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Biomedical Equipment Technician Resume. A biomedical equipment technician plays an important role in at the present time, the healthcare industry since he or she is responsible for the upkeep, maintenance and repair of medical equipment. While the job requirements might vary from employer to employer, some inherent skills that these individuals should possess include manual dexterity, physical stamina, troubleshooting skills, and coal formation even the present time, ability to communicate effectively. Your biomedical equipment technician resume should always list your best qualities first. At the entry level, you will focus on your education and any qualities that you can bring to your employer. Later, once you have some experience, you can focus on your achievements and any ongoing training you have received. Below are three biomedical equipment technician resume format options that you can use to help you get your next job. If you are looking for anti-oppressive practice your first job as a biomedical equipment technician, your resume should focus primarily on your education and any hands-on training that you have received. In the biomedical equipment technician resume example below, Michael Powers focuses on his coursework and his brief internship in a local hospital. He also lists a few of his skills, including his knowledge of computers and his familiarity with many different types of machinery.
High School Diploma, 2012. Grade Average: A. Advanced Computer Technology MS Word and Excel Health and Fitness Physics Basic Electronics. Associate’s Degree in Biomedical Equipment Technology, 2014. Able to install, maintain, troubleshoot, and repair a variety of at the present time, machines and devices. Willing to definition travel in order to provide services in hospitals or clinics.
Able to pay attention to small details in order to quickly discover problems and provide solutions. Work efficiently with or without direct supervision. Clean driving record and reliable transportation. Team player driven to help the company succeed. Firm understanding of biomedical terms. Familiar with imaging, heart-lung, and present time dialysis machines, etc. ICC certified technician. Shadowed experienced technician to gain hands-on experience with imaging equipment and dialysis machinery. Structure Play? Was required to troubleshoot machines when they experienced real issues and provide the right solutions. Performed regular maintenance on CAT and PET scan machines. Time? Assisted in the maintenance and repair of other types of hamlet tragedy, equipment, such as IV machines and at the wheelchairs.
Mid-Level Professional Resume. As a mid-level professional, you will have gained around five years’ experience installing, maintaining, troubleshooting and repairing biomedical equipment. Your resume should focus on any skills or further information that you have gained along the temple, way. In the biomedical equipment technician resume sample below, Micah Roland starts out by present time, listing the things in play, which he excels, but he then moves on at the present time, to describe his achievements with previous employers. Understand a wide range of simple and shirley marriages complex medical equipment. Adept with precision tools. Dedicated to patient care; reliable and hard-working. Able to read and analyze equipment blueprints effectively. Understand calibration, testing and diagnostics of even the most complex equipment. Able to manage inventory.
Can create and adhere to time maintenance schedules. Origin Of Morality? Was given the opportunity to train two entry-level technicians in May of 2012 and June of 2014. Awarded Employee of the Month in July 2014. Assisted in the integration of new software responsible for creating and tracking maintenance schedules. Assisted in creating on-call schedules for six biomedical equipment technicians to ensure that someone was available around the clock for emergency equipment repair. Biomedical Equipment Technician , June 2013 – Present. Install, disassemble, and reassemble complex machinery.
Routinely check equipment for at the damage as well as for shirley temple wear and tear. Demonstrate the proper operation of medical equipment to hospital and clinic staff; provide instruction on preventative maintenance and present upkeep. Keep up-to-date with information from the manufacturer involving possible recalls or updated parts. Use many different types of tools, including power and precision tools, to repair, maintain, install, and of morality even rebuild various types of equipment. Biomedical Equipment Technician , March 2011 – June 2013. Took inventory and ordered new supplies as necessary. Worked directly with customers to help them find the equipment they needed. Spoke with physicians and therapists to ensure that the right types of equipment were being stocked. Assisted customers with testing and troubleshooting equipment. Biomedical Equipment Technician , May 2010 – March 2011.
Was responsible for at the time the maintenance and repair of IV and dialysis machines throughout the hospital. Provided routine safety checks and preventative maintenance. Hamlet Tragedy? Took inventory and provided reports through the proper channels. Was responsible for keeping and updating maintenance logs. Located or fabricated the parts necessary for completing repairs. Calibrated the equipment for the best performance and longest lifespan. High School Diploma, 2007.
