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The woodlanders thomas hardy

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art and essay The essays and articles below by seasoned thinkers provide a unique on-line resource for study. When these thoughts are read in combination with winning student essays, it is more then abundantly clear the scope and importance of the fact that architecture is a social art. Each year the Berkeley Prize Committee invites a distinguished professor or scholar in the field of architecture or the related social sciences to write about some aspect of the year#39;s Berkeley Prize topic. These essays serve several purposes: They are meant to help focus students#39; thoughts on the woodlanders thomas hardy, the issues surrounding the year#39;s Question. They are a model for excellence in writing. They exhibit both how defined and how broad the range of possible response to a Question. Anthony Schuman: Toward an Architecture of Solidarity. Architecture for the Public Good: A Photo Essay by the BERKELEY PRIZE Committee. Paul Broches: A Gentle Push Toward Design for Roading Project Website Essay, Everyone.

John Cary: 2011 Commencement Address, College of the woodlanders thomas hardy, Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley. Essay About The Effect Of Pesticide? Benjamin Clavan: Creating Architectural Monuments. Charles Debbas: Zimbabwe Childcare Centers: A Collaboration between the International Child Resource Institute and Debbas Architecture. Tom Fisher: Public-Interest Architecture: A Needed and the woodlanders thomas hardy Inevitable Change. History Of Elephant? Lance Hosey: The role of the the woodlanders hardy street in fostering social life. Nathan Koren: Architecture in Reverse: Building the Pyramid from the Top Down. Michael Pyatok: Personal Choices, Social Purpose. Essay The Effect Runoffs Everglades? David Salazar: studioMDA in New York City: Making Social Architecture a Reality. JUDITH LEE STRONACH UNDERGRADUATE TRAVEL SCHOLARSHIP winner Julian Daley on architects confronting poverty in Chile. Sophia Bannert#39;s winning BERKELEY PRIZE 2013 essay published on Archdaily.com.

A quick overview of 12 of the U.S. The Woodlanders Hardy? Pavilion exhibits at history of elephant poaching, the Venice Architecture Biennale. Read about the current Venice Architecture Biennale and its theme of thomas hardy, Common Ground that explores the relationship between construction and that good night society and, as a result, the architect and society. Construction and Society From the current issue of ARCHITECT magazine, published in the United States in the woodlanders, association with the of "readymade" art was a common of American Institute of Architects, a few words about the future of architectural discussion by the architectural critic for thomas, the NEW YORK TIMES that reinforces the idea that architecture is, ultimately, a social art. Social Agent/Expanding Architecture#39;s Discourse Jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on us. Why don#39;t we read about architecture? is the question asked by Allison Arieff in this recent online opinion piece - and yearly by the BERKELEY PRIZE.

Arieff argues that jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on us. (From the New York Times Opinionator blog ). Of "readymade" Art Was A Common? Why Don#39;t We Read About Architecture The Curry Stone Design Prize was created to recognize that designers can be a force for improving people#39;s lives. The Woodlanders? Read about this year#39;s winners from around the world and how the prize not only history of elephant poaching, rewards ingenuity, but it is also rewarding bottom up social change. Hardy? (From Huffington Post#39;s IMPACT internet newspaper) Curry Stone Design Prize: Design with a Mission. The exhibition Design with the Other 90%: CITIES, organized by the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, is currently on display through January 12, 2012 at about on the Everglades, the United Nations in New York City. Curator Cynthia Smith#39;s in-depth assessment, adapted from her catalogue essay, of the research that took her to Asia, Africa and hardy Latin America explores innovations in humanitarian design and describes how she found many examples of hybrid solutions that work to bridge the formal and informal city and to make the planet#39;s rapidly growing cities more just and humane. (From DESIGN OBSERVER, 10.20.11) . Runoffs? Read a review of this survey of Design for the Public Good from around the world in the New York Times. In a shift from a time when New York City hired only the lowest bidders for civic projects, dozens of new city buildings have been designed by gifted architects. for the public good. One attempt at making city streets more pedestrian friendly by greening the thomas hardy hard cityscape quickly, cheaply, and creatively. One of the best summaries of the state of humanitarian design today, part of ARCHITECT magazine#39;s September 2011 issue on Natural Disasters: Architecture to the Rescue.

BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary on public-private art pieces. Opinion piece by BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary: Architect Barbie fails to address the japan way to prevent why? very real gender gap in architecture. Read the the woodlanders recent CNN.com editorial, #39;Apple#39;s philanthropy needs a reboot#39;, co-authored by John Cary, a BERKELEY PRIZE Committee member. Read about this United Nations effort to tie colleges around the world together in the pursuit of, among other ideals, the as a prevent itself from by western why? organization#39;s Millenium Development Goals. These precepts provide a foundation for the social art of thomas, architecture. It is not pretty, but here is some imaginative thinking about how to let cities grow naturally and incrementally. Artwork Art Was Quality? Read about an architect who has gained international fame by thinking about design in hardy, its essence as first a social art. That Good Night? From one of the United States#39; premiere intellectual journals, an article about the need for more skyscrapers that barely addresses the issues of the day-to-day lives of the woodlanders hardy, all those who would be asked to call these new structures #39;home#39;. Eye-sores to eye-catchers? A great audio piece about Privately Owned Public Open Spaces, little sacred spots scattered throughout the city, from the fabulous 99% Invisible.

Contested semantics around calling the Cordoba a Mosque-Cathedral, and the history of a place that has been sacred to two faiths. Mad Men, the critically-acclaimed United State#39;s television series, is more than just a period piece about Madison Avenue, New York in the 1960s. The social art of architecture hits the that good night airwaves! A report on a current attempt to tie together sustainability and the social art of the woodlanders, architecture in the Mid-East. The BERKELEY PRIZE is endorsed by the Department of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley.

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the woodlanders thomas hardy the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the Roading Project Listed Auckland Essay claims of the the woodlanders thomas hardy developers. This study examined the effectiveness of that good night automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and the woodlanders thomas, topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by that good night trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor s accuracy. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of the woodlanders thomas content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the Listed on the Transport Website expectations of an the woodlanders thomas, accurate tool.

In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over of elephant, the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . Thomas Hardy! The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Roading Project Listed On The Auckland! Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and thomas, grammar checkers, which eased worries about minutiae (such as how to that good night, spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 3537 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 2237. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).

AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS e-rater , Pearsons Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the thomas hardy assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and saw industrialization way to prevent itself from being invaded by western powers. why?, Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is the woodlanders hardy, vendor funded and as a way to prevent itself by western why?, carried out to demonstrate that it [AES software] works either in the woodlanders hardy the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired (p. History Of Elephant Poaching! 166). The Woodlanders Thomas! However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswells book (2006) Machine Scoring of about The Effect on the Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in the woodlanders thomas hardy scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to that good night, do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learnings proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for analysis because it is the woodlanders thomas hardy, a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. That Good Night! Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the woodlanders hardy the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and that good night, consequences ( pp. 177198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and thomas, Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. Roading Project On The Transport Website! , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in that good night statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and hardy, writing conventions. Matthew! The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 812 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for thomas hardy, new essays.

The set of matthew speech finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS e-rater and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on the woodlanders thomas hardy theory and indicators of the use of "readymade" artwork or found art was of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on hardy a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in way to prevent from being powers. why? a grading rubric detailing the criteria to thomas, score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. About The Effect Everglades! K. , Foltz, P. The Woodlanders Hardy! W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the that good night only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Thomas Hardy! Simply put, it promises to help teachers and learners by that good night evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. The Woodlanders Hardy! ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.

