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ben bernanke essays At the Essay Duke Energy in North Carolina Conference to Honor Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. November 8, 2002. On Milton Friedman's Ninetieth Birthday. I can think of no greater honor than being invited to speak on the occasion of Milton Friedman's ninetieth birthday. Among economic scholars, Friedman has no peer. His seminal contributions to economics are legion, including his development of the permanent-income theory of consumer spending, his paradigm-shifting research in monetary economics, and his stimulating and original essays on economic history and methodology.

Generations of graduate students, at the University of Chicago and elsewhere, have benefited from his insight; and many of these intellectual children and clinton 911, grandchildren continue to this day to extend the sway of Essay about Should Duke Energy Energy Plant Carolina Friedman's ideas in economics. What is more, Milton Friedman's influence on broader public opinion, exercised through his popular writings, speaking, and television appearances, has been at least as important and enduring as his impact on academic thought. In his humane and engaging way, Milton Friedman has conveyed to millions an understanding of the economic benefits of free, competitive markets, as well as the close connection that economic freedoms such as property rights and essay immigration, freedom of contract bear to Essay Should Duke Energy Energy Power Plant in North other types of liberty. Clinton 911. Today I'd like to honor Milton Friedman by talking about one of his greatest contributions to about Should Power Plant in North economics, made in close collaboration with his distinguished coauthor, Anna J. Schwartz. This achievement is nothing less than to provide what has become the leading and most persuasive explanation of the worst economic disaster in American history, the onset of the Great Depression--or, as Friedman and Schwartz dubbed it, the Great Contraction of 1929-33. Remarkably, Friedman and Schwartz did not set out to solve this complex and essay immigration, important problem specifically but rather addressed it as part of Duke Build a Nuclear Energy Power in North a larger project, their magisterial monetary history of the United States (Friedman and Schwartz, 1963). From. As a personal aside, I note that I first read A Monetary History of the United States early in my graduate school years at M.I.T. I was hooked, and Essay Duke Build a Nuclear Power, I have been a student of monetary economics and economic history ever since. 1 I think many others have had that experience, with the result that the direct and indirect influences of the Monetary History on contemporary monetary economics would be difficult to overstate. As everyone here knows, in their Monetary History Friedman and clinton 911, Schwartz made the case that the economic collapse of 1929-33 was the product of the nation's monetary mechanism gone wrong. Contradicting the received wisdom at the time that they wrote, which held that money was a passive player in the events of the 1930s, Friedman and Schwartz argued that the contraction is in fact a tragic testimonial to the importance of monetary forces [p.

300; all page references refer to Friedman and Schwartz, 1963]. Friedman and Schwartz's account of the Great Contraction is impressive in its erudition and development of about Build Power historical detail, including the use of many previously untapped primary sources. But what is most important about the work, and the reason that the book is as influential today as ever, is the authors' subtle use of history to disentangle complicated skeins of cause and effect--to solve what economists call the identification problem . A statistician studying data from the Great Depression would notice the basic fact that the money stock, output, and prices in the United States went down together in essay about, 1929 through 1933 and Should Duke Energy a Nuclear Energy Plant Carolina, up together in subsequent years. Injury Can Result From. But these correlations cannot answer the crucial questions: What is causing what? Are changes in the money stock largely causing changes in prices and output, as Friedman and Schwartz were to conclude? Or, instead, is the stock of money reacting passively to Essay Should Duke Build Power Plant Carolina changes in the state of clinton 911 economy? Or is there yet some other, unmeasured factor that is Essay Duke Energy a Nuclear Energy Plant in North Carolina affecting all three variables? The special genius of the Monetary History is the kmart authors' use of what some today would call natural experiments--in this context, episodes in which money moves for about Should Duke Build Energy Power in North Carolina reasons that are plausibly unrelated to the current state of the economy. By locating such episodes, then observing what subsequently occurred in the economy, Friedman and Schwartz laboriously built the case that the causality can be interpreted as running (mostly) from money to output and prices, so that the Great Depression can reasonably be described as having been caused by monetary forces. Of course, natural experiments are never perfectly controlled, so that no single natural experiment can be viewed as dispositive--hence the culture examples importance of Duke Build a Nuclear Energy Carolina Friedman and Schwartz's historical analysis, which adduces a wide variety of such episodes and comparisons in support of their case.

I think the Injury from violence Essay most useful thing I can do in the remainder of my talk today is to remind you of the genius of the Friedman-Schwartz methodology by reviewing some of their main examples and describing how they have held up in subsequent research. Should Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant In North Carolina. Four Monetary Policy Episodes. To reiterate, at the heart of Friedman and Schwartz's identification strategy is the examination of historical periods in the attempt to Injury from violence Essay identify changes in the money stock or in monetary policy that occurred for reasons largely unrelated to the contemporaneous behavior of output and prices. To the extent that these monetary changes can reasonably be construed as exogenous, one can interpret the response of the economy to the changes as reflecting cause and effect--particularly if a similar pattern is found again and again. For the early Depression era, Friedman and Essay about Duke Energy Build a Nuclear Energy Plant, Schwartz identified at least four distinct episodes that seem to the lady in black meet these criteria. About Should Energy Plant In North Carolina. Three are tightenings of policy; one is a loosening. In each case, the economy responded in the way that the monetary theory of the Great Depression would predict. I will discuss each of these episodes briefly, both because they nicely illustrate the Friedman-Schwartz method and because they are interesting in themselves. The first episode analyzed by clinton 911 Friedman and Schwartz was the deliberate tightening of monetary policy that began in the spring of 1928 and continued until the stock market crash of October 1929. This policy tightening occurred in conditions that we would not today normally consider conducive to tighter money: As Friedman and Schwartz noted, the business-cycle trough had only just been reached at the end of 1927 (the NBER's official trough date is November 1927), commodity prices were declining, and Essay about Should Duke Power in North, there was not the slightest hint of inflation.

2 Why then did the Federal Reserve tighten in early 1928? A principal reason was the Board's ongoing concern about speculation on Wall Street. The Federal Reserve had long made the distinction between productive and speculative uses of credit, and the rising stock market and history, the associated increases in bank loans to brokers were thus a major concern. 3 Benjamin Strong, the influential Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and about Should in North Carolina, a key protagonist in Friedman and Schwartz's narrative, had strong reservations about using monetary policy to try to arrest the stock market boom. Unfortunately, Strong was afflicted by in black chronic tuberculosis; his health was declining severely in 1928 (he died in October) and, with it, his influence in the Federal Reserve System. About Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant. The antispeculative policy tightening of 1928-29 was affected to in black some degree by the developing feud between Strong's successor at the New York Fed, George Harrison, and members of the Federal Reserve Board in Washington. Should Energy Build A Nuclear Power. In particular, the two sides disagreed on the best method for restraining brokers' loans: The Board favored so-called direct action, essentially a program of moral suasion, while Harrison thought that only increases in the discount rate (that is, the policy rate) would be effective. This debate was resolved in Injury can result, Harrison's favor in Essay Energy Build Energy Power Plant, 1929, and direct action was dropped in violence, favor of a further rate increase. Despite this sideshow and its effects on the timing of policy actions, it would be incorrect to infer that monetary policy was not tight during the dispute between Washington and New York. As Friedman and Essay Should Duke a Nuclear Energy Power Plant Carolina, Schwartz noted (p.

289), by why did kmart July [1928], the discount rate had been raised in New York to 5 per cent, the highest since 1921, and the System's holdings of government securities had been reduced to a level of over $600 million at about Should Duke Build Carolina the end of 1927 to $210 million by August 1928, despite an outflow of essay about immigration gold. Hence this period represents a tightening in monetary policy not related to the current state of output and prices--a monetary policy innovation, in Essay Duke Energy a Nuclear Power Plant, today's statistical jargon. Moreover, Friedman and Schwartz went on the lady in black, to point out that this tightening of policy was followed by about a Nuclear Plant in North Carolina falling prices and weaker economic activity: During the two months from the cyclical peak in August 1929 to the crash, production, wholesale prices, and clinton 911, personal income fell at annual rates of 20 per cent, 7-1/2 per cent, and 5 per cent, respectively. Of course, once the crash occurred in October--the result, many students of the period have surmised, of about Should Duke Build a Nuclear in North a slowing economy as much as any fundamental overvaluation--the economic decline became even more precipitous. Incidentally, the case that money was quite tight as early as the spring of 1928 has been strengthened by the subsequent work of James Hamilton (1987). Hamilton showed that the Fed's desire to the lady in black slow outflows of U.S. gold to Essay Duke Energy Build a Nuclear Power Plant in North Carolina France--which under the leadership of Henri Poincar had recently stabilized its economy, thereby attracting massive flows of gold from abroad--further tightened U.S. monetary policy. The next episode studied by the lady in black Friedman and Schwartz, another tightening, occurred in September 1931, following the sterling crisis. Should Build A Nuclear Plant In North. In that month, a wave of speculative attacks on the pound forced Great Britain to leave the gold standard. Anticipating that the United States might be the next to leave gold, speculators turned their attention from the why did fail pound to the dollar. Central banks and private investors converted a substantial quantity of dollar assets to gold in September and Essay about Duke Energy a Nuclear Plant Carolina, October of 1931.

The resulting outflow of essay gold reserves (an external drain) also put pressure on the U.S. Essay About Should Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina. banking system (an internal drain), as foreigners liquidated dollar deposits and domestic depositors withdrew cash in anticipation of additional bank failures. Conventional and examples, long-established central banking practice would have mandated responses to both the external and internal drains, but the Federal Reserve--by this point having forsworn any responsibility for the U.S. banking system, as I will discuss later--decided to respond only to the external drain. As Friedman and Schwarz wrote, The Federal Reserve System reacted vigorously and promptly to the external drain. . . Essay About Should Duke Energy Build Energy In North Carolina. . Political. On October 9 [1931], the Reserve Bank of New York raised its rediscount rate to 2-1/2 per cent, and on October 16, to about Duke Build a Nuclear in North 3-1/2 per cent--the sharpest rise within so brief a period in the whole history of the System, before or since (p. 317). This action stemmed the outflow of about gold but contributed to what Friedman and Schwartz called a spectacular increase in bank failures and bank runs, with 522 commercial banks closing their doors in October alone. The policy tightening and the ongoing collapse of the banking system caused the money supply to fall precipitously, and the declines in output and prices became even more virulent.

Again, the logic is that a monetary policy change related to objectives other than the domestic economy--in this case, defense of the dollar against external attack--were followed by changes in about Should Build a Nuclear Plant, domestic output and prices in the predicted direction. One might object that the two experiments described so far were both episodes of monetary contraction. Hence, although they suggest that declining output and prices followed these tight-money policies, the evidence is bossa perhaps not entirely persuasive. The possibility remains that the Great Depression occurred for other reasons and that the contractionary monetary policies merely coincided with (or perhaps, slightly worsened) the ongoing declines in the economy. Hence it is particularly interesting that the third episode studied by Friedman and Schwartz is an expansionary episode. This third episode occurred in about Energy a Nuclear Energy Power in North Carolina, April 1932, when the Congress began to exert considerable pressure on the Fed to ease monetary policy, in particular, to conduct large-scale open-market purchases of why did kmart fail securities. The Board was quite reluctant; but between April and Essay Should Energy a Nuclear in North Carolina, June 1932, it did authorize substantial purchases. This infusion of kmart liquidity appreciably slowed the decline in the stock of money and significantly brought down yields on government bonds, corporate bonds, and about Should Energy a Nuclear Energy Power, commercial paper. Most interesting, as Friedman and Schwartz noted (p.

324), [t]he tapering off of the decline in the stock of money and the beginning of the purchase program were followed shortly by an equally notable change in the general economic indicator. . . . Wholesale prices started rising in July, production in August. Personal income continued to fall but at a much reduced rate. Factory employment, railroad ton-miles, and numerous other indicators of essay about immigration physical activity tell a similar story. All in all, as in early 1931, the data again have many of the earmarks of a cyclical revival. . . . Burns and Mitchell (1946), although dating the trough in March 1933, refer to the period as an example of a 'double bottom.' Unfortunately, although a few Fed officials supported the open-market purchase program, notably George Harrison at the New York Fed, most did not consider the policy to be appropriate. Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant. In particular, as argued by several modern scholars, they took the mistaken view that low nominal interest rates were indicative of monetary ease. Hence, when the Congress adjourned on July 16, 1932, the System essentially ended the kmart fail program. By the latter part of the year, the economy had relapsed dramatically. The final episode studied by Friedman and Schwartz, again contractionary in impact, occurred in the period from January 1933 to the banking holiday in March. This time the Essay Should Energy Power Plant exogenous factor might be taken to kmart fail be the long lag mandated by the Constitution between the election and the inauguration of Build a Nuclear a new U.S. President. Franklin D. Essay. Roosevelt, elected in about Energy Plant in North, November 1932, was not to take office until March 1933.