Western Kentucky University, 2009. Jones and Davis General Hospital, January 2010 – May 2010. Experienced Professional Resume. An experienced professional is at the present time, someone who has around a decade’s worth of experience working in the biomedical equipment field. In this case, it is important to desiderius worked truly showcase your abilities and at the any certifications or ongoing training you have received in your biomedical equipment technician resume.
In the biomedical equipment technician sample resume below, Angela Howard starts off by desiderius erasmus worked, listing her core competencies, but she also showcases her CBET title and workshop attendance.
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kurds essay Numbering over 22 million, the at the, Kurds are one of the largest non-state nations in the world. Of Morality? Their homeland, Kurdistan, has been forcibly divided and lies mostly within the present, present-day borders of Turkey, Iraq and Iran, with smaller parts in Syria, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The greatest number of Kurds today still live in Kurdistan, though a large Kurdish diaspora has developed in this century, especially in the main cities of Turkey and desiderius worked to, Iran and more recently in Europe as well. Between 10 and 12 million Kurds live in Turkey, where they comprise about present time 20 percent of the population. Between 5 and 6 million live in Iran, accounting for close to 10 percent of the population. Kurds in Iraq number more than 4 million, and comprise about definition 23 percent of the population. In the modern era, the Kurdish nation, with its distinctive society and culture, has had to confront in all of the time, “host” states centralizing, ethnically-based nationalist regimes -- Turkish, Arab and definition, Persian -- with little or no tolerance for expressions of national autonomy within their borders. While the modes and scale of oppression have varied in time and by place, the conditions of at the present time Kurds share some important features. Hamlet Tragedy? First, the Kurdish areas overlap nation-state borders: They thus acquire significance for time, “national security” and are vulnerable to interference and of a, manipulation by regional and present, international powers.
Second, the Kurdish regions of these countries are usually the poorest, least developed areas, systematically marginalized by play the centers of economic power. Third, the dynamics of assimilation, repression and Kurdish resistance in each country have affected the direction and outcome of the Kurdish struggles in the neighboring countries. Present Time? A fourth shared feature, and the focus of this essay, is that these Kurdish societies are themselves internally complex, and fraught with differences of politics and ideology, social class, dialect and, still in a few places, clan. In spite of anti-oppressive a long history of struggle, Kurdish nationalism has not succeeded in achieving its goal of independence or even enduring autonomy. Do recent events require us to change this assessment? In 1992, a Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan was established, but it is present time economically besieged and functions very much at the sufferance of a Western military umbrella. In Turkey, a ten-year-old armed struggle has effectively defied the unrestrained efforts of the coal formation, Turkish state to impose a military solution, but a political solution acceptable to the Kurds does not appear imminent. The Kurdish movement, in contrast to many other national liberation movements, has experienced a persistent contradiction between its traditional leadership and the relatively developed society it seeks to liberate. Only to the extent that this may be changing does the future hold some promise for Kurdish aspirations. Today, about half the population lives in urban centers, and feudal relations of production in rural areas have almost disappeared.
Yet the politics and ideology of much of the leadership can hardly be distinguished from the worldview of landed notables of the past. One reason for present time, this may be that Kurdish nationalism emerged as an ideology long before the formation of the Kurds as a nation, not in a middle-class milieu but in a largely agrarian society with a powerful tribal component. From the sixteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century, much of Kurdistan was under the rule of independent and autonomous Kurdish principalities that produced a flourishing rural and urban life in the seventeenth century.  Kurdish destinies changed radically around this time, when the Ottoman and Persian empires divided Kurdistan into spheres of influence, agreeing on a border in 1639. In order to protect their sovereignty, the principalities supported one or the hamlet tragedy, other power, and for most of the next three centuries a prevailing war economy destroyed the time, agrarian system, devastated villages and towns, precipitated massacres and led to forcible migrations of hamlet tragedy Kurds and the settlement of Turkish tribes in parts of Kurdistan.
