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Lyda Borelli’s Satanic Rhapsody : The Cinema and the Occult. Georgia Institute of Technology. Un article de la revue Cinemas. Tous droits reserves © Cinemas, 2006. Salons. Trailers! Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes.
Discussing Nino Oxilia’s film Satanic Rhapsody ( Rapsodia Satanica , 1915) starring Lyda Borelli, the author examines the influence of of morality Bergsonism on uk film, the perception of cinema right before and during World War I. Gilgamesh Essay! In particular, she points out the intersection between the film and, among other references, the tradition of the early Italian diva film, the plastic dynamism of Futurist painter Umberto Boccioni, the dance/performance art of Loie Fuller, and the emerging figure of the New Woman. Analysant Rapsodie satanique ( Rapsodia Satanica , 1915), film de Nino Oxilia donnant la vedette a Lyda Borelli, l’auteure du present article met en lumiere l’effet du bergsonisme sur la perception qu’on avait du cinema juste avant et pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale. Parmi les nombreuses sources d’inspiration d’Oxilia, elle souligne plus particulierement l’influence de la tradition des films de divas du cinema italien naissant, du dynamisme plastique du peintre futuriste Umberto Boccioni, des choregraphies et performances de Loie Fuller, ainsi que celle de la figure emergeante de la Femme Nouvelle. Nino Oxilia’s Rapsodia Satanica (1915), or Satanic Rhapsody , with Lyda Borelli, is an important silent film to examine because of the ways in which it weaves together so many cultural threads of its period. The most important of these threads is Bergsonism, that is an understanding of the cinema as a new technology blending together a subjective, fantastic quality with an objective, documentary-like style. Originally, in Creative Evolution , Henri Bergson (1998) associated the uk film trailers cinema of his day with science and the illusions of intelligence. This is the case because the motion studies that he knew by Etienne-Jules Marey were so analytical and compartmentalizing that they did not, during the course of observation, take into account the Assessment Essay subjective powers of memory, intuition and imagination. Uk Film! Yet, through Giovanni Papini, an Italian disciple of gilgamesh essay Bergson, this opposition between cinema and subjectivity became much less rigid.  By referring to the print of Rapsodia Satanica restored by the Cineteca di Bologna, in this essay I will argue that Nino Oxilia probably knew Bergson’s work through his friend, the painter and film producer Pier Antonio Gariazzo. I will also contend that, just like Papini, Oxilia feels that the cinema is trailers a combination of degree fantastic and documentary-like moments, so that his style alternates betweeen outdoor scenes with natural lighting and uk film indoor episodes with a Caravaggesque chiaroscuro. This mix of styles is all about the transition from old to new, the passage from the stuffy interiors of a castle to freer gardens with butterflies, winds, clouds, and trees. In the case of Rapsodia , the and Conceptual Change Essay theme of an identity in search of change applies, of course, to the film-diva Lyda Borelli.
Rapsodia Satanica is a diva-film, that is a work built around a female star whose marketing prestige overshadowed even the reputation of the director, Nino Oxilia. Although widely used in contemporary English, the word diva in 1915 Italy meant something different from what it means today. Most people associate the term with a strong, beautiful and uk film dangerous woman, derived from the nineteenth-century femme fatale of of morality painting and literature. Such a definition is relevant to the film-diva of early Italian cinema, but only in a limited way, since the female stars of that period were characterized by a suffering and maternal aura ( mater dolorosa ) which the American femme fatales never adopted. Furthermore, in early Italian cinema a diva-film meant a melodrama with Orientalist decor dealing with women’s issues such as aging, abandonment, divorce, adultery, pregnancy, employment and uk film trailers so forth. In the case of Rapsodia Satanica , Borelli’s character becomes the conceptual centerpiece of the whole film. To be sure, she was a famous star of the stage, until 1913 when she agreed to work in gilgamesh essay, Everlasting Love with director Mario Caserini. Borelli’s success with her first film experience was enormous: a new film genre was born along with a new kind of female stardom, so that the young actress’ manners became a fashionable mode of behaviour for millions of uk film trailers young Italian women.
In the wake of such an explosion of celebrity for about poverty, Borelli, when the young Nino Oxilia was chosen by Cines, a Roman production house to direct Rapsodia Satanica , it was a great opportunity for his artistic career. As a film concerned with romance, aging, physical beauty, and personal happiness for a powerful woman who lives alone, Rapsodia Satanica fits within the genre of the diva-film, but Oxilia used every element at his disposal to raise the stakes of the genre itself from within and to move the whole project in a more philosophical and experimental direction. More specifically, there are at least two reasons why Oxilia’s Rapsodia Satanica stands out in trailers, comparision to calculation similar films from the same period. Firstly, Rapsodia Satanica exhibits a fascination with the trailers late nineteenth-century obsession with occult forces intertwined with an Orientalist agenda. Just a few years before the shooting of Oxilia’s film, the Italians’ taste for the exotic and the esoteric had been kindled by the arrival of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Rome.
Secondly, Rapsodia Satanica is concerned with the theme of temporality, or the so-called “fourth dimension,” a key topic in Italian circles studying the borderline between scientific and paranormal phenomena. Formative Assessment! The film’s preoccupation with time demonstrates the wide-spread influence of Henri Bergson’s philosophy of duration. In contrast to a traditional, linear, and teleological understanding of history, Bergson’s duration or the resilience of an imaginative impulse— elan vital —was a whole new way of uk film thinking about subjectivity and creativity which shaped the ideas of many Italian intellectuals in Oxilia’s time. Origin Of Morality! To better understand how so many different strands play themselves out in uk film trailers, Rapsodia , I will devote a series of sections to a close-up examination of the artistic and intellectual network of forces that have shaped this little-known but unusual, “experimental” melodrama. Born in gilgamesh essay, Turin, Nino Oxilia (1889-1917) was involved in poetry, songwriting, and theatre, before turning to trailers film. As a young man, he was a bohemian; it might be going too far to call Oxilia a protofeminist, but he was a friend of poet Guido Gozzano and his companion, the writer Amalia Guglielminetti. This high-profile couple was engaged in debates about social reform and poverty the emancipation of uk film trailers women (though Gozzano’s inclinations were more melancholic and conservative than Oxilia’s). Turin at the time was teeming with Socialists, suffragettes, and ladies active in and Analysis, philanthropy and salons; due to its proximity to France, Turin was also a center of filmmaking for the rest of Italy. Vittorio Calcina, the first representative of the Lumiere Brothers in Italy, was based there. Between the eighteen-eighties and eighteen-nineties, Turin had become, through Edmondo De Amicis’ heartbreaking feuilletons about immigration, poverty, and education, the city of patriotic piety, socialism, and uk film trailers the Italian Risorgimento.
Antonio Gramsci, another native of Turin, split from the Socialists in 1919 to found the brand new Communist Party in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution. Turin was the of morality city of criminal anthropology. It was there that Cesare Lombroso managed to get his chair at the university. One component of the emerging industral triangle with Milan and Genoa, Turin was different from other Italian cities due to the scientific, secular tradition fostered by uk film trailers, the French Enlightment across the Alps.  While the Scapigliatura was an artistic youth movement inspired by the French boheme, all sorts of mystical and religious cults, as well as esoteric and exotic fashions, were also flourishing there as a reaction against the mathematical certitude at the service of industry and the Turinese liberal-conservative oligarchy. Oxilia grew up in this Turinese climate of technological and caffe nero price list artistic experimentation where irrational beliefs went hand in uk film trailers, hand with scientific testing. Origin Of Morality! More specifically, Oxilia started his artistic career in the theatre as a writer, but he was quickly recruited by Arturo Ambrosio’s production house. By 1912, Oxilia became very close to Pier Antonio Gariazzo, a painter, filmmaker, and producer; he was also the founder of Savoia Film, a company that specialized in contemporary dramas. Always eager to be informed about the latest trend, Gariazzo dabbled in philosophy, loved adventure, and traveled extensively (his experiences in Indonesia inspired several paintings). Turin was also the home of Adriano Tilgher, a minor philosopher, who became a disciple of Henri Bergson and wrote the book Art, Knowledge and Reality (1911) ( Arte, conoscenza e realta ). Uk Film! In this stimulating environment, the young Oxilia met his future fiancee, Maria Jacobini, a young actress who looked like Mary Pickford and was also the niece of a Vatican-based cardinal.
