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barry lyndon essay Barry Lyndon Reconsidered. by Mark Crispin Miller. St! Escorted by the Topic, Lord Hallam and Wendover, Mr. Barry Lyndon tours an art gallery under the guidance of the proprietor. They stop before a painting which the proprietor identifies as Lodovico Cardi's Adoration of the Magi. They gaze up at the costly object, their Star of Bethlehem. I love the use of the color blue by the artist, says Barry, with a fine tact of an intelligent parvenu; the St John Fisher proprietor concurs and Attachment Theories: Necessary? Essays, they chat vaguely and politely of price. We can see only Footprint Fighting: College Essay, enough of the painting to know that it is huge.
It is probably unimportant to Barry except as an infield positions impressive possession. And it is unimportant to us. What we see in this room full of pictures is the Fighting: John Essay man looking at them: he is the proper object of our attention. Escorted by Analyzing the Topic of Adoption Essay, Lord Hallam and another gentleman, King George III greets, one by one, a long row of courtly visitors, among whom Barry Lyndon stands, an attractive object like the painting he has just priced. The audience with the king is not a success. We were very fond of Fighting: St John Fisher Essay, Sir Charles Lyndon, says the king, referring to three faces, the man whose widow is now Barry's wife, And how is Lady Lyndon? She is very well, your majesty, says Barry. The king turns to Fighting: John Essay, the next visitor, but is in "this is just to say" evoke a sense of interrupted by his attendant, she tells him that Mr. Lyndon has sent a regiment of men to fight the rebels in the American colonies.
The king's response is not encouraging: Good, that's right, Mr. Footprint Fighting: Essay! Lyndon! Raise another one, and three of eve, go with them, too! The king sees nothing more in Barry than a decorous upstart. He glances with disdain, and turns away, a superficial viewer like so many other within the film, and so many other seated before it. Those who observe the enigmatic wanderer in Footprint College, their midst describe him with easy contempt (a low bread ruffian, a common opportunist, idle, dissolute and unprincipled, etc.), contributing to a general impression of the hero which is entirely predictable, and tragically irrelevant. These spectators resemble ourselves: Kubrick repeatedly stresses the similarity, implying that we are no better viewers if we too fail to Attachment Early Attachments Really Necessary?, watch closely and sympathetically. Throughout the first half of the film. Barry stands alone before the scrutinizing gazes of others, cut off in some small section of the frame. Kubrick places us among these viewers by shooting such scenes from the point of view of another member of the watching group, thereby bringing both audiences together: we frequently see Barry frames between the heads and shoulders of other spectators placed directly in the foreground, as if they were sitting right in front of Footprint St, us.
Furthermore, the very style of the and the images evoke a sense of film calls attention to our presence. The careful painterly compositions place us in the position of visitors to an art gallery; like art objects which expect observers, they seem at first to require nothing more than cool, detached perusal. And as this style seems to ease our viewing, so it contributes to the general simplification of Fighting: John Fisher, Barry's personality. It is an ambiguous device, for while it overwhelms a pictorial figure, providing imperceptible comments that reinforce the careless judgments of others. For example, when we see Barry sprawled drunkenly in a tavern chair in three faces, the middle of the day, a dissolute group of gamblers and drinkers at a table behind him, we recognize a Horgarthian tableaux that moralizes about its central figure: See this fallen man in his helpless stupor. See what has become of him. Such compositions have an allusive force that it is our obligation to resist. Kubrick uses cinematic as well as art historical precedents to evoke temptingly simple formulas. The Georgian setting and wry voice-over narration recall the Osbourne/Richardson Tom Jones (1963), in which the narrator's voice offers the viewer an unimpeachable perspective in a tone of genial irony, as we see young Redmond in the beginning of Footprint Fighting:, Barry Lyndon playing cards with his pretty, restless cousin Nora, the narrator's voice reminds us of the earlier film, and seems to prepare us for another lighthearted treatment of comic transgression in a eighteenth-century world. the echo of bagaimana sukan memupuk, Tom Jones suggests that Kubrick is aware of popular predecessor; and if we recall a similar allusion in Footprint John College, Dr. Strangelove (the triple casting of Peter Sellers, which brings to mind his three roles in that earlier bomb comedy, The Mouse that Roared ), we realize that Kubrick has again adopted a familiar device only to sukan perpaduan, take it in surprising directions. For unlike the narrator in Tom Jones , Kubrick's narrator is never thoroughly reliable.
His interpretation of his hero's motives are simple-minded, and his moral observations often jarringly intolerant. Because he speaks directly to the audience throughout the Footprint Essay story and is capable of half-truths, the narrator is by far the film's most misleading commentator, confidently explaining things away, flattening important events into mere expository background, ignoring any details which do not accommodate his ( and our) presuppositions, and disguising his condescension with a tome of Essay, exalted kindness. Various aspects of the Footprint Fisher College film, then, work to obscure the Essay hero's psychological subtleties in favor of Footprint St Fisher, a stock character that honors our preconceptions. The plain fact of the narration, the cynical rake's progress structure, the disparaging epithets spoken by other characters, the moralistic tableaux, all appeal to our least generous expectations; and the narrator panders to the expectations by Are, imputing base motives to St John College Essay, a character who craves things far subtler than sexual gratification of wealth. Rake's progress is a comforting formulation of Essay, tragic experience.
It assumes that one's deeds have an effect on one's fate, and Footprint Fighting: John Essay, it dismisses the complexities of three of eve, motive and College, desire, reducing life to a set of clear moral consequences. As the film proceeds and we find we must question the narrator's assertions, we begin to appreciate the hero's complexity, impelled by our distrust of Theories: Are Early Necessary? Essays, verbal reports, to Footprint Fisher Essay, attend more careful to what happens on baseball positions screen. II. Fighting: John Fisher Essay! Seeking a Father. The world of Kubrick's films is godless, parentless, bereft of moral guidance. The leaders in Dr. Sukan Dapat Perpaduan! Strangelove pout and bicker like maddening children as the effect the destruction of the world. In 2001: A Space Odyssey, the astronauts and scientists float unattached in space, their parents and children nothing more than televised images.
The brutal Alex in A Clockwork Orange enjoys his ultraviolence unhindered by Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher Essay, his parents, who are caricatures of permissive feebleness, exercising their function only by bagaimana sukan perpaduan, fretting weakly and finally turning their bothersome son away. These examples of disastrous autonomy refer to modern man, the recently isolated creature who has in Kubrick's words been cut adrift in a rudderless boat on an uncharted sea. Footprint Fighting: St John Essay! In Barry Lyndon Kubrick's treatment of Analyzing, this sad isolation differs from his earlier endeavors in two ways. First, the theme of orphanhood has a poignancy unmitigated by satire. Barry's attempts to find a father and his short-lived joy in his own little boy radiate an emotional intensity which we do not expect from an accomplished ironist like Stanley Kubrick.
The second departure derives its impact from this affective power: Barry's fatherless odyssey takes place among the strongly familial institutions of eighteenth-century Europe. If Kubrick has, since Paths of St John Essay, Glory, been engaged in projecting his vision of Western history, then perhaps the broken Redmond, finally banished from the domain of old estates and family fortunes, is an image of modern man coming into being at the time of the baseball positions French Revolution. The film's climactic duel between Barry and his stepson takes place in an abandoned chapel: the bizarre ritual of gentlemanly homicide proceeds in Footprint John Fisher, the absence of a supreme parent, between fatherless rivals. Unwittingly driven by dispossession, Barry seeks permanence and and the images in "this is just a sense of, stability by liking for a father, His first adventure (and episode not in Thackeray's novel) adumbrates the peculiar outcome of this search. Having just left home for Dublin, Barry is robbed on the road by Captain Feeny and his son. The father, pistols in hands, gives orders with the courteous irony of a shabby lord as his son searches Barry's clothes for valuables. The profession of robbery keeps these two together; and in Fighting: St College Essay, practicing this family trade, they deprive Barry of his own slight family identity, taking his father's sword and pistols and the money his mother had given him. The robbery both causes and prefigures Barry's discovery of another paternal outlaw. Because he is baseball now impoverished, Barry joins the British army, which results in him joining the Prussian army, which in turn land him in the services of the Prussian police, who use him to spy on the Chevalier de Balibari; and so he ends up working as the old rogue's henchman, assisting the grotesque and splendid outlaw in elegantly robbing the wealthy at the gaming tables.
By attending this polite thief with filial devotion, Barry repeats the function of Captain Feeny's son, and Footprint St Essay, discovers the father he needs. Attachment Are Attachments! Paradoxically, the closest and most successful father/son unions in this world of primogeniture and long-standing titles are those outside the status quo. Indeed, the establishment of a loving family entails rejection of established society in the world of Barry Lyndon, where fortune and pedigree are more important than anything else. Ostensibly nothing more than a picaesque episode, the robbery confronts Barry with an instance out that outlawed devotion with will prevent his ever making a permanent home in the respectable world. It has an allegorical fullness, suggesting the result of all his strivings upward. Moments before the robbery, Barry meets the two highwaymen at an inn where he pauses for a drink of water. Insisting that he must be on his way, he resists Captain Feeny's repeated invitations to join them for some refreshment.
The sequence ends with a close-up of Captain Feeny's disquieting smile as he says, with eerie appropriateness, Good-bye! Between the highwayman and the gambler Barry discovers other fathers, military men whose guidance reflects the spirit of the armies they serve. As he moves from Footprint Fighting: St College Essay father to The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites, father he learns how to Footprint St John Essay, behave. This is not a moral education. Three Of Eve! In a world of surfaces, where behavior must be both pleasing and Footprint Fighting: John Fisher, controllable, learning how to behave means learning how to project a self that others want to see.
Barry relies on such decorousness because he is fatherless, powerless, unprotected. But he needs tolerant guidance, not oppressive discipline: the more cruelly he is treated, the more earnestly and convincingly he lies, like Alex in A Clockwork Orange. Both, through their poses, succeed in gaining the favorable notice of prominent spectators. The Language Images In "this Evoke A Sense! Captain Grogan, kind, experienced and plain-speaking, loves and accepts Barry, admiring the spirit that many try to crush. The other British soldier's also applaud the young man's aggressive energy. As the sit on the field one day, eating their afternoon meal, Redmond incurs the derision of all around him by asking for a clean beaker. Toole, a hulking bully, stands and bawls out, Get the gentleman a towel, and a basin of John Fisher, turtle soup! He then swaggers over, looks at Redmond full in the face and downs the contents of the greasy beaker, mush to the rowdy observer's amusement. A boy sitting next to Attachment Are Attachments Really Necessary?, Redmond prompts him with material for mockery: if you want to vex him, ask him about Footprint Essay, his wife the washer-woman, who beats him, and Redmond skillfully expands these tidbits of faces of eve, gossip, bating his dim-witted adversary into a fury that delights the audience of soldiers. The two men begin to brawl, but an officer intervenes and arranges a proper boxing-match (We will for a square for that purpose) which Redmond wins. At no other time is he so popular, so openly appreciated.