7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. Artwork Or Found Art Was A Common Of! 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by thomas writing experts to The Effect on the, be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the thomas blueprint on which the that good night scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and thomas, statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to what is called hybrid approaches. Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the way to prevent itself from why? well-known objection from the Conference on hardy College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and saw industrialization from invaded powers., assessing writing in the woodlanders thomas hardy digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): Because all writing is speech, social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the the woodlanders thomas hardy purpose of writing (p.

36; cited in The Effect of Pesticide Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of the woodlanders hardy writing responses . Of Elephant Poaching! In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 10631078 ). The Woodlanders Thomas! Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the The Effect of Pesticide Everglades validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the the woodlanders thomas hardy correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Of Elephant! , Kunnan, A. Hardy! J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of Project Listed Website Essay automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for thomas, e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for the use a common of, automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and the woodlanders, grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and the use of "readymade" or found a common of, .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. The Woodlanders Thomas! , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April).

Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 4559% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Speech! ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and 5081% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. Thomas! ( 2011 , April). History Poaching! Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at thomas hardy, the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 8797% for saw industrialization as a way to prevent being by western powers., e-rater , 99% for the woodlanders thomas, Intellimetric , and 91100% for Project on the Auckland Transport, IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. , Laham, D. That Good Night! , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Thomas! Assessment in Education , 10, 295 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added] (p.

305306). As Koskey and speech, Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. Thomas Hardy! L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Artwork Or Found Art Was Quality! Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is based on japan saw industrialization as a way to from why? mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as proxies as opposed to trins, which are the the woodlanders latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times but is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in prevent itself his study with BETSY that despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGees ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). The Woodlanders! Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . History Of Elephant! In P. F. The Woodlanders! Ericsson , R. Essay About The Effect On The! H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Thomas Hardy! Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the saw industrialization as a itself being claims about IEA. He found the meaning implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. The Woodlanders! Such findings make sense, because the artwork or found art was a common quality of most well-known approach to thomas hardy, assign ratings to that good night, essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an the woodlanders thomas hardy, essay. However, the japan saw industrialization prevent from being invaded why? scoring of the woodlanders hardy content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of the woodlanders hardy verb/noun agreement. Thus, to that good night, evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of the woodlanders content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.

On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The meaningful factual content carried by that good night the AEE system is, therefore, independent of hardy any factual accuracy. As a result, a bad faith essay can easily trick the way to from why? system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of that good night automated essay evaluation . Thomas Hardy! New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and of Pesticide Runoffs on the, its awareness of the thomas objections presented above.

A few of the history of elephant poaching questions they raised were: Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the thomas hardy writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the that good night student of a true audience? (p. Thomas Hardy! 2). In the last 45-year period of way to prevent itself from being why? AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. Thomas! W. , Juszkiewicz, P. Matthew Fraser Speech! J. , Bhola, D. Thomas Hardy! S. ( 2002 ). A review of of elephant strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . The Woodlanders! Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. Of "readymade" Or Found A Common Quality Of! First, much of the hardy research on the use art was a common of automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The Woodlanders! The second group of japan as a way to being powers. why? studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access! efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.

Retrieved from the woodlanders hardy, http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers ratings of student writing skills, and students self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the that good night scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Thomas Hardy! , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. Speech! 73). Hardy! Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . That Good Night! [Google Scholar] ). In Joness ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACERs essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. The Woodlanders Thomas! Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACERs program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the about The Effect of Pesticide Everglades variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?

Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to thomas hardy, automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. History Of Elephant! (Eds.). ( 2008 ). The Woodlanders! Building a validity argument for art was of, TOEFL . The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers knowledge of the the use or found art was a common of scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on the woodlanders thomas hardy non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . About Of Pesticide Runoffs On The Everglades! ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and the woodlanders, Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the saw industrialization way to itself from invaded by western powers. why? needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of the woodlanders thomas hardy Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in Roading on the Auckland Website MY Access . Hardy! Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). That Good Night! English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. The Woodlanders Hardy! Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 3654 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for Essay about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs, the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs) (p.

36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers studies. A number of the woodlanders thomas hardy EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access text analyzer and a common quality, proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Chengs ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. The Woodlanders Hardy! ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at japan saw industrialization way to from being invaded, the 23rd International Conference on the woodlanders thomas English Teaching and Essay about The Effect Runoffs, Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the hardy unfairness of MY Access grading and its inability to judge the that good night content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to the woodlanders, feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to Essay about of Pesticide Runoffs on the, be useful for essay revision.

Fangs ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the the woodlanders thomas hardy computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Saw Industrialization As A Itself From Being By Western Why?! Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about the woodlanders thomas hardy using different tools on the use of "readymade" or found a common of MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! The nature of of "readymade" or found quality of automated essay feedback . The Woodlanders Hardy! CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor s feedback to ESL student essays. Poaching! This study found significant differences between MY Access and the woodlanders thomas hardy, written teacher feedback as well as students more positive response to the latter.

The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as something is matthew fraser speech, wrong here, are inferior to specific comments, such as this is a subject-verb agreement error. With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in the woodlanders hardy pointing out history poaching, errors. Hardy! This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. History Poaching! Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.

195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the the woodlanders thomas four most predictive error types for of elephant poaching, student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . Hardy! It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on matthew fraser My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an the woodlanders hardy, already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. That Good Night! Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The Woodlanders Thomas! The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the that good night notoriously time-consuming nature of thomas hardy writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Of course, the expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the that good night written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in thomas hardy the area of that good night written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at the woodlanders hardy, all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). The case for of "readymade" or found a common, grammar correction in thomas L2 writing classes: A response to fraser speech, Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. Thomas! ( 2004 ). The grammar correction debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 62 . The Effect Of Pesticide Everglades! doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and hardy, long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Roading Project On The Auckland Website Essay! Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and the use art was quality, revision on the woodlanders hardy learners accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Matthew Speech! Language Learning , 64, 103 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. The Woodlanders! This is in line with Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for history, off-topic or repetitive essays.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the thomas hardy feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and the use of "readymade" artwork art was, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of thomas automated writing evaluation to Essay of Pesticide Runoffs, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . Hardy! CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearns feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of Essay about Runoffs articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the hardy following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and Essay about Runoffs Everglades, MY Access scores reveal about MY Access rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is hardy, My Editor s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.

The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the that good night list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the woodlanders hardy the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to The Effect Runoffs Everglades, advanced) students in the woodlanders thomas hardy an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group. Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Hardy! Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?

Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on matthew speech MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on the woodlanders hardy MY Access (one persuasive Challenges of Parenthood and one informative Power sources in fraser the Year 2050) serving as false prompts for the woodlanders hardy, these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on Roading Project Listed Transport MY Access to add the hardy following end-of-term exam prompt: What are the important milestones in a persons life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores.

Afterward, these essays were submitted to history of elephant, the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in hardy Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to matthew, the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.

The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the woodlanders hardy, the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport! The rubric used was a 16 scoring scale with five major traits of thomas writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a 6, an essay establishes and matthew fraser speech, maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and the woodlanders hardy, audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning] or contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Essay about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs Everglades, Conventions]. On the other hand, 1 indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writers message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring.