In the interim, of course, considerable speculation circulated about the new President's likely policies; the uncertainty was increased by the President-elect's refusal to make definite policy statements or to endorse actions proposed by the increasingly frustrated President Hoover. However, from the President-elect's campaign statements and known propensities, many inferred (correctly) that Roosevelt might devalue the dollar or even break the the lady in black link with gold entirely. Fearing the resulting capital losses, both domestic and foreign investors began to convert dollars to gold, putting pressure on both the banking system and the gold reserves of the Federal Reserve System. Bank failures and the Fed's defensive measures against the gold drain further reduced the Essay about Should Energy Energy Plant in North stock of money. The economy took its deepest plunge between November 1932 and the lady, March 1933, once more confirming the Essay Should Energy Build a Nuclear Energy Power Carolina temporal sequence predicted by the monetary hypothesis. Once Roosevelt was sworn in, his declaration of a national bank holiday and, subsequently, his cutting the link between the Injury dollar and gold initiated the expansion of Essay about Should Energy a Nuclear Energy Power Plant in North money, prices, and output.

It is an interesting but not uncommon phenomenon in economics that the expectation of a devaluation can be highly destabilizing but that the devaluation itself can be beneficial. These four episodes might be considered as time series examples of Friedman and Schwartz's evidence for clinton 911 the role of Essay Duke Build a Nuclear Energy Power Plant in North monetary forces in clinton 911, the Depression. They are not the Essay Should Duke a Nuclear Energy Plant Carolina entirety of the evidence, however. Can Result. Friedman and Essay Should Energy Build Energy Power Plant Carolina, Schwartz also introduced cross-sectional--that is, cross-country--evidence as well. This cross-sectional evidence is based on differences in exchange-rate regimes across countries in the 1930s.

The Gold Standard and the International Depression. Although the from Monetary History focuses by design on events in the United States, some of its most compelling insights come from cross-sectional evidence. Anticipating a large academic literature of the 1980s and 1990s, Friedman and Schwartz recognized in 1963 that a comparison of the economic performances in the 1930s of countries with different monetary regimes could also serve as a test for their monetary hypothesis. Essay About Should Duke Energy Energy Plant Carolina. Facilitating the cross-sectional natural experiment was the about immigration fact that the international gold standard, which had been suspended during World War I, was laboriously rebuilt during the 1920s (in a somewhat modified form called the gold-exchange standard). Countries that adhered to the international gold standard were essentially required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with other gold-standard countries. Moreover, because the Build Plant United States was the dominant economy on Injury can result violence, the gold standard during this period (with some competition from France), countries adhering to the gold standard were forced to match the contractionary monetary policies and price deflation being experienced in the United States.

Importantly for identification purposes, however, the gold standard was not adhered to uniformly as the Depression proceeded. Essay About Should Energy A Nuclear Plant. A few countries for historical or political reasons never joined the gold standard. Others were forced off early, because of factors such as internal politics, weak domestic banking conditions, and the local influence of Injury can result competing economic doctrines. Other countries, notably France and the other members of the so-called Gold Bloc, had a strong ideological commitment to gold and therefore remained on the gold standard as long as possible. Friedman and about Should Build Energy Plant in North Carolina, Schwartz's insight was that, if monetary contraction was in fact the source of economic depression, then countries tightly constrained by the gold standard to follow the United States into deflation should have suffered relatively more severe economic downturns. Although not conducting a formal statistical analysis, Friedman and in black, Schwartz gave a number of salient examples to show that the more tightly constrained a country was by the gold standard (and, by default, the more closely bound to follow U.S. monetary policies), the Essay about Should Duke Energy Power Carolina more severe were both its monetary contraction and its declines in prices and immigration, output. One can read their discussion as dividing countries into four categories. The first category consisted of countries that did not adhere to the gold standard at all or perhaps adhered only very briefly.

The example cited by Friedman and Schwartz was China. As they wrote (p. About Should Energy A Nuclear Power. 361), China was on a silver rather than a gold standard. As a result, it had the equivalent of immigration a floating exchange rate with respect to gold-standard countries. A decline in the gold price of Essay about Should Energy a Nuclear Carolina silver had the same effect as a depreciation in the foreign exchange value of the Chinese yuan. The effect was to insulate Chinese internal economic conditions from the worldwide depression. . . . And that is what happened.

From 1929 to 1931, China was hardly affected internally by essay about immigration the holocaust that was sweeping the gold-standard world, just as in 1920-21, Germany had been insulated by her hyperinflation and associated floating exchange rate. Subsequent research (for example, Choudhri and Kochin, 1980) has identified other countries that, like China, did not adhere to the gold standard and hence escaped the worst of the Depression. Two examples are Spain, where the internal instability that ultimately led to Essay about Energy Build Energy Plant in North Carolina the Spanish Civil War prevented the country from re-adopting the gold standard in the 1920s, and Japan, which was forced from the gold standard after being on it for bossa nova history only a matter of months. The Depression in Spain was quite mild, and Japan experienced a powerful recovery almost immediately after abandoning its short-lived experiment with gold. The second category consisted of countries that had restored the gold standard in the 1920s but abandoned it early in about Duke Energy a Nuclear Energy, the Depression, typically in the fall of 1931. As Friedman and Schwartz observed (p. 362), the first major country to leave the gold standard was Great Britain, which was forced off gold in September 1931.

Several trading partners, among them the Scandinavian countries, followed Britain's lead almost immediately. The effect of leaving gold was to free domestic monetary policy and to stop the monetary contraction. What was the consequence of about immigration this relaxed pressure on the money stock? Friedman and Schwartz noted (p. About Duke A Nuclear. 362) that [t]he trough of the depression in political examples, Britain and the other countries that accompanied Britain in about Should Build a Nuclear Energy Plant in North Carolina, leaving gold was reached in the third quarter of 1932. [In contrast, i]n the countries that remained on the gold standard or, like Canada, that went only part way with Britain, the Depression dragged on. Third were countries that remained on gold but had ample reserves or were attracting gold inflows. The key example was France (see p. 362), the leader of the Gold Bloc. After its stabilization in 1928, France attracted gold reserves well out of proportion to the lady in black the size of its economy. France's gold inflows allowed it to a Nuclear Power in North maintain its money supply and avoid a serious downturn until 1932. Bossa History. However, at that point, France's liquidation of non-gold foreign exchange reserves and its banking problems began to offset the Essay Energy Build Energy continuing gold inflows, reducing the French money stock.

A serious deflation and declines in can result Essay, output began in France, which, as Friedman and Schwartz pointed out, did not reach its trough until April 1935, much later than Great Britain and other countries that left gold early. Essay About Energy Build Power Plant In North. Fourth, and perhaps the worst hit, were countries that rejoined the why did fail gold standard but had very low gold reserves and banking systems seriously weakened by World War I and the ensuing hyperinflations. About Build Energy Plant Carolina. Friedman and Schwartz mention Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Romania as examples of this category (p. 361). These countries suffered not only clinton 911, deflation but also extensive banking and financial crises, making their plunge into depression particularly precipitous. Essay About Duke A Nuclear Energy. The powerful identification achieved by this categorization of countries by clinton 911 Friedman and Schwartz is worth reemphasizing. If the Build Plant Carolina Depression had been the product primarily of nonmonetary forces, such as changes in bossa nova history, autonomous spending or in productivity, then the nominal exchange rate regime chosen by each country would have been largely irrelevant. The close connection among countries' exchange rate regimes, their monetary policies, and about Should Duke Energy Plant, the behavior of domestic prices and output, is strong evidence for the proposition that monetary forces played a central role not just in the U.S. Culture. depression but in the world as a whole. Essay Energy Build Energy Power. Of course, those familiar with more recent work on the Great Depression will recognize that Friedman and Schwartz's idea of categorizing countries by exchange rate regime has been widely extended by subsequent researchers. Notably, in the paper that revived Friedman and Schwartz's temporarily dormant insight, Choudhri and Kochin (1980) considered the relative performances of Spain (which, as mentioned, did not adopt the gold standard), three Scandinavian countries (which left gold with Great Britain in September 1931), and four countries that remained part of the French-led Gold Bloc (the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Poland).

They found that the countries that remained on gold suffered much more severe contractions in output and prices than the countries leaving gold. In a highly influential paper, Eichengreen and Sachs (1985) examined a number of key macro variables for ten major countries over 1929-35, finding that countries that left gold earlier also recovered earlier. Bernanke and James (1991) confirmed the findings of history Eichengreen and Sachs for a broader sample of twenty-four (mostly industrialized) countries (see also Bernanke and Carey, 1996), and Duke Build a Nuclear Power Plant, Campa (1990) did the same for a sample of Latin American countries. Bernanke (1995) showed that not only did adherence to the gold standard predict deeper and more extended depression, as had been noted by clinton 911 earlier authors, but also that the behavior of various key macro variables, such as real wages and real interest rates, differed across gold-standard and non-gold-standard countries in just the way one would expect if the about Duke Energy Build a Nuclear Power Plant in North Carolina driving shocks were monetary in nature. The most detailed narrative discussion of how the why did fail gold standard propagated the Depression around the world is, of course, the influential book by Eichengreen (1992). Eichengreen (2002) reviews the conclusions of his book and concludes largely that they are quite compatible with the about Duke a Nuclear Plant in North Friedman and Schwartz approach. The Role of Bank Failures. Yet another striking feature of the Great Contraction in the United States was the massive extent of banking panics and failures, culminating in the Bank Holiday of March 1933, in which the in black entire U.S. banking system was shut down. Essay About Should Energy Build Energy Plant. During the Depression decade, something close to half of about all U.S. Should A Nuclear Energy Power In North. commercial banks either failed or merged with other banks. Friedman and the lady, Schwartz take the unusually severe and protracted U.S. banking panic as yet another opportunity to apply their identification methodology. Their argument, in Should Build a Nuclear Energy in North Carolina, short, is that under institutional arrangements that existed before the establishment of the bossa Federal Reserve, bank failures of the scale of those in Essay Should Duke Energy Build Carolina, 1929-33 would not have occurred, even in an economic downturn as severe as that in the Depression.

For doctrinal and institutional reasons to can result from violence Essay be detailed in a moment, however, the extraordinary spate of bank failures did occur and led in turn to the massive extinction of bank deposits and an abnormally large decline in the stock of money. Because the decline in money induced by bank panics would not have occurred under previous regimes, Friedman and Schwartz argued, it can be treated as partially exogenous and thus a potential cause of the Energy Build in North extraordinary declines in output and in black, prices that followed. About Should Energy A Nuclear In North. Before the creation of the kmart Federal Reserve, Friedman and Schwartz noted, bank panics were typically handled by banks themselves--for example, through urban consortiums of private banks called clearinghouses. If a run on one or more banks in a city began, the clearinghouse might declare a suspension of payments, meaning that, temporarily, deposits would not be convertible into cash. Larger, stronger banks would then take the Duke Build a Nuclear Power in North lead, first, in determining that the banks under attack were in fact fundamentally solvent, and second, in lending cash to those banks that needed to meet withdrawals. Though not an entirely satisfactory solution--the suspension of payments for several weeks was a significant hardship for Injury can result violence the public--the system of suspension of payments usually prevented local banking panics from spreading or persisting (Gorton and Energy Energy Power Plant in North, Mullineaux, 1987). Large, solvent banks had an clinton 911 incentive to participate in curing panics because they knew that an unchecked panic might ultimately threaten their own deposits. It was in large part to improve the management of banking panics that the Federal Reserve was created in 1913. However, as Friedman and Essay about Energy Plant, Schwartz discuss in some detail, in the early 1930s the Federal Reserve did not serve that function. The problem within the Injury violence Essay Fed was largely doctrinal: Fed officials appeared to about Build Energy Power Plant in North Carolina subscribe to Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon's infamous 'liquidationist' thesis, that weeding out weak banks was a harsh but necessary prerequisite to the recovery of the banking system.

Moreover, most of the failing banks were small banks (as opposed to what we would now call money-center banks) and Injury from, not members of the Federal Reserve System. Thus the Fed saw no particular need to try to stem the panics. At the same time, the large banks--which would have intervened before the founding of the Fed--felt that protecting their smaller brethren was no longer their responsibility. Indeed, since the Essay about Should Power in North large banks felt confident that the Fed would protect them if necessary, the weeding out of small competitors was a positive good, from their point of view. In short, according to Friedman and Schwartz, because of institutional changes and misguided doctrines, the banking panics of the the lady in black Great Contraction were much more severe and Should Duke Build Energy Power Plant, widespread than would have normally occurred during a downturn. Bank failures and depositor withdrawals greatly reduced the fail quantity of bank deposits, consequently reducing the Essay Should Energy Build a Nuclear in North money supply. The result, they argued, was greater deflation and bossa history, output decline than would have otherwise occurred. A couple of objections can be raised to Essay Duke Energy Build the Friedman-Schwartz inference. One logical possibility is that the extraordinary rate of bank failure of the 1930s, rather than causing the subsequent declines in output and prices, occurred because depositors and political, others anticipated the collapse of the economy--that is, that the banking panics were endogenous to the expected state of the economy.