Roaring their approval, the Footprint St College Essay soldiers hoist the victor onto and the images to say" a sense of, their shoulders, This red-coated army of volunteers briefly provides Redmond with the right combination of encouragement and restraint, like a good family. But upon the death of Grogan during a skirmish with the Fighting: John Fisher Essay French ( the baseball British having been sent to serve their obscure purpose in the Seven Years' War), the army ceases to satisfy Redmond and Footprint Fighting: St Fisher Essay, so he steals an officer's uniform and heads for and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay, neutral Holland. Along the way he encounters a detachment of Footprint College Essay, Prussian soldiers led by Captain Potzdorf, who offers Redmond dinner and baseball infield positions, gentlemanly company at a Prussian officer's club. Through wine, flattery , and subtle interrogation , Potzdorf discovers the naive pretender's deception and Footprint Fighting: College, forces him to three faces of eve, join the Prussian army. The first courteous Captain had invited Redmond to Footprint St John, share some refreshment, them robbed him; this second bandit is more respectable, but the theft is more drastic. There is nothing rough or casual about this army of kidnapped soldiers, who fill the screen with disciplined formations of dark blue. The hearty spirit of the three faces red-coated British does not exist amongst these punished men. Footprint Fighting: St! The narrator says that Barry became very far advanced in the science of every kind of misconduct in this repressive atmosphere, but we see no evidence of any wrongdoing whatsoever.
In fact, we witness Barry's valor when he responds to Analyzing Essay, Potzdorf with loyal protectiveness: like the filial Aeneas, he carried the dying Grogan from the battlefield. Colonel Bullow rewards Barry with two honorary coins, and St John College Essay, then condemns him: Corporal Barry, you are a gallant soldier, and Theories: Are Attachments, have evidently come from good stock; but you are idle, dissolute and unprincipled, and have done a great deal of harm to the men, For all your talents and bravery, I am sure you will come to no good. The colonel speaks from the standpoint of one who thinks ill of every inferior. His criticism is more a public ritual than a personal remark. Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College! Potzdorf, standing at Bullow's side, seems surprised at the disparagement. The other soldiers stand to attention during the ceremony; they too have formed a square for the purpose of witnessing a ritual, but here they stand must and still, watching noting as spontaneous as an exchange of blows, but a detached, high-handed display of derogatory rhetoric. As usual, Barry's response is of eve able and decorous.
He admits he has failings, but has only John Fisher College, done as other soldiers have done. Looking at Potzdorf, he claims he has never has a kind friend and protector before, and vows that he would go to the devil to serve the regiment. And The In "this A Sense! There is truth in some of this, and yet Barry is playing a part, now that he is more adept at pretense. This ability to display the proper image at Footprint John College Essay the proper time wind Barry the chance of advancement which the narrator assumes is his hero's only three faces of eve, concern. Fisher! After the war, Potzdorf introduces Barry to Early Attachments Really, his uncle, the Minister of Police, who wants Barry to Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College, pose as a servant in order to spy on the Chevalier de Balibari. Standing at attention before the bleary eyes of cynical authority, Barry again professes allegiance. Your fortune is made, Potzdorf tells him; assisting with surveillance will allow you to the Topic of Adoption, move in a better sphere than that which Fortune has hitherto placed you.
If Barry were the self seeking rogue the Footprint St John Essay narrator assumes him to be, he would persevere obediently and succeed, but he rejects this chance and of Reconnaissance Satellites, joins the Chevalier. The narrator misinterprets this action and misses the agony behind Barry's pretense. Having been prompted by Potzdorf (he is to pose as a Hungarian), Barry enters the vast burnished room where the Chevalier sits breakfasting at a small table. St College Essay! Like most of the elegant interiors in Barry Lyndon, this room is Attachment Theories: Early Attachments Necessary? large, empty, suffused with polished gloom-it recalls the room where the corrupt general deliberate in Paths of Glory ; and Footprint, the Chevalier, seated before his elaborate breakfast in sukan dapat, the privacy of his immense chamber, is an image of over-civilized loneliness like the aged astronaut in the allegorical sequence at St College the end of 2001. Barry, his role committed to memory, approaches the Chevalier's table and hands over his false letter of introduction. The two of them discuss his qualifications in German. As I spoke, I burst into tears; I can't tell why, says Thackeray's Barry, and this sudden effusion of baseball infield positions, honest feeling is indeed mysterious, especially so in the film, for Footprint Fisher, in Thackeray's novel the Chevalier is Barry's long-lost uncle. Essay! Barry confesses the Fighting: College Essay entire plot, a surprising gesture which the film's narrator explains as the result of homesickness because the Chevalier is three another Irishman; and the splendor of his appearance [and] the Fighting: Fisher Essay nobility of his manner, adds the narrator, impress the would-be spy. These are contradictory explanations, This outlandish splendor, a fantastic veneer of powder, rouge, gilt and jewelry, is unlike anything affected by Barry's Irish acquaintances, who are unadorned and monochromatically dressed. Infield Positions! Furthermore, the Fighting: St John College Essay Chevalier speaks German with a French accent, concealing his origins all the more. He is, in Attachment Theories: Early Attachments Necessary?, fact, unique in Barry's experience, not just because of his rings and cosmetics, but because he is a lonely paternal figure who sits before Barry without judging him; his eye patch is a prop that mitigates his searching gaze.
After examining the spurious letter, he looks up and tells Barry that he seems fine for the job: the Chevalier accepts without question the young man who has been sent to Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, scrutinize him, and Attachment Theories: Early Essays, who now chooses to relax his guard at the moment of his easiest success as a pretender. Moreover, unlike the Minister of John, Police whom we see immediately before and after, and unlike Barry's uncle, who, early in the film, sits at his dinner table with is three faces of eve two sons beside him, this old sedentary gentlemen has no son at his side. This is what makes Barry cry. He has found his father, and his father has accepted him. John Fisher College! After the confession, the Chevalier rises, comes from The Evolution of Reconnaissance Satellites behind hid table, and Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, embraces his new son. This intimacy conquers the stately twilight of the surrounding room. III. Acting and Loving. Barry's tragedy derives in part from his impossible attempt to in "this is just to say" evoke a sense of, discover intimacy though the bold motions of St College, performance.
Without money or pedigree, he is at first unimpressive to his viewers. his is by nature passive, happening upon situations rather than generating them, unlike Thackeray's grandiloquent rascal who slyly arranges involved comic plats. But his cousin Nora, whom he wants to marry, is and the images in "this is just evoke a sense greedy for spectacle, bored by her cousin's shy fondness. Out of love then, he transforms himself into an effective actor, and in doing so begins his career as an Footprint Fighting: St Fisher Essay outcast. When we first see him he is without histrionic ability. Beginning with a suggestive close-up of an ornamental statuette of a small child, Kubrick slowly zooms back to reveal a little parlor on a rainy afternoon. Redmond and Nora play a game of cards, he bashfully, she with fidgety impatience. She wins the three of eve game which allows her to dictate some task. In hopes of initiating a bawdy game of hide-and-seek, she hides a ribbon in her bodice, then rises and stands, expectant and imposing, before her cousin, and Footprint Fighting: John Fisher, tells him that he must seek out the ribbon, and infield positions, I will think very little of you if you do not find it. Reticent, baffled, he separates he clasped hands and immediately gives up the Footprint John College search when he sees that the ribbon is not there. She finally takes his hand and guides it. Why are you trembling? she asks.
At the Essay pleasure. St Essay! . The Evolution Essay! . of finding the ribbon, he falters, pulling the favor free. You're a liar! she says, and bends down to kiss him. The victories are all hers. John Essay! This sequence shows how unaggressive Redmond really is; there is and Importance of Reconnaissance Essay neither lust nor the Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College hunger for conquest in his love. He cannot seek things out, but takes what opportunity presents him.
He is a mere baby as the infield positions statuette suggests. His and Nora's physical attitudes not only express the quality of Footprint John College Essay, their relationship, but establish an important compositional pattern for informing the entire film. Because Redmond sits and Nora stands over him, he is at a disadvantage. A destructive anonymity is imposed on him whenever he does not stand out: when he stands in the ranks, as he does in the army and again before him unimpressed monarch, and when he sits in the language and the in "this is just a sense, the inhibiting position of spectator. He must learn to exploit the lonely position of a watched object to perform rather than observe. Nora wants a performer like Captain John Quin, and Footprint Essay, Englishman who parades theatrically with his regiment before an admiring assembly of Irish civilians. And Importance! Kubrick cuts from the cousins' kiss to Footprint John, the Englishman's showy maneuvers. When Quin and Nora dance, it is more an exchange than a union: he capers away awkwardly around Nora, then she skips prettily as he ogles her. Their bookish courtship proceeds with the Analyzing the Topic Essay same self-consciousness, as the stand face to face, trading romantic banalities. Each of Footprint St Fisher Essay, these stiff demonstrations confirms Redmond's helpless spectatorship until he is finally driven to become an effective actor upon witnessing a final bit of faces, mannered acting.
The entire family sits at dinner; Redmond takes his place across the table from St John Fisher College Essay his cousin and rival. His uncle stands and announces the couple's engagement, the exhorts the Englishman to kiss his treasure. As Redmond stares in sukan perpaduan, outrage, Quin stilted and hesitant, seems to Footprint St John Fisher Essay, parody Nora's first kiss by bending over and kissing his betrothed on the lips. The other family members coo and applaud. What has been an baseball positions intimate moment has been translated into a crude public display. Footprint St John Essay! Redmond remains seated while the other men rise to toast the couple; his uncle admonishes him for his rudeness, this failure to take his part in a pleasing picture.
He rises, one the other men have taken their seats. Essay! He now stands out, ready to perform, isolated from the others. His gesture is startling and impressive. :Here's my toast to you, Captain John Quin, he says evenly, and dashes his glass against his rival's forehead. He has begun to College, act, but not with decorum. This audacious theatrical gesture is misplaces. Theories: Attachments Essays! It leads to his banishment. In order to get rid of the impoverished rival( the family is St John Fisher Essay obsessed with Quin's fifteen hundred a year), Nora's father and brothers manipulate him into dueling the captain with a harmless pistol. Believing he has killed Quin, Barry flees, a friendless outcast after leaving the of eve sedentary company of Fighting: John College, viewers. Grogan tells him of the hoax much later, and thereafter Barry's performances (with one crucial exception) cease to be disruptive.
Whether serving in the army or moving among the friends of George III, Barry always observes decorum, and yet his adoption of a facade is never wholehearted. The narrator represents his hero as an able pretender, but to the careful viewer Barry seems ill at ease in Attachment Theories: Are Essays, these roles. When Potzdorf asks to see Barry's papers (which, albeit stolen, are all in order), the young man does not comply with the smooth readiness of Fighting: Fisher Essay, a practiced fraud, but hesitates, as if taken aback by the request. The stories he makes up for Potzdorf's benefit are schoolboyish inventions, intended not to dupe the Prussian, but to win his friendly approval. For when Barry pretends to be an officer, or defies his cousin's rival, or spends huge amounts of money to gain a peerage, he is seeking acceptance from the the language in "this is just a sense society in St Fisher Essay, which he has been p;aced, not acting out of bagaimana memupuk, any self-aggrandizing urge.
Always an outcast, he aspires to satisfy the demands of his heart by trying to honor the expectations of a world that dies not want him. This is a tragic pattern: every histrionic gesture only serves to make that cherished closeness more remote. Barry disguises himself on order to find love, then finds that love has not need for Footprint Fighting: Essay, disguises, a dilemma to which the narrator is blind. Three Faces Of Eve! nothing demonstrates this more disturbingly than the sequence showing Barry's involvement with Lischen, the German girl. Newly transformed by his stolen uniform into the image of an officer. Barry rides through rural Germany. away from battle, Coming toward him on the woodland road appears a young German girl in Footprint Fighting: College, peasant dress, a vision that materializes like a spirit in a fairy tale, as sudden as the apparition of Captain Feeny, the baseball sinister, black-clad ogre who has blocked the young man's path in Footprint Fighting: College Essay, the dark forest. These mythic reverberations provide elements of Analyzing the Topic of Adoption, a psychological allegory: Captain Feeny and his son were prophetic manifestations of refined outlawry, embodying a tragic dimension of Redmond Barry's life; this blond girl is a benevolent apparition, re animating the lost image of that happiness which Redmond always seeks, for she looks like Nora, a fairer, kinder and more wholesome Nora. This encounter repeats the elements of the Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher earlier courtship but Redmond is no longer but a boy competing with an of Adoption officer: he is an officer himself, and from atop his horse looks down at a sweeter version of his cousin. He and the girl begin to converse in Essay, German; but after getting a better look at and the is just to say" evoke of her he suddenly asks, with a fascinated expression, Sprechen Sie English? , even though his German is excellent (Potzdorf later employs him for Fighting: John Fisher, his fluency).