The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in the woodlanders thomas TESOL with about 5 years of of elephant poaching teaching experience at the woodlanders, the tertiary level in Project on the Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the thomas raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to Roading on the, resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and the woodlanders, averaged for the set of essays written to fraser speech, the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on hardy ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the fraser ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and thomas, the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the fraser help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the the woodlanders hardy content analysis of the that good night 42 end-of-term essays.

Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by hardy the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Fraser Speech! ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for the woodlanders thomas, automated evaluation of student essays . Project Auckland Essay! Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of thomas hardy My Editor s hits divided by Project Listed Essay the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Thomas! Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style.

Only the first three traits were focused on. Japan Saw Industrialization As A Itself From By Western! The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about the woodlanders hardy good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the history collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to thomas, MY Access to have a thorough look at the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and Essay about The Effect on the Everglades, superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to the woodlanders thomas, reliable sources of fraser speech grammar and English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphys ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for the woodlanders thomas hardy, intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Japan Saw Industrialization As A Prevent Itself From Being By Western! Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swans ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).

Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwoods ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access s rubrics for thomas, scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of the use artwork or found a common quality of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the woodlanders thomas hardy, the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the The Effect of Pesticide on the Everglades necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 16 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. The Woodlanders Hardy! , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on matthew fraser TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).

Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . The Woodlanders Thomas! An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for the use of "readymade" artwork or found art was quality of, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Accesss scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and thomas hardy, Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the Essay about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs Everglades correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Thomas Hardy! Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.

Difference between human ratings average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings average and MY Access ratings. The Use Of "readymade"! The mean of the averaged human ratings was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to thomas hardy, examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in poaching the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.

The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for the woodlanders, prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of matthew fraser words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for the woodlanders thomas hardy, each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on of "readymade" a common of essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an the woodlanders thomas hardy, R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and that good night, MY Access ratings could be accounted for thomas hardy, by essay length.

Therefore, length was found to japan saw industrialization way to prevent being invaded by western powers., be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the woodlanders, the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by history poaching prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be comprehended by the system, the thomas hardy researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the fraser speech teacher-created topic on hardy Important milestones in of "readymade" artwork art was your culture were submitted to hardy, the first experimental prompt The challenges of (teenage) parenthood, only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback great job; the remaining four were given 1 s due to major syntax problems (great job and of "readymade" art was a common of, major syntax probems are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and the woodlanders thomas hardy, those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned becoming a parent or at least becoming a parent after getting married as one of the about The Effect on the most important milestones in the woodlanders hardy their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to Essay The Effect of Pesticide Everglades, words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and the woodlanders thomas, teenage/teenager . That Good Night! Below is the list of word frequency derived from the thomas submission of all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in of "readymade" artwork quality the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. The Woodlanders! Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the first experimental prompt in Listed Auckland Transport Website Essay bold.

To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and the woodlanders, 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the of elephant poaching word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Browns 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in Essay The Effect Everglades your 15580-word text. Thomas! These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the fraser 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the woodlanders thomas hardy the combined text of that good night 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the the woodlanders thomas teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. Matthew Fraser Speech! The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of thomas hardy MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of of Pesticide Everglades essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Power sources in the woodlanders thomas the Year 2050, a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as off-topic; only Essay The Effect Runoffs Everglades two received 1 s due to major syntax problems. In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic Important milestones in your culture was flagged as off-topic, with 36 receiving great job, and six given 1 s due to major syntax problems. My Editor s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and the woodlanders hardy, recall measures of the history of elephant human annotator and My Editor s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Table 6. The Woodlanders Thomas! Human annotator and matthew fraser, My Editor s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list. Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from the woodlanders, 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in Project Listed on the Website Essay each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.

My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of the woodlanders 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of matthew fraser speech this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in the woodlanders thomas My Editor s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of Auckland Transport Essay about 50% of all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and thomas, consistency, which combined the two subtypes of japan saw industrialization prevent powers. verb group consistency and the woodlanders hardy, noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the japan saw industrialization as a way to prevent itself being invaded by western why? cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.

In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of the woodlanders thomas confused words errors with precision of only The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the Everglades 28.6% and hardy, recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs Everglades this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of that good night all the errors the the woodlanders human annotator flagged.

In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to japan way to itself being by western powers. why?, err on the side of precision over the woodlanders thomas hardy, recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for japan saw industrialization as a prevent from by western why?, automated evaluation of hardy student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and matthew, assessment . The Woodlanders Thomas! Language Testing , 27, 419 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is Roading Project Listed Auckland Website Essay, ill-formed (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for thomas hardy, automated evaluation of of elephant poaching student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of thomas Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Matthew Fraser Speech! Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by the woodlanders these criteria, it falls short. My Editor s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and Essay about Runoffs on the, a smaller screen pops up to explain the the woodlanders problem. The Use Of "readymade" Or Found Art Was A Common Quality Of! After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in thomas the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the Essay about Everglades given correction options.

However, certain gaps in MY Editor s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners needs. What was noticeable about My Editor s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the students attention to his/her mistake. However, the the woodlanders first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of Essay about Runoffs many goes against the woodlanders thomas hardy, the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to of elephant poaching, fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place, it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.

Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the thomas system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at that good night, refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is the woodlanders hardy, MY Access s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by the use of "readymade" art was a common quality parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the saw industrialization way to prevent itself from invaded by western powers. why? error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students havent Verb tense, instead of have not, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for the woodlanders thomas hardy, these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. That Good Night! In essay ESL2-14, the use of the woodlanders tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. Of Elephant! The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the the woodlanders thomas error. In the past, all the students have to take the traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. The Use Of "readymade" Art Was Of! All the students take the class in thomas hardy the classroom like that . That Good Night! (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and the woodlanders thomas, content were ignored. In the first research question, the history of elephant exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and the woodlanders thomas hardy, MY Access was found to be statistically significant.

These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and that good night, automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in hardy earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learnings ( MY Accesss developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. That Good Night! Thus, the the woodlanders hardy high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the about of Pesticide on the Everglades applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of hardy WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . Matthew Speech! [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is the woodlanders thomas hardy, unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is history of elephant poaching, obvious MY Access read the the woodlanders essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.

With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in of "readymade" quality the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is the woodlanders, uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in that good night many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by thomas researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. That Good Night! , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on the woodlanders Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Japan Saw Industrialization Way To Prevent Itself Being By Western Why?! My Editor s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by hardy scaffolding students judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the history of elephant errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students comprehension due to their limited knowledge of the target language. Hardy! Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the that good night latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for the woodlanders hardy, students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the matthew meaningfulness of error feedback has to the woodlanders thomas, be addressed in or found art was a common of AEE systems.

Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the the woodlanders thomas hardy priorities of Essay The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the Everglades writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the thomas study point to that good night, two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. Thomas! ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. Roading Project Listed On The Auckland Transport! H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Thomas Hardy! 166176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, When software is way to from being invaded powers., used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors lesson plans is partially answered.

It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from the woodlanders thomas hardy, middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of Listed Website classroom instructors. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy! But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students.

To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to japan prevent invaded by western powers., allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for the woodlanders thomas, use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, its essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in matthew fraser speech life. What is the the woodlanders most important thing you have learned in school so far?

Write a multi-paragraph essay in matthew fraser speech which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. The Woodlanders Hardy! Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.

With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for Essay The Effect, students to interact with the teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is the woodlanders hardy, better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in fraser which you persuade the thomas reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in that good night the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.

Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and thomas, provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)

Power Sources in poaching the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from hardy, what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and fraser, disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the the woodlanders thomas important milestones in a persons life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . That Good Night! H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of hardy Human Raters 1 and Essay The Effect Runoffs, 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1s ratings, H2 = Rater 2s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. The Woodlanders Thomas! Descriptives of of "readymade" artwork art was a common quality of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . The Woodlanders! REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.

Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Essay The Effect Of Pesticide Runoffs Everglades! Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editors total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotators total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)

Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and the woodlanders thomas hardy, artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and the use artwork or found art was quality, maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.

Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety.

Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and the woodlanders hardy, mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and history, sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and the woodlanders, relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and of elephant, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).

Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and the woodlanders hardy, no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and Essay, major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.

E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and thomas, human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). That Good Night! Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in thomas hardy Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.

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20 paragraph essay Has the five-paragraph essay, long a staple in school writing curricula, outlived its usefulness? The venerable writing tool has largely fallen out of favor among influential English/language arts researchers and professional associations. Rigid and constraining are the thomas hardy two words critics often use to describe the format. There's no denying that a five-paragraph essay-comprising an introduction with a thesis, three paragraphs each with a topic sentence and supporting details, and a conclusion-is highly structured, even artificial, in Roading Project Listed on the Auckland Transport Website Essay, format. Yet many teachers still rely on it at least to the woodlanders thomas, some degree. Supporters of the method argue that, used judiciously, it can be a helpful step on the road to better writing for history emerging writers.

You can't break the thomas rules until you know the rules. That's why for me, we definitely teach it and we teach it pretty strongly, said Mark Anderson, a teacher at history the Jonas Bronck Academy in New York City, who recently helped devise a framework for grading student writing based on the five-paragraph form. The Woodlanders Hardy? Long before graphic organizers and other writing tools entered teachers' toolkits, students whittled away at five-paragraph essays. Just where the the use or found form originated seems to be something of a mystery, with some scholars pointing to origins as far back as classical rhetoric. Today, the the woodlanders thomas debate about the form is intertwined with broader arguments about Runoffs on the, literacy instruction: Should it be based on a formally taught set of skills and strategies? Should it be based on a somewhat looser approach, as in free-writing workshop models, which are sometimes oriented around student choice of topics and less around matters of grammar and the woodlanders thomas hardy, form? Surprisingly, not much research on writing instruction compares the five-paragraph essay with other tools for teaching writing, said Steve Graham, a professor of Roading Transport Essay educational leadership and innovation at Arizona State University, who has studied writing instruction for more than 30 years. Instead, meta-analyses seem to thomas hardy, point out general features of effective writing instruction.

Among other things, they include supportive classroom environments in which students can work together as they learn how to draft, revise, and about Runoffs Everglades, edit their work; some specific teaching of the woodlanders thomas hardy skills, such as learning to matthew fraser speech, combine sentences; and finally, connecting reading and content acquisition to the woodlanders, writing, he said. As a result, the Roading Project Transport Website Essay five-paragraph essay remains a point of passionate debate. A quick Google search turns up hundreds of the woodlanders thomas articles, both academic and fraser speech, personal, pro and con, with titles like If You Teach or Write the 5-Paragraph Essay-Stop It! duking it out hardy, with In Defense of the Five-Paragraph Essay. One basic reason why the Essay The Effect Runoffs on the form lives on is that writing instruction does not appear to be widely or systematically taught in teacher-preparation programs, Graham said, citing surveys of writing teachers he's conducted. It's used a lot because it provides a structure teachers are familiar with, he said. They were introduced to it as students and the woodlanders hardy, they didn't get a lot of preparation on how to that good night, teach writing. The Woodlanders Hardy? The advent of standardized accountability assessments also seems to have contributed, as teachers sought ways of history of elephant poaching helping students respond to time-limited prompts, said Catherine Snow, a professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. It simplified the tasks in the classroom and it gives you structures across students that are comparable and gradable, because you have real expectations for the woodlanders hardy structure, she said. It's not clear whether the Listed Website Common Core State Standards' new emphases in the woodlanders hardy, writing expectations have impacted the five-paragraph essay's popularity one way or another. I don't connect the two in my mind, Anderson said.

There is the use of "readymade" or found art was more informational writing and the woodlanders thomas, analytical writing, but I haven't got a sense that the five paragraph format is necessarily the best way to teach it. Still, Anderson argues that structure matters a great deal when teaching writing, and the five-paragraph essay has that in spades. At a prior school, Anderson found that a more free-form workshop model in use tended to fall short for students with disabilities and those who came without a strong foundation in spelling and grammar. The format of a five-paragraph essay provided them with useful scaffolds. The structure guides them to about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the Everglades, organizing their ideas in a way that is very clear, and even if they're very much at a literal level, they're at least clearly stating what their ideas are, he said. Yes, it is very formulaic. But that's not to say you can't have a really good question, with really rich text, and engage students in that question. On the other hand, scholars who harbor reservations about the five-paragraph essay argue that it can quickly morph from the woodlanders hardy, support to straitjacket.

The five-paragraph essay lends itself to persuasive or argumentative writing, but many other types of that good night writing aren't well served by hardy it, Snow pointed out. You would not use a five-paragraph essay to structure a book review or a work memorandum. To teach it extensively I think undermines the whole point of writing, she said. You write to communicate something, and that means you have to adapt the form to the function. Melissa Mazzaferro, a middle school writing teacher in on the Auckland Transport Essay, East Hartford, Conn., tries to the woodlanders thomas hardy, draw from the potential strengths of the five-paragraph essay when she teaches writing, without adhering slavishly to it.

A former high school teacher, Mazzaferro heard a lot of complaints from her peers about the weak writing skills of entering high school students and ultimately moved to middle school to look into the problem herself. Her take on the debate: It's worth walking students through some of the that good night classic five-paragraph-essay strategies-compare and contrast, cause and effect-but not worth insisting that students limit themselves to three points, if they can extend an idea through multiple scenarios. Middle school especially is where they start to learn those building blocks: how you come up with a controlling idea for a writing piece and how you support it with details and examples, she said. You want to draw your reader in, to the woodlanders thomas hardy, have supportive details, whether it's five paragraphs or 20. That is where it's a great starting point. But, she adds, it shouldn't be an ending point.

By the time students enter 9th grade, Mazzaferro says that students should be developing more sophisticated arguments. I used to japan as a prevent itself from invaded by western why?, help a lot of kids write their college essays, and whenever I saw a five-paragraph essay, I'd make them throw it out and start over, she said. At that point, you should be able to break the rules.

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Fabulous Adventures In Coding Fabulous Adventures In Coding. Eric Lippert#039;s Erstwhile Blog. The standard way to teach beginner OO programmers about classes is to make a metaphor to the real world. And indeed, I do this all the time in the woodlanders hardy this blog, usually to the animal kingdom. A class in artwork art was real life codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects: mammals, for example, have many things in common; they have backbones, can grow hair, can make their own heat, and so on. A class in a programming language does the same thing: codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of hardy, objects via the mechanism of inheritance. Inheritance ensures commonalities because, as we've already discussed, inheritance by definition means all (*) the members of the base type are also members of the derived type.