Jacobini left her parents’ house in Rome amid great scandal, to become a diva and devote herself entirely to gilgamesh essay the cinema.  Oxilia fell in love and became her Pygmalion. In 1913, after many projects in the Turinese film environment, Oxilia signed a contract with Cines, a prestigious production house based in Rome, which asked him to work with Francesca Bertini for Sangue Blue through its subsidiary company, Celio. In 1915 Oxilia wrote Il Fior di Male , a film beautifully interpreted by Lyda Borelli for the director Carmine Gallone. In 1916, when the brief season of uk film trailers divas was nearly over, and blood and death were flooding the Italian screens, Oxilia shot a couple of essay about poverty war newsreels set in the Balkans. His images were so gruesome that the uk film censorship board intervened. In 1917 Oxilia died on the front line, blown to pieces by a bomb during the Assessment battle of Monte Tomba. He was one among many artists and intellectuals of that confused yet remarkable generation who died in the Great War; the painter Umberto Boccioni and the architect Antonio Sant’Elia met the same fate. The diva-film, thus, found itself lacking intellectual mentors to improve the genre and open it up to experimentation with new ideas about women and visual technologies. Overall Oxilia’s style as a director was quite fluid, and it is, therefore, difficult to determine exactly what his specific contributions were. In addition, his role as leader was submerged by a sort of cooperative authorship that prevailed within the energetic but chaotic film industry.
So open to experimentation was Oxilia that, during the trailers shooting of Ananke ( Fate , 1915) with Leda Gys, Maria Jacobini, and Maria’s sister, Diomira Jacobini, he let the three divas handle most of the creative decisions and limited himself to the role of set designer. Essay About! What is sure, however, is that he directed not only Bertini in uk film, Sangue Blue and Borelli in calculation, Rapsodia Satanica , but also Pina Menichelli in Il Papa ( Daddy , 1915) and in Il Sottomarino 27 ( Submarine 27 , 1915), two films that unfortunately have been lost. Because he worked with the most important divas of his period, it is likely that Oxilia had a reputation inside the industry which was competitive with that of Mario Caserini, Carmine Gallone, and uk film Giovanni Pastrone. Between 1912 and caffe list 1917, the year of uk film his death, Oxilia was involved in at least twenty-four films—all of caffe price them made one after another and at uk film, breackneck speed. The point here is that enough positive energy surrounded the young filmmaker to sustain him in a constructive way during the production of Rapsodia Satanica . And this climate of gilgamesh essay openness to new ideas and cosmopolitan trends may indicate why Oxilia celebrates women’s sense of independence with an explicit citation of Loie Fuller’s dancing performed by Lyda Borelli in Rapsodia Satanica . By 1915 Loie Fuller, an trailers, American dancer who triumphed in Paris, was a well-established icon of women’s emancipation and the artistic integration of caffe nero price list technology, science and uk film trailers imagination. Most significantly, her dances, performed in complete darkness with phosphorescent veils and colored electric lights mounted on Formative Assessment Change, wands, were comparable to a proto-cinematic show; even the Italian Futurists praised Fuller’s work unreservedly. By associating Borelli with Fuller at the end of Rapsodia , Oxilia was clearly spelling out the ideas of freedom and reinvention. Such a feminist use of uk film trailers a famous diva was no small statement, and, as such, it put him in and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics, a potentially compromising position. Trailers! But referencing Fuller was not the only risk Oxilia was ready to list take.
In Rapsodia , Borelli, before turning into a sort of butterfly of the trailers future, impersonates a cruel Salome. This reference was mandatory because Borelli conquered Italian audiences by and Analysis, playing Salome on stage in 1902. Yet it was also a bit risky to associate film and femininity with an uk film, Orientalist myth. Assessment Essay! On the other hand, cinema’s bad reputation as the conduit of evil from the East to the West, did nothing to slow down the Orientalist vogue in early Italian film culture. Through Borelli dressed as Salome, Oxilia’s Rapsodia explores the transformation of the cruel femme fatale into the New Woman of modernity, while it also interrogates the cinema about its affinities with the outdoors or the natural world in contrast to the alliance between theatre and architecture, or the indoors and uk film trailers furniture. Formative Assessment And Conceptual Change Essay! Oxilia’s Rapsodia was shot and finished in 1914, but not distributed until 1917 due to unspecified difficulties. It seems that there was some rivalry with Mario Caserini (1874-1920), who was based in Rome and uk film linked to Cines just as Oxilia was. Perhaps Caserini himself was instrumental in holding the film up. One of the producers of the film at Cines was the Description of Pharmacogenomics Essay Baron Alberto Fassini, also known as Alfa, who had strong ties with the Bank of trailers Rome and of morality financed the project.
Fassini brought in the composer Pietro Mascagni and asked him to write the music. After watching the film over and over uk film again without intertitles, Mascagni felt strongly that the music should rule over the image. He declared that he envisioned a score at least fifty-five minutes long. Assessment And Conceptual Change! As a result, Oxilia agreed to redo the ending so as to match the length of Mascagni’s score. Some argue that the reason why Rapsodia Satanica stood on the shelf until 1917 was Mascagni’s endless revising. Trailers! He was unwilling to of morality declare he had completed the final version of the score until 1917, even though most of the music was written by uk film, 1915.  Rapsodia ’s plot is caffe price easy to summarize.
An old woman, Alba D’Oltrevita, whose names means Dawn-Beyond-Life (Lyda Borelli), tired of wasting away and fearing death, makes a deal with the devil: she will be young and beautiful forever if she gives up romance. The idea of giving up romance and achieving eternal youth involves breaking the uk film statuette of gilgamesh essay a little Cupid standing near an hour glass. Yet Alba’s statuette does not break. Unaware, the devil flips the hourglass upside down, and Alba switches from old to young. The owner of the Castle of Illusion (an obvious architectural allegory of the movie theatre), Alba embodies not only the life-preserving power of the filmic image, but the dream of trailers reversing the death-bound flow of degree of unsaturation time. In keeping with a self-reflexive reading of Oxilia’s film, Alba’s character can be linked to two separate images of uk film trailers time—two complementary views of the cinema involving two other famous female stars of silent film culture. The first image involves Ida Rubinstein, the about poverty famous Russian dancer from the Ballets Russes.
Her first appearance on a Parisian stage in 1909 mesmerized the audience, especially when her body appeared to uk film trailers be slowly emerging out of an unraveling, cocoon-like strip of cloth. She looked like a butterfly leaving her chrysalis behind, or like a soul leaving a dead body. An ancient symbol for the immortal soul, the essay butterfly is a major icon of Art Nouveau. The second image is a photograph of Theda Bara staring at an Egyptian mummy stored in a glass case. Uk Film Trailers! The first example is about the time of projection, whereas the and Conceptual Essay second is about the cinema holding forever still a moment that is as unique and as precious as the uk film human body preserved through mummification.
When combined, these two images spell out how each moment in film is suspended between a metaphysical ideal and an unavoidable, physical decay: each frame wants to endure forever, yet each is flickering away at the same time. Rapsodia Satanica is an calculation, allegorical meditation on the inner and outer temporalities of the filmic image—that is, the filmic image is as transient as Alba’s youth but, thanks to its photographic ontology, the image in film is also as long-lasting as an Egyptian mummy. Rapsodia ’s plot unfolds through episodes of jealousy and self-destruction between Alba and two brothers who are both in uk film, love with her. Most importantly, Borelli falls in love with palpitating nature, with life itself outside the walls of her Castle. Alba’s home is surrounded by a series of degree gardens, ranging from highly designed and cultivated plots to the forgotten corners where plants grow wild. While she is walking alone in trailers, a secluded corner of her huge park, she surprises a yellow butterfly resting on a flower. The distance between her and the object of her gaze is hardly established, and it is for this reason that the cut from a close-up of her face to a close-up of the butterfly cannot complement each other within the system of the point-of-view shot. In the passage from one shot to the next, today’s spectator can sense that the spatial proportions are off: the size of objects in the first shot looks awkward in relation to the size of those contained in the second. In addition to lacking a verisimilar articulation of space, eye-line matches are missing throughout.
Alba’s gaze upon a group of musicians below her window is price incomplete. The reaction-shot necessary to uk film trailers legitimize the inference of a point-of-view shot is origin of morality not there. Let there be no doubt that these are not mistakes, for there are no rules in place at this point. Uk Film Trailers! This is why these particular examples are also responsible for the flavor and texture of the film, for all its rough edges and moments of surprise. Despite the limitations typical of early cinema, the steady alternation between indoor and outdoor space suggests that Oxilia might have been wondering about film’s special kinship with nature.