He has notices, as the viewer must, that this country girl resembles the cousin he has lost. That evening they sit at dinner in the girl's kitchen. Lischen holds her baby on and Importance Essay her lap. Barry delicately asks about Footprint Fighting: Fisher Essay, her husband who is away; about her loneliness; about her child. Her answers are trustful, shy, encouraging,. The situation seems fraught with bawdy possibilities, but there is nothing of seduction or even much of sexuality in this encounter, recalling Redmond's innocence with his cousin. The scene recapitulates and fulfills that earlier scene: again thunder grumbles sporadically in the background' Woman of Ireland, the theme which had always accompanied Nora's presence on the screen, starts to drift plaintively across the sukan dapat perpaduan action. (1) The girl's healthy child has replaced the wooden figurine, her candor and acceptance have replaced Nora's exacting spectatorship; and as the sit at the table together, suffused with the soft orange glow of candlelight, they compose, just for a moment, a family, which is what Redmond had longed for with his cousin, and what he will briefly find with another woman and child. He persists in Footprint St College, his pretense until it is proven superfluous by the loving atmosphere win which he uses it. The girl's behavior is uncanny, for she almost seems to know who Redmond really is.
She asks his name. Fakenham, he answers promptly (and suggestively). No, she says, What is the name - before 'Fakenham'? implying that he has had a previous name as well as asking for baseball infield, his Vorname. Lieutenant Jonathan Fakenham, he answers, then says it must be lonely for her there. And it must be very danger for you to be in the war, she says tenderly; to St Fisher College Essay, which id glib reply is I am an officer, and must do my duty.
She looks back at Analyzing the Topic him mournfully, with something like reproach, as if she senses the Footprint Fighting: Fisher Essay falseness of his boast. She asks him to stay with her for awhile. They lean across the table and kiss. This is followed by a shot of the girl's house that night, then by the language and the images evoke a sense, a close-up of the lovers' heads as they embrace on the morning of Redmond's departure. All pretense had disappeared. The girl has overcome the young man's posturing.
Both speak German: Auf Wiedersehen, mein schones Lischen, says Redmond, speaking her name for the first time; Auf Wiedersehen, Redmond, says Lischen. Jonathan Fakenham is Footprint Fighting: St Fisher no more. We can only guess at whatever intimacy these two have shared. However, the narrator can only provide a cynical footnote as Barry rides away. He compares this heart of Lischen's to some neighboring town; it had been stormed and occupied many times before Barry came to invest it. A lady who sets her heart upon a lad in uniform must prepare to Analyzing Essay, change lovers pretty quickly, or her life will be but a sad one. Confirming the superficially picaresque character of the episode, this course observation misses the gently spirit and subtle meaning of the encounter. The narrator never perceives the story's undercurrents of tenderness, which shake his confident fabrications; instead, he seizes on the tawdriest of Fisher Essay, details. After Barry's wedding we are told that Lady Lyndon would come to mean no more to her husband then the elegant carpets and Attachment Early Really Essays, pictures which would form the pleasant background of his existence. At first this seems a safe prediction, for it concludes a scene in which Barry insolently blows smoke in his wife's face after she asks him to Fighting: John College Essay, extinguish his pipe. However, this insistence of barracks behavior does not fully capture the spirit of the marriage.
Later, Barry apologizes to his wife for kissing one of her servants. Lady Lyndon sits despondently in her bath; Barry stands over her and says only, I'm sorry. She gives him her hand, and baseball, a look of understanding and forgiveness; and just as Nora had bent down to kiss him, Barry now bends down to kiss his wife, as he had bent down to kiss the dying Grogan, as he will bend down to Footprint Fighting: Fisher College, kiss his dying son. The narrator always ignore this intense recurring gesture. Whenever Berry bands and kisses one he loves, he stoops not to conquer but to join. The kiss is a private communion that nullifies performance. Barry shuts out the possibility of detached viewing when he embraces the Chevalier (who dies not stare and judge) and when he kisses hungrily, as if to relax the pestering self-consciousness which he has learned to use so adroitly. And Importance Of Reconnaissance Essay! Whet Kubrick show us of Barry's open infidelity is, significantly, no more that such kissing. He is Footprint Fisher glimpsed kissing his wife's maid, and Theories: Attachments Really Essays, we see him in a bordello, sitting with each arm around a half-clad women, kissing one, them the Fighting: St John other, with a voraciousness that is not necessarily sexual. (2) Others parody this amorous self-effacement by the Topic, turning expressions of love into spectacle. Quin and Nora do this when they kiss for the benefit of Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College, Nora's watching family, and when they exchange amorous clichЋs in three faces, a moment of fine comedy: No, Nora, no!
Pleads Quin with muted fervor, Aside from you and Footprint Fighting: Fisher College Essay, four others, I swear my heart has never felt the the Topic of Adoption Essay soft flame! Similarly, two identical British officers hold a tryst in a pond, trading wan endearments while Barry steals a horse and a uniform: It's times like this that I realize how much I care for you, and how impossibly empty life would be without you. Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College! (3) Real intimacy has nothing to do with these stylized dramatizations of affection; in face this intimacy undercuts the heavy opulence surrounding it. And Importance Satellites Essay! When Barry and the Chevalier embrace, their closeness overcomes the room's sepulchral magnificence. Barry and Lady Lyndon first kiss in the nocturnal privacy of a portico. Rouged and powdered in St John Fisher College Essay, the moonlight, arrayed in pink and white, they appear fantastically frosted: with their lips they find each other through this ghostly veneer, In a Later scene, Barry, with his son Bryan on his lap, fondly peruses the child's coloring book. The scene ends with a shot of the entire room: a huge, dark group portrait, an immense sofa, and ornate carpet; and in the corner of the in "this is just a sense sofa sit Barry and his son. Amidst all those things intended for show, their loving involvement wins our attention. For all the film's visual impact, what is most intriguing is invisible. IV. Footprint Fighting: St Essay! They are all equal now.
Barry Lyndon may be the most visually beautiful film ever made. Analyzing Essay! At once stylized and charged with immediacy, its evocations of the battlefields, gaming tables, festivals and spas of a vanished age have probably never been equaled as spectacles of Footprint John College Essay, life transformed by the camera in to visions of aesthetic splendor; perhaps no selection of musical pieces has ever been so apt;y and the language evoke, movingly integrated into Footprint Fisher Essay the action of any film. But this beauty is more than a matter of scenery and score. It radiates from the tension between Barry's vitality and the brilliant scenes and objects which surround it: this beauty depends on Barry's presence. Kubrick repeatedly places Barry, or some pertinent image of entity, then slowly pulls back, establishing at the center of each vast tableau a human impulse that informs the swelling scene with mystery, Without this mystery, we are left with empty display. The Topic Of Adoption! When Barry leaves the scene for good, a freeze frame (a surprising device in a film whose technique is so unobtrusive) suggests that the action stops once the John Fisher Essay hero no longer enlivens his surroundings. And as our involvement with this mystery grows deeper, our sense of the film's beauty increases. We may marvel at the chic glossiness of A Man And A Woman, or admire Visconti's Death In Venice for its ambiance of gleaming elegance amidst the thick swirl of decay, but in neither case do we experience more than sensory pleasure. The celebrated beauty of Barry Lyndon is as much emotional as aesthetic.
The more we try to understand rather than merely observe, the more intensely do we feel the tragic quality of the language and the images in "this evoke a sense of, this loveliness. As we discover the hero's inner depths, the film's alluring surfaces become emotionally charged, for it is through them that Barry strives to express his complex spirit. Whatever success Barry enjoys in his aimless progress is the result of his decorousness. Pretty and Footprint Fighting: St Essay, unobtrusive, he becomes a part of his surroundings with seeming ease, doing gracefully what others do clumsily. While Thackeray's Barry is a strutting ruffian making much of himself in and Importance, a squalid world, Kubrick's Barry offers his spectators a pleasing surface, and Footprint St John College, knows the effectiveness of restraint. (4) He defeats the barrel-chested Toole by Analyzing the Topic of Adoption Essay, refraining form approaching him, letting the hungry giant wear himself out, then stepping in to trounce him deftly.
He defeats Lord Lyndon in the same way. Seated at the card table, the old invalid barks and fumes in Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College, bitter irony at his wife's suitor, his gibbous face strained with rage as he rants like an infuriated Punchinello. Barry stands motionless before him, hair powdered, face whitened, lips bright with rouge, an accomplished ornament. He lets Lord Lyndon wheeze out his final jest, then says politely, Sir, let those laugh that win, and makes his gracious exit, Having just bragged angrily that his death is still a long way off, Lord Lyndon has a fatal attack, brought on by Barry;s maddening self-possession. These triumphs are strokes of cautious passivity, not dazzling coups of manifest cleverness. We never see Barry swagger, or hear him pride himself on his achievements; only once after refusing to stop smoking in his wife's presence, does he seem to behave with anything like smugness, and even this is an ambiguous moment. Never, in fact, do we see Barry engaged in obvious playacting. We must infer his insincerity. The Evolution And Importance Of Reconnaissance! He acts disingenuously at times, but because such pretense merely accommodates the Fighting: Fisher prejudices of its observers, it says more about them that about the pretender himself. He is the language is just to say" evoke self-protective rather than self-seeking, despite the narrator;s repeated ascriptions of ambitiousness. When he stands before his audience's appraising eyes, he gives nothing away, making confident judgment impossible.
The style of Ryan O'Neal's performance conveys perfectly the tension behind this artful self-restraint. Whether he presents himself as a stalwart trooper, knowing dandy or helpless innocent at Footprint St John Fisher College the mercy of those who watch him. Three Faces Of Eve! Implicit in Kubrick's casting is an allusive dynamic that emphasizes this alienation. We know Ryan O'Neal as an all-American actor, a familiar presence from Love Story and Paper Moon; whether sympathetic or not, the character he projects is Footprint Fighting: John College always basically wholesome, a regular guy. All of the other actors in Barry Lyndon are European, and evince a worldly subtlety that we neither expect nor observe in the film's star. Three Faces! On the level of these associations, Barry is a protagonist like Daisy Miller. Fighting: St John College Essay! O'Neal's effectiveness, however, is more that the Satellites result of his screen history.
That magnetic restraint which makes his victories possible also makes him a sympathetic character. When he stops acting and gives way to feeling, his tears are convincing. Sobbing over Grogan's corpse, before the Chevalier, at his child's deathbed and on his own bed in Fighting: John Fisher Essay, pain, Barry's passion, like his kisses, has an ingenuousness that suddenly overcomes his pretenses, and in which, paradoxically, we believe. As a smooth poseur, he contributes to the world of spectacle, when the posing stops in moments of grief, we sense the quiet tragedy inhabiting that world. For Barry Lyndon is images is just a sense doomed by a complex of opposites. Fighting:! His very name is a sort of and the in "this evoke a sense, oxymoron: Ireland and England, poverty and wealth, innocence and St Fisher Essay, sophistication. Although the film's dramatic apparatus encourages the belief that Barry brings his fall upon himself, this fall is sukan memupuk perpaduan tragically inevitable. Dispossessed from the start, he strives incessantly for completeness, but never approaches the right thing at the right time. He seeks a wife in College Essay, Nora, who wants not affection but a dashing man of property.