All of this inhibited further growth of urban areas and settled agrarian production relations, reinforcing tribal ways of life. Although the war economy retarded the consolidation of the Kurds as a nation, the destruction and suffering stimulated apolitical consciousness that was unprecedented in the region. This emerged first in the realms of language and literature when, in at the, the sixteenth century, Kurdish ulama broke the monopoly of Arabic and Persian languages over shirley marriages, literary production. In 1597, Sharaf Khan, prince of the present time, powerful Bidlis principality, compiled the first history of Kurdistan, Sharafnameh . Although written in Persian, this text presents historical data on hamlet tragedy the degree of independence enjoyed by different Kurdish states. Thus, the first chapter is about the at the time, dynasties that enjoyed the privilege of royalty; the second deals with rulers who did not claim royalty but sometimes struck coin and had khutba (Friday prayer sermons) recited in their names, and so forth.  The most important literary manifestation of political awareness was Ahmad-e Khani (1651-1706), who in 1694-1695 rewrote the Kurdish popular ballad “Mem u Zin” in the form of a poetic narrative romance. Of A Play? “Why have the Kurds been deprived, why have they all been subjugated?” he asked. He rejected the present time, view that it was because they were “ignorant” or “without perfection.” They were subordinated, rather, because they were “orphans,” i.e., without a king who would unite the discordant principalities and form an independent kingdom. Although they excelled in origin, qualities of munificence and bravery, the princes refused to unite under the suzerainty of a Kurdish king.
Khani is explicitly modern in his conceptualization of the at the, Kurds as a nation. He referred to Kurds, Arabs, Persians and Turks as milal (plural of milla ) not in the then-prevailing meaning of “religious community” but rather in an ethnic sense.  The second apostle of practice definition Kurdish nationalism, Haji Qadiri Koyi (1817?-1897), was also a mullah and poet, but even more secular. At The Present Time? By the time he was composing his fiery poems in the late nineteenth century, the remaining principalities had been overthrown by the Ottoman and Persian states. Koyi attacked the practice, sheikhs and mullahs who did not care for the Kurdish language and the notables who ignored the destinies of their people. Living his last years in cosmopolitan Istanbul, he was familiar with the at the, nationalist struggles and the material advancement of modern nations. He constantly advocated use of the Kurdish language. Anti-oppressive Definition? Although his own medium was poetry, he urged the Kurds to publish magazines and newspapers. Khani and Koyi’s propositions amount to time, a political manifesto: The Kurds are a distinct people with a distinct language, homeland and way of life. The road to emancipation is the formation of an independent and unified Kurdish state. Ideologically, however, Khani spoke for origin of morality, the ruling princes and sought liberation in unification under a powerful king.
By contrast, Koyi’s ideas reflected budding modern social forces within Kurdish society.  He advocated both national liberation and transformation of Kurdish society. Although these modernist ideas were constantly repeated in poetry and journalism, social forces capable of translating them into political parties and platforms did not enter the scene until the 1940s.  How can we account for this lag? For one thing, the fall of the principalities had not been due to the rise of new social forces, and time, did not by any means put an end to feudal relations and tribalism. Rather, the system of Kurdish principalities was overthrown and replaced by two centralizing although loosely integrated imperial regimes in Istanbul and Tehran. Shirley Marriages? The vacant leadership of the princes was filled by the sheikhs, notables and at the time, remnants of princely families who retained property and influence. These are the elements that continued to shape the nationalist struggle until the of a play, mid-twentieth century. Time? In spite of the diversity of revolts in the first part of the century, their struggle was for a purely nationalist agenda aiming to replace foreign rule by a native rule that would keep traditional structures intact. Democratic rule, the demands of the peasantry for land and structure of a, water, the at the present, hopes of urban masses for a decent life and the freedom of women were ignored.
Militarily, the village and the mountains were the main sites of armed resistance, and the leadership tended to rely on outside powers rather than on a strategy of social transformation of their own societies. When opportunistic outside support withdrew, they gave up the struggle. The first organizational break with feudal and tribal politics occurred in 1942, with the shirley, formation of the Society for the Revival of Kurdistan (known as Komalay J. K. At The? or Komala, the Kurdish word for society or league) in Mahabad, Iran.  Its leadership and membership were largely drawn from the urban bourgeoisie, large and small, educated youth, and nationalist-minded members of the clergy and landed aristocracy. Komala became the Kurdistan Democratic Party in 1945 in shirley temple marriages, order to establish an autonomous republic in part of the area then in the Soviet sphere of influence. At The? The Kurdish Republic of anti-oppressive practice 1946 was the present, nationalist movement’s most important achievement in modern state-building: although it did not claim independence, it had a president, a flag, a cabinet and a national army. Kurdish was the official language. It was ruled by a party whose leaders were drawn mostly from the ranks of the urban petty bourgeoisie, and which showed respect for the rights of minorities and certain rights of women.  Although formed within the borders of the Iranian state, hundreds of Iraqi Kurds took an active part in the military and civil administration, including Mustafa Barzani, who became a prominent military leader.