The director’s energy seems to be torn between cramped art-historical allusions within the sets and origin of morality the spontaneous flow of water and the reverberations of light in the garden. Uk Film Trailers! Of course, most shots of the landscape include carefully arranged micro-narratives of caffe list youthful groups horseback riding or dancing into the most remote background layers of the shot. Yet the trailers use of natural lighting in origin, the outdoor sequences, the feeling of fresh air, and the thin fabrics used for the costumes indicate that the cinema functions at its very best with intangible, quasi-invisible materials. On the other hand, inside the Castle of trailers Illusion, mirrors and chiaroscuro lighting produce a dense but also alluring sense of mystery around Alba. Rapsodia Satanica mixes an older, “primitive” and indoor mode of filmmaking with attempts toward a more advanced, outdoor and modern method. Dressed as Salome during the opening costume party, Borelli slowly advances from the background to the foreground of the shot. The outline of her figure is almost lost in crowded compositions: rococo furniture and statuettes, arabesque-like stuccoes, walls covered with pictures of all sizes, Oriental rugs, curtains, tapestries, animal skins, gilded frames, and degree of unsaturation bibelots surround the famous diva. To be sure, it would be too easy, and trailers also quite wrong, to dismiss Rapsodia Satanica on Assessment Change Essay, the basis of its Orientalist kitsch. Furniture, ornament, and drapery are much more than gratuitous decorative detail: they offer Oxilia an uk film, opportunity to emphasize plasticity, molding, and relief—namely, staging in depth—within the diva-film, which is still trying to mediate the of unsaturation impression of uk film trailers reality with a certain degree of horror vacuii , or fear of the void. An art historical term that refers to the anxiety of filling an empty background too reminiscent of the shadowy flatness of archaic projection, horror vacuii is confirmed by how Rapsodia ’s accumulation of furniture arises from a fear of the void that lurks behind the empty shadows of the projection. Essay About Poverty! It is quite telling that the devil literally walks into the narrative, by leaving behind the dark space of an uk film, overly gilded pictorial frame which seems both to contain and to gilgamesh essay compensate for a ghastly area of unrepresentable emptiness.
On the other hand, in trailers, a film where the surfaces of Formative Change mirrors reflect multiple images, such a dance of interacting projections does make up for trailers, a static camera. Halfway through the film, during the sequence about Description Essay her newly found independence from the devil, the mediation of the mirror between Alba and her reflection on the glass is most effective. When she turns to face the camera, the image of her back suggests the mental, and therefore insubstantial, nature of the barrier of an trailers, invisible fourth wall. By using the mirror to turn the body into a reflection, Oxilia underlines its illusionistic and constructed nature, hence its potential for collapse. Put another way, here the mirror is no instrument of narcissistic self-deception, but rather a means of visualizing a space that leads to a kind of magical realm beyond which it might be possible to be yourself—nothing else but yourself. Rapsodia was a film heavily backed by bankers, with extremely lavish locations, and released with an original musical score written by a major composer.
It is not surprising, then, that Rapsodia Satanica included a highly selective use of color that was designed not so much to increase its documentary realism, but to underline its fantastic poetic moments. Degree Of Unsaturation Calculation! As we learn from Piero Antonio Gariazzo, a good friend of Nino Oxilia, at the time the film was made, the cold gray of photography appeared to be a major aesthetic limitation, so much so that mechanical reproduction was perceived as an ally of science and an enemy of fantasy. Of course this narrow definition of photography was a major challenge for the diva-film to overcome, since her cinema was meant to be seductive and emotionally charged. Gariazzo (1919, p. 100) wrote: Quite brutally, the merciless, cold, destructive medium photography proposed to us, from time to time, a series of ugly and uk film barren sights, and it removed us from a vague dream filled with colors and beautiful forms to take us into a monotony of grey mountains, waters, and cities, all of them resembling one another, inhabited by people just like us, small and nero list petty little towns. Perhaps to compensate for a wide-spread, negative view of photography, Oxilia learnt from fashion designer Mariano Fortuny—one of uk film trailers Borelli’s favorite fashion designers—how to develop chromatic effects for Rapsodia . In his laboratory, on the Venetian island of Giudecca, by using the pochoir (stenciling) technique, Fortuny added silver and golden threads in the form of arabesques, that were either printed on degree of unsaturation calculation, or woven into the surface of trailers precious fabrics such as velvets, silks, linens, and organza.
In the case of Oxilia’s film, the pochoir technique imbues the lifeless, rigid cliches of the story with an unprecedented emotional force. The stenciling of the film in color makes the images look softer. As a result, the diva’s wardrobe includes clothes of yellow, blue, pink, and green; a window absorbs the light and becomes as yellow as the large butterfly, an epiphany promising Alba a future beyond the nero price list devil; during Alba’s reacquisition of youth and the coming of all sorts of spring festivals, the trees are green, while Borelli’s veils are pink in trailers, opposition to the devil’s red cape. In the end, color, just like life in motion, seems to belong to the outdoors and to costume, thus hinting at film’s special power to tune into subtle changes in the body, behavior, and the natural world. In his book about the making of Diva Dolorosa , Peter Delpeut (1999, p. Essay About Poverty! 24) aptly comments on the difference between the diva-films in black and white and the humanization that color brings to uk film trailers Tigre Reale with Pina Menichelli:
The copy from Turin had soft pink and clear blue tones. I only knew the caffe nero black-and-white version. But with the trailers color version of Tigre Reale , I understood once and for all that monochrome coloring is essential for the appreciation of silent film. The black-and-white-copies we know are usually copies of original colored nitrate films. In the copying process it is impossible to produce a pristine black and white picture. The film material is insensitive to particular colors, it cannot read them and translate them into gray scales or tone.
The color areas are incompatible with a clear black and white. Films like Tigre Reale for years were screened with grey tones. . . . Everything seemed to nero list drown into a dull blur. Copying the original color brings life back to the story and makes the film as a whole more accessible in a visual sense. Finally, it is significant that clothes, along with Oxilia’s choice of locations and sets, help the diva to uk film direct herself. In fact, Lyda Borelli wears several of Fortuny’s most famous dresses for the shooting of Rapsodia , as if she wanted to trademark the film beyond the screen into the worlds of fashion and stage art. During the planning of La Memoria dell’Altro , in her letter to the producer Alberto Fassini, she stressed over and over again the importance of clothes in her work and her admiration for Fortuny. The diva’s body, the celluloid of film, the application of essay about poverty color—these three levels seem to converge in the project of transforming motion into a much warmer sense of breathing life, caught like a butterfly into the net of time at a stand-still, once and for all, but also with all the flavor and trailers taste of degree of unsaturation its own epoch preserved. As the title suggests, Oxilia’s film is a combination of old and new elements. From the Greek verb rhaptein —which means both to trailers sew and to sing— Rapsodia ’s plot is derivative, transformative, and transgressive. Degree Of Unsaturation! Through the well-known characters of Salome and Faust, Oxilia rehashes the themes that feminine beauty is trailers lethal and that eternal youth is a reward worthy of any sacrifice. Much more refreshing than these worn-out ideas are the meaningful transformations of setting and mood Alba experiences when she leaves the Castle of Illusion for fresh air; when she contemplates the beautiful yellow butterfly in the garden; and, finally, when, after scattering dying flowers on the floor and Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics Essay playing the piano, she acknowledges the painful return of wrinkles to uk film her face.
She knows she has broken her pact with the devil and gilgamesh essay that there is no turning back. It is precisely during this memorable scene of veils and mirrors bathed in Caravaggesque chiaroscuro lighting that the viewer senses the possibility of unexpected prodigies taking over the predictable plot Oxilia has diligently followed up to this point. Instead of ending the film with the same old grotesque Alba of the first sequence, a new, stronger, and ethereal creature emerges from the glowing twilight hour, the see-through fabric, and the reflecting surfaces of the mise en scene . This alchemy of sunset, cloth, and glass is not only a combination of flexible and mutable materials reminiscent of film’s sensitivity to time-fleeting moments. It is also a protective envelope for the diva’s inner and definitive change, at the moment of uk film trailers greatest despair: the gilgamesh essay devil has just withdrawn his promise of uk film eternal youth. Put another way, the play of veils, the glow of candles, and the dancelike motions caught by the looking glass function as a nurturing chrysalis: they enable the essay butterfly-woman of the future to uk film trailers be born. And she comes to life against all odds. Thus, an artificial icon of the Art Nouveau period—the real butterfly Alba saw in the garden—becomes her alter ego as well as the symbol of her search for a new identity outside the rules of the and Analysis Essay Castle. With a surprising twist of the traditional story line, Oxilia does not make Alba return to her stuffy chambers; instead, he edits the uk film trailers close-up of a cold, indifferent mirror, a reference to aging, with the low angle of an essay about, ominous black door slowly opening to a terrace overlooking a forest. Uk Film Trailers! Moving from the indoors to the outdoors, the filmmaker concludes this transitional sequence by juxtaposing a frontal view of Borelli, in all her toylike smallness, against a monumental Egyptianate threshold.
Not only does the diva’s hieroglyphic and rigid figure grow in size as she faces and walks toward the Essay camera, but, all of trailers a sudden, this view is about poverty replaced by one of uk film trailers her receding back, that is, becoming smaller. Price! Without a doubt, Oxilia’s radical switch from a frontal to a rear view of Borelli underlines the crossing of a rigid boundary inside herself and in uk film, the society in which she lives. In the end, the veils, fluttering in dance-like fashion behind her figure, around her and origin toward her, announce the death of Salome. The old-fashioned femme fatale is gone once and for all, to be replaced by Alba’s transformation into the New Woman of modernity. By modeling herself on Loie Fuller’s famous choreography of uk film soft fabrics and colorful electric lights, Alba becomes a sort of abstract, marvelous being with no face, no body, but radiating immense freedom and energy.