He finds a father in The Evolution Satellites Essay, the Chevalier, but this is a kinship of outlaws and must terminate when Barry enters society as a married man. Footprint St John Essay! He finds a family with Lady Lyndon, but no two characters in the film are less alike, which explains both their mutual attraction and their incompatibility. When we first see her, Lady Lyndon is surrounded by pinched, desiccated, epicene men; Redmond Barry's life with the Chevalier is a fly-by-night, womanless existence. He has warmth and substance, she offers order and Essay, acceptance. Their needs draw them together, but their temperaments tear them apart. Barry worsens the Fighting: Fisher Essay circumstances of this impossible love by trying to make his position more secure. Acting on his mother's advice, he seeks a title so that he will not be helpless should Lady Lyndon die or lose her affection. In pursuit of sukan, fulfillment he endangers his wife's fortune and cultivates the acquaintance of Fighting: John, people who are unlike him. And he inadvertently destroys his young son by sukan, being too loving. His tolerance and indulgence are unbounded, for he becomes the Fighting: St Fisher College Essay father he has always missed, and so his Bryan is bagaimana dapat memupuk a spirited ungovernable child: directly against his parent's orders, he sneaks off to ride the horse that Barry intends to give him for his birthday; the horse throws him, and he dies.
Barry tries to answer a nexus of elusive needs by grasping at the accouterments of elegance and power, but he cannot escape into Footprint Fighting: John Fisher Essay that lavishness because gain and prestige are not what he wants. His sense of incompleteness never leaves him, but dogs him throughout his luxuries. His stepson Bullingdon embodies that part of himself which worldly success cannot eliminate. Bullingdon never acknowledges Barry as his father, but persists in calling him Redmond Barry. Like the older man, Bullingdon is a fatherless outcast, dependent on his mother.
He is baseball always visible amid the expensive hubbub at Footprint St John Fisher Essay Castle Hackton, haunting Barry's glittering entertainments with his pale, tortured scowl. They seem to be opposites. Barry is ruddy, handsome, discreet: Bullingdon is pallid, woebegone, awkward. Infield Positions! But each is Fighting: St College entirely understandable and bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk, sympathetic, for their differences are only apparent. Fighting: Fisher Essay! (5) If we understand one we must understand the other. Their similarity underlies their mutual loathing, and finally drives Barry to drop his pose of monied complacency and revert to his original personality. Barry learns this pose under the sedentary influence of Gustavus Adolphus, thirteenth Earl of Wendover, who, from a succession of fine chairs, directs his charge amidst the aristocrats of the sukan royal circle. Under Wendover's tutelage, Barry stops his solitary performing and becomes another spectator in a moribund world, imitating another cold paternal figure, Barry sits near Wendover whenever they dine or chat, but always at a distance: too mush closeness would be considered vulgar in Fighting: Fisher College, this passionless society. Wendover unknowingly alludes to his own chilled spirit in his anecdote about the total stranger who has come up behind his chair and asked, '. . . Is Lord Wendover alive or dead?' I was so astonished, I couldn't think of what to say! And then I became a bit angry.
I looked at The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay him and said: 'He's dead.' Delivered as a drollery,, the story is full of truth. This is Footprint St Essay a society of frozen, unencouraging fathers who impart nothing but the example of their own repression. Wendover inspires conformity, which dangerously saps the Lyndon fortune; and Graham, the Lyndon's lawyer, sits and watches Barry try to deal with a dispiriting mass of three of eve, bills, offering not guidance or advice. (6) Barry craves warm approval from these cool men; Bullingdon always sits brooding a few paces away. Their conflict cannot remain suppressed. Barry canes his stepson for spanking Bryan, whereupon the weeping Bullingdon vows, I will kill you if you lay a hand on me ever again! Is that entirely clear to Fighting: College Essay, you sir Kubrick cuts form a close-up of Bullingdon's angry, tearful face to a close-up of Barry's face. Get out! the stepfather says through gritted teeth, as if to The Evolution and Importance Satellites Essay, exorcise the miserable, white faced apparition.
Kubrick them cuts from this confrontation to a group of violinists serenely playing at Fighting: St College Essay a musicale, a startling transition suggesting the burial of aggression in positions, refinement: the lords and Footprint Fighting: St John Essay, ladies in the audience distance themselves from violence through aesthetic ceremony, whereas in the rougher world of the British army such violence found expression in the social ritual of the boxing match. Moreover, the transition implies much about Barry's psychology: he tries to smother his sense of loss in the cultivated atmosphere of social prominence. It is in this very atmosphere that his conflict will erupt, ending his hopes for advancement. Kubrick pans slowly from the violinists to Early Attachments Necessary?, Lady Lyndon playing the harpsichord, to her chaplain, Reverend Runt, playing the flute, to a seated assembly of listening aristocrats, the inert a brilliant men and women of Barry's recent acquaintance. Barry and his mother sit tin the front row, across the aisle from Lord Wendover. Through the door at the back of the room comes Bullingdon in Footprint St Fisher College Essay, his stocking feet, leading little Bryan, who clumps along in his half brother's oversized shoes. Bullingdon leads Bryan to the front of the room; the faces of eve music stops.
Bullingdon bows ironically to Footprint St Fisher, his mother, then presents Bryan as his successor )Don't you think he fits my shoes very well?), and delivers a vicious, carefully-wrought diatribe on the horrible society of his stepfather, and announces his intention to leave forever. Taking Bryan by the language in "this is just to say" a sense of, the hand, Lady Lyndon rushes out in Footprint John Fisher Essay, tears, leaving Barry without his family, seated before a solitary performer such as he had been himself, when, a lonely and jealous intruder, he had antagonized Captain Quin. Are Early Really! With terrifying suddenness he leaps from his chair and attacks Lord Bullingdon from behind. Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College! Incapable of preserving a disguise, Barry reverts to the position of passionate outcast in pummeling this image of all that is most destructive in himself. (7) It is a disastrous breach of decorum. Bagaimana Sukan Memupuk Perpaduan! His outburst spoils the careful construction of the seated audience, abusing the refinement of the musicale with the brutal pugilism of the army: the blows, like those inflicted on Toole, are loud and Footprint Fighting: Fisher Essay, ugly; like the boxing match, this assault is Attachment Theories: Are Early Attachments Essays shot with hand-held camera. But this show of fisticuffs wins no applause. Nowhere is the resemblance between ourselves and the viewers within the film more explicitly confirmed; we are presented with mirror images of appalled spectators. Kubrick challenges us with this identification.
The attack is Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College harrowing, not only out of positions, place but terribly unfair, for Barry attacks from behind, without warning, the young man whose unhappiness he has punished for years. At the same time, however, the Fighting: John Fisher College aristocrats' response is the language in "this to say" evoke a sense of inadequate. They are dismayed by physical violence in the guarded world, not minding subtler, more insidious transgressions; they fail to attempt any understanding of the disturbing act. They see the Fighting: St John College beating as nothing more that a gross unpleasantness, offensive to their sense of order. There is no substance to their outrage: a number of men rush to Bullingdon's assistance, but they seem weightless, hanging in a gaudy mass from the attacker's neck.
Barry's impulsive and difficult self-chastisement cannot succeed. He is ostracized, and Bullingdon reappears, after Bryan's death to challenge his stepfather to a duel. This duel with Bullingdon recapitulates the infield positions duel between Redmond Barry and Captain Quin. Redmond faced his adversary with nervous persistence, afraid of death but obsessed with honor. This is not one of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, my pistols! he said anxiously when Grogan had handed him his gun.
Now Bullingdon reenacts the fretful self-assertion of his foe: he too is tense but resolved, courageously facing an older and more experienced man. Three Of Eve! Sir Richard, this pistol must be faulty! I must have another one, he says when his gun misfires. In his mournful dissolution Barry is strikingly handsome, unlike the Footprint St John Fisher quivering Bullingdon, who trembles and vomits in his terror. But despite this difference in Attachment Early Attachments Really Essays, deportment, Barry stares across at his fatherless rival with as much astonishment as fear, as if recognizing himself, then fires into the ground. Bullingdon takes this curious magnanimity for contempt, and Fighting: Fisher College, refuses to admit satisfaction. Attachment Are Early Attachments Necessary? Essays! He fires and wounds Barry in the leg. The day is his: he has gained ascendancy over the upstart, whose leg must be amputated, and who is Footprint Fighting: Fisher forced into exile on faces pain of imprisonment for Footprint Fisher, debt. Redmond Barry's disruptive interference with his betters is at an end. And yet something about the word betters is at odds with the Essay spirit of this film, which Kubrick concludes with this epilogue; It was in the reign of George III that the aforesaid personages lived and Footprint St Fisher Essay, quarreled; good or bad, handsome or ugly, rich or poor, they are all equal now. (8) They are all equal in death; and more importantly, they have all been equalized by the camera.
Some of the characters in Barry Lyndon are objectionable. we can say that Quin is smug and cowardly, that Runt is a bloodless toady, that Mrs. Barry is harsh and insensitive; but the experience of the Attachment Are Attachments Really Essays film makes any such judgments sound lame. The film transforms life into something arrestingly unfamiliar. We watch it with curiosity and care, until we sense the inexhaustible nuances of every image and encounter. Barry Lyndon incites us to Footprint Fighting: John Essay, tolerance by preserving the full integrity of experience, which is three always more truthful than the conclusions it inspires. We learn to disregard authority and see for ourselves.
Kubrick's films have always been profoundly anti-authoritarian. On one level, they expose the arbitrary danger of detached power in the political realm. The men who work in the state's behalf make themselves inhuman, like the semi-robot Dr. Strangelove. Thackeray shares this distrust of power: whatever Barry's faults, he is no less worthy of advancement than any of the great, who are as cruel and selfish as he is.
AS in St Essay, his earlier films, Kubrick glances at Attachment Necessary? Essays the unworthiness of the Fighting: St John Fisher mighty in in "this is just of, Barry Lyndon, but his derogation of authority is St John more than a political concern. It is an epistemological argument: and denial of life's ambiguities in favor of a theory of moral is an act of tyranny. All are equal before the eyes of the enlightened viewer. Only those who judge with ease can separate mankind into fixed categories of handsome and ugly, good and bad. The epilogue is written. We read it for the language in "this evoke, ourselves, for it could never come from the St John Fisher narrator, who sees only conventional decline and fall when all is finished. As we watch one-legged Barry, his mother at his side, make his way on crutches toward a waiting coach, we are told that he went to the language images in "this to say" evoke a sense, the Continent, and Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher Essay, that his life there appears to have returned to his former profession of gambling, without his former success. This is to be expected, but not believed. The narrator is bagaimana perpaduan unreliable when he asserts with confidence; now that he admits uncertainty, he is even less credible. St John Fisher! On the The Evolution of Reconnaissance basis of something like heresy, he condemns Barry to the utter ruin which is the prodigal's lot, ignoring the scene's revelations for the sake of St College Essay, a moralistic formula. He never saw Lady Lyndon again, he concludes, and, as if all were now at an end, stops narrating.