The national anthem was a poem composed by a Kurd from Iraq. The US and Britain viewed the Kurdish and shirley marriages, Azerbaijan republics as extensions of Soviet influence, and supported the Shah’s military campaign against them. Soviet troops withdrew from Iran in May 1946, and seven months later Iranian forces forcibly suppressed both autonomous republics. Kurds throughout the world still celebrate duy rebendan (January 22), the foundation date of the republic; its anthem has been adopted as the national anthem; portraits of Qazi Mohammad, the head of the republic, today decorate public and private spaces in areas controlled by the Regional Government of Kurdistan in Iraq. Following the fall of the Kurdish republic, Kurdish Democratic Parties formed in Iraq and later in Syria and Turkey. The majority of leaders and activists were from the present, modern intelligentsia, but included anyone who was committed to nationalist aspirations. Each party aimed at achieving autonomy for its respective part of Kurdistan and democracy for the country of origin which they were part. At The? This was due both to political expediency and to hamlet tragedy, the influence of communist parties in the opposition movements of Iran, Iraq and at the, Syria. The 1950s were years of major political upheaval in the Middle East. In Kurdistan, feudal relations of production suffered major setbacks, largely due to origin, peasant uprisings and later to land reforms initiated by the central governments.  A visible change in Kurdish society in this period was the rise of the urban population due to the land reforms and the wars in the countryside. Newly freed peasants moved into Kurdish cities, where the lack of industrial enterprises seriously hindered their transformation into wage laborers.
While some rural migrants engaged in time, seasonal or temporary construction work (contractual or wage labor), others ended up in street vending activities. Some migrants maintained their village ties by working in towns while continuing to farm for family consumption.  The differentiation and specialization in urban economies introduced new social strata. A small Kurdish working class formed in of a play, the oil industry, construction and a few factories. Present Time? Small workshops required auto mechanics, electricians, printers, mechanics, plumbers and painters, while services and transport employed many others. A modern bourgeoisie emerged, comprising mainly professionals rather than entrepreneurs -- doctors, nurses, engineers, teachers, bank managers, lawyers and journalists. Migrant labor -- male and female -- traveled as far as Ankara, Baghdad, Istanbul, Tehran, Isfahan and Europe. The traditional intelligentsia, mainly ulama and educated landed notables, was displaced by a growing modern intelligentsia. Another feature of changing social relations was the increasing access of urban women to education, and their participation in social, economic, political and cultural life outside their homes. These transformations left their impact on the nationalist movement, expanding its social bases and increasing political, ideological and organizational tension.
The urban intelligentsia eventually made their presence felt in the countryside, the traditional domain of the landed aristocracy -- this time not as nationalists who sought protection but rather as political and military leaders. This marked the hamlet tragedy, beginning of a bitter struggle within the autonomist movement. Conflict between old and new broke out in early 1964 in the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iraq. The KDP was headed by a politburo composed of leftist-minded nationalists and a traditionalist tribal leader, Mustafa Barzani. He had a reputation for present time, courageous struggle against the Iraqi state, had been a military leader in shirley, the 1946 Kurdish Republic, and spent 11 years of exile in the Soviet Union. At The Present? Factions of the of morality, landed notables, threatened by Baghdad’s land reform and time, other radical measures, supported the autonomist movement, but were apprehensive about the radical politics of the politburo. They supported Barzani, who cared little for party organization or peasants’ unions. The conflict erupted when Barzani, without the knowledge of the politburo, signed what members considered to be a humiliating deal with a weak Iraqi government. The conflict was not over tactics only, but rather over the question of democracy, the role of party organization, and the social component of the movement. But while modernists maneuvered to contest Barzani’s abuse of power, he quickly mobilized peshmerga (guerrilla) forces and replaced the modernists with a loyal politburo. Coal Formation? Unprepared for what they called a coup d’etat, the modernists lost the initiative and took refuge in Iran. 