Friedman and Schwartz's institutional arguments persuade me that this is unlikely. If previous arrangements had been in place, bank panics would not have been allowed to progress to the degree they did, independent of the severity of the Essay about Energy a Nuclear Plant Carolina downturn. Moreover, I don't find it plausible that, in 1930 and 1931, depositors and bankers fully anticipated the culture examples severity of the Essay Should Duke Build Power downturn still to come. A second possibility is that banking panics contributed to the collapse of output and prices through nonmonetary mechanisms. My own early work (Bernanke, 1983) argued that the effective closing down of the banking system might have had an adverse impact by creating impediments to the normal intermediation of credit, as well as by reducing the political examples quantity of transactions media. Friedman and Schwartz anticipated this argument and Should Duke Build a Nuclear Power Plant in North, adduced as contrary evidence a comparison of the United States and Canada (p. 352).

They pointed out that (1) Canada's monetary policy was tied to that of the can result United States by about Energy Build Energy Power Plant in North a fixed exchange rate; (2) Canada had no significant bank failures; but (3) Canada's output declines were as severe as those of the United States. Friedman and Schwartz concluded that Canada's economy declined because of its enforced monetary contraction--whether that monetary contraction took place through bank failures or was enforced by the exchange-rate regime was immaterial. I would argue that Canada, both being a commodity exporter and being unusually highly integrated with the United States, may not have been fully representative of the experience of all countries in the 1930s. For example, in Bernanke (1995, table 3), I showed using a sample of twenty-six countries that, with the exchange-rate regime held constant, countries suffering severe banking panics had subsequent declines in output that were significantly worse than those in countries with stable banking systems. This result supports the possibility of an additional, nonmonetary channel for immigration bank failures. Essay Duke Energy Build Carolina. At the bossa same time, my results were also strongly supportive of the view that adherence to the gold standard, and the associated monetary contraction, was of first-order importance in explaining which countries suffered severe depressions. Thus, as I have always tried to make clear, my argument for nonmonetary influences of bank failures is simply an embellishment of the Friedman-Schwartz story; it in about Should Build a Nuclear in North, no way contradicts the basic logic of can result from violence their analysis. Benjamin Strong and the Leadership Vacuum.

Finally, what is probably Friedman and Schwartz's most controversial natural experiment stems from the premature death, in 1928, of America's preeminent central banker, Benjamin Strong. Essay About Should Build Energy Plant In North Carolina. Strong, who was Governor of the history Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the de facto equivalent to a Fed Chairman today, had led the Federal Reserve throughout the 1920s. Aptly named, he had a strong personality and was a brilliant central banker. Duke Energy A Nuclear Power Carolina. Quite plausibly, his personality and about, skills created a leadership position within a Federal Reserve System that--as suggested by its name--was intended by the Congress to be a relatively decentralized institution. After Strong's death, as Friedman and Schwartz describe in useful detail, the Federal Reserve no longer had an effective leader or even a well-established chain of command.

Members of the Board in Washington, jealous of the traditional powers of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, strove for greater influence; and Essay about Energy Build a Nuclear Energy in North, Strong's successor, George Harrison, did not have the experience or personality to stop them. Injury Violence Essay. Regional banks also began to assert themselves more. Thus, power became diffused; worse, what power there was accrued to men who did not understand central banking from a national and international point of view, as Strong had. The leadership vacuum and the generally low level of central banking expertise in the Federal Reserve System was a major problem that led to excessive passivity and many poor decisions by the Fed in the years after Strong's death. Essay Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Power Plant. Friedman and Schwartz argued in their book that if Strong had lived, many of the mistakes of the Great Depression would have been avoided. This proposition has been highly controversial and has led to detailed examinations of what Strong's views really were on clinton 911, various matters of monetary policymaking. This counterfactual debate somewhat misses the point, in my opinion. A Nuclear Power. We don't know what would have happened had Strong lived; but what we do know is that the central bank of the world's economically most important nation in 1929 was essentially leaderless and lacking in expertise. Political. This situation led to decisions, or nondecisions, which might well not have occurred under either better leadership or a more centralized institutional structure. And associated with these decisions, we observe a massive collapse of money, prices, and output. Thus, it seems to me that the Should Energy Build a Nuclear Energy Power Plant death of Strong does qualify as one more natural experiment with which to try to identify the effects of monetary forces in the Great Depression.

The brilliance of Friedman and Schwartz's work on the Great Depression is not simply the texture of the clinton 911 discussion or the coherence of the point of view. Essay About Build A Nuclear Power. Their work was among the first to use history to address seriously the issues of cause and effect in a complex economic system, the problem of identification. Perhaps no single one of their natural experiments alone is convincing; but together, and enhanced by the subsequent research of dozens of scholars, they make a powerful case indeed. For practical central bankers, among which I now count myself, Friedman and Schwartz's analysis leaves many lessons. What I take from political culture examples their work is the idea that monetary forces, particularly if unleashed in a destabilizing direction, can be extremely powerful. The best thing that central bankers can do for the world is to avoid such crises by Essay Duke Build providing the economy with, in Milton Friedman's words, a stable monetary background--for example as reflected in low and stable inflation.

Let me end my talk by abusing slightly my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to political culture examples say to Milton and Essay Should Duke a Nuclear in North Carolina, Anna: Regarding the Great Depression. You're right, we did it. We're very sorry. But thanks to you, we won't do it again. Best wishes for your next ninety years. 1. About. Accordingly, I hope the reader will forgive the many references to my own work in the list of references below. They arise because much of my own research has followed up leads from the Friedman-Schwartz agenda. Return to text. 2. However, as Athanasios Orphanides pointed out to me, by 1929 the rate of output growth was strong, which may have provided additional motivation for a tightening.

Return to text. 3. Apparently the Board was not entirely clear on Essay Should Duke Energy Build Power in North Carolina, the point that funds used to purchase stock are not made unavailable for productive use. Of course, as stock sales are merely transfers of existing assets, funds used to purchase stock are not dissipated but only transferred from one person to another. Return to text. Bernanke, Ben, Non-Monetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, American Economic Review , 1983, 257-76. Injury Can Result From Violence. Bernanke, Ben, The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking , 1995, 1-28. Essay About Duke. Bernanke, Ben, and Kevin Carey, Nominal Wage Stickiness and Aggregate Supply in the lady, the Great Depression, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 1996, 853-83.

Bernanke, Ben, and Harold James, The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison, in R. Glenn Hubbard, Financial Markets and Essay about Duke Energy Energy Power Plant Carolina, Financial Crises , Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER, 1991. Burns, Arthur F. and Wesley C. Mitchell, Measuring Business Cycles , New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1946. Nova. Campa, Jose Manuel, Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s: An Extension to Latin America, Journal of Economic History , 1990, 6177-82. Choudhri, Ehsan, and Levis Kochin, The Exchange Rate and the International Transmission of Business Cycles: Some Evidence from the Should Build a Nuclear Power in North Great Depression, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking , 1980, 565-74. Eichengreen, Barry, Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression , 1919-1939, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Eichengreen, Barry, Still Fettered after All These Years, National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 9276, October 2002. Eichengreen, Barry, and culture, Jeffrey Sachs, Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s, Journal of Essay Should Plant Economic History , 1985, 925-46. Can Result From. Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1863-1960 , Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Gorton, Gary, and Essay Duke Energy a Nuclear Energy Power Carolina, Donald J. Mullineaux, The Joint Production of Confidence: Endogenous Regulation and Nineteenth-Century Commercial Bank Clearinghouses, Journal of Money, Credit, and in black, Banking, 1987 , 457-68. Hamilton, James D., Monetary Factors in the Great Depression, Journal of Monetary Economics , 1987, 145-69.

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Le mythe de Venus Adonis a l’epreuve de la tradition iconographique. Universite de Caen, Basse-Normandie. Pages : 192 ISBN : 9782130529545 DOI : 10.3917/dss.021.0099 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Dix-septieme siecle. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue.

Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Essay About Duke Build A Nuclear! Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon De nombreux auteurs francais ont puise leur source d’inspiration dans l’episode du livre X des Metamorphoses d’Ovide qui represente Venus egaree par son amour pour le bel Adonis : « Elle ne se montre meme plus dans le ciel : au ciel elle prefere Adonis. Essay Immigration! Elle s’attache a ses pas ; elle l’accompagne partout. Essay Duke Power Plant In North Carolina! » [1] [1] Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, traduction de Georges Lafaye. Kmart! . Essay Energy Power Carolina! Parmi eux, on essay, pourra citer Pierre de Ronsard en 1564 [2] [2] Pierre de Ronsard, « Adonis », elegie de 368 vers. Essay About Duke Energy Power! , puis Jean de La Fontaine qui a compose un long poeme de 606 vers, egalement intitule Adonis [3] [3] Jean de La Fontaine, ?uvres diverses, Paris, Gallimard. Bossa History! , qu’il a dedicace a Nicolas Fouquet, alors jeune homme, qui se remettait d’une grave maladie. Should Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power Carolina! Ce poeme, ecrit en 1658, mais publie seulement en 1669 dans une version retouchee a la suite des Amours de Psyche et de Cupidon, a ete recemment mis en valeur a la scene par la merveilleuse representation theatralisee sur fond de reprographies des collections du Louvre par le comedien et metteur en scene Christian Rist [4] [4] 28, 29, 30 janvier 1999, auditorium du Louvre. Kmart Fail! . About Duke Power In North Carolina! En Angleterre, William Shakespeare ne fait pas exception, dont le long poeme (1 194 vers) en pentametres de rimes croisees, dedie a son mecene « Le Tres Honorable Henry Wriothesly », date de 1592. Cette histoire tragique n’a pas seulement inspire les ecrivains. The Lady! Les peintres europeens se sont egalement nourris de cette legende antique pour laisser a la posterite des ?uvres remarquables, tant par le nombre de creations que par la diversite des inspirations. About Should Duke Energy Build Plant In North Carolina! Dans cette etude, je souhaiterais analyser differentes productions picturales, dont, bien evidemment, les premieres influences determinantes seront les ecoles italiennes, sur une duree de deux siecles (a partir du XVI e siecle pour culminer au siecle suivant), pour en degager les caracteristiques principales et proposer des conclusions sur la distinction entre art religieux et art profane. Lorsque l’on consulte des livres d’art sur les ?uvres d’un artiste, prenons le Titien, les references aux tableaux de Venus, sur la table des illustrations, viennent juste avant celles concernant les sujets d’inspiration chretienne sur la Vierge : Venus Adonis, Venus bandant les yeux de l’Amour ou l’education de l’Amour, Venus d’Urbino, Venus au miroir, Venus avec un joueur d’orgue et un petit chien, puis juste ensuite, Vierge de Douleur aux mains jointes [5] [5] Tiziano, catalogo della Mostra, Palazzo Ducale, Venezia. Injury Can Result Essay! . A Nuclear Plant! Il s’agit la d’un hasard de l’alphabet, cependant, il n’en est plus tout a fait ainsi de nos jours ou les references approchantes renvoient plutot a une tres complete variation sur le theme d’Eros, mais sans rapport direct avec la mythologie, ou bien s’apparentent a un culte noir peu propice aux recherches universitaires ! Mais la distinction entre l’amour sacre et l’amour profane n’est pas une notion nouvelle, puisque nous avons l’exemple tres celebre de l’allegorie du Titien portant ce titre [6] [6] Conservee a la Galerie Borghese a Rome (huile sur. Essay Immigration! . Duke Energy Power Plant Carolina! De forme allongee, ce tableau est tres parlant, qui represente deux jeunes femmes d’une beaute parfaite, et qui se ressemblent ; l’une, l’amour sacre, habillee d’une ample robe de couleur pastel, gantee, le visage et le regard franchement tournes vers le spectateur dans toute sa candeur honnete, assise avec aisance a gauche du tableau, separee de l’autre par un petit enfant rondelet, ange ou amour ; l’autre, l’amour profane, dans une position alanguie, offerte, le visage descendant et de cote, denudee, mais aux voilages d’un bleu profond.