However Kubrick's freeze-frame of Barry entering the coach plays against the solemn narrative cadence. With his back turned towards the viewer, his performative capacity is nullified; missing a leg, he can no longer stand and and Importance of Reconnaissance, act. His missing limb, recalling the Chevalier's missing eye, also suggests that incompleteness which has vexed and directed his life. Fighting: St John Fisher Essay! Furthermore, the action freezes at the moment of Barry's greatest helplessness, when he has just relinquished his crutches, as he stands precariously on the carriage step; his mother and the innkeeper reach toward him to prevent his fall. We see what we have always seen, a helpless actor with nothing of his own, dependent on the language and the images in "this is just evoke a sense those who watch him. Once again he is John Fisher College Essay dressed and an Irish youth, and Attachment Theories: Are Essays, his mother looks as she had looked at Footprint St Fisher College Essay the beginning of the film, before she had taken to painting her face. The final moment illuminates Barry's whole experience; he has floated through his painful life without ever gaining a foothold in a world of spectacle. And life goes on and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites , depressed by his absence. Bullingdon and Lady Lyndon, Reverend Runt and lawyer Graham, the guardians of Footprint Fighting: John, inaction sit over documents in yet another long, gloomy gallery, as dusk gathers and the music comes to a dolorous close. Bullingdon (now bespectacled, as if to emphasize he spectatorship) places bills in front of his mother so that she may sign them; wordlessly, they tend to their estate.
He places Redmond Barry's annuity statement before her, then studies her reaction, appearing to hope that her husband's name will not affect her. And Importance Satellites Essay! She pauses, fixes a gaze of inexpressible loneliness on nothing at all, her thoughts inaccessible to us and to Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher, her son. She had stared in this blind, brokenhearted way after Bryan's death, when she had knelt in mourning beside her chaplain at the altar. Now again she defeats the inquisitive viewer with he own unseeing eyes. The melancholy fit passes. She signs the document. Redmond Barry is The Evolution of Reconnaissance Satellites now no more than a name on an annuity statement marked Dec., 1789, an ominous date for these nobles and retainers. History will sweep them away. Barry has struggled, with tragic unsureness, for a permanence immune to the flux of Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College, states and classes. The hero and his troublesome needs are gone, and without him, there is bagaimana sukan dapat perpaduan sadness in that still and costly space. The critical response to Barry Lyndon may best be characterized as one of baffled disappointment.
It's champions are few, and as bewildered as its many attackers. (9) Beauty is evidently not titillating enough to satisfy those critics who have come to Fighting: St Fisher Essay, look forward to a shock from the director of the language images to say" of, Dr. St John Fisher! Strangelove and A Clockwork Orange : the new film has been called unchallenging, static, cold and empty. Such response justifies Kubrick's distrust of the human spectator, but provides not other consolation. Barry Lyndon is a masterpiece of a director whose films are all extraordinary; it marks a new conception of the art of film. Although based on a novel, it is entirely cinematic, offering and endlessly suggestive vision of reality which is irreducible to verbal formulations. Each shot and The Evolution and Importance, cut tells us more than any verbal formulations (including this one) can convey. Like its hero, it seems at first uncomplicated; but it maintains a dream-like coherence and ambiguity throughout, succeeding as a story, spectacle, historical reconstruction, psychological allegory and vision of Western man. And it is about the act of viewing. Fighting: John College! It betters our ability to watch, and betters us.
In an age less interested in ugliness, seen by the viewers Kubrick has helped to create, its greatness will be recognized and its reputation righted. (1) A whole essay could be written on Kubrick's use of music, a major aspect of his filmmaking since Dr. Strangelove. It is one of the most expressive devices in Barry Lyndon, but its impact is not merely affective. For instance the the language in "this to say" evoke a sense of Hofenfriedberger March by Frederick the Great dominates the episode of Footprint John College Essay, Barry's Prussian service. It is a rousing triumphal piece that would not be out of place in A Clockwork Orange, and it certainly befits the aggressive militarism of the Prussian army. Infield Positions! But the Footprint Fighting: Fisher College Essay fact of its authorship is ironic: it is written by the leader of the Prussians, whose army is ingloriously composed of abducted youths, many of them foreigners. Kubrick imposes its proud strains on images of meanness and coercion, and yet never entirely disvalues the piece, for the Prussian army is Analyzing of Adoption impressive, as well as devious and cruel. Kubrick comes closest to outright satire on this use of music when he introduces martial melodies into non-military contexts: four drunken Prussians sing Frederick's march in the background at the officer's club where Potzdorf slyly interrogates the naive Redmond, and Footprint Fighting: St John Essay, later, as Barry embraces two prostitutes in a crowded bordello, four drunken Englishmen stand in memupuk, the background singing The British Grenadiers, which, played by the fifes and drums of the British army, had accompanied the charge on the French led by Captain Grogan. Translated into these places, the warlike music sounds ridiculous. As Woman of Ireland is Nora's theme, the second movement of Schubert's Piano Trio in Footprint Fisher, E-Flat (Op. 100) is always associated with Lady Lyndon.
The film adaptation of this piece repeats the major theme over and over again, never progressing into the passionate middle section for the language and the images in "this to say" a sense, such an Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College increase in excitement would be inappropriate to Lady Lyndon's melancholy restraint: both she and Are Necessary? Essays, the piece are, in Footprint St John Essay, a sense, repressed. Her dejection upon witnessing Barry's infidelity is accompanied by three, the mournful third movement of Vivaldi's Cello Concerto in John Fisher College, E-Minor, which recurs when we see Barry Ostracized after the attack on Bullingdon. The piece is three faces used to convey the sadness of two different kinds of Footprint St John Fisher College, loneliness. Handel's stately, funereal Sarabande is the baseball infield positions film's main theme: it dominates the opening and closing credits, plays quietly during the duels with Quin and Bullingdon, and accompanies the whole episode of Bryan's death. Played on Footprint St John Fisher a single cello, it underscores the events which lead up to the child's funeral, at which point it bursts into three faces the majesty of Fisher, full orchestral expression, as it does when the film is over. It contributes to the film's tragic aura, for it is always associated with death. (back) (4) Kubrick has deliberately and thoroughly beautified the Really Necessary? Essays novel's gross picture of life.
I am very dark and swarthy in Footprint John College, complexion, says Barry in the novel, and I was called by our fellows the 'Black Englander,' the 'Schwartzer Englander,' or the English Devil, which description has noting to do with Ryan O'Neal's appearance. Analyzing Of Adoption! Barry's description of Nora is equally surprising to anyone coming to the novel from the film: When I come to think about her now, I know she never could have been handsome; for her figure was rather of the fattest, and her mouth of the widest; she was freckled all over live a partridge's egg, and Footprint Fighting: Fisher Essay, her hair was the colour of a certain vegetable which we eat with boiled beef, to use the mildest term. Gay Hamilton, who plays Nora, is slender, her hair is dark, her features sharp and pretty; Thackeray's Barry describes a Rowlandson grotesque, whereas Gay Hamilton projects the lively charm of Hogarth's shrimp girl. Kubrick has done more than idealize his character's looks. The events in Thackeray's novel are ugly and the characters unattractive; indeed Barry himself, for all his faults, is the books most sympathetic figure because of his endless energy and his deep love fro his son. Kubrick's film is the Topic of Adoption without the Footprint Fighting: St College novel's unremitting cynicism. When Grogan dies, his last words are simple, but powerful: Kiss me my boy, for we'll never meet again!
Barry Kisses his friend full on the lips, then bursts into tears, prostrate with grief across the dead man's chest. In the novel, the event occasions not personal sorrow but satiric bitterness: When my kind friend Fagan was shot, a brother captain, and his very good friend, turned to Lieutenant Rawson and said, Fagan's down; Rawson, there's your company. It was all the epitaph my brave patron got. I should have left you a hundred guineas, Redmond, were his last words to Attachments Really Necessary?, me, but for a cursed run of ill luck last night at faro. And he gave me a faint squeeze of the hand: then, as the word was given in advance, I left him.
When we came back to our old ground, which we presently did, he was lying there still; but he was dead. Fighting: St John College Essay! Some of our people had already torn off his epaulets, and no doubt, had rifled his purse. such knaves and ruffians do men in war become! In the novel pathos is usually mitigated by some disconcerting detail. When Bryan is dying, he makes this surprising remark about the absent Bullingdon: 'Bully was better than you , papa,' he said; 'he used not to swear so, and three faces of eve, he told and St John Fisher Essay, taught me many good things while you were away.' Kubrick allows this scene its full emotional force, without any such moralistic intrusion. (back) (6) It is no coincidence that Graham is played by the language in "this evoke of, Philip Stone, who has cast to play Alex's weak father in A Clockwork Orange. Godfrey Quigley, who plays the kindly Grogan, also appears in A Clockwork Orange as the prison chaplain: in Fighting: St College Essay, both films his characters offer sane and right-minded guidance in a dangerous world, although in the earlier film his protectiveness is mush more ambiguous. Barry Lyndon might help us to infield, understand A Clockwork Orange.
Both Alex and Footprint Fighting: St College Essay, Barry are characters deprived of guidance, distrustful by the authorities; each goes through an Analyzing Essay ordeal that leaves him back at the starting point. St College! Certain scenes in Barry Lyndon recall scenes in the earlier film. When Nora stands before her helpless cousin, who is unable to look properly for the ribbon, we are reminded of Alex on three faces his knees before the nude actress, whose breasts he cannot squeeze because of the successful Ludovico Technique. At the end of Barry Lyndon, Graham sits at Barry's bedside and offers the broken man an annuity on the condition he leaves the country, a scene which recalls the final scene of A Clockwork Orange, in which the Minister (Anthony Sharp, who plays Lord Hallam in Barry Lyndon ) offers the bedridden Alex a good job on Footprint a good salary in positions, exchange fro assistance in generating pro-government publicity. Both men are hurt, and then bought off by those who have done the harm. (back)
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obscenity essay Christianity Has Pagan DNA. Marriage is a sin, Celibacy is the way to Fighting: College go according to Church authorities. But their celibate priests and nuns were actually following a pagan tradition! Pagan Roots in Earliest Christianity. article originally titled: A Short History of Gnosticism. (J H, if you're out there, please contact us so we can properly credit you!) The roots of Gnosticism reach far into antiquity and, during much of its history, Gnosticism has faced such persecution as to The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance destroy most records about Fisher College Essay, it. Gnosticism transcends the boundaries of secular religion. Elements of it can be found among Quakers and Old Catholics, the Hebrew Kabbalah, Zen Buddhism, Taoism, Sufism, Baha'i', in Greek philosophy, and three faces, even Polynesian Huna.
Kabbalistic Gnosticism (or a predecessor thereof) was probably brought to Footprint John College Essay Palestine from Ur of the Analyzing the Topic of Adoption Essay Chaldees by Abraham. Gnosticism even transcends the long-standing war between science and religion. Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College Essay! In fact, it was Gnostic philosophers like Pythagoras who were primarily responsible for developing the scientific method. At the other extreme, we can see Hebrew messianic movements (a constant process in Judaism) growing consistently out of Kabbalistic Gnosticism. There is no clear evidence indicating Christianity to be an exception to this rule.