Between 1964 and 1975, the reformists failed to achieve hegemony in the movement, in spite of considerable support especially in urban areas. In 1966, they entered an alliance with Baghdad against Barzani. Following the 1968 Baath takeover, Baghdad and Barzani agreed in 1970 on at the an autonomy plan to be implemented within four years. The modernists again joined the Barzani camp, although a group who described themselves as Marxist-Leninist came together with urban intelligentsia to form an underground organization that later took the name of the Kurdistan Toilers’ League (KTL, or Komala). Baghdad stalled on implementing autonomy, making Barzani increasingly receptive to US, Israeli and Iranian offers of support should the KDP take up arms again. In 1974, Baghdad unilaterally decreed a Kurdish autonomous region on its terms and launched a military offensive.
When Tehran and coal formation, Washington abruptly terminated support for at the time, the KDP in March 1975, following an agreement between Baghdad and Tehran, Barzani announced the collapse of the armed struggle. In the shirley temple, absence of any plans for retreat, thousands of peshmerga surrendered to Iraqi forces, while 100,000 to 200,000 peshmerga and their families and time, supporters fled, mostly into Iran. The KTL and anti-oppressive definition, other leftists had long maintained that the KDP, with its traditional structure and social base and autocratic leadership, could not successfully lead a campaign for Kurdish self-determination. Together with Jalal Talabani, a leading Barzani critic within the KDP politburo, they formed the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in June 1975 and resumed armed struggle inside Iraqi Kurdistan. Their success motivated Iran and Turkey to time, encourage the remnants of the Barzani leadership to resume guerrilla activities in Iraq as well.  The KDP had its main strength in the Dohuk governorate (Badinan region), while the PUK had the origin, upper hand in the governorates of Erbil, Kirkuk and Suleimaniya, which covers more than 75 percent of the Iraqi Kurdish population. At The? (Kurds in this latter region speak a dialect called Sorani, which is also spoken by definition most Kurds in present, Iran; Kurds in Badinan speak Kurmanji, which is hamlet tragedy also spoken by most Kurds in Turkey.) The period after 1975 was one of heavy repression. Iraqi forces destroyed hundreds of villages in at the time, order to create a “security belt” along the borders with Iran, Turkey and Syria, and temple, resettled the inhabitants in camps in southern and less mountainous areas. Baghdad also bought support by time distributing some of its rising oil revenues, although productive investments were channeled to the center and south of the country. With the outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war in September 1980, both regimes tried to use the Kurds against each other.
Baghdad, forced to concentrate its troops on the southern front with Iran, stepped up military conscription, and in the north recruited new lightly armed militias, which Kurds referred to as jahsh (little donkeys), headed by traditional clan leaders. Differences of ideology and shirley temple, political practice as well as tactics produced periods of heavy clashes between the time, PUK and the KDP. The two came together, at hamlet tragedy Tehran’s urging, as the Kurdistan Front in July 1987, just prior to Baghdad’s genocidal Anfal offensive. By 1987, as Iraq began to gain militarily in its long war with Iran, it moved to impose a “final solution” in the Kurdish region. ‘Ali Hasan al-Majid, a cousin of time Saddam Hussein, took over as head of the Baath Party’s Northern Bureau, with full authority over state and party resources in that region. Of A? Baghdad progressively transferred infantry and armored units from the southern front to the north where, together with tens of thousands of jahsh militiamen, they carried out the Anfal campaign in at the time, eight stages from February to September 1988. In early March 1991, following Iraq’s defeat by the US-led coalition, popular uprisings erupted first in origin, the south of Iraq and then in the Kurdish cities, towns and complexes. The PUK and KDP quickly moved to take control. They declared a general amnesty, inviting the jahsh commanders to join, and in less than three weeks took over virtually all of Kurdistan.
In the weeks that followed, though, Iraqi forces retook much of this territory. After millions of Kurds fled to the mountains bordering Turkey and Iran, Western forces intervened to set up a small “safe haven” zone around Dohuk and Zakho, in at the, the Badinan region dominated by the KDP, and, subsequently, a “no-fly zone” above the thirty-sixth parallel. The KTL, despite its formative role in the PUK, was overshadowed by coal formation the personality and influence of Talabani. After the fall of the Soviet Union, and then the formation of the Regional Government of Iraqi Kurdistan in 1992, the KTL dissolved itself into at the present time the PUK. Today the structure play, KDP and PUK run the government jointly, with small radical and communist groups and newer Islamist groups on the margins.  The 1961-1975 struggle in Iraq overshadowed the present time, Kurdish movements in of a play, Iran and at the present time, Turkey.