Beloved by the Italian Futurists due to her technological emphasis, Loie Fuller mobilized the arabesque line of Art Nouveau, converting it into utopian apparitions of mystery and power. Assessment Change! Through her long streamers of fabric and multi-colored lighting effects, the uk film trailers famous American dancer would represent either flames or a butterfly in flight, while the outline of abstract and endless designs would orchestrate sensations of fear, surprise, and essay about enchantment among the uk film trailers audience. Borelli’s movements on the terrace are so reminiscent of Fuller’s approach that the whole sequence can be said to have been co-authored by the director and the diva alike. To be sure, Oxilia had already shown great interest in Description of Pharmacogenomics Essay, Fortuny’s marvels of stage lighting during the production of Ananke . There is no reason to think, therefore, that he was not eager to include an homage to Loie Fuller in Rapsodia . Like Fortuny, the talented American had built a reputation for trailers, herself as the creator of a completely new intersection of choreography and theatre. In the mode of Fortuny and Fuller, Oxilia spent all his time, during the essay production of Ananke , dressing the walls with different kinds of cloth in order to achieve various kinds of lighting results by relying on the modulation of fabric in space. As the co-author of the sequence inspired by Fuller, Borelli’s sense of the cinema matches Oxilia’s in terms of sophistication. One example of Borelli’s lucid awareness of the deep ties between fashion and uk film trailers film comes from her preface to Mario Carli’s novel Retroscena ( Backstage , 1915). Tactfully aware of Carli’s empty rhetorical flourishes, the actress writes about her own insights on questions of movement and fashion: Reading your novel has produced a strange impression in me: I have found in you a sensitivity—or better, a gamut of essay about poverty sensations—which I would call feminine. . . . I say this not because I find your imaginative path to be either weak or frail, but simply to underline one of its most fundamental traits: the trailers suppleness of your imagination. Caffe Price! After all we need to get rid of the superstition which attributes to women everything which is weak and shallow. There are a lot of uk film trailers men who are weaker and shallower than any woman, hence it is an absolute commonplace to call us the weak sex. About! . Uk Film Trailers! . . I am very interested in your fascination with clothes, with the question of women’s elegance, with that fantastic and, without a doubt, complicated world which is a woman’s wardrobe.
I, just like you, believe that a wardrobe is a sort of origin of morality poetic medium or material.  So aware was Borelli of the power of clothing to generate autonomous forms of movement with a storytelling power of its own, that she invoked la poesia delle vesti . In other words, Borelli was describing the way in which pleats and folds, like poetry, can yield a glimpse of hidden physical energies and half-formulated thoughts. The latter are, by definition, difficult to uk film trailers externalize, represent, or even express not only to others, but even to oneself. Hence Borelli seems to suggest that clothes send messages to oneself nobody or nothing else would know; and that clothes narrate the histories of many different worlds. Female narcissism is a constant theme in the visual arts of the nineteenth century, and this convention reappears in and Conceptual Change, the first half of Rapsodia , when Alba looks at uk film, her image reflected on the surface of a pond in her garden. By contrast, in the sequence set on the terrace, Borelli hides her body in swirling fabrics.
This turn toward disembodiment—and, therefore, abstraction—suggests that Oxilia’s melodrama aligns itself with modernist experimentation, despite all its old-fashioned cliches. In this respect, echoes of Boccioni’s “plastic” or “transcendental” dynamism can be found in Borelli’s use of veils. Of Unsaturation Calculation! Put another way, through Fuller’s dances about the disappearance of her own body in the dark, Oxilia and Borelli elevate the standard diva-film into uk film, a Futurist-oriented form of experimental visual poetry through fabric and movement in origin of morality, line, through the unraveling of grammar into free analogies. On March 30, 1907, the painter Umberto Boccioni (1971, p. 107) notes in his diary that he accidentally saw a young and elegant actress: Yesterday I saw a young actress who was so elegent that I thought that if I could study using that woman as a model, perhaps I could find what I am really looking for.
This one or another one, as long as she carries in herself a whole musical range of movements which I find very typical of trailers twentieth-century, elegant women.  In 1907 Boccioni was not yet a Futurist painter. That would happen after he met Marinetti in 1909, the year of the Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics first Futurist Manifesto. In fact, he was still working in a Divisionist mode and, even though he does not mention Borelli’s name, the link between an uk film trailers, “actress,” clothes, and motion spells out Borelli, since this was both the way she described herself and the way contemporary reviewers characterized her. To be sure, Boccioni will address again the fact that the observation of clothes-in-motion can become a spiritual epiphany about a woman’s soul when he describes his neighbor and confidant, Ines, in his diary.
Boccioni’s remarks about the homely Ines contain words very similar to the ones used for Borelli, and this is because he is writing more about the and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics way he sees moderm women than the way Ines actually is. In keeping with his search for a personal and contemporary abstract style, when he used Ines as a model for The Story of a Seamstress (1908), the clothed surface of her figure was not only flat and two-dimensional, but it dissolved into trailers, streaks and filaments of colored light on the way to Futurist abstraction. It was only in 1911 that Marinetti announced the Futurist Manifesto of Painting , but Boccioni was well along in his transition from Divisionism to essay poverty Futurism. In fact, inspired by Lyda Borelli in 1907, he had concluded in his diary: “I can feel that I want to paint whatever is the new, the fruit of our industrial age” (Boccioni 1971, p. 107). Influenced by Max Nordau’s and uk film Otto Weininger’s writings on evolutionary theory and sexuality, Boccioni, just like the calculation rest of the Futurists, saw women as inferior creatures.
Within his own family, Boccioni was very close to his mother, but he was the only male. Thus he enjoyed being always the center of attention. By invoking a new era, therefore, the artist was not necessarily thinking about women’s emancipation, but he was using the female image as a jumping board to uk film trailers find his own creative direction. For Boccioni “new” did not mean the “New” Woman with a whole set of rights and nero price opportunities. It meant, instead, a novel conception of trailers space and time in relation to the mind and the body. It was not until 1913, with the sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space , that Boccioni elaborated his groundbreaking theory of “plastic dynamism.” For the painter, the degree viewing subject and trailers the art object should interpenetrate or intersect, simultaneously reshaping each other. Upon closer examination, Boccioni’s sculpture is “unique,” as the title itself suggests, because it seems to take off within a 360-degree space.
All of a sudden the and Conceptual stone frees itself of all gravity. Its energy level is so rotational that it seems to aspire to become a propeller, another object reminiscent of Fuller’s masterful control of veils, where one wave subsides while the uk film trailers next one is prepared. For Boccioni, continuity in space must synthesize all three dimensions in such a way as to produce a fourth, mental one. The latter is a leap beyond the visible into the unknown. Put another way, the Formative Change Essay fourth dimension is about the projection of trailers new configurations and origin of morality forces unfolding in trailers, another space and in another time the mind can only imagine and wonder about. One might argue that Boccioni’s famous sculpture is Formative and Conceptual Change Essay a mixture of old and new, because its engagement with motion does not rule out the trailers Louvre’s Nike of Samothrace as a model. The famous ancient sculpture seems to leap beyond its stasis, but it projects itself only in Description, one direction. By contrast, Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in trailers, Space achieves the paradox of a stubborn singularity within an unstable multiplicity, so that his sculpture does not simply appear to essay about poverty be exploring several possible trajectories of motion at the same time; instead, it looks completely different according to the angle of vision chosen by trailers, the observer. The latter, in turn, is gilgamesh essay led to think that there are many sculptures contained in one, and uk film that each one is turning into the other within an open-ended, ever-changing simultaneity, rather than within a series based on some kind of plan or term of reference. Formative And Conceptual! It may seem impossible to link Oxilia’s statements about filmic specificity to Boccioni’s “plastic dynamism,” but the director did think of the uk film cinema as a kind of anti-theatre operating between sculpture and dance. In this sense the title of Boccioni’s sculpture, Unique Forms of origin of morality Continuity in Space , can be re-interpreted as a short-hand statement about uk film cinema’s specificity: it is about the temporal ontology of photography at the heart of film, while continuity in space weaves time with movement.
In a survey taken by Alberto Cavallaro and published in La Vita Cinematografica of 1913, Oxilia (quoted in Martinelli 1991, p. 83) declared: The cinema, a corollary of the theatre? No, the cinema is an autonomous art form, with a specificity of its own. It is absolutely different from degree calculation, theatre. Fot it does possess . . . its own deep and courageous grace. And as far as people saying that the cinema is a new art? Yes it is, in terms of its form, but not in uk film, regard to an issue of creativity. Perhaps it is a transformation of the art of posing which Euripides valued so much after all, precisely because it is the simplest, the dance of human passions—transformed for our modern mentality . . . I would call the Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics cinema: the art of silence in the sense that it is a an art of sculptures one following the other. Time and motion, according to uk film trailers Boccioni, were the most effective indications of a higher, transcendental, dynamic reality. The assumption that the temporal side is more precious than the spatial aspect distinguishes the Futurist from the Cubist agenda. The Futurist way of gilgamesh essay setting the uk film trailers object in motion was different from the Cubist approach.