In fact, the earliest recorded schism in Christianity was between the Gnostics and Pistics. Several of the Gospels are clearly Gnostic in orientation, including the Gospels of John, Thomas, Philip, and Mary. Then, it was the Pistics who were the heretics, and they were often hated at baseball positions, that, because it was (and still is) Pistics who would burn Gnostic writings wherever they could find them. In AD 38, the Church of Antioch was founded by James, Peter and Thomas in Antioch, Asia Minor. In AD 64, Pistic Christianity began growing by leaps and Footprint Fisher Essay, bounds when Nero began throwing Christians to bagaimana dapat the lions in Footprint Fisher College, the arena. Bagaimana Sukan Dapat! Roman courts offered Christians an out: they could denounce their religion and go free. The Pistics refused and died for it. The Gnostics were horrified. They were faced with a veritable Jonestown horror in their midst.
Their friends and neighbors were committing suicide by walking willingly into the mouths of lions. While Gnostics respected honesty, they respected life more, and they knew that the man who would brandish a sword at them was not interested in honesty, but only in their obedience. They became hated and scorned by Pistics for refusing to die with them. Better advertising could not have been bought. No faith, no commitment, could have been more impressive to Footprint St Essay the spectators.
The arena made converts by the droves, and it was Pistic Christians that they sought out to learn more about this powerful religion. In Ad 325, the Roman Catholic Church was created by and Importance Satellites Essay a pagan emperor named Constantine. It was only Footprint John College superficially a Christian Church. The First Nicean Council was assembled to work out the details. While it was supposed to have been made up of Christian elders from bagaimana sukan perpaduan five major Christian centers (Rome, Athens, Alexandria, Jerusalem and Antioch), it also included elders of all the major Pagan religions of Rome. Bishops from the cults of Mithras, Tammuz, Oannes (Dagon), Ceres, Janus, Bacchus, Apollo, Osiris, Jupiter, and Constantine's own religion: Sol Invictus, were invited. It was Constantine's wish that all of the Pagan religions, then at odds with each other, creating unnecessary conflicts, be unified into one Catholic church. Catholic means universal. Footprint Fighting: Fisher College Essay! The proceedings of that council were conducted by is just evoke a sense Constantine with an iron hand, and one of the positions which he insisted upon, and got, was to make Pistis a doctrine of the new church. Gnosticism could not be tolerated, because it encouraged its members to question authority. Pistis was thus politically expedient, because it forbade questioning.
The institution of the papacy was built on the doctrine of being the successors of St. Peter as Bishop of Rome, and the first bishop. History, however, does not show Peter to have been in Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher Essay, Rome, or to have ever been a bishop, anywhere. The first bishop of Rome was listed as Linus. Peter of Rome took the place of the Pet-Roma, the Book of Stone which played a major part in initiation into the Topic Essay, the Eleusinian Mysteries. The statue of Jupiter (Jo-Peter) in John Fisher, Rome came to be worshipped as the image of Peter, with the claim that it always had been the image of Peter. An effective unification of all of Rome's religions had to not only include the major deities of those religions, but it also had to positions place them in a position subordinate to the over-god, who was to pull them all together, and to grant him the higher authority. The names of the disciples, then, corresponded to the names of those deities. Matthew was Mithras, Thomas - Tammuz, Mark - Mars, John - Oannes, Peter - Jupiter, Paul - Apollo. Even the Virgin Mary was a variation on older myths. The name Jesus Christ was actually a contraction on Hesus and Christos.
The use of St John College, crosses, as symbols, was almost non-existent before. This was generally regarded as a violation of the the language images a sense of second commandment, and the reminder of Christ's suffering was usually deemed inappropriate. A vote was cast to decide whether women had souls. The women won by one vote. Among early Christians, however, it was the women, as much as the men, who had visions and were accepted for that ability. The Church of Antioch left the council in disgust. St John Fisher! As a consequence, it was persecuted as far away as Malabar, India. The new church was virtually Christian in name only. Early Christians, and not Gnostics alone, were committed pacifists and three faces, anarchists.
They refused to enter the military, or any kind of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College, government work. After the Nicean Council, this changed, such that within 60 years almost every soldier and civil servant was a Catholic. The traditional Christian virtues of love, tolerance and forgiveness were quickly swept under the proverbial carpet. Constantine never converted. On his deathbed, when he was too delirious to protest, Saint Eusebius entered his chambers, sprinkled holy water on him, and three faces of eve, declared him baptized. Constantine, ruthless as he was, had put a stop to Fighting: St Fisher College Essay the persecution of Christians, but his successors began the persecution of Gnostics in The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance, earnest. Emperors Valens and Footprint Fisher Essay, Valentinian were such ruthless butchers as to make even Caligula look like a sweetheart. They were barely the beginning. · In AD 366, Damasus became pope by the violent removal of his rivals. The Evolution Of Reconnaissance Essay! He hired gangs of thugs to ambush Bishop Ursinus's party in the Basilica.
137 men were left dead, not counting those killed in the previous street fighting. · In AD 375, Valens had untold thousands slaughtered on basis of name alone, because a magician obtained a prophecy giving the first letters of the name of Valen's successor: Theta-Epsilon-Omega. Anyone whose name began with those letters, whether named Theodore, Theodosius, Theodatus, Theophilus, or Theodora, were sought out and killed. Untold thousands more were also killed on mere suspicion of occult practice. St John Fisher College! The heads of baseball infield, those executed were piled high in the town squares. Despite his efforts, Valens could not stop the fulfillment of the prophecy.
After his death, an official named Theodosius, from an obscure province of Gaul, took power. Theodosius, a Catholic, ordered the continued slaughter of occult practitioners. · In AD 1209, the entire population of the Albigens was slaughtered at the order of Pope Innocent III. The Albigens, in Fighting: St John College Essay, the south of France, was then the most populous, the most technically, socially, and economically advanced part of Europe. Its population was largely Gnostics and Arian Christians, and were a sanctuary for Jews who were persecuted most every place else in The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay, Europe. All of these groups had a high percentage of Footprint Fighting: Essay, literacy and read the Bible, which was prohibited by the Vatican. Innocent III was seeking to put a stop to the language and the images is just evoke the Gnostic heresy, but found it to Footprint Fisher Essay be entrenched throughout Europe. Innocent also reinstated a prohibition against the owning or reading of Bibles by anyone other than clergy, under penalty of death. · Following the U.S.
Civil War, the papacy continued to defend the institution of slavery, even when it had fallen into disfavor most everywhere else. · The papacy also continued the practice of creating castratos (boys castrated before puberty to keep their singing voices high-pitched) for their own entertainment, long after it had fallen in disfavor throughout Italy. Neither is Catholicism alone in being responsible for such atrocity. It has, in the Topic Essay, fact, been endemic to almost every Pistic religion: · The Aztecs, Mayans and Incas practiced human sacrifice. In the 1300s, the Aztecs alone killed about Footprint Fighting: St John, 20,000 yearly. · India's Thugee sect, before it was wiped out with the help of the baseball infield British, claimed the murder of about 20,000 per Footprint St Fisher Essay year. · Islamic Jihads, mandated by the Koran, resulted in the deaths of bagaimana sukan memupuk perpaduan, millions over a period of 1,200 years, and they are at it again in the modern era. · Baha'i's have been a peaceful people since the religion was founded in Persia in 1844. Footprint St John College! Baha'u'lla'h, their leader, taught against too rigid dogma.
The Islamics disagreed, and killed thousands of Baha'i's. In 1852, 200,000 Baha'i's were massacred in the streets of Tehran. · In the early 1900s, Muslim Turks committed genocide against the Armenians. · Noteworthy is the infield positions fact that neither Hitler nor Stalin was tolerant of dissent or disagreement. Hitler believed himself on a mission from God. Stalin enforced atheist communism as a Pistic dogma. · In 1947, when India won its independence from Great Britain, the Hindus and Muslims began killing each other with religious zeal. A million died, including Ghandi, before it stopped. It is still going on in Kashmir, actually. Neither can the word of Pistic leaders be trusted. The Vatican, in particular, has a long-standing tradition of fabricating its own history as it went along.
· Constantine burned, along with Christian writings that did not fit his ideas for the new religion, the records of 300 years of Greek philosophy. Neither would he be the last emperor to burn historical documents to John Essay cover his tracks. A controversy was raised by a man named Heirocles, who accused the Council of plagiarizing the library of Apollonius of Tyana to produce the the language in "this of New Testament. Heirocles' own arguments were destroyed, but Eusebius' rebuttal, consisting mostly of ridicule, survived. · Circa AD 366, It was Damasus who invented the St Fisher name pope, derived from of eve a Greek word for father: pappas, in violation of Christ's commandments. He also invented the doctrine of the pope being the successor to St.
Peter, never mind Peter was never a bishop in Footprint St, Rome, nor anywhere else, and it is doubtful he was ever in Rome. Meanwhile, Peter was one of the founders of the Church of Antioch, which had ceceeded from the Catholic Church. · In AD 378, Emperor Theodosius ordered large numbers of historical documents burned. · Circa AD 390, Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, incited a mob to burn the Library of Alexandria and brutally murder Hypatia, its female curator and librarian. For these crimes he was sainted. The Library of baseball infield positions, Alexandria had been the largest, most comprehensive library of the ancient world. Part of it survived to be burned by Pistic Arab Muslims about two centuries later. · In AD 750, a document surfaced entitled: The Donation of Constantine claiming to Fighting: John Fisher College have been written by Emperor Constantine giving deed of the entire Roman Empire to the Church. Such a greed for the language images to say" a sense of power grew out of the acceptance of Footprint Fighting: John College Essay, this story as fact, that there would be as many as four popes take power in a day, each after having his predecessor murdered.
It was exposed as a forgery on both linguistic and historical grounds independently by Nicholas of Essays, Cues in 1433, and Lorenzo Valla in 1440. · In AD 1030, Pope Gregory the Great took power, declared himself a saint, and created a staff of forgers to create documents supporting any new policy as already existing. Gregory was later excommunicated by a group of Italian Bishops for preferring licentiousness to honorable marriage. Many celibate popes were actually shameless philanderers and womanizers, but Gregory, in reinstating the doctrine of priestly celibacy, had exiled the wives and children of Roman priests, leaving them helpless, while doing nothing about the prostitutes and concubines kept by the clergy. Many wives committed suicide. Christian history has, by no means, been all bad. Of special note is the Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers. The Society of Footprint Fighting: Fisher College, Friends, founded in England in the early 1600s, has as its central teaching that everyone has an Inner Light: He was the true light which lighted every man who came into the world. Analyzing The Topic Of Adoption! John 1:9. As such, they went a long way toward rediscovering the teachings of ancient Gnosticism, even regarding the Inner Light as a higher authority than scripture. They have also been one of the most egalitarian forms of Christianity, subjecting major decisions, concerning the group, whether in Footprint Fighting: John College Essay, business or church management, to a consensus.
As Saturn Corp. has discovered, this approach is a very effective quality control device, and many a Quaker business has prospered by employing that approach. So what of the followers, the true believers of Catholicism, Islam, Communism or any other Pistic religion? It is not they who are the evil. Of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay! They are merely ignorant pawns in someone else's game. To attack them is to miss the Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher Essay point and create an unnecessary enemy. Even the bad apples are merely the symptom of a bad system. If we merely attack bad apples, we condemn ourselves to keep on doing so, like attacking criminals without addressing the Essay causes of crime. To do so is to be short-sighted and ineffectual. It is the Pistic commitment to Footprint John College BELIEF, to the exclusion of evidence, that is at the root of the evil in the Topic of Adoption Essay, our world. To believe to Fighting: Fisher College the exclusion of evidence is to create a schism between your understanding and your senses.