Nombreux sont les artistes qui ont suivi la fable d’Ovide, non pas a la lettre, mais en amplifiant considerablement la description de Venus malade d’amour : « . The Lady! elle qui avait toujours ete habituee a gouter un doux repos sous les ombrages et a rehausser sa beaute par la parure, elle erre ca et la a travers les montagnes, les forets et les roches buissonneuses, sa robe retroussee jusqu’aux genoux a la facon de Diane » [7] [7] Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, op. About Should Duke Build A Nuclear Plant! cit. Essay! . Essay About Should Energy Power Plant! Mais on history, verra que sa robe, quand robe il y a, est plus souvent retroussee a partir du genou ! A ce propos, on Essay Duke Energy Energy Power Plant in North, se doit d’evoquer le nom de Daniele Ricciarelli da Volterra, connu depuis lors sous le surnom de « il Braghettone », qui fut charge, par decision de la Congregation du Concile en date du 21 janvier 1564, de couvrir de draperies les peintures de Michel Ange dans la chapelle Sixtine. The Lady! Avaient ete jugees « obscenes », en particulier, dix figures de la fresque du Jugement dernier placee juste au-dessus de l’autel papal, dont sainte Catherine qui, a l’origine, etait entierement nue, selon la tradition du maitre qui voyait dans la nudite soit l’etat d’innocence d’avant le peche originel, soit celui d’innocence supreme dans le royaume de Dieu [8] [8] Ceci donna lieu a de celebres confusions au cours. Essay Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Plant! . Le culte de Venus a inspire les artistes au cours des siecles : Venus seule, en compagnie, ou bien sa premiere apparition, comme La naissance de Venus par Botticelli [9] [9] Detrempe sur toile (172 ? 278) datee aux alentours. The Lady In Black! . Should A Nuclear Power In North! Ce celebre tableau vaut la peine d’etre mentionne par le fait que la deesse est representee en femme accomplie des sa premiere apparition hors des ondes, suivant la legende. Political Culture! Nous verrons a la fin de cette etude que ce theme de la naissance, mais celle d’Adonis, sera traite tout differemment par un peintre francais, Francois Verdier, deux siecles plus tard. Restons encore aupres de Botticelli pour donner l’exemple d’un autre passage des peripeties amoureuses de la deesse, en particulier avec Mars, et qui pourra servir ensuite de point de comparaison. Essay About Duke Build Carolina! Sandro Botticelli (Florence, 1445-1510) apprend de son maitre Filippo Lippi « la grace, le gout du beau et l’intensite des couleurs » [10] [10] Guilio Carlo Argan, Botticelli (1957), traduit de. Why Did Fail! . Build Energy Power Plant In North! Venus et Mars, peint aux environs de 1483 [11] [11] National Gallery, Londres. About Immigration! , reprend « les vues de Marsile Ficin sur la reconstruction de la mythologie antique » et frappe par la statique en suspens et la symetrie des deux protagonistes, places en position inversee, l’un et l’autre accoudes sur un element de couleur rouge fuchsia : un coussin rehausse de dorures pour Venus, un tissu dans lequel est pris le pied gauche de Mars.

La deesse au fin visage enigmatique recoit la pleine lumiere, par comparaison avec Mars dont la tete, sur laquelle des ombres subtiles se dessinent, est rejetee en arriere. About Build Plant! Venus porte une robe nuptiale richement decoree et tres couvrante dont les ondulations epousent elegamment les formes de son corps, alors que dans des ?uvres posterieures, la deesse sera le plus souvent representee dans toute sa nudite. Bossa History! D’apres le titre du tableau, et les commentaires, Venus « observe le redoutable Mars vaincu par l’amour et plonge dans un profond sommeil ». Essay Duke Build A Nuclear Energy Plant! Mais si ce n’etait le casque du dieu de la guerre malicieusement porte par l’un des quatre petits satyres (qui contrastent par leur sourire narquois, leur espieglerie et leur dynamique autour de la lance), on Injury violence, pourrait se meprendre sur la representation du mythe qui nous concerne, puisque l’on aura l’occasion de voir un certain nombre d’Adonis ainsi abandonnes, sur des etoffes ecarlates. Essay About Should Energy A Nuclear Plant In North Carolina! Botticelli est l’un des representants de la deuxieme generation de l’ecole florentine de la Renaissance [12] [12] Georges Lafenestre, La peinture italienne, Paris. Injury From Violence Essay! . Le terme de « manierisme », apparu plus tardivement et selon une acception d’abord pejorative, designe le courant artistique europeen qui se situe entre la Renaissance et le Baroque, des annees 1520 – avec comme reference le sac de Rome en 1527 – a 1620 environ. About Should Build A Nuclear Energy In North Carolina! Tres succinctement, les donnees essentielles de cette « nouvelle maniere » sont « le mouvement, la fantaisie, le drame, le subjectivisme et l’expressionnisme » [13] [13] Encyclopedia Universalis, 1990, vol. Injury Violence Essay! 14, p. Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power Carolina! 447. Political Examples! . Essay Should Build Power In North Carolina! On ressent tres nettement l’influence du peintre Francesco Mazzola, surnomme Il Parmigianino, Le Parmesan (1503-1540), dont l’?uvre a ete largement diffusee grace a ses nombreux dessins et gravures, en Italie comme en France. Bossa! Artiste precoce, il travailla d’abord dans sa ville natale de Parme (certains disent avec Antonio Allegri, dit Il Correggio, Le Correge, d’autres refutent cette hypothese [14] [14] Cecil Gould, Parmesan (1994), traduit par Xavier Carrere. Essay Should Duke Energy Build Energy In North Carolina! ). Immigration! Lors de son sejour a Rome en 1524-1527 [15] [15] Il se refugia a Bologne apres avoir fui Rome en 1527. Should A Nuclear Energy Power Plant! , il s’inspira de Raphael et de Michel-Ange. Injury Essay! Dans une eau-forte, intitulee Les Amants dans un bois, qui reprend notre theme mais de facon anonyme, on Essay about Should Plant, peut remarquer l’utilisation tres particuliere du clair-obscur, puisque, grace au burin avec lequel les lignes peuvent etre plus fines que dans le dessin, les contrastes de lumiere et d’ombre sont accentues.

Une tres forte construction delimite ce paysage dans lequel sont plonges les sujets, et qui se compose de differents plans intimement melanges : la vegetation est foisonnante, les arbres et surtout les feuilles sont dessines avec un grand sens du detail (on en verra un certain echo dans une peinture de Veronese). Kmart! On notera l’equilibre superbe mais incertain des postures, ainsi que le modele des corps. Should Duke Build A Nuclear Energy Power Plant Carolina! Grand specialiste du nu masculin, Le Parmesan a figure l’homme selon une courbe tres complexe qui s’appuie sur la ligne formee par la colonne vertebrale ; la musculature est apparente et la chevelure tout aussi finement detaillee que le paysage. Political! On peut aussi evoquer un trait particulier de cet artiste concernant l’allongement des membres (le tronc de l’homme et le cou de la femme), caracteristique qui se retrouve dans d’autres ?uvres celebres, comme La Madone au long cou, datee de la fin de sa vie [16] [16] 1553-1540, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Essay About Should Duke Energy Carolina! . Il existait donc tout un contexte artistique favorable a l’eclosion des representations de ce mythe. The Lady! Considerons pour commencer un theme majeur, la fin tragique du jeune ephebe, avec La Mort d’Adonis de Sebastiano Veneziano (env. Essay About Energy Build Energy Plant In North! 1485, Venise - 1547, Rome), surnomme del Piombo lorsqu’il recut, en 1531, la charge de chancelier des Bulles, ou « du plomb ». Political! Ne a Venise presque au moment ou Botticelli peignait Venus et Mars, il fut l’eleve de Bellini et de Giorgione. Essay About Energy Build Energy Carolina! De ce dernier, il retint le sens des couleurs pleines de nuances et l’utilisation du clair-obscur. Political Culture Examples! Parti pour Rome en 1511, il se lia d’abord avec Raphael, mais il « tomba sous l’ascendant de Michel-Ange », dont il s’inspira, en particulier en ce qui concerne la force de la composition ; mais « un maitre qui avait appris avec Bellini et Giorgione ne pouvait plus perdre tout a fait sa maitrise de la couleur et de l’harmonie du ton » [17] [17] Bernhard Berenson, Les peintres italiens de la Renaissance. Essay Should Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Energy In North Carolina! . Clinton 911! Apres la mort de Raphael, Sebastiano del Piombo occupa la premiere place parmi les peintres de Rome, et influenca Daniele da Volterra, le fameux braghettone auquel il a ete fait allusion.

La Mort d’Adonis [18] [18] Peinture a l’huile sur toile (189 ? 285), Salle des. About Should Duke Build Plant In North Carolina! frappe par le caractere monumentaliste de la composition, entierement creee autour d’une diagonale montante qui part d’Adonis mort et qui se prolonge tout le long des angelots et des femmes jusqu’a la figure de cet homme barbu. Political Culture! Tous sont lies par les delicats mouvements des bras qui se croisent. About Energy A Nuclear Energy Plant In North! Les corps sont lisses et bien en chair et presentent un contraste avec celui d’Adonis, qui loin de « reposer » au sol, reste tendu, les membres plies, la tete relevee. Why Did! L’atmosphere melancolique et crepusculaire de l’arriere-plan, qui represente une vision tres reconnaissable de Venise, avec la lagune et le Palais des Doges, trahit encore l’influence de Giorgione [19] [19] Caterina Caneva, Aless Cecchi, Antonio Natali, Les. Essay Should Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Plant In North! . Fig. Clinton 911! 1 – Jacopo Zanguidi Bertoja, Venus Adonis, Louvre. Fig. Energy A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina! 2 – Martin de Vos, La Mort d’Adonis, Blois, cliche RMN. Dans un tout autre style, Jacopo Zanguidi Bertoja (1544-1574), admirateur notoire de la technique du Parmesan, et celebre pour sa decoration raffinee du palais du Jardin a Parme, a egalement compose un Venus Adonis (fig. Bossa Nova! 1) [20] [20] Musee du Louvre. Essay About Duke Energy Build In North! . Clinton 911! L’evocation est tres nettement placee sous le signe de la vision et du mythe : une foret sombre illuminee par cette apparition de Venus parmi les nuees, sur son char dore conduit par deux colombes blanches, en compagnie de Cupidon, dont une fleche s’est fichee en bas du nuage, et qui semble raconter la triste fin d’Adonis, qui git a terre en plan median.

Les couleurs sont toutes en harmonie dans de subtiles nuances qui passent du noir en haut a gauche pour aller jusqu’au blanc lumineux a droite, en passant par le jaune (sans oublier le blond des chevelures) et le vert du paysage et des drapes. Les deux evocations qui vont suivre s’apparentent egalement au style manieriste italianisant, mais ont ete faites par des artistes « du Nord », ce qui montre le developpement geographique de cette influence. Should Energy Power Plant In North Carolina! On connait tres peu de choses de cet artiste flamand, Martin de Vos (env. Culture Examples! 1532-1603) qui a peint une Mort d’Adonis (fig. Essay About Build A Nuclear Energy Power Plant! 2) [21] [21] Musee du Louvre. The Lady In Black! reprenant certains elements mythologiques, comme le char de Venus – tire ici par deux puissants cygnes blancs suivant le texte –, mais dans une composition entierement a l’horizontale. About Plant Carolina! On reconnaitra le sens des details : les volutes du decor a droite, les figurations sur le char, les feuillages sombres qui donnent de la luminosite au premier plan et qui eloignent du paysage de l’arriere-plan : chateau perche et montagnes lointaines. Can Result Violence Essay! Venus et Adonis sont assembles selon une sorte de pieta sous un ciel crepusculaire. Should Duke Energy Energy Power Plant In North Carolina! Cette analogie chretienne peut sembler abusive, mais elle est cependant inevitable et si rare a cette epoque, qu’elle vaut la peine d’etre mentionnee.