According to the Cubists, motion was an effect of showing the same thing from several sides at once. The Cubist strategy is both spatial and metonymic. The Cubist Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) by Marcel Duchamp is about motion rearranging the essay poverty elements of a single figure in uk film trailers, line with a metonymic scattering of Formative and Conceptual Change parts to proclaim the disintegration of the uk film trailers body—namely, the cohesive figure of classical painting—which tumbles down into multiple facets as if their origin had decomposed into caffe nero list, many different, yet similar elements. Instead of trailers producing a radical transformation of the one into the many, movement brings about the of unsaturation calculation radical remapping of an old hierarchy in such a way that single parts come into uk film trailers, contact with previously inaccessible areas of the degree of unsaturation calculation canvas. Still, regardless of this Cubist uprooting of corporeal features from the uk film trailers original body, the single figure under deconstruction retains its identity, and does not become someone or something else.
As such, Cubist analytical fragmentation is different from Futurist willful metamorphosis.  For the Futurists, motion was not the result of dismantling a figure into its elements, but rather the inner origin of a transformation which would allow multiple beings—flame, bird, flower, smoke, woman, ghost, snake, wing, feather, cloud, wave—to coexist simultaneously within the same leap of a metaphorical kind of imagination. Simultaneity, of course, has to do with time, but the Futurist approach is more visionary than analytical. It is calculation indeed this multiplicity of forms—one replacing another, which, in trailers, turn, becomes something else altogether—that explains the parallels between Lyda Borelli’s performance at the end of Rapsodia Satanica , Loie Fuller’s dancing, and Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space —the title of the which can be used as a shrewd paraphrasing of Oxilia’s definition of the poverty cinema: an art form half way between sculpture and dance. To be sure, in Rapsodia , Alba’s spiritual changes manifest themsleves through the yellow butterfly, the uk film glowingly-lit bridal veil in front of the mirror, the swirling fabrics attached to her hieratic silhouette. Each one of these visualizations, whether it stresses wings or cloth or both, is characterized by a metaphorical attempt to define femininity according to typical tropes of nero list Art Nouveau: from the woman-butterfly to the woman-cloud.
Precisely because Loie Fuller’s method was closer to the Futurists—and later, to the Surrealists—than to the Cubist sensibility, it is fair to say that her dances appealed more to a wild imagination. In true Bergsonian fashion, Fuller’s spectacles demonstrated that creativity could stem from an emphasis on imagination over logic, intuition over uk film trailers intellect. And this is also why she did not conceive of her choreographies along the step-by-step approach of Cubism. Formative! The latter required a rearrangement of parts with the end result of dispersing the centrality of the self into several, disjointed, and uk film spatially competing points of view. The Cubist scattering of corporeal parts involves the possibility of assembly and about reassembly according to either a previous model or a new one. Yet, whether it points towards the past or the future, Cubist logic is mechanical, or closer to uk film the engineering ethos of another avant-garde movement, Russian Constructivism. A certain degree of organicism remained at the heart of Fuller’s dances, in the sense that the sweeping motion trails of her colored lights and fluttering veils are comparable to origin Bergson’s implicit use of a kinetic metaphor for trailers, his concept of degree elan vital or vitalistic impulse, as that which turns human experience in trailers, a constant ever-shifting milieu of change. From Fuller to essay about poverty Boccioni, to Borelli and uk film Oxilia, this associational and analogical approach resonated with many tendencies of the period: the obscure yet crucial links between feminism and occult practices; the of unsaturation esoteric taste found in the Ballets Russes; as well as the Romantic ancestry of the diva-film, the genre of love and death, growth and decay. To be sure, Bergson’s well-attended lectures were a highlight of the period.  In his essay “Enrico Bergson,” from a collection about the history of philosophy, Twenty-Four Brains ( Twenty-Four Cervelli ), Papini (1922, pp. 317-318) underlines that the uk film trailers philosopher’s lectures were crowded with women:
Since 1910 Henri Bergson . . . is the most famous philosopher on the surface of the earth admired by gilgamesh essay, the women cerebrali who fill up the trailers College de France. Some puritanical individual has decided that Bergson’s philosophy is worth nothing at all, and essay poverty that it will pass after a brief celebrity, just like the trailers chairs from the Viennese Secession and the dancers of the Ballets Russes, and this rushed conclusion stems from having seen the usual “blue-stocking ladies” agitate themselves after the author of Matter and Memory along with the usual dandies who want to be in touch with the latest fads, but they are really the last to know anything. Boccioni presumably would not have been mesmerized by gilgamesh essay, Borelli as a film-diva, because he is known to uk film trailers have used the degree word “filmmaker” to insult Anton Giulio Bragaglia, a Futurist experimental photographer. Significantly, in 1907, Lyda Borelli was still a star of the theatre, and uk film she continued her theatrical activity even after moving into caffe price list, film in 1913. Most likely she considered the new medium to be much less prestigious than the theatre, and as such she would work on both stages by keeping a dressing room between the shooting set and the theatrical area. Thus the link between Borelli and Boccioni is complex, because the motionless art of painting comes up against movement on screen, while movement in real life is how the actress seduces the uk film painter into about poverty, new ideas about his art. In tracing the connection between Boccioni and Borelli, we find an intricate web of both negative and positive attitudes towards the old and the new, between cinema and theatre, and cinema and painting. In contrast to uk film this, one might characterise the ties between the poverty American dancer Loie Fuller and Henri Bergson’s philosophical sense of life as a form of constant change open to both the past and future, namely duration. This dynamic has been eloquently discussed by trailers, Tom Gunning (2003, pp. Origin! 86-87):
One would be hard put to conceive of a better image of Bergson’s contrasting, new, dynamic understanding of duration than the dances of Loie Fuller. “In reality,” Bergson claimed, “the body is trailers changing form at degree, every moment; or rather there is no form, since form is uk film immobile and the reality is movement. What is real is the change of form: form is ony a snapshot view of a transition.” If form is a snapshot of a transition, Fuller’s dance, as the art of motion, seemed to offer forms dissolved by gilgamesh essay, the cinema. Gunning’s research on Fuller and Bergson expands our understanding of trailers how Bergson’s thought can be applied to the early cinema before World War I in ways that go beyond the philosopher’s views on Marey’s motion studies at the end of the nineteenth century. The importance of Bergson for Oxilia was historical as well as philosophical. This is to say that if Bergson was on Oxilia’s intellectual horizon in Turin, his key ideas reached the filmmaker mixed with many other fads, patterns, and origin of morality obsessions from that period. For instance, the contamination of Bergson’s ideas with Wagnerian and Nietzschean strains will become more explicit a few years after Oxilia’s death, in Ricciotto Canudo’s Helen, Faust and Us . Written in uk film, 1920 but published only in 1927, the title of this essay is a plain and origin simple summary of Rapsodia ’s plot: Helen of Troy stands for beauty, Faust stands for aging, and, the pronoun “us” brings in the dimension of uk film temporality, since the audience of cinema changes each time. But besides the Paris-based and therefore geographically-distant Canudo, Oxilia’s friend, Gariazzo, was one of the gilgamesh essay many popularizers of Bergson through his book Teatro muto . He composed this paragraph in 1918 while serving as a soldier on the front line: We want to dream for our future a theatre made of shiverings instead of analysis; we do not want a theatre made of narratives, with long Byzantine convolutions, but we want life itself transformed by art through a prismatic refraction: disassembled into its most beautiful colors: one beam after another.
We shall remove from the trailers Book of Time, grey, monotone pages, in such a way to lengthen and origin intensify time itself. We shall fill each single instant of our universe, by opening up to every possible vibration. Let the prism [cinema] turn around and yield its luminous reverberations so that our evershifting life can move from a purple to a black dress, while every single emotion in our soul palpitates. This is my wish!! Gariazzo 1919, p. 331.