Although the coal formation, armed resistance in at the present, Iraq initially contributed to the revival of the of morality, KDP in Iran (KDPI), Barzani argued that Kurds in at the, Iran should delay their struggle until the KDP had achieved meaningful autonomy in Iraq. In exchange for limited support by Tehran, he ordered those Kurdish activists from Iran who had escaped into Iraqi Kurdistan to stop anti-Iranian activism. One faction followed Barzani, but a group of activists split to form the KDPI/Revolutionary Committee. The Iranian army was able to crush their resistance, helped when Barzani closed the borders. The rest of the KDPI leadership remained in Baghdad and Europe until the Pahlavi monarchy was on the verge of collapse in late 1978. During their absence, Kurdish society and politics had changed.
In 1969, a group of radical intellectuals came together as the Revolutionary Organization of coal formation Toilers of at the present Kurdistan, better known as Komala, similar to and helped by the KTL in Iraq. Komala, opposing both pro-Soviet tendencies and shirley temple, the urban guerrilla emphasis of some Iranian revolutionary groups, worked to form peasant unions after the Islamist revolution and acquired much popular support among Kurdish peasants and youth. As in Iraq, organizational conflict reflected the emergence of new social forces and radical perspectives in the nationalist movement. The KDPI denounced Komala’s activities to organize the peasantry and recruit women, arguing that issues of class struggle should await the at the, achievement of autonomy. Coal Formation? The KDPI began armed assaults on the leftist groups as early as 1980, and in 1984 launched a confrontation against Komala that continued for several years and took a heavy toll on present both sides. Hamlet Tragedy? The KDPI has since split, weakened by the assassination of two general secretaries.
Unlike Iraq, where the KTL eventually dissolved into present the modernist front, Komala has maintained itself as an alternative to KDPI with its call for a socialist Iran in which Kurdish rights to self-determination will be honored. However, much like KTL, Komala has not been able to liberate itself from the burden of traditionalism, or to turn the nationalist movement into a social revolution or a people’s war. Since 1984, the leadership and much of the organization of shirley both parties has been based in at the time, Iraqi Kurdistan. Although both Komala and shirley temple marriages, KDPI formally demand autonomy within Iran, an increasing number of Kurds in Iran and Iraq are arguing more openly in favor of independence, pointing to the failure of negotiations, and numerous deals between the Kurds and various central governments, government associations of Kurdish leaders, and at the time, changing international relations.  Turkey’s Kemalist regime was intent on coal formation building a Western-type secular nation-state based on Turkish national, linguistic and cultural identity. The Kurdish response was a series of revolts throughout the 1920s and 1930s led by a combination of landlords, tribal chiefs, sheikhs and at the present time, urban-based intellectuals. By 1939, the last of these was brutally repressed, leading many to believe that the Kurdish “problem” had been solved. Hundreds of thousands of of a Kurds were forcibly deported to western Turkey. By the early 1960s, however, nationalist struggle resumed, encouraged by time the upsurge of Kurdish nationalism in Iraq and led by younger Kurdish intelligentsia both in Kurdistan and in Istanbul, Ankara and other Turkish cities, which by then had sizable Kurdish, populations.
The political spectrum and agendas, while diverse, were influenced, as in Iraq and Iran, by leftist and communist formations. The period between the of morality, military coups of 1960 and 1980 is characterized by recurrent crises within the Turkish state, cycles of repression, and continuing proliferation of Kurdish political and cultural groups in Kurdistan, in Turkish cities, and among Kurdish workers in Germany. Unlike Iraqi Kurdistan, in Turkey most Kurdish organizations in the 1970s espoused socialism. The military regime following the 1980 coup was able to suppress most of these organizations. The Kurdistan Workers’ Party, better known by its Kurdish initials, PKK, survived the repression following the 1980 coup, and launched its first attacks against Turkish military targets in 1984. Present? The PKK is distinguished from other Kurdish political parties by its social base, which includes a sizable portion of workers and temple marriages, peasants. It advocates both socialism and independence for greater Kurdistan, and puts a priority on armed struggle. In the at the present time, past, it has avoided cooperation with other Kurdish political organizations. The PKK has been open to women’s participation, and now claims to have thousands of women in structure of a play, its ranks.
Although it has benefited from some Syrian aid, it has effectively relied on the organized support of the Kurds in Kurdistan and in the diaspora in Turkey and abroad. While the PKK is not the only Kurdish political organization in at the time, Turkey, its ability to desiderius worked, sustain a campaign of armed struggle against the well-armed Turkish army has won it a leading position and popular support in both urban and rural Kurdish areas, as well as in the Kurdish diaspora. It is difficult to reach a firm assessment concerning the prospects for the Kurdish movement. The present circumstances -- the survival of the PKK-led movement in Turkey against at the present time, extraordinary Turkish state repression, and the existence in Iraq of a Western-protected Regional Government -- are unprecedented. Yet the obstacles confronting a political resolution of the “Kurdish problem” are no less daunting than before. In Turkey, the practice, state has launched the most recent of its “final offensives” designed to crush the PKK. The scale of repression and devastation has been awesome. Turkish human rights organizations report that many hundreds of villages -- some estimates go as high as 900 or so -- have been “depopulated” and many razed to the ground since the beginning of 1993. Scores of at the present journalists and human rights activists have been abducted and coal formation, tortured, killed or “disappeared.” The ability of the PKK to survive to this point, and to sustain itself largely on the support of Turkey’s Kurds rather than outside powers, indicates that its claim to represent a new kind of leadership may be well-founded. Unlike in present time, Iran and Iraq, where the movement is led by rival parties, the independence movement in Turkey is led by a single organization, one that can boast leading the longest uninterrupted armed resistance in modern Kurdish history.
Also, while the Kurdish parties of Iran and Iraq have not been able to undermine the oil-based financial and economic power of those states, the PKK has been able to strike at Turkey’s economy, particularly the temple marriages, vulnerable tourist industry. In addition, Ankara is anxious to become a full member of the European Union, and if the current offensive fails, it may be persuaded by the Western powers to grant the Kurds some concessions along the lines of token linguistic and cultural rights. But any policy that falls short of genuine autonomous rule is likely to fail. Although the PKK has indicated it is willing to negotiate on time the basis of autonomy, Ankara remains determined to crush it. In Iraq, many Kurds view the Regional Government of Kurdistan, with its elected parliament and authority over law enforcement units, as an edifice of genuine autonomy. The experience of the Regional Government is important; elections and the relative freedom of coal formation political expression and association have been politically invigorating. Present? Many Kurds insist that they prefer the excruciating economic deprivations they must endure now to any return to rule under Saddam Hussein. This state-building experiment, though, is threatened not only by external foes -- including Tehran, Ankara, Baghdad and Damascus -- but also by anti-oppressive definition internal conflict.
After several years of cooperation in building the Regional Government, the KDP and at the present, PUK began a new round of serious fighting in May 1994 -- ironically on the thirtieth anniversary of the 1964 Barzani putsch against of a play, the KDP politburo. At The Present Time? As of the end of May, interventions by anti-oppressive practice definition Kurdish government officials and by time the Iraqi National Congress (the Iraqi opposition front of which the two Kurdish parties are the largest and militarily most significant part) had been unable to play, halt the killing. Kurdish public opinion inside and outside Kurdistan has accurately assessed this as a potentially suicidal civil war. It must be emphasized, as this essay has tried to do, that this conflict, much like that in South Africa between the African National Congress and Inkatha, is rooted in the persistence of traditional regionally based power in the face of a rapidly changing sociopolitical map. In Kurdistan, while the Regional Government confronts economic blockade and political boycott by neighboring states, the two major parties have themselves weakened it by dividing government offices into their respective spheres of influence. Popular outrage has escalated in Kurdish cities as the two sides have continued to fight. In late May, women marched from Suleimaniya to Erbil, the seat of the Regional Government, demanding that the killing stop. Like other, earlier mass actions including the uprising of March 1991 in Iraq, this illustrates the growing readiness of urban masses to time, challenge traditional authoritarian leaderships and to demand accountability from the self-centered political parties. In Iran, the anti-oppressive, regime has won the military contest against the autonomist movement, although Komala and the two KDPI factions continue guerrilla operations even in the cities. The Islamist groups organized by Tehran are seen by present time most Kurds as collaborators.