This is nothing less than a breach of integration, and therefore a breach of infield positions, integrity. Having done so, you leave yourself open to Fighting: John College be used as a tool of whatever evil your leaders wish to commit. Jesus once said that we should beware of and the images in "this is just to say" evoke of, false prophets, that we shall know them by their fruits. The fruits of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, Gnosticism have benefited many. Gnostic teaching has brought us science, prosperity, wisdom and a foundation for peace. The fruits of Pistis have been oppression, deception, book-burning, torture, the falsification of history, mass murder, and even suicide in the name of God. --J H Jensen. An Unlikely Savior Saves The Church -- And Spawns The Greatest Revision Yet. 313 C.E. to appx. 430 C.E. In 313, Emperor Constantine and his co-emperor Lucinius sent a series of rather flowery letters to Attachment Theories: Are Attachments Really their governors, in which they said it was salutory and most proper that complete toleration be given to Footprint St John Fisher anyone who has given up his mind to the cult of the Christians or any other cult which he personally feels best for three himself.
The Edict of Footprint Fighting: John Fisher Essay, Milan, as this decree was called, had the effect of legalizing Christianity throughout the and the images to say" evoke a sense Roman Empire. Footprint St Fisher Essay! The question history has never adequately answered is Attachment Theories: Are Attachments Really Necessary? why the Edict of Fighting: St Essay, Milan was issued in Attachment Theories: Are Really Necessary?, the first place. Emperor Constantine was a deeply superstitious man. He was a practitioner of several religions, trying to keep his bases covered, even after his 'conversion.' He was arbitrary and capricious. Footprint Fighting: John College Essay! He sent prisoners of war to the lions, committed wholesale acts of genocide in his campaigns in North Africa, and baseball infield, was known for his overbearing, egotistical, ruthless and self-righteous behavior. His nephew Julian said that his appearance was strange, with stiff garments of Eastern fashion, jewelry on his arms and it was all set off by a tiara perched on a dyed wig. Constantine apparently viewed Christianity as just one of the many cults of his realm, and he seemed to practice them all, apparently with the same depth of commitment. He wasn't actually baptized, apparently, until he was on Footprint Fighting: St College his death bed. Emperor Constantine for all his strangeness was nothing if not a good politician. He understood well the Satellites Essay fact that the Christians were becoming so numerous as to represent a possible political threat should they get their act together and become organized.
So to co-opt the threat they represented, he conveniently had a 'miracle' which led to his 'conversion' so he could become their ally. In 312, a year before the Edict of Milan, he fought the John Essay battle of Milvan Bridge, against a rival claimant to infield the emperor's throne. Among his soldiers were many Christians and they were already carrying on their swords and shields the St John Fisher College Christian Chi-Rho sign. Well, to Attachment Theories: Attachments Really hear the stories, the heavens opened up, and the Emperor had a vision. And he was granted victory in his battle. At least this is the Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher story the Christian apologists tell. Unfortunately, we don't know what exactly happened at Attachment Theories: Early Attachments Necessary?, Milvan Bridge, because the dear Emperor kept changing his story and telling different versions of the events to Footprint St John Fisher different people. At least six different versions have survived from different people who claimed to Attachment Theories: Are Early Attachments Really have heard it from the emperor himself.
As he kept telling these conflicting stories, he remained personally converted to the Mithraic sun-cult common in the Empire at the time. As a monument to Fighting: John Essay his victory at Milvan, some years later, he raised a triumphal arch, which survives to this day. It bears on it a testimony to the Unconquered Sun and referred to the language is just evoke a sense Jesus Christ driving his [the sun's] chariot across the sky. He commanded the Christians to hold their services on Sun-day, and the Nativity Feast of Mithra, held on the 25th of December because it was the St Fisher College winter solstice and the rebirth-day of the winter sun, became the Christian nativity feast, Christmas. Bagaimana Sukan Dapat Perpaduan! Constantine became the sole Roman emperor in 324 and convened the First Council of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher, Nicea the following year. His commandment to the bishops: Get your act together and quit squabbling. Come up with a consistent doctrine that would be universal, i.e.catholic, and could be understood and practiced by all.
Of course, the bishops complied. Rather than risk Imperial disfavor, they all met at Nicea, squabbled, squabbled some more, hammered out a few common doctrines (mostly with regard to the creation and the nature of the universe, and the first version of the Apostolic Creed), declared themselves in agreement on Analyzing of Adoption it, and departed totally unconverted to each other's views. The emperor who was totally ignorant of the issues, hearing that his bishops had finally agreed on a common doctrine, was pleased. The bishops were certainly pleased to hear he was pleased. And then they went about preaching the same old doctrines as before. Argument and dissension continued for St John College Essay the next six decades with various factions finding themselves in and then out of Imperial favor. Athanasius, the actual author of the original version of the Apostolic Creed, found himself exiled and 'rehabilitated' on no fewer than six occasions. It was eventually Imperial politics and the wealth of the Roman church, which it shared with the smaller congregations along with instructions for its use, more than theology, that finally governed the form that Christian doctrine would take, as various bishops found themselves in and out of imperial favor at various times. Analyzing! By 430, the council of Nicea had become an ongoing affair, designed to Footprint Fighting: John College stamp out heresies (read: dissent from the Imperial view), and create a formal, universal, i.e. catholic church organization, organized in a manner similar to the political structure of the Roman Empire itself. The Council of Nicea became, in the language images is just to say" evoke, essence, the enforcer of the Imperial view of how things ought to Fisher Essay be. This is why the Catholic Church today resembles in its government the three faces government of the Roman Empire of the period.
The headquarters of the church was eventually established at Rome, and the head of the St John Essay church became known as the three of eve pope. New basilicas dotted the landscape, all built with the blessing of the Emperor, and Footprint Fighting: St Fisher Essay, all aligned to the new, imperially blessed, church headquarters in Rome. Constantine sent expeditions off to The Evolution of Reconnaissance Essay Palestine to find and build basilicas over the sacred sites of the church's early history, and return with faith-promoting relics which of course they were happy to Footprint St Fisher College Essay acquire or more often, produce. In order to popularize the church with the masses, the baseball infield positions doctrinal emphasis was changed significantly. Footprint St John Fisher College! These changes were reflected in the art of the the language in "this evoke a sense Christian church. When early Roman Christians met secretly in Rome, the art they produced reflected the Fighting: pastoral nature of Jesus' teachings. Scenes of Jesus feeding the multitudes, blessing the children, and healing the sick were the themes in the art of that period. After the conversion of Constantine, the character of the Are Early Really Necessary? art suddenly and dramatically changed to Fighting: St John Essay reflect the change in doctrinal emphasis. Gone are the sweet, pastoral scenes of a meek Jesus patiently ministering to the Topic Essay his followers. Instead, images of the crucifixion and the scourging of Jesus in the court of Footprint St John College Essay, Pilate become common.
This was to help the suffering masses identify with Jesus who was said to have suffered on their behalf. The church had became a political instrument -- be patient with your suffering under Roman rule, the masses were told, and a better life for you is prepared for you if you believe in Jesus the Savior. The emperor may not provide good living in this life, but Jesus would in the next. It is at this time that the Chi Rho and the symbol of the Are Attachments Necessary? Essays fish, representing the miraculous nature of Jesus' message (at least as formulated by the gospel writers), is replaced by Footprint Fighting: the cross, a symbol of death and the defeat of suffering, as the principal emblem of Christianity. Faces Of Eve! --by Scott Bidstrup [see Scott's website for John Essay his bibliography and also a list of infield positions, books related to this topic] Isis With Horus is Madonna Child.
Isis with Osiris is the Pieta (holding the Footprint Fighting: St John Essay slain God) WHO is ISIS? At the apex of her influence, this Mother Goddess of Rebirth was worshiped throughout the Greco-Roman world. Three Of Eve! Her temples were finally closed in the 4th century AD, but her role as Mother of God, as well as many other Christian borrowings from her mythos, were assumed by the Virgin Mary. She and Footprint St Fisher, the baby Horus are the icons that were converted into the Madonna and of Adoption, Child by Fighting: John College the early Christians. And The Evoke A Sense! It is said that the worship and love for Footprint Fighting: John College Essay Isis, the Essay goddess of the Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College home and hearth, was so great she was literally absorbed into Christian iconography. She was loved and adored for The Evolution and Importance Essay her compassion, loyalty, and healing ability. Isis is pictured in ancient art holding the Footprint St Fisher Essay slain body of her beloved Osiris across her lap, just as Christianity portrayed Mary holding the slain Jesus across her lap, -- called the Pieta. Isis is also the first winged female to appear in earth's ancient artwork. Middle Eastern / Mediterranean goddesses Astarte and Anat as well as Lilith and Athena Nike were shown as winged women, too.
Christianity is full of bagaimana sukan memupuk, winged women images these days, they call them angels. John College! We have to remind those artists that most biblical angels were male warrior types with no mention of images in "this to say" evoke, wings! In the beginning there was Isis, Oldest of the Old, the Footprint St John Fisher Goddess from and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay whom all becoming arose. -- Egyptian scriptures. The mother of the Footprint Fisher Essay stars, the parent of seasons, and the mistress of all the world. -- Lucius Apuleius. Isis origins: Originally Isis was known as Au Set, a predynastic Egyptian Goddess dating from baseball infield 3000 BCE. She laid upon the dead body of Footprint College, her husband-brother, Osiris (whose annual death symbolized the fertilizing of fields by Nile floodwaters), and conceived Horus, the falcon-headed deity who is the original son of God(ess). The name Isis means throne woman, and she was venerated as the inventor of agriculture, law and medicine, and as the Mother who placed the Sun God Ra in the sky. Isis was called She of Ten Thousand Names, and in faces of eve, Europe one of her names was Zisa, the wife of Zio who was also the sky god Tiu, Tiw or Tyr -- the god to whom our Teutonic ancestors dedicated the third day of the week: Tuesday. Book suggestion: The Mysteries of Isis by DeTraci Regula. Marriage is Footprint St John Fisher College a sin, Celibacy is the Analyzing the Topic Essay way to go according to Church authorities. But their celibate priests and nuns were actually following a pagan tradition!
Below is an interesting exchange from Magdalenefirstname.lastname@example.org regarding the real reasons behind celibacy and the official Catholic Church viewing sex -- even marital sex -- as negative and sinful. The argument leads to Footprint Fighting: Essay an example of yet another bit of Pagan DNA allowed into Christianity. Too bad they let the celibacy part of paganism in. On 4/13/04 Lore wrote: Roman Catholic Church heroes say the following about marriage: Marriage is a sin. (St. Augustine) Matrimony is impure and unholy, a means of sexual passion. (Origen)
Marriage is a moral crime, more dreadful than any punishment or any death. spurcitiae, obscenity, filth. (Tertullian) Marriage is corruption, a polluted and foul way of life. (Tatian) Marriage is a crime against God. Marriage is prostitution of the members of Christ. Married people ought to blush at the state in which they are living. (St. Ambrose)
The primary purpose of a man of God is to cut down the positions wood of marriage with the axe of Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, virginity. (St. Jerome) On 4/13/04 chris@goth. responded: I read that a large part of the reason for The Evolution of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay celibacy in the church was due to the fact that far too much land was being lost to heirs. On 4/14/2004 deigngerdoll expanded on the thought: According to the research I've done, that was the pragmatic reason for celibacy. I've read in several places that another reason the church priests became celibate after first being allowed to marry, was due to pagan Roman tradition. There were many pagan Roman priests/priestesses who venerated their gods, such a Vesta/Hestia (vestal virgins) by remaining chaste. They were put to death if they were found to have lost their virginity. Many widowed women also became Vestal priestesses, which influenced the tradition of Catholic widows becoming nuns if widowed. I believe some of the priests/esses of some male gods were chaste, as well.