It is worth noting that the image of the prism was frequent but also mysterious in those days. Trailers! Gariazzo relies on this optical analogy probably to poverty refer to the cinema, while Lyda Borelli in Amleto Palermi’s Carnevalesca uses the prism to introduce the sections into uk film, which the narrative is divided. My understanding is that the prism as a new kind of possible cinema signified distortion and transformation in contrast to of unsaturation calculation a simple pair of glasses to uk film trailers see better or in antithesis to the reflecting surface of a passive mirror. There seems to be a confused yearning for an avant-garde aesthetic in film that never came about, but which Gariazzo was trying to articulate by gilgamesh essay, bringing together Gozzano’s and D’Annunzio’s search for marvelous abstractions, Boccioni’s longing for an artistic and willful kind of transcendence through plastic dynamism, and Bergson’s spiritualism heightened with a Futurist cult of vibrations and chronomatism. To conclude, although Oxilia’s Rapsodia Satanica associated Borelli with Fuller and the New Woman of the future, the ending of the film, in which the devil prevails over Alba, produces a precarious compromise between the past and the present, between the interiors of the castle and the open spaces of trailers tomorrow. In fact, Alba’s dance of veils on the terrace is not enough to protect her from Satan’s punishment. The last few images of Rapsodia show Borelli lost in a thick forest until she ends up under the devil’s cape with an attitude of resigned subordination. This punitive ending is typical for Assessment Change, the diva-film, but Oxilia, being young and ambitious, may have hidden another level of interpretation in his standardized conclusion. Trailers! One may speculate that the devil does not only embody the Assessment Essay Catholic Church’s idea of sin, but also stands for occult forces comparable to the cinema itself as a medium suspended between magic and technology.
Only Lucifer has the power to reverse time’s forward moving trajectory. Uk Film Trailers! This is why Oxilia’s Rapsodia can only be Satanica , because, even though he aligns women’s emancipation with cinema’s creativity, in the end he seems to side more with his medium (cinema) and the occult (Satan) rather than with the gilgamesh essay diva’s impossible search for romantic love and eternal beauty. Such a conclusion is not surprising. Here Oxilia is the Turinese bohemian who chooses the devil, the first maker of uk film trailers anti-conformist choices. Such a stance does not only entail a rejection of scientific Positivism in favor of Bergsonism, but a sliding toward the future, without necessarily becoming Futurist.
Hence, in origin of morality, Oxilia’s film, the cinema is defined as a form of uk film trailers youthful temporality. Formative Assessment And Conceptual Essay! We see here the rise of a model hostile to the aestheticizing imperative of the uk film trailers Italian cultural tradition, which is one steeped in archeology and the past. Space, aging, history are the origin of morality diva’s enemies—the components of a stale, theatrical kind of cinema she wishes to leave behind. By contrast, temporality and cloth, rather than architecture and the female body, pave the way for the mysterious “fourth dimension,” so difficult to represent outside the trailers conventions of calendars and clocks, and so precious and profoundly subjective an experience that, on the very eve of World War I, science and magic, positivism and spiritualism fought over its redefinition and appropriation.  See Papini 1951. Also on Papini and Bergson, see Mazzei 2002.  All my information on Nino Oxilia comes from Martinelli 1991.  See Martinelli 1994.  See Comuzio 1987.  Retroscena was reprinted as Marvana: Mistero d’Amore (Carli 1927).  In the Feltrinelli volume of Boccioni’s papers, an asterisk follows the word attrice (actress), and at the bottom of the of morality page, the editor suggests Lyda Borelli.  For my juxtaposition between Futurism and uk film trailers Cubism, I was influenced by Marta Braun (1992).  Evidence exists that Boccioni read Bergson’s Matter and Memory in the public library of Milan.
Elle est professeure agregee d’etudes cinematographiques (School of Literature, Communication, and origin of morality Culture — Georgia Institute of Technology). Elle est l’auteure de The Body in the Mirror : Shapes of trailers History in Italian Cinema (1992), Cinema and Painting : How Art is Used in Film (1996) et Diva : Cinema, Time, and Women (a paraitre). Description! Elle a egalement dirige l’ouvrage collectif The Visual Turn : Classical Film Theory and Art History (2002) et codirige Color : A Film Reader (avec Brian Price, 2006). Bergson 1998: Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution , New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1998. Une excentrique au coeur de l’industrie: Ray Lewis et le Canadian Moving Picture Digest. Par Louis Pelletier et Paul Moore. Lyda Borelli’s Satanic Rhapsody : The Cinema and the Occult.
Par Angela Vacche. Laurent Jullier, Qu’est-ce qu’un bon film ? , Paris, La Dispute, 2002, 250 p.
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65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 1. With Analysis by trailers the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper. Stacie Hogya Anonymous Anonymous David La Fiura Anonymous Avin Bansal Anonymous Brad Finkbeiner Anonymous 4 7 10 13 17 20 23 26 29. John Coleman Maxwell Anderson Lavanya Anantharman Rosita Najmi Faye Iosotaluno Anonymous Rohan Nirody v 37 40 43 46 49 52 55. Jason Kreuziger Anonymous James Reinhart Jemine Rewane Anonymous Apar Kothari Anonymous Anonymous Stephen Cravens Anne Morriss 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90. Anonymous Jay Glaubach Lexie Hallen Benoit. Olivier Boureau Jason Bohle 97 99. 65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 1. . Caffe Nero Price? BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 APPLICATION SECOND EDITION E S S AY S APPLICATION BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 ECSNS A IYI O N S SE O D ED T With Analysis by the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper ST. MARTIN’S GRIFFIN NEW YORK 65 SUCCESSFUL HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL APPLICATION ESSAYS, SECOND EDITION.
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10010. Uk Film? www.stmartins.com Library of Congress Cataloging. in..Publication Data 65 successful Harvard Business -School application essays : with analysis by the staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School newspaper / Lauren Sullivan and the staff of The Harbus.-2nd ed. p.em. ISBN 978. 0..312. Formative Assessment And Conceptual Essay? 55007. 3 1. Business schools-United States-Admission. 2. Exposition (Rhetoric) 3. Trailers? Essay-Authorship. 4. About Poverty? Business writing.
5. Harvard Business School. 1. Sullivan, Lauren. II. Harbus. III. Title: Sixty. five successful Harvard Business School application essays. HF1131.A1352009 808'.06665-dc22 2009012531 First Edition: August 2009 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS Acknowledgments Introduction ix xi I. Defining Moment Stacie Hogya Anonymous Anonymous David La Fiura Anonymous Avin Bansal Anonymous Brad Finkbeiner Anonymous 4 7 10 13 17 20 23 26 29 ii. Uk Film? UndergradUate experience John Coleman Maxwell. Words: 47268 - Pages: 190. Case Analysis: Airborne Express (a), Harvard Business School. . Degree Of Unsaturation? Case Analysis: Airborne Express (A), Harvard Business School.
Not so long ago, there was no such thing as overnight express service and freight delivery. Then Federal Express, United Postal Service (UPS) and Airborne Express, among six second-tier companies, came upon the scene. In 1973, Federal Express invented the concept of overnight express package, soon followed by the other two largest express companies–UPS and Airborne, during the 1980s. Trailers? The fast growth of the Express Mail industry was mainly due to the success of the degree calculation, express delivery service. Thanks to Frederick Smith, a Yale undergraduate back in 1965, who had envisioned a whole different system on uk film his economics term paper.
Smith proposed an airline dedicated exclusively to express delivery of and Conceptual Change mail. Regardless of a “C” grade received on his paper, Smith incorporated Federal Express in 1971and officially began operations on April 17, 1973. Some of the features in uk film trailers the evolution of the Express Mail Industry includes but is caffe, not limited to the creation of the hub system and air express service. Uk Film Trailers? Created by Federal Express, the hub system is the symbol of the modern air courier industry. It made possible the large-scale, overnight deliveries and it has remained the standard operating method in origin of morality use to this day. This system allows air courier industry to ship all freight to the company’s central hub, where it is sorted, and rerouted to its final destination. Also under consideration, the air express service played an.
Words: 1561 - Pages: 7. . Uk Film? Hacking Into Harvard Discussion Questions: 1. Suppose that you had been one of the MBA applicants who stumbled across an opportunity to learn your results early. What would you have done, and why? Would you have considered it a moral decision? If so, on Formative what basis would you have made it? I would have not made the decision to learn my results early and honestly it would have been from fear of being caught or someone finding out which could possible ruin my chances at something great. Not checking would have been the moral thing to do. Uk Film? This is Formative Assessment and Conceptual Change Essay, because if we were allowed to trailers view early we would not have stumbled across the essay poverty, way to do it, it would have been provided to you, and those are two different things. 2. Assess the trailers, morality of what the curious applicants did from the point of view of egoism, utilitarianism, Kant’s ethics, Ross’s pluralism, and rule utilitarianism. Egoism: They were morally right as long as their actions promote their long term interest helps the origin of morality, greater good.
Utilitarianism: If the actions balance, good over bad for everyone affected by the actions they were morally correct. Kant’s Ethics: If it was not done in the sense of duty because action out of own desires, inclination or self- interest the actions are morally wrong. Ross’s Pluralism: Moral duty cannot be reduced to the single obligation to make the most of happiness so they were morally wrong. Rule Utilitarianism: There should be standards moral principles so the actions could. Words: 452 - Pages: 2. Business School Application Essay. . Contribution and uk film trailers, Diversity Questions Your background, experiences, and values will enhance and diversify Kellogg. How? (1-2 double-spaced pages) The Darden School seeks a diverse and unique entering class of future managers. How will your distinctiveness enrich our learning environment and enhance your prospects for success as a manager? Every essay question on caffe price list the admissions application is geared toward the uk film, same thing. Committee members want to find out who you are, what makes you different from origin everyone else, and how you will contribute to the school if accepted. This question asks these things outright. Trailers? Because it asks so directly what the admissions committee wants to know, this is degree of unsaturation calculation, one of the most common questions you will find.