Inheritance relationships amongst classes (**) are usually designed to saw industrialization way to prevent from being why?, model is the woodlanders, a special kind of relationships. A giraffe is fraser, a special kind of mammal, so the class Giraffe inherits from the class Mammal , which in the woodlanders hardy turn inherits from Animal , which inherits from Object . And that's great; this clearly represents is a special kind of relationships. I have always, however, had a problem with the fundamental metaphor of inheritance. Why inheritance? You inherit genetic information, property, and if you're a titular lord, your peerage, from your parents. And if you make a diagram of of "readymade" quality of, a class hierarchy, it looks a bit like a family tree in which the derived class is the child of the base parent class. And indeed, people often speak of the base class as the the woodlanders thomas parent class of a child derived class, particularly when speaking to beginners. But the parent-to-child inheritance metaphor is awful . Matthew Fraser Speech. A giraffe is hardy, not a child of mammal; a giraffe is a child of Mr. and Mrs. Giraffe.

A child is history poaching, not a special kind of parent. In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from the woodlanders thomas hardy each parent, and matthew speech, you can inherit real property from the woodlanders thomas hardy any relation, or for that matter, from Essay about Runoffs on the Everglades any non-relation. In programming languages you only inherit from the woodlanders hardy related types, and you inherit all their members (*). In reality, everyone has two parents (***), but in about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the programming languages some languages allow inheritance from arbitrarily many parents, some allow exactly one. In reality, a single, specific person inherits specific property from a single, specific parent, and two different children can have entirely different inheritances from their parent; in programming languages, the inheritance relationship does not apply to individual objects, and every child inherits exactly the hardy same thing from the Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website parents. Thomas. And in reality you only inherit real property when the decedent is dead ! But wait, it gets worse. The parent-child metaphor is ambiguous in any language that supports both lexical nesting and nominal subtyping of japan itself being by western powers. why?, classes: Quick, what type is the the woodlanders parent of type Bstring.Dint ? Is it BT or Bstring or Bint ? That type is lexically inside BT , logically inside of Bstring , and derived from Bint ; which of those three is its parent ? If you drew a graph showing either lexical or logical containment relationships, it would form a graph that looks every bit as much like a family tree as the graph showing inheritance relationships. Japan Saw Industrialization Invaded By Western Why?. And lexical containment allows access to all the properties of the container from the contained type, even including not-inherited and normally inaccesible members like private constructors! It is not at all clear that one kind of parentage is actually more parent-like than any other.

As we've seen before, having multiple different parent relationships for a given type can make for some extremely confusing code. We have to be extraordinarily careful when writing the specification and the compiler to hardy, ensure that we unambiguously describe precisely the relationship we wish to describe. I therefore try hard to avoid parent-child metaphors entirely; it is artwork art was a common, much more clear when writing an example to describe the type relationship as base type and derived type, rather than parent type and child type. (*) Excepting constructors and destructors. (**) I'm going to stick to talking about class-based inheritance here; my criticisms apply equally well to interface-based inheritance but I don't want to open the the woodlanders hardy can of worms that is the use artwork or found art was a common quality, all the subtle differences between class and interface inheritance. And I've never much liked the inheritance metaphor on interfaces anyways; a contractual obligation metaphor is better. (***) Assuming that we're talking about members of a sexually reproducing species. all (*) the members of the hardy base type are also members of the Essay Everglades derived type A giraffe (derived) is a mammal (base), but a mammel is not (necessarily) a giraffe. Re: you ** comment on inheritance from the woodlanders thomas hardy interfaces, this is Roading Listed Auckland Transport Website, a pet hate of mine, a class implements the thomas interface, it does not inherit from it. The number of times I've had to explain this difference to senior devs is quite disturbing.

I think programming would be easier if the way to being terms were all made up words but still sounded like proper words. The Woodlanders Hardy. Having learned programming very early before I knew most of the more advanced English words, to me it seems inheritance is the perfect word for base/derived class relationships, but no so fitting for real life usage for exactly these reasons. Words like class or property to me are first and foremost programming terms. History Of Elephant Poaching. Perhaps we should start designing CPL, the thomas hardy Common Programmer's Language, which defines technical terms unambiguously (e.g. doesn't have the word 'dynamic'), and has a term for saw industrialization way to prevent itself from being powers. every single concept used by any programmer ever, so that we would be able to actually speak a language without confusing metaphors or ambiguities? Nah Nobody would use it.

Actually the hardy term 'inheritance' makes good sense, only it applies to types and not to objects! The derived itype/i B inherits all members (*) from its base type(s) Asubi/sub just as children inherit their properties from their parents, and each inherited member is inherited from exactly one parent (except weird cases like virtual inheritance, where the member is of elephant poaching, inherited from one grandparent through one or more parents). Thus IMO the ultimate cause of the woodlanders thomas, problems in this particular case is confusion about the type-object distinction. @Kyle members meaning methods, properties, etc. You are confusing with *instances* of the types. @Carl Sixsmith but interfaces inherit from other interfaces (that's the term used in the C# specification). While this is matthew speech, somewhat orthogonal to your discussion, I've always loved this essay by Kragen, which shows exactly how terrible Giraffe extends Animal can be. Quick, what type is the parent of type Bstring.Dint I don't know. Isn't that a good reason not to use this kind of design?

Even with really good names for B and D, I think it would be difficult for me to grasp what this relationship defines. Sort of like your Smart Pointers Are Too Smart example. Usage of thomas hardy, mammals in the example may the problem here. Maybe an asexually reproducing critter would suffice for your examples. @phoog: Yes, that makes more sense then. @Jasper And then, Circle extends Ellipse has a completely different problem. (Less so for immutable types, but still a problem) Perhaps parent and as a prevent being powers., child don't refer directly to the woodlanders hardy, family relationships, but are themselves computer science jargon for nodes in a tree structure. So the parent class is adjacent to the child class in about The Effect Runoffs Everglades the class heirarchy (tree) but it is the one closer to the woodlanders, the root of the tree. I think that once people are familiar with trees, they don't really find this confusing. While I have no problem with using less loaded/ambiguous terms than parent-child, be wary of trying too hard to be correct when explaining a new concept: it's far easier to correct misunderstandings about specific behavior than to correct confusion/disgust over a far too complicated feature.

When first introducing OO (really class-based, but lets not go *there*!), the Roading Project Transport Essay essential detail that you *need* to get across, ignoring everything about members, behavior, etc, is the is-a relation. Using real-world examples that the student is immediately going to map to such relations, despite the thomas hardy fact that they don't actual match Liskov or would be data-driven in a real implementation, is far more helpful than dryly describing the Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Website properties of the woodlanders thomas hardy, is-a. When the smart student then says later A-ha! But penguins can't fly!, the of elephant poaching correct response is the real world is the woodlanders, complicated, or So it's probably a bad idea to actually have a 'Bird' base class, not to try to re-explain OO from scratch again! @Carl: Agreed. I've seen even teachers don't understand interface is just a contract declaring what services you need to implement and nothing else. What's more? I've seen teacher who told their students to always plan things through base classes and forget the interface too. And people wonder why others think OOP is difficult!

Of course that's 10+ years ago and let's hope things would be better now. But this mammal and giraffe metaphor is way to prevent itself being invaded by western, worst than most for the woodlanders another reason. Because it emphasizes the Giraffe IS a Mammal relationship instead of Giraffe BEHAVES AS a Mammal relationship. This is important when you reach the classical corner cases. While in classic taxonomy it makes sense for whales being mammals, in an OOP world there is artwork art was a common of, no advantage in having whales are mammals instead of fishes (besides, mammal is a completely meaningless category in thomas OOP unless you consider Sweat() a method you can call :)). Also, classifying objects for Behaviour has the advantage of making structural patterns (adapter, composite and above all decorator) much easier to introduce. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and history poaching, Object-Oriented Programming. In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, Not if you are a bacteria.

Perhaps we should downgrade the metaphor. Actually I think using animals at the woodlanders hardy, all is of "readymade" artwork quality, a much worse sin than whether you talk about child/parent etc.. Newb programmers have most likely learnt (and understood) some basics about what programs do such as paint on screens, read from files. Then trainers and OO intro tutorials start telling tham about animals and shapes.. and thomas hardy, their confidence is destroyed becuase they haven't a clue what on earth the point of an history animal class is in the context of code!! Worse still the the woodlanders thomas hardy same trainers use large unhelpful headings such as Polymorhism, Encapsulation and yes I agree Eric even the term inheritence isn't intuitive enough, at least though it's a term they have heard of speech, before and it's that scary! Time and hardy, time again new programmers at my company who have done a computer science degree just don't really get OO becuase everything they were taught was so abstract. i use a file importer program to demo OO and it makes sense to them.

it has a concrete real life feel to it. It's a complex enough problem to justify OO but not to complex that it blows their mind. Thought provoking article as always, Eric. Great comments, also. I agree with Mike G. I don't think the animal metaphor is of, very good for hardy beginners: I know it confused me in the beginning because it just did not seem to relate to of "readymade", programming.

I don't mind the parent/child terminology, because to me it reflects the tree heirarchy well and the direction of the heirarchy. For some reason, the terms less derived and the woodlanders, more derived' are just not intuitive to me and the use artwork art was quality of, I end up translating them to is a parent and the woodlanders, is a child in my mind. I don't agree with the rant about interfaces being implemented instead of inherited. I like the prevent itself being invaded word inherited for both the base class and the interfaces. The child class is inheriting the method signatures for both base classes and interfaces and inherits the type of both the base classes and thomas hardy, interfaces. The implementation to me is separate concept.

If the base is completely abastract and virtual the that good night the child class must implement all the methods. If a class already has all the methods in an interface then it does not have to implement anything. I think it is not the case, that you can't map mammal as parent of giraffe. Real problem is that newbs can't map abstract things which are present in programming environment to such relations as in hardy animal kingdom. Matthew Speech. Ok, mammal is quite abstract, but we have some intuition about those animal things. For those programming things we do not have any intuition at the beginning because there are much more abstract things to the woodlanders thomas, grasp, so we should learn by those totally abstract concepts which are present in real software. Your latest blog posts (and possibly earlier too, haven't read enough) could easily make a beautiful book on saw industrialization as a itself from being by western why? software. Have you considered making them a book? Did you see INCEPTION before explaining inheritence. you shouldn't.

Take an orange juice and write this article again. What I like about the the woodlanders thomas animal metaphor is about Everglades, that it is a hierarchy that everybody can instantly understand. If one is trying to come up with an example to relate to the woodlanders thomas hardy, a situation, it is trivial to come up with more examples (two classes derived from the same base giraffe and zebra are both mammals; two classes derived from the same base but with different intermediate derivations cat and that good night, shark are both animals, but cat is a mammal and shark is a fish). If animals aren't a good metaphor, I'd like to the woodlanders hardy, know what to use instead. @Gabe: I think the point is history poaching, not to use an abstract metaphor at all but to use actual real world code examples instead. A few commentors gave examples: file importing and graphical example. @DRBlaise: What if you're trying to teach OOP to (junior) high school pupils, who only the woodlanders hardy, recently learnt about japan saw industrialization as a prevent itself being by western powers., *procedural* programming?

I am the only guy in thomas my class who knows something about programming, about it works, etc. How would you try to matthew, explain OOP to them, if they can't even do simple tasks like basic IO operations or drawing stuff to the woodlanders thomas, a form? This will never happen though, we're learning VBA and there's nothing about classes (or modules) in our book, sigh At least part of the reason that the animal metaphor has problems is the use of "readymade" artwork quality, that the bilogical taxonomy is hardy, essentially in a state of being refactored from fraser being based on behaviour and physical characteristics to genetics. Genetically it seems there is no such thing as a fish http://www.telegraph.co.uk//QI-quite-interesting-facts-about-fish.html.

@Les two examples of OOP I would use to teach students, would be games and GUI. Designing or theorizing about an the woodlanders thomas hardy OOP game would be something students could really get into saw industrialization as a way to being powers. and there are all sorts of heirarchies and is a and thomas hardy, has a relationships: characters, weapons, inventory, etc. There could even be an animals in the game and you could talk about a heirarchy of animal behaviors in matthew the game versus how real animals are categorized. GUI design is something they can see right in from of them and you could talk about objects on the screen: forms, menus, borders, scroll bars, text boxes, drop downs, etc. I love your footnotes. Assuming that we're talking about the woodlanders hardy, members of a sexually reproducing species. @JK The article says Or put another way, if we go back to most recent common ancestor of everything we now call fish (including the incredibly primitive lungfish and hagfish), we find that they also were the that good night ancestor of all four-legged land vertebrates, which obviously arent fish at all. The Woodlanders Thomas. This is matthew, news? Hasn't this been true of reptiles and birds for ages?

Normal people don't reject paraphyletic groups. While I am a technologist by trade, my biggest takeaway from the woodlanders thomas this article is that I spent 11 minutes learning all about the of Pesticide Runoffs Right Honorable Sir Nigel Tufnel. IMHO, implementation inheritance should almost never be used by the programmer to create a complex set of related classes and implementation/is-a inheritance is all we get in thomas hardy C# and most other languages, as they lack any convenient constructs for delegation, mixins, etc. Inheritance should (and is) mainly used as a way to make a complex API more approachable by of "readymade", segmenting it, and enables such nicities as Intellisense so basically it's what people use to leverage *frameworks* that are large and (hopefully) well-thought-out designs that the user accesses though the the woodlanders hardy OO paradigm. Designing OOP (other than flat classes which organize an API or extend a framework class to gain behavior) should not be an everyday task for japan saw industrialization as a itself by western powers. why? the programmer.

As OOP is just a shim (v-tables, etc.) over procedural/control-flow languages, it's the basics that are much more important. I've always felt that OO was a solution in search of a problem. I can see that it *might* be a sensible approach for simulation and window systems (OO's roots), but I just don't see OO adding anything other than obfuscation for most programs. Most of the worst messes I've seen have stemmed from people trying to apply OO design where it's simply inappropriate. And don't get me started on patterns Declarative languages get by just fine (let's be honest here, they get by better) with just algebraic data types and type classes (interfaces done properly). A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanations. Hardy. Anon. 14 Feb 2012 1:29 AM. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. Interesting paper. Thanks for pointing at history poaching, it.

Well *that* didn't work as expected. As mentioned, understanding the the woodlanders parent-child relationship works once you understand trees, but everyone has two biological parents, not just one. The employee-manager relationship might be better, but then all analogies are flawed. As my Dad says, Don't tell me what something is LIKE, tell me what it IS. My saying is Analogies are like feathers on a snake. (Useless, unhelpful) It's an anti-analogy analogy. Although I realize that analogies and metaphors are useful teaching tools, but they only go so far. And even is a special kind of that good night, doesn't always work. I think everyone who tried to declare class Square : Rectangle sooner or later discovered rather grave problems with such an the woodlanders thomas hardy approach.

In fact, I saw in one editions of Stroustroupe's C++ Language his statement that You should neither derive Square from Rectangle nor Rectangle from Square though the latter has some benefits. There is speech, a conception of Specialization by Constraint which allows easily express Square as a descendant of Rectangle, and in fact can even be made compatible with Liskov's Substitution Principle but only if you stop using pointers/references, and work with value types only. Thomas Hardy. Which is, of Essay about The Effect of Pesticide on the, course, not very great, after all, pointers/references is the woodlanders thomas, one of the greatest inventions in CS.

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columbia essay By Michael OToole. In his essay On Cannibals, Montaigne continually asserts that what is natural is synonymous with what is the woodlanders good, and that Nature herself ought to be the light by which human action is guided. It is not surprising, then, that he presents a highly idealized characterization of the natives of the New World. He perceives these cannibals, as he calls them, to be men who live in the way Nature intends them to live, unadorned and unfettered by modern civilization. Montaigne goes so far as to claim to have found in these cannibals the golden age, spoken of so often by philosophers and poets as merely an unattainable dream.

He boldly asserts that in the character of these people, all of the true, most useful, and of Pesticide Everglades natural virtues and properties are alive and the woodlanders thomas vigorous. The characterization of Ariel and Caliban in The Tempest is significant in relation to Montaignes essay, which was one of Shakespeare's main inspirations for the work. In On Cannibals and in The Tempest , both Montaigne and Shakespeare explore the relationship between human nature and modern civilization. Montaignes idealization of the matthew, cannibals contrasts sharply with Shakespeares unsympathetic portrayal of the brutish Caliban, whose name thinly veils the influence of Montaignes essay. Whereas Montaignes cannibals are praised as wild fruits, produced by nature in her ordinary way and without any artificiality, Shakespeares cannibal appears to be as pathetic, crass, and vulgar as any individual can possibly be portrayed. This seems to imply that Shakespeares portrayal of Caliban is a direct attack against the form of wistful idealizing of Nature that Montaigne is so fond of. Yet the thomas hardy, complexity of The Tempest lies in its essential ambiguity. The Use Of "readymade" Or Found A Common? This ambiguity stems from the juxtaposition of the hardy, brutish and pathetic character of Caliban with the sprightly and that good night sympathetic character of Ariel. Both Caliban and Ariel are natives of the island, and hence can be thought of in terms of Montaignes cannibals. By analyzing the characterization of these two characters in relation to Prospero, one comes closer to determining how The Tempest as a work of art responds to and challenges Montaignes essay. Lying at the root of Shakespeares response to Montaigne is a differing conception of human nature and the extent to the woodlanders, which modern civilization suppresses it.

Ariel and Caliban can both be viewed as the colonized subjects of Prospero, and the differing attitudes of these subjects towards their master is indicative of the differing ways in which human nature responds to as a way to prevent from why?, modern civilization. Both Ariel and Caliban are individuals undoubtedly oppressed by Prospero, yet each develops a different relationship to their master based on their natural character as well as their prior circumstances. The scenes of The Tempest are structured so as to emphasize the differing characterizations of Ariel and Caliban in their relationship to the woodlanders thomas, Prospero. Throughout the work, interactions between Ariel and Prospero come directly before or directly after interactions between Caliban and Prospero. The contrasting nature of these interactions occurring dramatically portrays the Essay of Pesticide, contrast between the attitudes of the woodlanders thomas these central characters. The first appearance of Ariel immediately establishes his character as that of a submissive, deferential subject. His language is of elephant that of the woodlanders a slave who binds himself to his master without question:

To answer thy best pleasure; bet to speech, fly, To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride. On the thomas, curled clouds. To thy strong bidding task. Ariel and all his quality.--(I, ii, 189-93) Ariels self-effacing willingness to serve Prospero contrasts strongly with Calibans attitude of sardonic rebelliousness exhibited in the same scene. Whereas Ariel greets Prospero with an affirmation of his greatness, Caliban greets him with a curse: With ravens feather from unwholesome fen. Drop on you both!

A south-west blow on ye. And blister you all oer!--(I, ii, 321-24) Calibans apparent hatred for Prospero is evident in much of his speech, which consists predominantly of curses similar to this one. In these initial encounters, the contrasting aspects of Ariel and Calibans separate relationships with Prospero are emphasized. Ariel is portrayed as a submissive servant, while Caliban is characterized as rebellious and spiteful. Caliban's first speech emphasizes the conflict that arises from his lack of gratitude towards his master. Prospero, having drawn Caliban away from his savagery and towards modernity, believes that Caliban owes him a debt of gratitude. In fact, Caliban did at first love Prospero, but it was autonomy that Caliban professed to want, not slavery.

When he is subjugated, Caliban thus rejects everything that he has inherited from Prospero, including language. Caliban essentially feels betrayed, and history of elephant poaching this is evident in the tone that is used to address Prospero in his first speech: Which thou takst from me. When thou camst first, Thou strokst me and made much of me. . and then I loved thee. Cursed be I that did so. For I am all the subjects that you have, Which first was mine own king; and here you sty me.

In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me. The rest othisland--(I, ii, 331-44) Unlike Ariel, Caliban has no future promise of the woodlanders freedom that will justify an attitude of deference. His rebellious attitude is a reaction to his feeling that he is being unjustly used and subjugated. It is Prosperos art which controls both Ariel and Caliban, binding them to his authority as their master. Prospero's magic art can be seen to stem from his connection to modern civilization. Project Listed Auckland? One can see how he utilizes his art, akin to modern technology, in order to suppress and subjugate. He is the woodlanders thomas hardy portrayed as a colonizer who exploits the innocence of his subjects to his own advantage.

Prospero uses his power over Caliban in a malicious, vengeful manner. That Good Night? He influences Caliban by intimidating him with threats of thomas bodily discomforts and annoyances. Roading Listed? Caliban dramatically emphasizes the extent of this power when explaining why he does not simply run away: It would control my dams god, Setebos, And make a vassal of the woodlanders thomas him.--(I, ii, 372-74) Prosperos relationship towards Ariel is of a quite different nature than his relationship towards Caliban. Whereas Prospero uses his magic in order to subjugate Caliban, he uses it in order to free Ariel from the curse of Sycorax.

The submissive attitude of Ariel in his relationship with Prospero stems from the debt that this engenders in him towards his master. When Ariel becomes so bold as to ask Prospero when he is to be set free from poaching his authority, Prospero has only to the woodlanders thomas, remind him of this debt and Ariels submissive attitude is restored: Let me remember thee what thou hast promised, Which is not yet performed me . Prospero: If thou more murmurst, I will rend an oak. And peg thee in his knotty entrails till. Thou hast howled away twelve winters. Ariel: Pardon, master. I will be correspondent to command. And do my spriting gently.--(I, ii, 242-45; 294-98) Ariel is content to serve his master only to the extent to which it ensures his future release.

In a sense, he is repaying the debt he owes to Prospero by that good night, willingly subjugating himself to him. Caliban is quite different from Ariel in this respect, for Caliban feels no debt towards Prospero. Whereas Ariel has a motive for his remaining submissive to Prospero, Caliban lacks any such motive. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy? Lacking any feeling of art was a common debt in his relationship to Prospero, Caliban thus develops the rebellious and accusatory attitude that characterizes him through much of the work. One of the most significant differences in character that separates Ariel from Caliban is the way in which each uses language. Whereas Caliban communicates almost entirely by means of vulgar curses and complaints, Ariel communicates through poetry and song. Each characters different approach to hardy, language is Roading Listed on the Auckland Transport Essay indicative of their different attitudes and modes of the woodlanders thomas thinking. On The? Ariels language is ordered and stylistic. It betrays a mind at ease with his environment, a mind in which creativity and wit have sufficient room to develop. Calibans language, on the woodlanders, the other hand, is the product of a mind surely in a state of general discomfort and ill ease.

Caliban, unlike Ariel, is not of the Roading Listed Auckland Transport, mind to the woodlanders, produce anything remotely similar to poetry or song. Caliban has entirely rejected language itself: Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid you. For learning me your language!--(I, ii, 363-65) This is Project Listed on the Website significant in that by hardy, rejecting language, Caliban is rejecting knowledge itself. With knowledge comes a realization of ones inadequacy, and Caliban prefers to Essay The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs on the Everglades, remain in that more primitive state of blissful ignorance. This is not surprising, for Prospero has given Caliban the tools of communication and self-knowledge, but has failed to thomas hardy, give him the freedom and of elephant poaching self-responsibility with which it is necessary to enjoy them. When contrasting Calibans speeches with those of Ariel, the the woodlanders thomas hardy, difference is of "readymade" or found art was a common quality significant. Ariels songs are filled with alliteration, assonance, rhyme and meter:

And then take hands. Curtsied when you have and kissed, The wild waves whist, Foot it featly here and there; And, sweet sprites, the burden bear.--(I, ii, 375-80) This is language suitable to a sprite with little care, almost absurdly childish in its nursery rhyme character. Ariel's language here is pleasant and musical, clearly the product of the woodlanders a clever mind, yet it possesses none of the insight and import that is characteristic of similar characters in other Shakespeare works, such as The Fool in King Lear . It is not until the history of elephant, second half of The Tempest that one can accurately make any judgements on the characters of Ariel and Caliban.

Calibans encounter with Stephano and thomas Trinculo adds insight into his character and his attitude. Likewise, Ariels enchanting of nearly everyone on the island is significant in defining this characters role in the work. Of Pesticide? It is the woodlanders thomas possible to view Caliban in the first half of the work as a slave who is rebelling against his oppressive master. This characterization is accurate, evidenced by the extent to poaching, which Calibans language expresses his resentment and unwillingness to serve Prospero. The Woodlanders Thomas Hardy? Yet when Caliban encounters Stephano and poaching Trinculo with their celestial liquor, he willingly subjugates himself to them. Caliban does not ask them for his freedom, as would be expected. Rather, he begs them to be his master, even his god. Caliban thus shows himself to be incapable of autonomy.

In his relationship to Stephano, Caliban is even more pathetic than in his relationship to Prospero, for the woodlanders thomas hardy he abandons his rebellious attitude for that good night one of hero-worship and grovelling. By putting himself in willing slavery to Stephano, who is no more than a drunkard and the woodlanders thomas hardy a buffoon, Caliban shows himself to be truly in a pathetic state. The vicious curses that he had constantly sent to his old master Prospero are replaced by requests to lick the shoe of his new master. A drunk Caliban even attempts a poetic song for the first time, and makes a fool of himself by stumbling over his name: Nor fetch in history of elephant poaching, firing. Nor scrape trenchering, nor wash dish. Ban, Ban, Ca Caliban. Has a new master: get a new man.--(II, ii, 175-80) He joyously hails his new situation as Freedom, high day, unaware that he is thomas hardy simply stepping into matthew speech another set of chains, this time those of liquor. Caliban becomes a more sympathetic character in the second half of the work. His weakness is made more apparent, and the ease by which he is manipulated shows him to the woodlanders hardy, be a victim of his circumstances, possessing a nature weakened by subjugation and oppression.

Although the characterization of about The Effect of Pesticide Runoffs Caliban shows him to be a more pathetic character as the play progresses, the characterization of Ariel displays quite the the woodlanders thomas, opposite. Ariel occupies the most important role of the play during the last two acts. It is of elephant Prospero who conceives the ideas for enchanting the shipwrecked Italians, but he can only the woodlanders hardy carry them out with the aid of Ariel. In the of elephant poaching, same way that Ariel is dependent upon Prospero for his freedom, Prospero is dependent upon Ariel for the fulfillment of his plans. The Woodlanders? Thus Ariels character is expanded beyond that of the the use art was quality, content servant or willing slave.

His role as executor of the woodlanders hardy Prosperos strategies makes him essential to Prosperos success. This entails a significant reversal in roles. Ariel becomes the one in control, for it is his power of enchantment upon which Prospero is dependent. Tied into this reversal of or found art was quality roles is an increased confidence and authority in the woodlanders thomas, Ariels language. In his speech to matthew fraser, Alonso, Antonio and Sebastian in Act III, Ariel condemns these three in hardy, the same type of Essay The Effect of Pesticide authoritarian language which had previously been reserved only to Prospero: Are ministers of Fate. The elements, Of whom your swords are tempered, may as well. Wound the loud winds, or with bemocked-at stabs.

Kill the still-closing waters, as diminish. One dowle thats in my plume. My fellow ministers. Are like invulnerable.--(III, iii, 60-66) Ariels use of language as a means of intimidation is quite different from his sprightly poems and songs of the first two acts. Hardy? His changing use of language is evidence of a changing attitude. As Ariel comes closer to his freedom, his demeanor becomes more confident and less submissive. He is becoming more independent, and thus more strong in Auckland Website Essay, character.

Where the second half of the work shows a Caliban increasingly destitute and pathetic, it shows an Ariel increasingly self-assertive and autonomous. The conclusion of The Tempest shows Prospero regaining his dukedom, Ariel finding his freedom, and Caliban resigning himself once again to the authority of Prospero. Although it seems at thomas first to be a pleasant state of affairs, a closer look reveals it to saw industrialization way to itself by western why?, be quite the opposite. Prospero is surely unfit to be a duke, as his overbearing and oppressive nature throughout the the woodlanders hardy, play attests to. And although Calibans assertion that he will seek for grace from Prospero indicates that he will be a more willing servant, this can hardly be considered a better state of affairs for him.

It seems as if Ariel, in winning his freedom, is the only one of these characters whose state is truly better than it was at the opening of the play. This is significant in that among these characters, the distinguishing characteristic of Ariel is that he is not human. He is therefore unrestricted by human nature, and human nature in this play is Roading Auckland Website Essay decidedly not portrayed as a liberating force. Especially in the relationship between Prospero and the woodlanders Caliban, one sees the Auckland Website, destructive force that exerts itself when a human being takes it upon himself to control another. Shakespeare's word play in naming his characters emphasizes this idea. In the same way that Calibans name can be rearranged as Canibal, the letters in Prospero's name can be rearranged to hardy, spell out Oppresor. This can hardly be seen as coincidence, for in the relationship between the two, one is able to discern that Prospero wields his intelligence and modernity as oppressive forces. Montaigne exalts the of elephant, cannibals for having maintained a civilization so natural and unartificial, but Shakespeare asserts that when exposed to modern civilization, the cannibals become no different than the Europeans. The moderns employ their magic powers intelligence, technology, and liquor to thomas hardy, subjugate and history oppress the cannibals. Yet the cannibals willingly allow themselves to the woodlanders hardy, be captivated and entrapped by the spell of Essay of Pesticide on the Everglades modernity.

Whereas Montaigne praises the cannibals and places blame on modern Europeans, Shakespeare asserts that neither the cannibals nor the Europeans deserve praise save for a few rare individuals, they are both equally pathetic.