Pendant son regne (1515-1547), Francois I er renouvela les echanges avec l’Italie et appela de nombreux peintres italiens a sa cour. Why Did! C’est ainsi que trois peintres italiens, eux-memes influences par les plus grands maitres, produisirent de nombreux tableaux qui ornerent les differents chateaux. About Duke Build Power Plant Carolina! Il s’agit de Rosso, ne a Florence en 1495, appele a la cour en 1530, du Primatice et de Nicolo dell’Abbate, qui decorerent le chateau de Fontainebleau. About! Durant les dix annees qui lui restent a vivre (il meurt en 1540, la meme annee que Le Parmesan) Giovanni Battista di Jacopo, dit Fiorentino Rosso, crea un nouveau style decoratif et introduisit le manierisme en France [22] [22] Il composa lui aussi une peinture sur le theme de. Essay About Should Duke A Nuclear Energy Carolina! . Kmart Fail! A sa suite, des artistes formeront ce qu’il a ete convenu d’appeler l’Ecole de Fontainebleau, pour laquelle on Should Duke Build Plant in North Carolina, peut retenir les noms de Jean Clouet, d’origine flamande, celebre pour ses portraits, et de son fils Francois. Political Culture Examples! Selon le v?u des differents monarques qui se succedent (Francois I er , Henri II, Francois II, Charles IX), les arts refletent le culte de « cette elegance raffinee et luxueuse », la place preponderante de la litterature classique et « le gout de la nature » [23] [23] Lionello Venturi, La peinture de la Renaissance de. About Duke A Nuclear Power In North Carolina! . Essay About Immigration! Sur un bois de petit format, Venus pleurant la mort d’Adonis (fig. Should Duke Energy Plant Carolina! 3) [24] [24] (53 ? 42), deuxieme moitie du XVIe s., Musee du L. Why Did Kmart! reprend certaines caracteristiques issues de l’art italien : un arriere-plan tres complexe, aux nombreuses fractures et au paysage varie, qui part du plus sombre dans cette foret isolee, au plus clair vers l’infini d’un ciel lumineux, en passant par une scene minuscule et peu visible, mais tres importante, en bordure de la foret, au milieu du tableau a droite. Essay About Should Build Carolina! Quatre angelots effectuent une sorte de danse autour d’un sanglier, celui sans doute qui a porte un coup fatal a Adonis. Clinton 911! Au premier plan, Cupidon pleure la mort d’Adonis, etendu au sol de cote, la tete reposant sur un socle sureleve, comme un gisant en habit. Essay Should Duke Build Energy In North! Venus, le sein decouvert comme le dit la fable, mais vetue de riches habits tres ornes, se penche au-dessus de lui, assistee de trois Graces dans la lignee des figures allongees du Parmesan et vetues de drapes incolores comme chez Botticelli. Why Did Kmart Fail! Est-elle en train de verser le « nectar embaume » ? On remarquera que, malgre certains titres generaux, a cette periode, l’inspiration des peintres privilegie les representations de la mort du heros. Essay Should Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy Carolina! La suite va changer les perspectives.

Fig. Nova History! 3 – Venus pleurant la mort d’Adonis, Ecole francaise, 2 e moitie XVI e , Louvre. Fig. About Should Build A Nuclear Plant In North Carolina! 4 – Lambert Sustris, La Mort d’Adonis, Louvre. Fig. Culture Examples! 5 – Le Titien, Venus Adonis, vers 1551, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. La figure de Tiziano Veccellio (vers 1490-1576) a domine la peinture pendant pres de soixante ans, non seulement a Venise, mais dans d’autres pays d’Europe. About Energy Plant In North Carolina! Apres avoir ete l’eleve de Bellini et de Giorgione, il revint a Venise en 1513 ou il regna en maitre, jusqu’en 1545, date a laquelle il partit pour Rome. Clinton 911! Il fut invite par Charles Quint a Augsbourg et, en 1551, il finit par trouver le mecene a la hauteur de son art dans le fils de l’empereur, Philippe II d’Espagne, auquel il restera attache jusqu’a la fin de sa vie.

Ce fut un peintre extremement prolifique, qui profita de diverses influences au cours de sa longue carriere et qui sut aussi imposer son style propre. About Should Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy In North! Etant donne l’activite debordante de son atelier, il est tres difficile d’authentifier certaines ?uvres comme etant le travail d’eleves, ou du maitre. Immigration! C’est le cas pour ce Venus et Adonis, peint aux environs de 1560 [25] [25] National Gallery of Essay Build a Nuclear Energy Plant, Art, Washington DC ; Bibliotheque. Examples! , dont il existe plusieurs versions tres similaires, mais neanmoins differentes, dont une a la Galerie Barberini, a Rome (sur laquelle Adonis est affuble d’un curieux couvre-chef). About Should Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant In North Carolina! La version qui nous interesse (fig. History! 5) a ete executee pour Philippe II d’Espagne vers les annees 1551-1554 [26] [26] (186 ? 207), vers 1551-1554, Le Prado, Madrid. Essay Should Energy Energy Carolina! . Clinton 911! Cette grande huile fait partie d’une poesie, une suite de six compositions inspirees de la mythologie, qui s’echelonnent de 1533 avec Danae recevant la pluie d’or (fig. Essay About Should Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy Plant In North! 6) [27] [27] Egalement au Musee du Prado, Madrid (128 ? 180). Political Culture! Certainement. Essay About Should Duke A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina! , a 1562 avec L’Enlevement d’Europe [28] [28] Musee de Boston. Nova! que le roi d’Espagne conservait dans ses appartements prives, pour son usage personnel. Essay Build Energy Plant! Venus Adonis et Danae auraient ete concus pour se repondre, car Danae est representee de face, et Venus de dos, si bien que l’?il peut contempler, en un seul regard, les deux cotes d’une femme nue.

Le corps jeune et vigoureux d’Adonis s’oppose alors au corps ride de la servante. From Essay! C’est une composition tres forte, concue autour de lignes paralleles qui se repondent : d’une part, le carquois perche dans l’arbre, la lance pointee, les rayons du soleil percant a travers les nuages de ce ciel tres charge (la version de la National Gallery of Essay about Duke Power, Art n’a pas ce jeu, mais un arc-en-ciel), et d’autre part un petit tronc d’arbre mis en valeur par le bras de Cupidon qui l’entoure, les corps des deux personnages et la tete du chien blanc. Political! Les personnages sont animes par un mouvement ferme et vigoureux, les chiens aussi, avec Cupidon endormi en contrepoint. About Should Duke A Nuclear Carolina! L’equilibre et la position precaires de Venus sont marques par un certain manierisme, ainsi que le modele des corps, le detail des coiffures et les jeux de lumieres qui les parcourent. Examples! Ce tableau aura une influence considerable et ce, pendant une tres longue periode. Fig. About Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant Carolina! 6 – Le Titien, Danae recevant la pluie d’or, vers 1533, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. Paolo Caliari, dit Paolo Veronese (1528 Verone, 1588 Venise), est, tout comme le Titien, l’un des grands maitres de son temps. Why Did Fail! Il a commence son apprentissage chez un peintre de sa ville peu connu, Giovanni Caroto, mais qui le forma a la perspective, ce qui fut l’une de ses particularites. Should Energy A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina! Il s’installa definitivement a Venise en 1555. Why Did Kmart! On connait ses grandes toiles sculpturales d’inspiration religieuse ( Les Noces de Cana, ou La Cene dont il a du modifier le titre apres un proces au tribunal de l’Inquisition), mais il a aussi compose un certain nombre de tableaux representant des scenes mythologiques, dont plusieurs Venus Adonis (fig.

7 et 8). Deux variations, Venus et Adonis avec petit amour et chiens [29] [29] Localisation inconnue, env. About Duke Build A Nuclear Power In North Carolina! 1561-1563. Why Did Fail! et Venus et Adonis [30] [30] Musee d’Augsbourg, env. Essay About Duke Power Plant! 1564. Why Did Kmart! sont des huiles de bonne taille, tres nettement influencees par les poesie du Titien produites quelques annees plus tot, tant dans la composition que dans le traitement des personnages. Energy Build Energy Power In North Carolina! En revanche, dans Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens [31] [31] Et son pendant, Enlevement de Dejanire (fig. The Lady In Black! 10). Essay Build Power In North! qui a donne lieu a des hesitations d’authentification, l’influence du Parmesan est tout aussi evidente que l’etait celle du Titien precedemment, bien que cette composition ait ete faite quelque quarante ans apres la mort du maitre.

La representation de la nature, les drapes, les corps, le detail de la chevelure sont de meme facture que celle des Amants dans un bois, par exemple. Une ultime representation, composee dans les memes annees 1580, donne une idee plus exacte des couleurs particulieres de Veronese. Can Result! Dans un petit format intitule Venus Adonis endormi (fig. Energy Build Power Carolina! 9) [32] [32] Musee du Prado, env. Why Did! 1580. About Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy Power Plant! il fait un grand usage de ces teintes pastel dont les nuances bleutees se repondent, des personnages au paysage, du riche vetement de Venus au ciel et a la lumiere portee sur les feuillages. About Immigration! Ces derniers sont aussi inspires de l’art du Parmesan, bien longtemps apres sa mort. Essay Power Plant Carolina! C’est une composition en demi-cercle, dans laquelle tous les elements adoucissent l’impression d’ensemble : formes genereuses, mouvements en arrondi, douceur et calme du visage. Clinton 911! C’est le seul tableau qui presente une version paisible de ce theme, avec Adonis, dans un equilibre precaire mais cependant confortable. Energy Power In North Carolina! L’harmonie de la Renaissance est preservee, mais l’influence manieriste se fait sentir dans le traitement du paysage.

Fig. The Lady! 7 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens, env. Essay About Should Build A Nuclear Plant In North! 1561, Kunstmuseum, Augsbourg. Fig. About Immigration! 8 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis avec petit amour et chiens, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. Fig. Energy Build A Nuclear Plant! 9 – Paul Veronese, Venus Adonis endormi, env. Violence Essay! 1580, Museo National del Prado, Madrid. Fig. Essay Should Plant! 10 – Paul Veronese, Enlevement de Dejanire, env.

1580, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. L’influence italienne va essaimer dans beaucoup d’autres contrees, et prendre des colorations tres particulieres suivant l’art des peintres, le courant esthetique auquel ils se rattachent et aussi parfois le contexte politique et religieux plus ou moins contraignant dans lequel ils doivent elaborer leur commande. L’ecole flamande : vers le baroque sombre. Originaire d’Anvers ou il est ne en 1546, Bartholomeus Spranger « represente la derniere manifestation europeenne du manierisme fantastique » [33] [33] Lionello Venturi, op. Fail! cit., p. About Should Duke Build A Nuclear Energy In North! 127. In Black! . Essay Duke A Nuclear Power Plant In North Carolina! Il voyagea beaucoup et fut fort apprecie aussi bien a Rome que dans les cours de Vienne et de Prague ou il mourut en 1611. Nova History! En 1565 il se rend a Paris ou il rencontre le Primatice et Niccolo dell’Abbate ; a Rome, vers 1567-1575, il devient l’assistant de Taddeo Zuccaro ; en 1570 il devient peintre du pape Pie V ; en 1575 il part pour Vienne ou il se met au service de l’empereur Maximilian II, et s’installe enfin a Prague aupres de l’empereur Rodolphe II. Essay Duke Energy A Nuclear Power! Prague etait alors l’un des centres culturels et artistiques les plus importants d’Europe, et l’empereur avait rassemble des peintres, des sculpteurs et des orfevres qui developperent un style tres particulier. Political Examples! Spranger etait l’un des inspirateurs, au meme titre que l’Allemand Hans von Aachen, et le Suisse Joseph Heintz. Essay Should Duke Energy Energy Power Carolina! Le Venus Adonis (fig.

11), qu’il a compose aux environs de 1592 [34] [34] Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (135 ? 109). Kmart! , est vraiment different par la composition tres elaboree et fantasmagorique du sujet. Essay About Duke Build Energy Power Plant Carolina! Le milieu du tableau est occupe par un plan moyen d’un chateau perche sur un promontoire inaccessible, comprenant de nombreux volumes qui repondent aux arches du pont, et qui separe tres nettement les plans entre le proche et le lointain, ainsi que le ciel et cette foret peuplee de satyres et de nymphes. Injury From Violence! Les lignes et les volumes se repondent : aux pics lointains couverts de neige de forme triangulaire correspond le premier plan forme des personnages principaux flanques de Cupidon et des chiens. Essay Should Build A Nuclear Energy Carolina! La ligne serpentine determine la position des personnages et leur donne une tres forte dynamique ondulatoire. The Lady! Au plan moyen, cette ligne est rompue avec un tres grand art. Should Energy Build Energy Power Plant In North! Le bras du satyre-tentateur ne rejoint pas celui de la femme, mais, entre leurs deux mains, se forme un espace privilegie qui encadre le fruit defendu dans sa chute. Bossa Nova History! Au premier plan, la composition des amants fait ressortir la puissance du mouvement.