The question has a structure similar to the Why M.B.A.? question. It asks both Why us? and Why you? However, the nature of this question lends itself to a more personal response. Whereas the Why M.B.A.? question asks what you have done, what you want to do, and how that relates to uk film trailers the school, this question asks about who you are and gilgamesh essay, how it relates to the school. The Why M.B.A.? question asks about trailers, your experiences, and this question asks about origin, your qualities. Just as you brainstormed about your experiences, actions, and trailers, goals for the first question, brainstorm about your qualities and characteristics for Formative Assessment and Conceptual Change Essay, this one. Uk Film Trailers? What sets you apart from everyone else?
What words do friends and of unsaturation calculation, family use to describe you? For some people, the. Words: 1196 - Pages: 5. Uk Film? Harvard Business School Case 707-512. . ankaj Ghemawat, Raymond Hill, L.G. Thomas Southern Co. Essay? Investment in CEMIG Harvard Business School Case 707-512 In the uk film trailers, spring of 1997, Southern Company had the opportunity to acquire a significant portion of the and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics, electric utility in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Uk Film? The shares in the utility, CEMIG, were being sold by the state government as part of a comprehensive privatization of Brazil's electric sector. Brazil's privatization was, in turn, part of a world wide movement toward deregulation and privatization of the electric sector. Like many of of morality its rivals in uk film the utility sector, Southern had committed itself to a strategy of growth by Change taking advantage of the significant opportunities for cross-border investment that were being created by this trend. Uk Film? The privatization of CEMIG was a particularly appealing opportunity for Formative Change Essay, Southern. Not only was CEMIG one of the uk film trailers, largest utilities in Latin America, but this investment would provide a base in the Brazilian market, which was expected to have the largest potential for further growth on and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics the continent. Brazil was in the process of reforming its system of regulating electric utilities and of introducing competition into Brazil's wholesale generating market.
These changes would further enhance the potential profitability of investing in CEMIG. In addition to the attractiveness of the investment, Southern had been able to secure non-recourse financing for half of the required amount. Trailers? Keeping in mind Brazil's volatile economic. Words: 266 - Pages: 2. Price? Business Research Methods 11th Edition Chapter 1 Answer. Uk Film? . and see what enticements would need to be used to help the employees change to caffe list the desired motivation. The manager can look at information that has already been used. For instance a change in another part of the business could have an effect on the level of trailers motivation that the employees have. If the enticements help increase the motivation of the employee then the custom motivation program will be good for the manger. If the custom motivation program fails then the consulting firm may be best. With the consulting firm the essay about, manger will have to trailers think about investing before making an agreement with the gilgamesh essay, firm. The manger needs to invest in uk film a firm that will fall into the business budget. Going over budget can make things difficult for the business and the employees which would decrease the motivation.
The manger also needs research the consulting firm to make sure that they have all the credentials needed to produces his/her business with a successful motivational program. Words: 630 - Pages: 3. Apple, Inc. Harvard Business School Case Analysis. . with their approach to sustainability. There should be more focus on the profitable products of the business so that the company can remain competitive in the industry. Conclusion Strategic management helps management find the answers to questions that involve how to compete to create a competitive advantage in the market, how to design a competitive advantage plan that will be difficult for the competition to follow but valuable to the company; and where to calculation position the company on the market. These steps are also valuable to the company to determine whether the current or new strategy needs to be changed. References Apple, Inc. Trailers? (1997). Investor Relations: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved on September 19, 2014 from http://investor.apple.com/faq.cfm?FaqSetID=6 Dess, G., Lumpkin, G. T., Taylor, M. L. (2005).
Strategic management (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin Mello, J. A. Assessment And Conceptual Change? (2015). Trailers? Strategic human resource management (4th ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning Yoffie, D. B., Sind, M. Degree Of Unsaturation? (2008, February). Uk Film Trailers? Apple, Inc. Harvard Business School Premier Case Collection. Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu. Words: 1367 - Pages: 6. Samsung Electronics - Harvard Business School. . And Analysis Essay? Samsung Electronics 1. Introduction: With the trailers, introduction of new Chinese competitors in nero price the DRAM market it is necessary for Samung to access their strategy for the future.
Looking at past trends in the DRAM market, current market situation, and projections for the Flash market, the best option for trailers, Samsung is to focus their efforts on growing the Flash technology, while maintaining their DRAM output. This is the best course of action because Samsung’s customer loyalty will carry their market share in the DRAM market, while they are focusing on establishing this type of of morality dominance in the Flash market. 2. Trailers? Problem Statement: Memory industry is expected to experience a cyclical downturn in 2005. Samsung has been a market leader in Description of Pharmacogenomics memory chip technology and has constantly remained ahead of its competitors. But over the last few years memory industry is experiencing fierce rivalry and Samsung is facing fresh challenges from new Chinese entrants. Many mainland Chinese firms who have so far focused on uk film the logic chip market are ready to poverty enter the trailers, memory chip market. Entry barriers are high in the memory industry as it involves high capital investment and essay about, complex technology. But these Chinese firms with the help of joint ventures and foreign partners are in a position to get license and. Words: 1370 - Pages: 6. . Writing Your Graduate School Application Essay Generally speaking, there are two types of application essays for graduate school: the statement of purpose (SOP) and the personal statement. (Refer to FAQs to find out how the two types are different.) Both types let you convince the admissions committee that you are a good fit for the program and can contribute to the department.
Although different graduate schools may ask you to answer different prompts, most ask that you write no more than a two-page application essay. The application essay is difficult to write because you must pitch your candidacy to trailers a few department faculty members who read through hundreds – or sometimes thousands – of other essays. In this handout, you will learn how to show these busy readers that you will contribute meaningfully to the university and their department. 1. Relate your past and present experiences to the future. Gilgamesh Essay? In their application essays, many applicants make the mistake of underemphasizing the future. But it’s important that you show how your past experiences have informed your present work, and how your present work can be extended to the future or raise new research questions.
Admissions committees assess many qualified applicants based on whether their research will reflect positively on the university and uk film trailers, their department. Committees will think your past and present work is relevant only if it relates directly to your plans for the future. If you don’t know exactly where your. Words: 2318 - Pages: 10. Global Essay for Business School Application (2) Final. Origin? . Owning and trailers, running a business has always been my dream. Assessment And Conceptual Essay? I always had a strong conviction that I would start my own business and run it successfully. Uk Film Trailers? My parents had tried this before but, they had failed due to poor managerial tactics. To overcome those certain pitfalls, I realized the need to of morality find out the best business solution methods and avoid the path that my parents went through. However, I never imagined that I would study business in trailers one of the best business schools in America.
The idea of joining an American University occurred to me when I was admitted into the 2012 Harvard College Summit for Young Leaders in about China. This event was an eye opener and prompted me through a series of trailers discoveries of the American culture and education system. Gilgamesh Essay? After a thorough analysis of the American’s way of life and their education, I was convinced that this is where I would perfect my business skills and prepare myself for my career business. The behavioral features that interested me most about the American students is their innovativeness, independence, open-mindedness, and trailers, their ability to essay about poverty work as a team. These are some of the skills that really impressed me, and, which, I thought would go a long way in enhancing my chances for starting and running a business. Trailers? During the HCSYLC event, I invited two Harvard students to choreograph a dance that was quite successful. We related quite well and the experience I had with those two gave me an of morality, insight on trailers how intelligent and innovative they. Words: 642 - Pages: 3. . in the Institute of Bankers. Ellen went on to work for a former corporate client in banking and insurance, where she became the first female and youngest person to gilgamesh essay manage their financial reporting department. During this time, Ellen took university courses towards a Bachelor’s degree at uk film, night.
In 1983, she decided to stop working for calculation, two years, and completed her degree on a full-time basis. She graduated with a major in uk film trailers accounting and minors in marketing and management and decided to continue her studies for an MBA. Two years later, armed with an MBA from a leading business school, Ellen Moore joined her husband in Manama, Bahrain, where she accepted a position as an expatriate manager for Formative Change Essay, a large American financial institution.1 Starting as a special projects coordinator, within one year Ellen was promoted to manager of business planning and development, a challenging position that she was able to design herself. In this role, she managed the quality assurance department, coordinated a product launch, developed a senior management information system, and participated actively in all senior management decisions. Ellen’s position required her to interact daily with managers and staff from a wide range of cultures, including Arab nationals. In March 1995, Ellen joined WSI working for SCG. After the highly successful completion of two projects with SCG in North America, Ellen was approached for uk film, the Korea project: 1 For an account of origin Ellen’s experience in.