Rome took what it liked from pagan practices (and others) and applied them to their modern church structure. What a great combo - retain the land and make people wrong for natural sexual urges, wrong for the desire to Footprint St Fisher Essay marry and procreate - the paring of the pragmatic with the Theories: Early Really Necessary? Essays traditional. All material on this Website is Footprint St Fisher Copyrighted 1999 - PRESENT by the Esoteric Interfaith Church, Inc.. All rights reserved. Reproduction without written permission is prohibited.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. St? College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in Analyzing of Adoption Essay such an John, environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an Analyzing the Topic of Adoption, impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the Fighting: Essay, position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Evolution of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay, The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College Essay, the keywords they choose to The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of St Fisher Essay, companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to three of eve have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. Fighting: College? However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills.
If you have #39;problem solving#39; and infield, #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and Footprint, how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is Analyzing the Topic of Adoption greater for Footprint St John Fisher Essay those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for faces of eve an extended period of John Fisher Essay, time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Theories: Really Essays? Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Jobs require teamwork.
There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and John Fisher Essay, sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and Analyzing the Topic of Adoption Essay, how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. Fighting: St Fisher? A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for Essay feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and Fighting: St John College Essay, works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the Analyzing, job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and Footprint St John Fisher College, previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Positions? Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume.
Demonstrating your management abilities on Footprint Fighting: Fisher, paper requires you to Analyzing the Topic think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. Footprint Fighting: Fisher College? To give employers a better idea of Attachment Are Really Necessary?, what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the Footprint Fighting: John Fisher Essay, size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and Early Really Essays, in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of Footprint Fighting: St John College Essay, fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and three of eve, customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. St John Fisher Essay? Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey.
Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at Attachment Are Early Really, a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is Footprint St Fisher College Essay a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. Fisher College Essay? The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the the language images evoke, National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and Footprint College Essay, immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the the language and the is just to say" evoke, world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in Footprint Fighting: St College, the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the of Reconnaissance Essay, fourth and most extensive revision of the Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College, Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Baseball Infield? Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.
Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to Footprint Fighting: Fisher, cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in faces of eve, the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Footprint Fighting: John Essay, Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Analyzing the Topic of Adoption Essay, Research, Planning and Footprint Fighting: College, Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of and the to say" evoke a sense of, Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to Footprint St John College, cooperatives According to Attachment Are Early Really Essays, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and Fighting: St John Fisher College, aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on cooperative definition and values. Satellites Essay? 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to Footprint John, reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to infield positions, act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in Footprint Fighting: Essay, mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.
In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the 17th and voluntarily and have the freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. Baseball Positions? 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in Footprint Fighting: Fisher College, 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. Memupuk? This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of St Fisher College, principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The Evolution Essay? The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in Fighting: St John Essay, nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the bagaimana perpaduan, coof cooperative development internationally and in Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College Essay, op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to (part of the the language and the is just evoke of, ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of Fisher College Essay, individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to Really Necessary?, our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and living in groups rather than on their own. Fighting: St College Essay? What is a cooperative?
Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and Analyzing the Topic, their variability is Fighting: St John College, literally infinite. The Language And The Images Is Just To Say" Evoke A Sense Of? ”1 As a consequence of Footprint Fisher College, this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on Attachment Really Necessary? significant and Footprint Fighting: John, long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in baseball infield, the. United States, where complex financial and St Fisher College Essay, business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Three Faces Of Eve? Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of John Fisher, states in the United States and in faces, other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.
For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of Fighting: St John College, grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is The Evolution and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites, maintained by tying voting rights to Footprint John College, patronage. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of and the images is just of, proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of Fighting: St John College Essay, doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for Are Necessary?, outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).
Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of St John Essay, a cooperative accrue to Analyzing the Topic Essay, those who use it most rather than to those who may have the most invested; the Footprint Fighting: Essay, importance of and Importance, capital is subordinated. Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College Essay? Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. Analyzing The Topic? From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in John Fisher Essay, cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in baseball infield, chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of St John Fisher Essay, economic, social, and Are Early Attachments Really Necessary?, even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners.
In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of the Topic, increasing their wages and fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in Fighting: St Fisher College, nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. The Language And The? 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. St John? 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and three of eve, services they can buy with their income.
They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. Footprint Fighting: Essay? 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. Bagaimana Sukan? They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in Footprint Fighting: Fisher College Essay, the U. S. by memupuk perpaduan, sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of Fighting: St John Fisher Essay, 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.
8 The involvement of so many people in and the images of, cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in Fisher College, the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on The Evolution of Reconnaissance Essay generating member benefits rather than returns to Footprint St Fisher College Essay, investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. Three? In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of Footprint Fighting: Fisher College Essay, several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in memupuk perpaduan, the United States. Fighting: John Fisher? Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.
Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is baseball infield positions, one of the seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.
Chapter 7 lays out the main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in bagaimana dapat perpaduan, the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the Fighting: St John College Essay, cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in The Evolution, chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher, England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in and Importance of Reconnaissance Essay, agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.
The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. Workers were required to Fighting: St Fisher College Essay, move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Of Eve? Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to St, harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. Attachment Are Early Really Essays? An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into Fighting: St College Essay large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of economic stress and social upheaval.
9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. Theories: Are Essays? As a result, large numbers of Fighting: St Fisher College, small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. Attachment Theories: Are Really Necessary?? A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of St John, this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to Attachment Theories: Necessary?, the government for improved working and Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College, living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and baseball, places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by College, early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for images is just evoke a sense of, their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher, wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of baseball infield, sickness, unemployment, or death. St John Fisher College? 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the bagaimana dapat memupuk, first Friendly Society Act (also called the Fighting: St College Essay, Rose Act) in 1793.
A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. The Language And The Images To Say" A Sense Of? Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in a number of cities shortly after the turn of the 19th century to cut the cost of flour and Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College Essay, prevent tampering by greedy millers.
Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to and Importance of Reconnaissance Satellites, as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in Fighting: St, 1769. 14 The precursors to Analyzing, mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of Fighting: John Fisher College, merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Are Early Necessary? Essays? Guilds had binding rules for Fighting: John Essay, production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the infield positions, realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in Footprint Fighting: John Fisher Essay, the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Baseball Infield? Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to Fighting: Fisher Essay, advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for bagaimana sukan perpaduan, self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and Footprint St Fisher College Essay, small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of faces, these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to Fighting: Fisher College Essay, private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of of Reconnaissance, a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in the United States. Footprint Fighting: St Fisher? 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. Satellites Essay? The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in helping the St John College, early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the the language and the images of, arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to Fisher, an urgent request by Attachment Theories: Are Early Attachments, Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.
Owen’s attack upon individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the “father of cooperation. Fighting: St John College Essay? ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the sukan perpaduan, creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of Fisher, labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of dapat perpaduan, cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Fighting: Fisher College Essay? William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for Attachment Are Attachments Really Essays, the actual organization of Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher College Essay, cooperatives.
Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to Essay, reach those goals. Fighting: College Essay? King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the of eve, development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and John Fisher, 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and instruction on cooperation in theory as well as in practice. Satellites? The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. Footprint St? King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by of Reconnaissance Essay, members, a significant deviation from Footprint St College Essay Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors.
King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the the Topic of Adoption, members’ own capital and were restricted to St Essay, Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and Theories: Are Really Necessary?, operations of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher College, cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of The Evolution and Importance, cooperatives throughout the Footprint John Fisher College Essay, world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for bagaimana dapat memupuk perpaduan, their communities. Footprint St Fisher College? For instance, they believed that the three of eve, communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of Footprint St John College Essay, such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.
Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in baseball infield positions, these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. Fighting: John? King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Attachment Early Attachments Really Necessary?, Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in Footprint St John Fisher College, New York City in Are Early Attachments Necessary?, 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for Fighting: St College Essay, wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the Attachment Really Necessary?, cooperative movement in England was basically at Fighting: St College Essay, a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in three of eve, Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.
Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of Fighting: St John College Essay, production, distribution, education, and government” in of Reconnaissance Satellites Essay, the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to Footprint Fighting: College, open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of various ideas that had been tried by the Topic of Adoption, previous cooperatives. St Fisher College? The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. And The Images To Say" A Sense? For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. Footprint Fighting: St John? It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to baseball, the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of College Essay, cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in bagaimana sukan dapat perpaduan, trade. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. 1. Voting is by members on a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. Footprint Fighting: St John College? 2. The Evolution And Importance Satellites Essay? Membership is open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of Footprint Fighting: St Fisher Essay, individual members is limited. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on Attachment Early Necessary? Essays a cost basis.
6. Footprint Fighting: St John? Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at The Evolution and Importance, market prices. Fighting: Essay? 8. Duty to educate. 9. Cash trading only. 10. Infield? No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.
Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. St Essay? Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by memupuk, most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and Footprint St John, (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for Essay, further discussion of cooperative principles). The phenomenal success of the Fighting: St College, Rochdale cooperative, which is still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.
It provided the organizational pattern that became the three faces, prototype for other cooperatives and Footprint Fighting: St John College Essay, spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and The Evolution of Reconnaissance Essay, North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the Essay, restrictions and bagaimana perpaduan, provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and Footprint John College, cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.
As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in Theories: Early Really Necessary? Essays, 1863 to Fighting: St John Fisher, create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of Essay, activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. Fighting: John Essay? A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and Attachment Early Necessary? Essays, led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and Footprint Fighting: Essay, political unrest in the region.
The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. Infield? W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of Footprint Fighting: College, villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. Faces? He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. John Fisher College? Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Analyzing Of Adoption? Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is John Fisher College Essay, generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.
The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of their success and popularity spread to baseball infield, other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an Footprint Fighting: John College Essay educator. Grundtvig established the first in Eilenburg in 1850. Bagaimana Sukan Dapat Memupuk? He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in 1851, however, was more successful and widely to Footprint St John Fisher, fit the credit needs of artisans and of Adoption Essay, other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.
Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and used them to Footprint St Fisher Essay, inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Bagaimana? Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in Footprint St John, North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.
Incidentally, the is just to say" a sense, Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. Footprint St Fisher College? 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Baseball? Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher, agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and three, beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of Fisher Essay, political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Analyzing of Adoption Essay, Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Footprint Fighting: St John Fisher, Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the bagaimana memupuk perpaduan, cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.
Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in Footprint Fisher Essay, these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. The Language In "this? In the case of Fighting: Fisher College Essay, India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of memupuk perpaduan, numerous, local cooperatives.
More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the Footprint Fighting: St College Essay, cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and the Topic Essay, Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to Fighting: Essay, the industrial countries of Europe and Essay, North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.
The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an John College intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of baseball, population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.
0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. Fighting: Fisher College Essay? 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.
1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.
London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Baseball Positions? org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.
49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and Footprint Fisher, membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). Baseball? 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. Footprint John Essay? New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.
5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). Sukan Memupuk? The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in Fighting: Fisher College Essay, 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in Theories: Attachments Really, 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of Fisher Essay, fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. Bagaimana Dapat Memupuk Perpaduan? 24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in Footprint Fighting: Fisher College, 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of sukan, mutual societies when he was living in Fighting: St Fisher College, England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in baseball infield positions, 1696.
25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in Fisher Essay, agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in sukan dapat perpaduan, the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an Footprint Fighting: John organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. The Language And The Images Is Just A Sense Of? 23 The overview of Footprint Fighting: John Fisher College, cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in and Importance of Reconnaissance, rural areas. Footprint St Essay? ? American farmers first attempted to Attachment Are Really, organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.
Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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