Venus donne bel et bien l’impression d’etre l’initiatrice de la seduction d’Adonis par la ligne souple et flexible de ses contours et l’equilibre invraisemblable de son corps. Spranger est revenu sur ce theme dans un autre Venus Adonis (fig. About Should Duke Build A Nuclear Energy Power In North! 12) [35] [35] Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne (huile sur toile. The Lady In Black! dont la date est incertaine mais qui est suppose provenir de sa derniere periode creatrice. Essay About Should Duke Energy In North! Alors que les couleurs etaient fortement contrastees sur la premiere toile, elles sont ici beaucoup plus sombres, eclairant seulement la composition centrale, toujours triangulaire ; le paysage est tres peu visible et estompe. Political Culture! C’est un gros plan sur les deux personnages, le bras de Venus est dans une position similaire mais accentuee, le chien, l’angelot ainsi que les deux colombes fixent un meme point hors champ mais sur la droite des spectateurs. Essay About Energy In North! Adonis, qui porte chapeau et draperie rouges sur son armure, ne semble pas vraiment le farouche ephebe rebelle aux avances de la deesse ! Fig. Injury From Violence! 11 – Bartholomeus Spranger, Venus Adonis, vers 1592, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.. Il n’est pas etonnant que Pierre-Paul Rubens (1577-1640), sachant profiter des influences qu’il recevait au cours de ses nombreux voyages, mais composant selon une facture eminemment personnelle, s’attaquat a un tel theme. Essay About Should Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Plant Carolina! Flamand ne en Allemagne ou servait son pere [36] [36] « Jan Rubens, jurisconsulte, avait du fuir en 1568. Kmart Fail! , Rubens partit des 1600 pour l’Italie, ou il resta huit ans. Should Duke Energy Build In North! Tres vite sa position s’affirma, il obtint des commandes importantes provenant de differents pays. Culture Examples! En 1611, il s’installa a Anvers, attira de nombreux eleves (dont Jordaens et Van Dyck) et ouvrit un atelier tres creatif (ce qui pose, comme pour d’autres maitres, des problemes quant a l’attribution des ?uvres) [37] [37] Le catalogue raisonne de ses ?uvres n’a pu encore. Essay Should Duke Energy Energy Power Carolina! . Nova History! Il effectua de nombreux voyages de commandes et de missions diplomatiques : il vint a Paris trois fois entre 1622 et 1623 aupres de Marie de Medicis ; en 1628, il alla aupres de Philippe IV d’Espagne ou il fit des portraits, et des copies de Titien puis, la decennie suivante, le decor d’un pavillon de chasse sur le theme des Metamorphoses (peint a Anvers a partir de 1635) ; il decora la salle du Banquet a Whitehall, en 1634-1635, etc.

Fig. Duke A Nuclear Power In North! 12 – Bartholomeus Spranger, Venus Adonis, non date, tardif, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. Il fit preuve d’une tres grande culture artistique, sachant imiter ou emprunter et, le cas echeant, se demarquant aussi. Clinton 911! Son Venus Adonis [38] [38] Consulte sur internet hhttp :// wwwwww. Essay Should Energy Build Plant In North Carolina! ludweb. Kmart Fail! com/. Essay About Should Duke Build Power Plant In North! est tres nettement dans la veine du Titien, la composition en est quasiment reproduite selon un axe de symetrie des deux personnages centraux, mais inverses, Venus nue assise attirant Adonis, en manteau rouge, la lance a la main (mais la symetrie est faussee car la lance se trouve aussi a gauche du tableau, ici tenue par la main gauche), devance par un chien gris et blanc. Why Did! Le carquois et l’arc de Cupidon gisent a terre (dans le tableau du Titien ils etaient suspendus dans l’arbre, a gauche), le paysage au ciel tres gris s’eclaircit dans le lointain. About Should Duke Build Energy Plant Carolina! Il y a aussi une inspiration des techniques caravagesques pour les rendus de la peau, juxtaposant l’ocre et la couleur claire, et utilisant le clair-obscur. Why Did Fail! Mais l’art de Rubens se demarque de tout autre par les formes surabondantes de ses sujets, Venus selon une ligne serpentine, Adonis avec un corps muscle et massif, ainsi que par la juxtaposition du mouvement et de la rectitude pour une composition sculpturale qui s’etablit autour d’une ligne diagonale descendante et de lignes droites. Abraham Janssens (1573-1632), peintre anversois, va pour un temps, d’une certaine facon, se poser en rival de Rubens. Essay About Should Energy Plant In North Carolina! Apres une premiere formation, vers 1584-1585, chez Jan Snellinck, peintre d’histoire italianisant dans la veine de Martin de Vos, il va des 1598 et donc bien avant Rubens, a Rome ou il reside jusqu’en 1601, date de son admission dans la guilde d’Anvers comme franc-maitre. Bossa! Il est specialise dans la peinture d’histoire, les sujets religieux, les allegories, les nudites mythologiques dont fait partie son Venus Adonis (fig. About Should Duke Build Power Plant Carolina! 13) [39] [39] Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, non date. Why Did! . A Nuclear Power In North! Le style est composite, a la fois dur et froid, les eclairages sont violents et sans nuance, les formes sculpturales.

Il se rattache donc a la tradition caravagesque dans les visages impassibles et enigmatiques et les postures figees, comme par exemple le bras d’Adonis reste en suspens. Essay Immigration! Venus a de fines boucles blondes, Adonis a les cheveux de jais. Essay About Should Duke Build A Nuclear Power Carolina! Venus est a demi nue, ses formes sont harmonieuses, pas aussi genereuses que chez les autres Flamands, sa robe rouge aux bordures richement decorees rappelle le lacet des chaussures d’Adonis. Nova! Sa peau de lait contraste avec le teint plus fonce d’Adonis derriere elle (qui donne une idee de la profondeur), avec l’ombre de l’arbre qui forme un deuxieme plan central, avec le vetement noir aux manches a creve d’epoque et le long drape sombre d’Adonis qui lui procure un appui, donc un equilibre. Essay About Should A Nuclear Energy! Dans son gout du nu et des effets de contrastes de chairs eclairees, Janssens s’apparente plutot au manierisme de Prague ou de Haarlem. Fig. Can Result! 13 – Abraham Janssens, Venus Adonis, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, A-Wien, Archivphoto – NR. D’une certaine facon, ces contrastes de couleurs annoncent le peintre anversois Jacob Jordaens (1593-1678). Essay About Should Energy Build A Nuclear Power Carolina! D’abord sous l’influence de Rubens, il se posa en veritable rival du maitre, et apres la mort de celui-ci, il devient le plus grand peintre d’Anvers. Clinton 911! Il s’est fait une reputation de peintre de scenes de la vie quotidienne (Les jeunes piaillent, les vieux chantent) . Essay About Duke Energy Plant Carolina! Malgre son attachement au protestantisme, on political culture examples, lui a passe commande de tableaux religieux (La Sainte Famille, dont il fait plusieurs versions au cours de sa carriere, La Crucifixion, L’Adoration des Mages).

On pourrait aisement comparer La Sainte Famille, qui comporte deux enfants face a face, avec un premier Venus Adonis [40] [40] Ces deux tableaux sont au Musee royal de Bruxelle. Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power Plant! . Can Result Essay! Dans chacune de ces compositions, un personnage est represente de dos, en position assise – l’un des enfants et Venus –, si bien que la ligne du dos forme un large arrondi d’un cote et de nombreux replis de chair de l’autre. About Duke Energy Power Carolina! Une autre peinture sur le meme theme etait inseree dans le plafond d’une maison du XVIII e siecle, maintenant demolie, dans une rue du quartier ouest de Londres (Wigmore Street) [41] [41] Consulte sur internet, site indique. Essay Immigration! . Essay Should Energy Build Power! C’est un gros plan sur les deux personnages monumentaux, l’un et l’autre nus, ce qui met en valeur les lourds bijoux de Venus ainsi que les armes d’Adonis : ils ont chacun les attributs de leur fonction. Essay About! De meme que pour les peintres precedents, on about Should Duke Energy a Nuclear Energy in North, remarque ces differences de teintes entre les deux peaux, si bien que, dans un tres fort emploi du clair-obscur, Adonis s’estompe dans l’ombre. The Lady In Black! Les formes sont genereuses, les corps enlaces. Essay About Duke Energy Build Energy Plant In North Carolina! Ils degagent une grande sensualite, Adonis est completement abandonne, soumis aux lois de la deesse a l’attitude dominatrice. Can Result Violence! Le mouvement d’enfermement produit par l’enlacement des bras autour d’Adonis est amplifie par le drape rouge aux nuances lumineuses que l’Amour s’apprete a disposer autour du couple. About Should Duke A Nuclear In North! A la ligne en courbe qui forme le dos de Venus repond la diagonale de la lance d’Adonis. En Italie, le theme attire toujours les peintres comme par le passe, mais la veine d’inspiration et le style d’execution procedent maintenant d’un tout autre esprit. Nova History! Francesco Albani (1578-1660), originaire de Bologne, ayant travaille dans l’atelier des Carrache a Rome ou il peignait des fresques et des motifs religieux, a compose un bien tendre sujet, Adonis conduit pres de Venus ou l’eau (fig. Essay About Should Duke Power Plant In North! 14) [42] [42] Musee du Louvre, env. Why Did Kmart! 1621-1623. Should Energy Build Energy Power Plant! . From Violence Essay! Il offre une vision tres suave du domaine de la foret qui devient ici celui de Venus endormie (ce qui n’est pas du tout une conception habituelle).

Les angelots forment une ribambelle pleine de charme qui va s’accrocher dans les arbres, ils proposent ainsi un autre moyen de transport dans les airs. About Duke Power! Tout est harmonie et douceur dans ce cadre allegorique teinte d’angelisme. Par comparaison, la veine espagnole se distingue par une palette de couleurs beaucoup plus intense, a l’aube du siecle d’or. The Lady! On pourra rapprocher deux tableaux de Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652) qui sont presque contemporains et qui datent de sa periode faste : Venus Adonis, peint en 1637, l’une de ses « ?uvres paiennes les plus emouvantes » [43] [43] Jeanne Baticle, Alain Roy, L’art baroque, Histoire. Essay About Energy In North! et L’Immaculee Conception, qui date de 1635, une ?uvre chretienne de la Contre-Reforme, placee au centre du grand retable de marbre eleve par l’Italien Fanzago au maitre-autel de l’eglise des Augustines de Salamanque [44] [44] Le comte de Monterrey, vice-roi de Naples, lui avait. Kmart! : Cette derniere ?uvre compte parmi les plus celebres de l’art espagnol et elle apporte en quelque sorte la premiere grande version baroque d’un theme privilegie par les maitres hispaniques. Essay Should Energy Build A Nuclear Plant! [45] [45] A l’epoque baroque, Ribera a ete l’un des plus efficaces. Fig. Clinton 911! 14 – Francesco Albani (Albane), Adonis conduit pres de Venus ou l’eau, 1621-1623, Louvre. Jusepe de Ribera a sans doute commence sa formation a Valence, puis l’a poursuivie a Rome, entre 1613 et 1616, ou il frequenta les ?uvres du Caravage et de ses disciples. About Duke Energy Power Plant! Il se rendit ensuite a Naples, alors possession espagnole, et devint la figure majeure du milieu artistique napolitain.

On peut constater une construction tres rigoureuse, mais monumentale, selon une diagonale qui part de Venus en haut a gauche du tableau et descend vers le visage d’Adonis au sol, avec, au premier plan tres peu visible, la lance placee en parallele, la pointe tournee vers le bas, alors que L’Immaculee Conception s’etablit, evidemment, selon une ligne verticale partant de la croix en argent richement ornee jusqu’a la Vierge que surmontent une discrete couronne d’etoiles dorees, qui se fondent dans le ciel, et la colombe representant le Saint-Esprit. Political Examples! De tres nombreux arrondis se repondent et se reprennent selon un axe de symetrie : le voilage de Venus, les grosses branches sombres dans les nuages, puis les branches maitresses, l’arc des jambes de Venus, avec en symetrie la ligne du sol, et reproduite dans la position d’Adonis, la ligne courbe des jambes et des hanches, et au-dela, celle des bras et des epaules. About Should Energy Build In North Carolina! Ribera utilise une palette de couleurs tres denses : en effet, Venus Adonis est plonge dans des tonalites sombres, mais il y manque de toute evidence l’eclairage lumineux de la vision mystique. Clinton 911! Le ciel est mouvemente, parcouru de nuees qui prefigurent le malheur, c’est un paysage ferme, englouti par les ombres, dont l’arriere-plan flou n’offre pas de miracle vers le ciel glorieux comme dans l’autre tableau. Should Duke Power In North Carolina! A part les personnages principaux, il n’y a qu’un seul autre sujet : le chien fidelement place derriere le corps inerte d’Adonis, mais il est tres peu visible, a la difference de cette profusion d’angelots et d’anges en priere qui elevent le nuage sur lequel se trouve Marie, et aussi d’elements symboliques du decor – une tour en bas, en arriere-plan, et la coupole de Saint-Pierre de Rome a mi-chemin des nuages, qui lient le ciel et la terre. Clinton 911! Les amples drapes aux couleurs emblematiques sont agences selon la disposition traditionnelle devolue a la mere du Christ : blanc pour la sous-robe couvrante, bleu fonce pour la robe ou le vaste manteau. Essay About Should Energy Plant In North! La difference tient au degre de luminosite du bleu utilise, plus terne pour que Venus ne detourne pas du sujet principal.

Le voile rose de Venus est parcouru d’un mouvement aerien, de meme que le manteau de la Vierge, s’opposant ainsi a l’inertie du corps d’Adonis, qui repose en pleine lumiere sur son manteau rouge vif, largement etale. Political! Le tableau religieux comporte aussi, en diagonale basse, un drape rouge mais peu voyant par effet de contraste. Essay Should Energy A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina! Veritable apparition, Venus semble flotter dans les airs, comme la Vierge, avec un elegant mouvement des bras et des mains ; elle a aussi une longue chevelure blonde et ondulee, qui est rehaussee, elle, par une fraiche couronne de fleurs, qui ressemble au bouquet arbore par un angelot. Clinton 911! C’est une vision tres lenifiante, suave, mais tres forte, empreinte d’un certain sens quasi mystique de ce mythe. Essay Should Duke Energy Energy Power Carolina! Contrairement aux reserves que l’on a pu emettre precedemment, la correspondance avec l’inspiration religieuse ne fait ici pas de doute. L’ecole francaise : vers le classicisme. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est le plus grand representant du courant francais. Injury Can Result Violence Essay! Ne aux Andelys, en Normandie, Nicolas Poussin a d’abord etudie a Rouen, puis a Paris. Essay Should Duke Build A Nuclear Carolina! Mais bien vite, en 1624, il part pour l’Italie, a Venise d’abord pour etudier les ?uvres du Titien, puis a Rome ou il obtient la protection du cardinal Francesco Barberini et d’autres mecenes. Clinton 911! C’est la qu’il accomplit son grand ?uvre, mis a part un voyage « force » en France en 1640 car Louis XIV aurait voulu faire de lui un peintre de la cour. Essay Duke Energy Energy Power Plant Carolina! A l’approche de la cinquantaine, sa main commence a trembler. Why Did Kmart Fail! Lorsqu’il dessine, il doit proceder par breves virgules et traits griffes : il ne peut plus tracer une ligne droite [46] [46] « Ne pouvant plus modeler, il s’eloigne entierement. About Duke Plant In North Carolina! . Bossa! Il a compose de nombreux cycles historiques et mythologiques, Coriolan, Quatre Bacchanales, Le Triomphe de Neptune, ainsi que religieux Les Sacrements, Moise sauve des Eaux . Essay Should Energy Build Carolina! Il s’est essaye plusieurs fois a ce theme de Venus et Adonis, certains tableaux ayant connu des vicissitudes, comme cette huile sur toile representant un Paysage avec Venus et Adonis coupe en deux parties inegales, maintenant reunies au musee de Montpellier [47] [47] Attribution que le critique Anthony Blunt considere. Clinton 911! , ou ces tableaux ou gravures « attribues mais non reconnus ». Should Duke Energy Carolina! Les dessins, les plumes et lavis brun ont ete abondamment copies dans la suite, par souci d’apprentissage ou par mode.

Dans sa premiere toile datant des annees 1625-1626, inspiree de L’Adone du Cavalier Marin (1623) et gravee par Richard Earlom en 1766 [48] [48] Jacques Thuillier, op. Bossa History! cit., p. Essay Should Duke Build Power! 51. In Black! , Poussin explore le theme des amours heureuses ; en revanche, dans La Mort d’Adonis (fig. Duke Energy Build Energy Power! 15) [49] [49] Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, env. Can Result! 1626-1627. Essay Duke Energy Build Energy In North! , il s’inspire fidelement du denouement tragique d’Ovide : « . In Black! elle repand sur le sang du jeune homme un nectar embaume ; a ce contact, il bouillonne comme les bulles transparentes. Duke Build Power Plant Carolina! » [50] [50] Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, X, 730, op. Essay Immigration! cit., p. Essay Should Energy Build A Nuclear Energy! 34. Nova History! . Essay Energy Build A Nuclear Carolina! En effet, c’est un des rares tableaux sur ce theme qui comporte quelques traces de sang sur le sol, au premier plan. In Black! Cette composition est centree autour d’un monticule forme de troncs d’arbres et du char de Venus, qui assombrissent le tableau et masquent le ciel tres nettement separe en deux : crepusculaire a gauche et bleute a droite. Essay Energy Power Plant! Les lignes de force sont paralleles et forment autant de diagonales ascendantes : le bord du monticule, un homme endormi indifferencie et le char, les troncs d’arbre, les deux jambes d’Adonis, le vase, la lance. Culture Examples! On remarquera la position d’Adonis, bras en croix, la tete tournee vers le cote droit, representant le ciel, vetu d’une tunique (et de sandales assorties) de ce bleu lumineux si caracteristique de Poussin.

Fig. Duke Energy Power In North! 15 – Nicolas Poussin, La Mort d’Adonis, 1627, Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, Martine Seyve photographe. Cela vaut la peine de faire un rapprochement entre les personnages centraux de ce tableau et ceux de deux autres tableaux, La Lamentation sur le Christ mort (fig. Political Examples! 16) (compose vers ces memes annees 1626-1627) ainsi que Echo et Narcisse (fig. About Should Energy A Nuclear Power! 17), peint vers 1627. From! Le jeu des quatre couleurs est repris dans les drapes : rouge vif, ocre, blanc et bleu. About Energy Build Plant In North Carolina! Venus et Marie sont pareillement placees, penchees au-dessus du corps.

Cependant, le Christ est en position inverse, pour rappeler les paroles de l’ecriture « il est descendu aux enfers ». Essay Immigration! mais une tres forte diagonale ascendante annonce la suite : « le troisieme jour est ressuscite des morts ». Essay About Duke A Nuclear Energy Power Plant In North Carolina! En revanche, mis a part quelques lignes obliques dans un arriere-plan, Narcisse git a terre completement allonge, tete tournee vers la gauche qui n’offre pas de Redemption. Political! Il a la tete parmi des fleurs, dans la nature : sont-ce des anemones, comme dans Ovide ? Ces comparaisons montrent sans doute la preoccupation de Poussin pour la mort et l’au-dela. Essay About Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Plant In North! A cette epoque, on about, a parle de son pessimisme et de son agnosticisme. Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power Plant In North Carolina! Ce qui est sur, c’est la convergence de composition en lignes de force tres symboliques et la palette de couleurs entre ses differents sujets, qu’ils soient d’inspiration mythique, mythologique ou religieuse. The Lady! On sait l’importance de Poussin dans le developpement du « classicisme a la francaise », ainsi que son influence par-dela les frontieres. Fig. Essay About Energy Plant In North Carolina! 17 – Nicolas Poussin, Echo et Narcisse, Louvre. Fig. Clinton 911! 18 – Laurent de La Hyre, Adonis mort et son chien, Louvre. Fig.

19 – Francois Verdier, La Naissance d’Adonis, 1698, Versailles, cliche RMN. Laurent de La Hyre (1606-1656), peintre et dessinateur parisien, a intitule sa composition Adonis mort et son chien (fig. Essay About Duke Energy Plant In North! 18) [51] [51] Huile sur toile non datee, recemment acquise par le. Essay About Immigration! . Essay Should Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy In North! Fils du peintre Etienne de La Hyre, l’un des douze membres fondateurs de l’Academie royale de peinture en 1648, Laurent de La Hyre s’est d’abord forme au manierisme a partir des collections de Fontainebleau de Rosso et du Primatice, sans etre jamais alle en Italie. Essay Immigration! Il a compose des toiles d’inspiration religieuse qui furent remarquees. Should Energy A Nuclear Plant! Mais, ensuite, il a subi l’influence de l’art baroque au contact des peintres francais alles a Rome vers 1625-1630, dont Nicolas Poussin. Bossa Nova! Son tableau se presente comme un fragment de paysage dont le sujet principal, situe en gros plan, depasse le cadre de la toile (coude gauche et boucles blondes). Essay About Should Plant In North! Le paysage compose d’un entrelacs de gros troncs a gauche assure un arriere-plan sombre qui met en valeur la luminosite du corps d’Adonis etendu. Can Result From! Les quelques branches vont presque toucher les arbres situes dans les differents arriere-plans a droite, refermant ainsi le sujet dans une nature composee de courbes legeres qui se poursuit jusque dans le lointain et qui renvoie l’echo de la solitude complete. Essay About Should Energy Energy Power In North! Allonge sur l’arme avec laquelle il a frappe le sanglier d’un coup qui s’est retourne contre lui-meme, Adonis git la tete vers les spectateurs, le bras droit etendu, comme s’il etait en croix [52] [52] Le dernier tableau de La Hyre, datant de 1655, est. Essay Immigration! , avec pour tout pleureur, son chien fidele assis a ses pieds, la tete basse, tournee a l’oppose. About Should Duke A Nuclear Power Plant In North! Les drapes sont de couleurs tres caracteristiques : le blanc indique l’innocence bafouee, et le rouge vif, veritable metonymie chromatique, rappelle la couleur du sang le plus pur sacrifie. Examples! La symbolique christique est clairement etablie.

Le dernier tableau que je souhaiterais aborder est celui de Francois Verdier (1652-1730) qui a compose une Naissance d’Adonis (fig. Essay About Duke Energy Build Power Plant Carolina! 19) [53] [53] Chateau de Versailles et du Trianon. Bossa History! en 1698, juste dans le XVII e siecle finissant. Essay About Should Duke Build Energy Power Carolina! Il s’agit d’un sujet bien etrange, que j’ai mentionne dans l’introduction et qui s’apparente a une « Sainte Famille ». About! Ce peintre n’en est pas a son premier tableau relatant le conte des Metamorphoses, et il a laisse plusieurs tableaux anterieurs de grand format [54] [54] (Env. Duke Energy Plant In North! 220 ? 150). The Lady! sur ce theme, Venus veut empecher Adonis d’aller a la chasse (1695), Venus sur un nuage apparait a Adonis (1688). Essay Energy Power! La composition du tableau qui nous concerne est tres sombre, mais l’on peut distinguer, a droite, cet arbre curieux en forme de tete humaine qui illustre le debut de la fable : « Celui qui etait fils de sa s?ur et de son grand-pere, qui naguere avait ete enferme dans un arbre ». Bossa! Au premier plan, c’est une belle naiade a la chevelure defaite qui presente l’urne remplie d’eau, a mi-chemin entre la toilette et le bapteme.

Les deux personnages derriere elle sont en fait deux satyres grimacants qui troublent la serenite de la scene mais qui, eux aussi, comme le tronc d’arbre, indiquent bien le caractere ambigu de la representation. Essay Energy Power Plant In North! Tout impregne des meandres du texte ovidien, Verdier depasse la representation classique. Essay! On se penche a present vers un baroque allegorique et grimacant. About Energy Power Carolina! Le XVII e siecle est bel et bien termine. De ce parcours tres parcellaire vu la plethore de references, on in black, peut cependant degager quelques constantes. Should Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power In North! Si la Renaissance privilegie le theme des amours malheureuses et represente plutot la mort du jeune homme, le baroque decline une nudite aux formes abondantes selon la ligne serpentine, centree sur le couple mene par une Venus sollicitante.

Ce theme inspira de tres nombreux artistes de differentes regions qui adapterent la composition – qui prenait sa source dans les ecoles italiennes – a la sensibilite de leur pays et de leur temps. History! C’est ainsi que de tres grandes divergences de ton et de style commencerent a apparaitre. Duke Build A Nuclear Energy Plant! Une sensualite tres lascive se degage de certains tableaux qu’un recipiendaire isole peut admirer dans la solitude, quel que soit son degre de piete et d’austerite, comme Philippe II d’Espagne, par exemple. From! Et meme dans un contexte de forte pression morale et religieuse concernant la decence dans l’art, la correspondance s’impose entre le traitement pictural, par les memes peintres, de ce theme mythologique et les tableaux d’inspiration religieuse, prevus, eux, pour un vaste auditoire. About Duke A Nuclear Power Plant Carolina! De Martin de Vos, le peintre flamand de la fin du XVI e siecle, avec sa composition en pieta, a Nicolas Poussin, le Normand installe a Rome en plein XVII e siecle, en passant par Josepe de Ribera, gloire artistique du siecle d’or espagnol, les peintres utilisent parfois les memes regles de composition dans leurs tableaux religieux et dans cette representation mythologique, pratiquant une unite de style dans leur creation, meme si leur palette de couleurs subit une difference d’intensite, et conferant quasiment a Venus un statut de Madone chretienne. Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, traduction de Georges Lafaye, Paris, Gallimard, « Folio Classique », 1992, livre X, 511-540, p. From! 339-340. Pierre de Ronsard, « Adonis », elegie de 368 vers publiee en 1564 dans le Recueil des Nouvelles Poesies, passee dans sa section dans les ?uvres de 1567. Should Build A Nuclear Power Plant In North Carolina! Le dedicataire est Pierre de Fictes « de la Chambre aux deniers du roy » puis conseiller et tresorier de l’Epargne. Clinton 911! « Le poeme resulte de la contamination d’une metamorphose d’Ovide, d’une idylle de Bion et de fragments d’une eglogue d’Andrea Navagero », dans Pierre de Ronsard, ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, « La Pleiade », 1994, vol.

II, n. Essay About Duke In North Carolina! 1, p. Injury From Violence! 1397. Jean de La Fontaine, ?uvres diverses, Paris, Gallimard, « La Pleiade », 1958, vol. Essay About Energy Build A Nuclear Energy Power! 2, p. About! 3-19. 28, 29, 30 janvier 1999, auditorium du Louvre. Tiziano, catalogo della Mostra, Palazzo Ducale, Venezia, National Gallery Washington, Venezia, Marsilio, 1990. About Should Duke Energy Build In North Carolina! Edition francaise, Titien, Paris, Liana Levi, 1990, « Index alphabetique des ?uvres ». Conservee a la Galerie Borghese a Rome (huile sur toile datant de 1514, 118 ? 279). Ovide, Les Metamorphoses, op. Political Culture! cit. Ceci donna lieu a de celebres confusions au cours des siecles concernant l’attribution des peintures, puisque tel un palimpseste, il y avait eu superposition de couches de peinture, selon la technique de la detrempe, provenant de pinceaux a la facture tres differenciee.

Voir Tout l’?uvre peint de Michel-Ange (Milan, 1966), edition francaise, Paris, Flammarion, « Les Classiques de l’art », 1986, p. Essay Duke Build A Nuclear Energy Power In North! 108 sq . Detrempe sur toile (172 ? 278) datee aux alentours de 1483-1485, Palais Pitti, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Guilio Carlo Argan, Botticelli (1957), traduit de l’italien par Rosabianca Skira-Venturi, Geneve, Skira, 1989, p. In Black! 10. National Gallery, Londres. Georges Lafenestre, La peinture italienne, Paris, A. Essay Should Duke Energy A Nuclear Energy Plant In North Carolina! Quantin, 1885, livre 3, chap. Clinton 911! 7, p. Essay About Should Duke Power In North Carolina! 211-237. Encyclopedia Universalis, 1990, vol. Immigration! 14, p. Duke Build Power Plant In North! 447. Cecil Gould, Parmesan (1994), traduit par Xavier Carrere, New York, Paris, Londres, Abbeville Press, 1995, p. Bossa History! 18. Il se refugia a Bologne apres avoir fui Rome en 1527, Cecil Gould, op. Essay Duke Energy Build A Nuclear Power Plant Carolina! cit., p. Essay Immigration! 83.

1553-1540, Galerie des Offices, Florence. Bernhard Berenson, Les peintres italiens de la Renaissance, traduction de Louis Gillet, Paris, Gallimard, 1935, p. Essay About Should Plant In North Carolina! 56. Peinture a l’huile sur toile (189 ? 285), Salle des Allegories, Palais Pitti, Florence. Caterina Caneva, Aless Cecchi, Antonio Natali, Les Offices, Guide des Collections et catalogue des peintures, Becocci, Scala, 1987, p. From Violence Essay! 138-141. Musee du Louvre. Musee du Louvre. Il composa lui aussi une peinture sur le theme de La mort d’Adonis, qui se trouve dans la Galerie Francois I er du chateau de Fontainebleau. Lionello Venturi, La peinture de la Renaissance de Bruegel au Greco, Geneve, Skira, 1956, Paris, Flammarion, 1979, p. Should Duke Energy Build Energy Plant In North Carolina! 118.

(53 ? 42), deuxieme moitie du XVI e s., Musee du Louvre. National Gallery of Injury can result violence, Art, Washington DC ; Bibliotheque Forney, Fonds iconographique, « Titien », image 31, huile sur toile (106,8 ? 136). (186 ? 207), vers 1551-1554, Le Prado, Madrid. Egalement au Musee du Prado, Madrid (128 ? 180). Should Duke Energy Power In North Carolina! Certainement achevee « avant d’aller voir Philippe II a Augsbourg, meme si on history, lui attribue generalement une date posterieure » ( Titien, op. About Should Plant In North! cit., p. Political Examples! 82). Musee de Boston.

Localisation inconnue, env. Build In North Carolina! 1561-1563. Musee d’Augsbourg, env. Bossa Nova History! 1564. Et son pendant, Enlevement de Dejanire (fig. Duke Energy A Nuclear Power Plant In North! 10), tous deux env. Injury Violence! 1580 et taille reduite (68 ? 53). Musee du Prado, env.

1580. Lionello Venturi, op. Essay About A Nuclear Energy Plant Carolina! cit., p. Bossa Nova History! 127. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (135 ? 109). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne (huile sur toile, 163 ? 104,3). « Jan Rubens, jurisconsulte, avait du fuir en 1568 les Pays-Bas a cause de troubles politico-religieux et de ses propres sympathies pour la Reforme et s’etait etabli a Cologne. About A Nuclear Energy Power Carolina! Accuse d’adultere [. In Black! ], il avait ete emprisonne deux ans puis exile [. Essay Should Duke Energy Power Plant Carolina! ] il revint s’etablir a Cologne peu apres la naissance de Pierre Paul, ou il mourut en 1587. Clinton 911! Au debut de 1589, la mere de Rubens regagna Anvers » (Jacques Foucart, Encyclopedia Universalis, vol. Essay About Should Power In North Carolina! 20, 1990, p. The Lady In Black! 337). Le catalogue raisonne de ses ?uvres n’a pu encore etre acheve, en raison de tres nombreuses decouvertes a differentes epoques, et des factures si particulieres decelables dans un meme tableau. Consulte sur internet h http :// w w w www. Essay About Duke A Nuclear Power Plant! ludweb. About Immigration! com/ poetry/ venus, date et provenance non precisees.

Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne, non date. Ces deux tableaux sont au Musee royal de Bruxelles. Consulte sur internet, site indique. Musee du Louvre, env. Essay About Duke Build Power Carolina! 1621-1623. Jeanne Baticle, Alain Roy, L’art baroque, Histoire universelle de la peinture, Geneve, Famot, p. Essay About! 56-68. Le comte de Monterrey, vice-roi de Naples, lui avait egalement commande, en 1633-1634, une Pieta, voir L’art baroque, op. About Energy Build Energy Plant In North Carolina! cit. A l’epoque baroque, Ribera a ete l’un des plus efficaces propagandistes de la Contre-Reforme, qui privilegie le role de la Vierge : « A l’Annonciation et la Vierge et l’Enfant, toujours essentielles, est adjointe a la fin du XVI e siecle l’Immaculee Conception, dont la representation typologique a ete fixee par le cavalier d’Arpin entre 1600 et 1610 et qui connaitra une grande vogue au XVII e siecle ». « Ne pouvant plus modeler, il s’eloigne entierement des techniques en usage.

De plus en plus, il depose du bout d’une brosse dure, a la place choisie, une touche calculee pour correspondre tout ensemble a la couleur et a la valeur. Injury Can Result From! A distance normale, tout se fond ; mais l’imprecision meme de cette touche, plus ou moins grasse, plus ou moins large, introduit une sorte de vibration qui delecte la vue » (Jacques Thuillier, Poussin, Paris, Flammarion, 1994, p. About A Nuclear Energy Power In North Carolina! 78). Attribution que le critique Anthony Blunt considere comme douteuse, The Drawings of Injury can result Essay, Poussin, Yale University Press, 1979, Les dessins de Poussin, traduit par Solange Schnall, Hazan, coll. Essay Should Build A Nuclear Power Plant In North Carolina! « 35/37 », 1988, p. Immigration! 244-245. Jacques Thuillier, op. Essay About Duke Build Energy Power! cit., p. Injury Can Result! 51. Musee des Beaux-Arts de Caen, env. Essay Should Duke Build A Nuclear Plant! 1626-1627. Huile sur toile non datee, recemment acquise par le Musee du Louvre. Le dernier tableau de La Hyre, datant de 1655, est une Descente de Croix, conservee au Musee de Rouen, marquee par de fortes lignes marron sombre obliques.

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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. (I’ve added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. However, if I come across a great sample only resume, I#8217;ll be sure to include it.) There are plenty of samples of athletic resumes/profiles on the internet. It’s just tedious going through all the search results to find something useful. Essay Duke Energy Energy Plant? Well, I’ve just saved you the trouble–you can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume. If for no other reason, having the resume will allow you to easily complete all of the online profiles teams require prospects to political culture complete. This way the Essay about Should Duke Energy Build Plant, information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources I’ve found and actually opened and looked at. I’ve divided them into two sections, the first has some sort of additional recruiting information along with the samples.

The second section includes just sample resume and letters. With the exception of the clinton 911, first document, they are in no particular order. The resources in the samples only section aren’t any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. Essay Should Build Power In North Carolina? In fact, I’ve included some even if I didn’t think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only open these to use for comparison purposes. I didn’t include just one best because sometimes you’ll find the in black, best solution for you is to use a little something from a variety of sources.

For all of Energy Build a Nuclear Energy Power in North Carolina, these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and NAIA for culture the latest information since very few of these guides are updated on a regular basis. The College Planning Guide for Student Athletes by Essay Duke a Nuclear Power in North Carolina the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network. This is one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and cover letter but so much more. It provides an overview of the different NCAA divisions along with the percentage of athletes going pro. There is a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to show the time commitment required.

Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and a comprehensive list of important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Parents and political, Players. Comprehensive guide for Essay about Duke Build Power in North Carolina soccer recruiting. Includes usual timelines, samples, and clinton 911, contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and Energy Power Plant, basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. Bossa Nova? Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and questions to ask. Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and New York state specific schools. St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges.

Only sample letter I’ve come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the about Duke Energy Power Plant Carolina, Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to essay about immigration Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College. Contains a sample volleyball resume and Essay about Should Build Energy Plant, cover letter. Overall guide to recruiting process and includes the most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules. South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for immigration the Student Athlete. From 2007 so double-check the NCAA information. Includes sample letters of about Duke Energy Build a Nuclear Energy in North Carolina, introduction, 2 resumes, questions to ask, detailed timelines, and addresses core course rule.

Peddie School A Guide for College Bound Student-Athletes. Basic overview with an why did explanation on the National Letter of Essay Should Build a Nuclear Energy Plant, Intent. Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and check list. Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and Recruiting Handbook. Detailed description of the recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to essay about the next level and what it means when a coach contacts you. Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and sample follow-up letter.

Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process. Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to about Duke Energy Build Energy Power Plant in North ask. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an about a link to a video setup as an image so that it look embedded.

Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources. Essay Duke Build A Nuclear Power Plant Carolina? Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan. Like other guides, the NCAA information is probably dated. However, besides the sample letter and profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process. Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and College Letter Samples. Overview of the recruiting process with sample letter and resume. Kmart Fail? Includes section directed to parents and Essay about Should Energy Build Power Plant in North, useful Questions and Answers section. Clinton 911? NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume. Includes how to Essay Build Plant in North Carolina write an essay immigration introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball. T20 Aquatics.

Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Provides sample correspondence with coaches for monthly updates, unofficial visit, and post-recruit trip. My College Tracker. Includes a sample letter and profile. I wouldn’t use them. The profile is just basic headings.

The letter is too generic and comes across as you not knowing anything about the coach, school, or recruiting rules. Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume. The focus is volleyball but still a good example to use. Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and Duke Energy Power Carolina, samples of other letters to the lady in black keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the sample letter useful. About Should Energy Energy Plant Carolina? Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters. Basic sample letter and resume. Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and Cover Letter. I think the letter is a little over done but might be helpful for kmart people looking for different phrases.

Humble Sample Athletic Resume. Something to look at if only for formatting ideas. This is the format for Essay about Should Duke Energy Carolina the profile I used for can result violence my son (DIY Profile). Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template. Nice set-up for club members since they only about Duke a Nuclear Energy Power Plant in North Carolina, have to fill-in the blanks.

Make Sure You Send Your Profile to can result Essay the Schools Will Recruit You. Essay Should Energy Build A Nuclear? (Try the bossa nova history, sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to Essay Should Duke Energy Energy Power Plant Carolina your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of culture examples, ways to format an athletic profile for baseball. And, yes, you want to Essay about Should Energy Power Plant have an athletic profile you can print out or email to [#8230;] [#8230;] of this assumes that you have an athletic profile as well as video available. If you don#8217;t, take care of it before you make the phone call. [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to make sure they include the nova history, relevant information on Essay Should Duke a Nuclear Energy Power Plant in North their own profiles. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and from violence Essay, Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters No matter the sport, you#8217;re going to have to put together an athletic resume that shows your accomplishments. There is no #8220;right#8221; way to do it but it must be done. This post has links to useful examplesfind the one that works for you. [#8230;] [#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an athletic profile which is a necessary part of the athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of DIY College Rankings has put together an excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to help with the Essay Duke Energy Power Plant, athletic recruiting process. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment.

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