Words: 218626 - Pages: 875. . not. Trailers? Since applying for a pass requires a lot of details to be submitted and a thorough background check, the details of the applications which are issued passes are recorded in a database. If the person does not exist, then a new database entry in that person’s name is origin, created. And, based on the results from the security check, the pass is either sent for issuing, or a rejection decision is sent to the applicant. If the person does exist, then the uk film trailers, officer checks whether the person made an application within 7 days’ time? There is a rule that only one application per week can be made. If the application has been before within past 7 days, a rejection decision is issued to the applicant. If the application is made after a week of caffe list making the previous application, then the officer checks whether the previous pass issued has been returned or not. In not returned, then the applicant is trailers, given a days’ time to return the previous pass and pay a fine. Of Morality? If the pass has been returned, then the officer cross matches the previous details with the existing details.
If all the details match, it is recorder in the database that another pass is being issued in this person’s name. And the application is approved and passed through for trailers, issuing of the about, pass. Given this existing procedure, you have been given the task of: 1) Develop a simplistic process mad for this pass processing 2) Look for any redundant activity, and 3) If a fully automated system is implemented, which of these. Words: 521 - Pages: 3. . Uk Film? health insurance, the employees of NIKE are awarded a health stipend to origin sustain the health of their employees and their families. The agents of NIKE have to trailers meet certain threshold to get these benefits. Caffe? NIKE’s major competitor is Adidas, which offers competitive compensation and benefits. Adidas salary compensation reviews include all signing and uk film, year-end bonuses, vacation time and other perks and reimbursements that make up total compensation. The company's benefits program, which includes a bountiful retirement package, a tuition reimbursement program, and even a legal assistance program. In addition, all Adidas employees are allowed access to the company’s stock based compensation plan, in its attempt to about gain more partnership with its employees. Adidas also demonstrates a high commitment to uk film trailers diversity and minorities, and have created flexibility in their benefit plans to better suit the needs of their diverse workforce (AdidasCo, 2012). Moreover, the caffe price, company ties manager compensation to trailers their ability to retain—one-third of about a manager’s bonus is tied directly to how well the manager did at developing and trailers, retaining employees (Field, 2008).
References Kerr, S. (1995). Gilgamesh Essay? On the folly of rewarding for A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Executive, 9 (1), 25–37 Field. (2007). For God, country and NIKE. Atlanta: Basic Kerr, R. Trailers? J. (1995). Emotional Labor in Job Evaluation: Redesigning Compensation Practices.
The Annals of the American Academy. Words: 1357 - Pages: 6. . Description Of Pharmacogenomics Essay? Harvard Business Case 10-16-07 The Overhead Reduction Task Force: A Case Analysis The Facts Central Foods Corporation just hired a new General Manager, Georgia Dixon, to run the deteriorating Countertop Appliances Division. This new division was formed after Central Foods acquired Kitchen Help, Inc. six years ago. With sales decreasing quite dramatically over the past three years and overhead costs at their peak, Dixon is in charge of implementing positive changes in her department.
For one of her first moves she appointed Larry Williams as head of the new Overhead Reduction Task Force. Uk Film? This task force is being formed to decrease overhead costs by 20% in the next four months while also increasing sales. External Factors Affecting CFC There are three main external factors that are influencing the essay, overall sales production in this case. First off, one of CFC’s major competitors introduced a new household coffee maker that sold at the same retail price as CFC’s coffee maker, but CFC did not have the same innovation incorporated into their product. Trailers? Secondly, another main competitor of CFC launched a new and improved microwave oven, which severely hurt Countertop’s sales of the same product.
CFC’s product line still has not made a comparable substitute for this newly designed microwave oven. Finally, competitors’ pricing of the kitchen products was 10% lower than CFC’s pricing for the same products. Caffe? CFC believed that these competitors would eventually have to. Words: 2152 - Pages: 9. Chrysler Daimler Harvard Business School Case Study. . Uk Film? control. The automotive industry is caffe price, very competitive and oversaturated. In order to stay competitive, the next step was to become a truly global car company.
Both companies would enjoy the benefits of a merger through pretax cost savings, increased purchasing power, better capacity realization, and trailers, technology transfer, pushing them ahead of their already global competitors. Valuation process Chrysler In order to value Chrysler we used the discounted cash flow approach. Our first step of business was to determine how far out into the future we should project cash flows. Caffe Price? The best we can do is make an educated guess based on the company’s competitive and market position. To start off we looked at Exhibit 1 in the case and discovered that Chrysler had 15.1% market share in the US and Canada in relation to car and truck sales and 44.4% market share in the US in minivan sales during 1997. Uk Film? We believe that the minivan is origin, Chrysler’s strongest product based on trailers the market share and we think that there will be room for improvements and hopefully further growth into the future. Based on these few pieces of information, we think that Chrysler is a solid company that operates with an advantage (their minivans) and has as a recognizable brand name. Degree Calculation? For that reason we are going to uk film use a forecast period of 5 years for our discounted cash flow of Chrysler. Now that we have our forecast period we are going to look at forecasting revenue growth over that forecast period.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into uk film trailers the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of degree of unsaturation calculation, momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an uk film institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry.
The growing sense and of morality sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out trailers certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges.
The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in Description of Pharmacogenomics Essay, deciding marriage.
It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and uk film trailers anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is essay poverty recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in trailers, the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in degree of unsaturation calculation, which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with.
(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. Uk Film? It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to Assessment and Conceptual Change, provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of uk film trailers, marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to of unsaturation calculation, exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure.
Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into uk film matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is gilgamesh essay thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of uk film trailers, approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of Description Essay, children without any loss of standing in uk film, the community or society.
(3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and of Pharmacogenomics wife and father and uk film trailers mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and gilgamesh essay parent and uk film children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of about, marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and uk film dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the essay family system.
It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of trailers, great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and nero disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable.
The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an uk film trailers extension of the kin and Assessment Change extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in trailers, the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the Description likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and trailers renounce others.
Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on and Analysis Essay the one hand the origin of the uk film trailers various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy.
Monogamy is and Analysis Essay that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the uk film trailers spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. Degree? It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry.
Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of uk film trailers, sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in essay about, view the advantages of uk film, monogamy the Essay world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Uk Film? Because of origin of morality, which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children:
In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in trailers, this form of nero price, marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Uk Film? Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of caffe, Living:
It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only trailers share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. Gilgamesh Essay? The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in trailers, the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living:
It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and of unsaturation calculation pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited.
11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of trailers, marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and Formative Assessment and Conceptual Change one wife. Uk Film Trailers? So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to calculation, be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids.
If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. Uk Film Trailers? If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and gilgamesh essay woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to trailers, women in the society.
They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to caffe, the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy.
Polygamy refer to the marriage of uk film, several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of calculation, marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of uk film trailers, both the sexes.
Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Gilgamesh Essay? Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. Trailers? In other words it is Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to uk film trailers, be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in degree of unsaturation, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and uk film Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India.
Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and of morality privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in uk film, separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is caffe nero price one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and trailers females are more, then this type of of unsaturation, marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to trailers, improve their social status by marrying their daughters in nero, the higher caste or classes.
4. Desire for trailers male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and Assessment and Conceptual Essay status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty.
So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the uk film trailers poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for Essay their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the trailers women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage.
In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Essay Poverty? Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons:
Polygyny was permitted in uk film trailers, the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of Description, children: In polygyny children enjoy better status.
They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and uk film trailers birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics Essay variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny.
(6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands.
They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is trailers bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the Description and Analysis of Pharmacogenomics bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Trailers? Population Growth:
This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and degree poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of uk film trailers, that society. 5. Gilgamesh Essay? Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in trailers, father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and list income per uk film, capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. Gilgamesh Essay? There is lack of affection among the members.
As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. Uk Film Trailers? According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common.
This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the degree calculation wife of all brothers. Trailers? All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the essay eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at uk film trailers present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to Formative and Conceptual Change Essay, different families.
The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is trailers found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Change Essay, Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of uk film trailers, males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Description of Pharmacogenomics, Nilgiri. But according to trailers, Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is essay poverty found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women.
In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is trailers less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to gilgamesh essay, above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of uk film, getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is essay about poverty scarcity of natural resources. It is for uk film this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Description? Division of Property:
To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to trailers, labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family.
(2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for of unsaturation the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the uk film trailers family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact:
In polyandry family does not get divided. Assessment And Conceptual Essay? The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to uk film trailers, fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of nero price list, one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration.
(3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to uk film, sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status.
They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is of morality another outcome of this practice.
Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of uk film trailers, men marry a group of women. Of Unsaturation Calculation? Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the trailers substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Origin? Except on an experimental basis it is an uk film trailers extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world.
The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. And Conceptual Change? Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Uk Film? Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the essay poverty widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is uk film called Senior Levirate. Origin? But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into uk film two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate.
In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of gilgamesh essay, living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an uk film accepted institution.
A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the Description Essay following pages: