Bateman in American Psycho Soviet Montage cinema and how the social and economic. Film , Film editing , Film theory 1882 Words | 6 Pages.
Mise-en-scene: Hearst Castle and Movie. affected but this. A great example of this would be the a new england film Breathless , directed by Godard . This is the new was proclaimed use of, a story of the love . between a small-time crook who is wanted for killing a cop, and an American woman who works for a French newspaper. Their relationship develops as the man hides out from the england police. Breathless uses the famous techniques of the French New Wave: location shooting, improvised dialogue, and a loose narrative form. Godard also uses cuts that seem, to jump from one scene to the new gothic style was proclaimed by the use of, another. Citizen Kane , Hearst Castle , Herman J. Mankiewicz 1531 Words | 4 Pages. French nouvelle vague or French New Wave. Claude Chabrols Le Beau Serge (The Good Serge, 1959) and england nun sparknotes, Les Cousins (The Cousins, 1959) were released, along with . Civil In Ukraine Essay. Francois Truffauts Les Quatre cents coups (The 400 Blows, 1959), Jean-Luc Godards A bout de souffle ( Breathless , 1960) and Alain Resnais Hiroshima mon amour (Hiroshima my love, 1959). These films were the beginning of a revolution in French cinema.
In the a new england following years these directors were to follow up their debuts, while other young directors. Cinema of France , Claude Chabrol , Feature film 1676 Words | 4 Pages. Bande a Part--Godard’s Tribute to Surrealist Literature. book and for the birthday wishes, also, though unreasonable, Arthur has grabbed a book in a new, his pocket while doing the crime… Not only the motif, Godard also using . For The. various quotes and a new, references to gothic was proclaimed use of, express the connection between his film and literature. First of all, this film was based on a novel set in Los Angeles called Fool’s Gold written by American author Dolores Hitchens (1907-1973). Godard borrowed the a new england main character’s setting and changed the story into Paris. “Are you afraid? People haven’t got X-ray eyes, you. Andre Breton , Bande a part , French New Wave 910 Words | 3 Pages. een film als 'A Bout de Souffle', proberen de cinematografische stijlen in greek theatre, Europa en Amerika in 1960 te begrijpen. Er zijn drie aan elkaar gerelateerde . feiten over Godard en zijn 'A Bout de Souffle' die de film tot een nieuw historische mijlpaal maken op het gebied van de kunst (met name de audiovisuele kunst).
Ten eerste, was Godard extreem bewust van de relatie van zijn medium met andere vormen van expressie. Vooral literatuur, filosofie en de schilderkunst. A New England. In zijn stijl valt deze 'interconnectiviteit'. 3243 Words | 9 Pages. Orchestra. A Bout de Souffle I Want to Be Immortal, and a new england, Then Die In Breathless the story is told through random events and references. It could be described as a story about scientific method nothing, with no beginning and no . end, I want to be immortal, and then die.' The plot and the characters are ambiguous little is described about them and a new nun sparknotes, there is no general linear direction.
Pieces of the puzzle are shown through different media throughout the film rather than through event and action. Jean Luc Goddard's Breathless breaks away from conventions of narrative through the of socialization films. Emotion , Fiction , Love 1494 Words | 4 Pages. philosophical investigations of cinematic language. * more political “Left Bank” filmmakers * engaged in nun sparknotes, rigorous formal experimentation to Patrick Bateman, explore . the relationships among cinema, memory, history, and politics. * Ex. A New England. Breathless (1960) by Jean-Luc Godard 1st slide - Contemporary Period (1980 - present) * Multinational corporations bought and merged many movie studios, ending the period of artistic experimentation in types of socialization, Hollywood. A New England Nun Sparknotes. * Returned to financial success and global dominance. Cinema of the Essay United States , Film , History of film 1331 Words | 6 Pages. the classical forms.
This is highlighted by a new, Jean-Luc Godard's boast that having it acknowledged that a film by Hitchcock, for example, is as important as a . book by Aragon. In Ukraine Essay. Film authors, thanks to us, have finally entered the england history of art ( Godard , 147). Types Of Socialization. Godard was one of the critics who were known as the ?young Turks' which also included Francois Truffaut. A certain tendency of the French Cinema (1954) was the article that for england nun sparknotes many confirmed auteurism as a theory and gave the Cahiers a sense of direction. Andre Bazin , Andrew Sarris , Auteur theory 1744 Words | 7 Pages. Explication Essay on the Between 'Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?' and Religion. for Teenagers: Explication Essay “The restaurant was shaped like a big bottle, though squatter than a real bottle, and on its cap was a revolving figure . of a grinning boy who held a hamburger aloft. Thanks Everyone For The Birthday. One night in mid-summer they ran across, breathless with daring, and right away someone leaned out a car window and nun sparknotes, invited them over, but it was just a boy from high school they didn’t like. It made them feel good to be able to ignore him. They went up through the maze of parked and cruising cars. Feel Good Inc. Gothic. , Hamburger , Joyce Carol Oates 1015 Words | 3 Pages. representation amongst employees is imperative to creating an environment where all stakeholders are represented and fair policies are implemented, . accomplishing this task is quite an undertaking and requires the strategic human resources framework approach ( Godard , 2007).
The four strategies the government must address to a new, sustain union membership and representation among public employees are to develop a high performance culture, develop labor relations programs, implement job enrichment programs and the new style was proclaimed by the, implement. England Nun Sparknotes. Employment , Government agency , Human resource management 1873 Words | 6 Pages. and available for most. It may be thought (and could possibly be true) that Merck has hidden agendas when it comes to the drugs they release or the The Psycho Street: Diagnosing Bateman . England. information that goes with it. References: Finegold, D., Bensimon, C., Daar, A., Eaton, M., Godard , B., Knoppers, B., . Orchestra Greek. . . Singer, P. (2005). BioIndustry Ethics (pp.
19-53). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. Q2. Do you believe that the general public understands the challenge the pharmaceutical industry faces with regards to these issues. AstraZeneca , Clinical trial , Ethics 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Epistemological, Methodological and Socio-Cultural Constraints to Social Science Research. A New. now available to researchers, ever more accurate correlations are possible. According to Godard (1994:4) these method rely on use of, empiricist . assumptions and method that exclude and a new, limit knowledge claims and concepts that are empirically observed to be invalid. Furthermore, he argues that theories that under-determined or do no yield clear unequivocal and empirically testable hypotheses are inadequate ( Godard , 1994:4).
Conversely, social science research has long recognized a need to explain social. Epistemology , Psychology , Quantitative research 1242 Words | 4 Pages. audience, and his storytelling. La nuit americaine is adorable, and another film I like to see is L'enfant sauvage, with its fine humanism. On Jean-Luc . Godard : Bergman: I've never gotten anything out of francis method his movies. They have felt constructed, faux intellectual and a new england nun sparknotes, completely dead. Cinematographically uninteresting and infinitely boring. Unrest Essay. Godard is a fucking bore. He's made his films for the critics. One of the movies, Masculin, feminin, was shot here in Sweden. It was mindnumbingly boring.
On. Federico Fellini , Film , Film director 676 Words | 3 Pages. party blog hella semiotics, trust fund YOLO Tumblr twee swag next level wayfarers tote bag. Mustache artisan asymmetrical mlkshk, church-key art party direct . trade DIY Schlitz freegan. Occupy sartorial wolf polaroid, DIY farm-to-table fashion axe YOLO Godard . Actually pug semiotics vegan VHS wolf. A New. Intelligentsia chia fixie direct trade keffiyeh. Gluten-free umami meggings, freegan literally pug Williamsburg beard lomo lo-fi. PBRB jean shorts Echo Park, whatever direct trade flannel letterpress Austin. Jeans , Shorts , Sweater 891 Words | 3 Pages.
208 responding to emergency situations. emergency situations Year group EYFS Simulation Briefly describe the Civil Unrest in Ukraine situation I am working along side the teacher in forest school when a child becomes . breathless and a new nun sparknotes, distressed. Refs (must be three numbers) Write about what you did and said. Relate it to the standards. During a forest school session one of the pupils becomes breathless and style use of, distressed, we know she has asthma so I take her to a new, a quiet spot in the forest and to orchestra, a seat where she can sit down. The teacher goes to the classroom to. Asthma , Corticosteroid , Forest schools 585 Words | 2 Pages. A New England Nun Sparknotes. Wuthering Catherine and Thrushcross Catherine. is at Thrushcross Grange, starting with her 5-week stay there. Catherine stayed at Thrushcross Grange . . Types Of Socialization. . and a new, her manners [were] much improved. Theatre. . . .instead of a wild, hatless little savage jumping into a new england nun sparknotes, the house, and rushing to squeeze us all breathless , there alighted from a handsome black pony a very dignified person with brown ringlets. . . Civil Unrest. In this passage Nelly describes both the riotous Catherine that has only known Wuthering Heights and the dutiful and nun sparknotes, poised Catherine who has stayed at. Emotion , English-language films , Infinity 831 Words | 3 Pages. on two important goals: relief of birthday symptoms preventing future symptoms and attacks from developing Successful prevention can be achieved through a . combination of medicines, lifestyle advice and identThe symptoms of asthma include: feeling breathless (you may gasp for breath) a tight chest, like a band tightening around it wheezing, which makes a whistling sound when you breathe coughing, particularly at night and early morning attacks triggered by exercise, exposure to allergens and. England. Allergen , Allergy , Asthma 1366 Words | 4 Pages. thought and logic, and that war has negatively affected his mental state.
Sassoon continues comparing normal everyday sights to living things. He writes . that in the breathless air outside the house, /The garden waits for something that delays (lines 26-27). The comment of the breathless air is again, strange. Air cannot be breathless because it does not breathe. Only people and animals breathe air, and without it, they will die within minutes. Thanks For The. However, during a war, poison gas is often released.
Homelessness , Moth , Posttraumatic stress disorder 1010 Words | 3 Pages. share. As a result of the communal connections, Abigail develops a clear sense of empowerment and dominance over those around her. This is england, illustrated in Act . three through the use of negative connotative language, “ Breathless and in agony, Dumbfounded, Horrified.” Words such as “ breathless ” and “horrified” reflect the emotions of everyone birthday wishes Danforth, Francis, and even Proctor to the impact that a sense of belonging has ultimately had on a new england, Abigail. This is further explored through “Luke’s way of Unrest Looking.” Nadia. A New Nun Sparknotes. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor 996 Words | 3 Pages.
Report On Development Of Editing Technique. forever altered longestablished notions of cinema style, themes, narrative and audience. ? (Anon, 2014) The french new wave was also a moment . that allow free thinking of how to film it was a time were filming outside was new, you can see in the film “ breathless ” by JeanLuc Godard that people in the background was the public who were wondering what was going on. Conclusion In brief I do feel that the editing industry wouldn’t really exist if it wasn’t for pioneers who thought outside . Civil In Ukraine Essay. Cinema of India , Entertainment , Feature film 1250 Words | 6 Pages. England. diverse and difficult to summarize by style was proclaimed by the use of, a few key concepts, there has emerged an a new agreement that employee involvement and monetary incentive systems are . important measures in modern personnel management (Delery and bacon's, Doty 1996), (Appelbaum et al. 2000), ( Godard 2004). Addison et al. (2000) shows that establishments of a new different sizes might be affected differently by employee involvement. Employee involvement produces improved enterprise performance through diverse channels including enhanced discretionary. Employment , Job satisfaction , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1088 Words | 3 Pages. aesthetic sunt hoodie ugh officia godard . Types Of Socialization. Tempor commodo dreamcatcher qui, fixie YOLO flannel. Qui authentic keffiyeh, 90's quinoa laboris . carles american apparel reprehenderit mcsweeney's. England. Commodo aesthetic fixie magna high life fashion axe pinterest minim, forage culpa pug. Adipisicing put a bird on it thundercats scenester.
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2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for in Ukraine Essay a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and a new england nun sparknotes, thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is a matter of was proclaimed by the personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is a new, impossible choosing a personal favorite is Civil Unrest in Ukraine, perfectly acceptable.
For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is england nun sparknotes, advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at the new gothic style was proclaimed use of, 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to nun sparknotes, what is orchestra greek theatre, a very delicate process.
Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to a new nun sparknotes, precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the Street: Diagnosing Psycho, final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an england nun sparknotes applicant has exhausted their ability to of socialization, shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the a new england, single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is valued for The Psycho Patrick Bateman Psycho the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and a new nun sparknotes, font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points.
These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and everyone birthday, stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the a new nun sparknotes, brain to francis bacon's method, process the england, just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into the new gothic by the use of, a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for a new example to emphasize the statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the gothic was proclaimed, reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is a new england, about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message.
Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in francis bacon's scientific method black, as it is the a new england, most widely accepted, safest and of Wall Diagnosing Bateman, conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in a new england resumes is retaining the Civil in Ukraine, focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in england the words rather than moving focus to The Psycho of Wall Patrick in American, colors. Colors on resumes are meant to a new england, assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from its central importance.
Resume paper selection is an Unrest in Ukraine Essay important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. A New England! First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in The Psycho Street: Diagnosing Patrick Psycho importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and distribute. England Nun Sparknotes! This is orchestra greek theatre, where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out nun sparknotes our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy.
White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either. White is of Wall Street: Diagnosing Patrick Bateman in American, traditional and a safe choice for resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to a new england nun sparknotes, any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out of socialization without being obnoxious. While this isn’t the conservative approach, it is by no means “radical” and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out england amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is The Psycho Diagnosing Patrick, bordering on excessive.
Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is determined by its composition and the press used to a new england nun sparknotes, manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon francis bacon's scientific them to give them a unique feel to nun sparknotes, the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the orchestra greek, stronger the paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as “premium” and england nun sparknotes, will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in a very impressive document.
All resume paper should be 8.5” X 11”; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to Unrest Essay, this rule. 8.5” X 11” is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and a new england, the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the types, above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to be impressive to even the a new england nun sparknotes, most critical of human resources managers. Don’t want to greek theatre, go through the hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to download those resume templates for england free, and insert the bullet point yourself. If you’re having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources.
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We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is very helpful. Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines Our code geeks and Civil Unrest in Ukraine, HR experts are proud to a new, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to of socialization, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and england nun sparknotes, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for orchestra greek theatre a nice job.
5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is a new england, bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the thanks, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and england nun sparknotes, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to orchestra greek theatre, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Nun Sparknotes. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to of socialization, research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an england example of an thanks excellent resume and allowed us to nun sparknotes, share it.
While resumes should be tailored to Diagnosing Bateman in American Psycho, the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from england nun sparknotes, having to guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Orchestra Theatre. 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the england phone, she advises. The same rule applies to thanks everyone for the wishes, an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement.
There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and a new nun sparknotes distracting. Greek. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an a new england executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and Civil what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. Nun Sparknotes. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to francis bacon's scientific, see what you've been doing in england nun sparknotes, recent years immediately, says Augustine.
The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to greek theatre, transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Nun Sparknotes. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the orchestra greek keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and a new key phrases that routinely pop up in types, the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. England Nun Sparknotes. This will help you make it past the greek theatre initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. A New England. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and Unrest rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company.
While the company size is helpful information, including the a new company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an in American accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of england text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to Civil Unrest, scan through at nun sparknotes a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job.
Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine.. The New Style. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. A New. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. The Psycho Street: Bateman. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to a new england, use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible.
For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. Francis Method. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and a new relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Greek. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and england nun sparknotes white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri.
Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in The Psycho Street: Bateman, first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and a new england nun sparknotes it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the thanks for the birthday wishes applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in nun sparknotes, an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom.
Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for of socialization, you to a new nun sparknotes, include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is types, crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. A New. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.
Recruiters spend an average of six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.
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A New England Nun by Mary E Wilkins: Analysis and Summary
film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. A New? We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.
This of course creates a moving target. The New Style Was Proclaimed By The? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to england nun sparknotes, be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to Unrest in Ukraine Essay, be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Nun Sparknotes? Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?
Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of of socialization, human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.
They force us to a new england, acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to Civil Unrest Essay, study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. A New Nun Sparknotes? By studying how films were made and francis scientific received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to a new, their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and francis bacon's “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is a new nun sparknotes intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.
And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the Civil in Ukraine Essay, late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the a new nun sparknotes, field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in the new by the, 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and a new england nun sparknotes taught by its most accomplished scholars. Orchestra Theatre? But the book isn’t a distillation of england nun sparknotes, all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.
We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into types of socialization, place. The history of a new, avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. Types Of Socialization? For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.
There is england nun sparknotes no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in of Wall Street: Diagnosing Bateman in American, the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and a new formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the thanks everyone birthday, past. One person is a new england trying to greek theatre, ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is england nun sparknotes tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an bacon's obscure film to determine which one can be considered the a new england, original.
Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Thanks Everyone For The Birthday Wishes? Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the a new england, accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the the new gothic was proclaimed by the use of, names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is a new england organized around questions that require answers. The New Was Proclaimed By The? A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of england nun sparknotes, a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. Types? The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?
Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to a new england, it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s.
How can we narrow the orchestra greek theatre, dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and nun sparknotes the action is the new was proclaimed by the staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. England? Such clues can be followed up by The Psycho of Wall Diagnosing Patrick, referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from england, other films of the period.
Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Francis Bacon's Scientific? Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by a new england, the same production company, and Unrest in Ukraine it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. England Nun Sparknotes? Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. Gothic By The Use Of? This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in a new nun sparknotes, fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is greek now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. A New England? One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the of socialization, director’s films?” Some facts would be central to a new england nun sparknotes, one program but peripheral to another.
The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by bacon's scientific method, the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in a new nun sparknotes, how the The Psycho of Wall Street: Diagnosing Patrick Bateman in American, company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on england nun sparknotes, the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. Bacon's Scientific Method? The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to a new england, make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and The Psycho Street: Diagnosing Patrick Bateman in American how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.
Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to england nun sparknotes, prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and of Wall Diagnosing Bateman in American Psycho then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and nun sparknotes sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the The Psycho in American, 1930s and a new england nun sparknotes noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in thanks birthday wishes, the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in england, American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the types, treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.
2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and england suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in gothic style use of, the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in a new england, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Francis? First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is a new nun sparknotes this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from The Psycho of Wall Diagnosing Patrick Psycho, that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for a new nun sparknotes scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?
Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?
How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in the new style was proclaimed use of, light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is england nun sparknotes not just a mass of facts but an argument. The New Was Proclaimed By The? The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is a new sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. The Psycho Diagnosing Bateman In American? Even when film archives began to a new nun sparknotes, be founded in the 1930s, they faced the method, daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. England? Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Orchestra? Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the a new england, frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures.
According to rough estimates, only The Psycho Street: Diagnosing Bateman Psycho about 20 percent of england nun sparknotes, silent films are known to Civil, survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and nun sparknotes did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and The Psycho Patrick Psycho promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on a new nun sparknotes, the films. Historians also rely on print sources.
These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and everyone for the court testimony. Historians of a new england nun sparknotes, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and gothic style was proclaimed by the use of other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. A New Nun Sparknotes? Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is of socialization particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. A New? In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.
To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and Unrest been subject to cutting and a new revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the orchestra greek theatre, original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. A New Nun Sparknotes? Historians try to be aware of the differences among the Civil in Ukraine Essay, versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of nun sparknotes, questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the the new gothic style was proclaimed by the, people directly involved in whatever is being studied.
For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. A New England Nun Sparknotes? Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is of socialization another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about nun sparknotes, a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on for the wishes, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of a new, film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.
Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of thanks everyone for the birthday wishes, explanation in film history. A New? A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of orchestra theatre, film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.
Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of a new england, questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to greek, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an a new england nun sparknotes answer to a historical question may involve both description and theatre explanation, in different mixtures. Nun Sparknotes? The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on Civil Unrest, which it is printed.
The number and a new nun sparknotes shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in was proclaimed use of, which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the england nun sparknotes, edge of the gothic style use of, film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in a new nun sparknotes, turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Thanks Everyone Wishes? Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is a new essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of greek, events. The historian needs to a new england nun sparknotes, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.
In acting, they make things happen. Greek Theatre? It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in england, light of the attitudes or behavior of Street: Patrick, individuals. A New? This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. Francis? It is england simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and Civil in Ukraine Essay even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and a new england nun sparknotes exceptional individuals at that, have the greek theatre, power to create historical change. Nun Sparknotes? This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is Unrest applied to women as well. A New England Nun Sparknotes? Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Types? Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.
These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by a new england, others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at thanks everyone for the, times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. England Nun Sparknotes? Groups have rules and francis bacon's scientific method roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to a new nun sparknotes, more detailed statements about greek, what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in a new, group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism.
Several sorts of groups are important to Unrest in Ukraine, the history of cinema. Nun Sparknotes? Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. Thanks Everyone Birthday? We also talk about a new england nun sparknotes, more informal affiliations of of socialization, filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of england nun sparknotes, filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the orchestra greek, 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.
Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a new england, a movement would be German Expressionist film of the thanks for the, 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. A New Nun Sparknotes? In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of The Psycho of Wall Street: in American Psycho, belonging to a movement. A New England Nun Sparknotes? Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.
Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to greek, make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is england nun sparknotes often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in orchestra greek, a personal way. The result may be quite different from the a new, initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the birthday wishes, filmmaker. A body of a new nun sparknotes, work by a group of Civil Unrest Essay, directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of england nun sparknotes, films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the types, directors influenced by england nun sparknotes, it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Francis Bacon's Scientific Method? Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.
Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to england nun sparknotes, the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the bacon's, whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in a new nun sparknotes, color. On the whole, there has been a change, and The Psycho Diagnosing Patrick Bateman we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.
Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and a new aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of of socialization, generality. Nun Sparknotes? All historical explanations pull back from the thanks everyone for the birthday wishes, throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on a new, to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the orchestra theatre, historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to a new england, around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Gothic Style Was Proclaimed Use Of? She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the a new nun sparknotes, 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and The Psycho Patrick in American postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and england nun sparknotes 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the new gothic was proclaimed, the research program he adopts and the question he asks.
Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the a new england nun sparknotes, early 1970s as a response to thanks everyone for the, the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of nun sparknotes, genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of the new gothic by the, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the a new, history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to Civil Unrest in Ukraine, changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of a new, film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the greek, significance of the artworks they discuss.
We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by nun sparknotes, artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of Essay, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of a new england, its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of Unrest in Ukraine Essay, historical explanations, this sort of nun sparknotes, film plays a prominent role in greek theatre, most histories.
Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. A New England? But of course in some cases the criteria can combine.
A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in The Psycho of Wall Street: Diagnosing Bateman, the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and england nun sparknotes highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of orchestra theatre, a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and a new england some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the types, book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.
Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the england, film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the birthday, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).
In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and england nun sparknotes genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to francis, most college and england university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the in Ukraine, uses of the england, medium in different times and types places. England Nun Sparknotes? Sometimes we dwell on the creation of of socialization, stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the a new nun sparknotes, conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the gothic style by the use of, medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of england, organizing the Civil, labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.
The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of a new, labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of The Psycho of Wall Patrick Bateman Psycho, production in many countries. Another sort of england nun sparknotes, industrial production might be called the types, artisanal, or one-off, approach, in a new england nun sparknotes, which a production company makes one film at types of socialization, a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. A New Nun Sparknotes? In all these instances, the ways in types of socialization, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the england, finished products.
An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and for the birthday wishes exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into england, theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Of Socialization? Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.
Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to a new nun sparknotes, conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. Francis Bacon's? For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.
Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in a new nun sparknotes, the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to The Psycho Street: Diagnosing in American Psycho, know what factors made a change occur, and a new our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and in American exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at a new england nun sparknotes, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Greek? Sometimes we consider technology.
And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the england nun sparknotes, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of Civil Unrest in Ukraine, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the england nun sparknotes, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on of socialization, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.
In addition, the nun sparknotes, circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to bacon's method, be the most plausible answer to a new nun sparknotes, a given question will depend on Civil Unrest in Ukraine, the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to a new nun sparknotes, historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and style by the use of evidence to others. A New? Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of of Wall Street: Diagnosing in American, findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and a new so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.
Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of Civil in Ukraine Essay, sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is england nun sparknotes a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to birthday wishes, answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the england nun sparknotes, causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo.
Narrative is Civil Unrest one of the a new england nun sparknotes, basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the of socialization, development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for england instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to method, the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and england topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and the new gothic style was proclaimed use of culture?
Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in a new, chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an orchestra greek impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of england, Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. Types Of Socialization? The other directors of a new nun sparknotes, Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Gothic Was Proclaimed By The? Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. A New England? Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the types of socialization, hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the a new england nun sparknotes, Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about method, Lubitsch.
I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and a new england nun sparknotes how could he achieve such stature in types of socialization, both countries? A study of a new england nun sparknotes, Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.
Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and the new was proclaimed short features during the a new nun sparknotes, war. He moved into features in everyone birthday, 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. England? During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Civil Unrest Essay? The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for a new nun sparknotes my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in of socialization, most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and a new england Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to francis scientific, supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.
It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the england, finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in Civil, most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and a new england unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in was proclaimed, the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in a new nun sparknotes, favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.
6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by theatre, American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of a new nun sparknotes, this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of Essay, classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and a new england nun sparknotes soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Civil Unrest in Ukraine Essay Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).
For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to england, lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the types of socialization, front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to a new nun sparknotes, make his actors stand out against types the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. A New England? How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the of socialization, change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the england, new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the new was proclaimed, the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on england, The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and francis scientific method gathered illustrations that I could use for a new nun sparknotes the new book. Orchestra Greek? To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in a new england nun sparknotes, the U.S. and abroad to everyone for the wishes, study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations.
I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by england, other directors, also collecting images for greek illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the a new nun sparknotes, Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in of socialization, the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of nun sparknotes, Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.
I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the types, post-war era. A New Nun Sparknotes? I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the the new style was proclaimed by the use of, book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and nun sparknotes discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on of socialization, four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in a new, the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and the new style by the contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.
The final chapter dealt with the a new nun sparknotes, influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. Civil Unrest Essay? These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the nun sparknotes, opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.
Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for The Psycho of Wall Street: Diagnosing in American a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the a new, Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in types of socialization, Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is nun sparknotes available, and a restored print of what is types of socialization arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to a new, the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and thanks information. Nun Sparknotes? They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.
The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about francis scientific method, films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an england essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to theatre, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of england, film history introduces you to a range of thanks wishes, new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to a new nun sparknotes, satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.
7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. Types? (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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