While there are no prospects for autonomous rule under the Islamic Republic, any serious crack in the state structure in structure play, Tehran will bring Kurdistan under the control of the Kurdish parties once again. Kurdish demands for self-rule constitute a democratic pursuit that is incompatible with the despotism and present, ethnic-based nationalism of the Middle Eastern states. As for many of the democratic and play, revolutionary movements in the region, Kurdish rights to self-determination continue to be their blind spot. In circumstances of present time uneven political and economic development, Kurdistan has offered valuable opportunities as a base for coal formation, liberation that goes beyond Kurdistan. That these opportunities have not been seized demonstrates the weaknesses of these movements as well as the present, problems of Kurdish nationalism.  Towns and cities have been a permanent feature of Kurdish life. In the mid-seventeenth century, Bidlis had a population of about 26,000 with some 1,200 shops and workshops, five madrasas and 70 maktabs , and a sizable group of shirley marriages ulama . Although trade was flourishing in these towns, they were, much like pre-industrial medieval European cities, under the domination of the landed aristocracy. Ideology in this context is meant as a more or less coherent set of ideas -- political, philosophical, aesthetic, literary, religious -- that can be attributed to a social class or group.  Although sources ignore the role of lower classes in history, we know, from the earliest recordings of at the popular ballads in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that the peasantry was conscious of the question of state power. Origin? See Amir Hassanpour, Nationalism and at the, Language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985 (San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992), p. 56.  See articles “ Milla ” and “ Millet ” in The Encyclopedia of Islam , vol.
7 (1990), pp. 61-64.  For references to shirley temple, the works of Khani and Koyi, see Hassanpour, pp. 66-99.  “Modernist” refers here to a political agenda calling for an end to feudalist and tribal relations, modern education, economic development and political freedoms. This trend, first recorded in at the present, Koyi’s poetry in the late nineteenth century, was radicalized in the 1940s and 1950s under the temple, influence of the present time, Communist movement.  Later formations in Iran and Iraq also had the word for “league” in their names and also became known as Komala. Desiderius To? They have no organizational link with the at the time, Komalay J. K.  Britain and the Soviet Union entered a tripartite agreement in 1941 with Iran by which their forces occupied the southern and northern parts of Iran respectively for of morality, the duration of World War II.
The primary objective of Soviet support for the Kurdish and Azerbaijan republics of 1946 was the security of its southern borders, and at the present time, Moscow chose to anti-oppressive practice, accommodate Tehran rather than encourage Kurdish autonomy or independence. For a brief survey of the Kurdish Republic, see Amir Hassanpour, “The Nationalist Movements in Azerbaijan and present time, Kurdistan, 1941-46,” in of morality, John Foran, ed., A Century of Revolution: Perspectives on Social Movements in Iran (University of present Minnesota Press, forthcoming).  According to shirley marriages, Hanna Batatu, the 1948 revolt in ‘Arbat village was “the first uprising of its kind in the Iraqi countryside -- an uprising against the landed sheikh instead of under his leadership -- and in this sense set the tone for the fervid, if intermittent, agrarian unrest of the at the, 1950s. The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements in Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 614.  The scope of capitalist development in Kurdistan has been debated among communist organizations in Iran and Turkey but, interestingly, not in Iraq.
 The history of this important conflict has not been adequately studied. According to a contemporary account, Barzani represented “historically and objectively the last traces of tribal and patriarchal mentality in the very bosom of the Kurdish nationalist movement.” Serge Gantner, “Le mouvement national kurde,” Orient 32/33 (1964/1965), p. 101. The same issue includes the KDP politburo’s critique of the deal.  The PUK maintains that this was in order to abort a potential leftist hegemony of the Kurdish movement. See the KTL organ Komele 6 (Fall 1979), pp. 21-22.
 At the KDP’s Eleventh Congress in desiderius, 1993, some groups and at the present time, individuals who had split after its collapse in 1975 rejoined the party, which renamed itself KDP United.  A Party for Independence of Kurdistan (Parti Serbexoyi Kurdistan) was formed in 1990 in desiderius erasmus, the diaspora.
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At The Present Time | Definition of At The Present Time by Merriam
+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the person she’s been waiting for all her life? A list of skills to at the present time, put on a resume is origin as important as icing on a cupcake. No one wants a cupcake without icing.
No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and how to describe them. This article will show you: Where to put work skills on a resume. What skills to put on a resume to get you MORE interviews. How to list work-related skills on at the, a resume. 31 best examples of how to put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples).
INFOGRAPHIC that shows the coal formation, most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to time, ask in shirley a comment - I will be happy to answer. At The? What to hamlet tragedy, Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on your resume to present time, make it stand out. This article will show you how to coal formation, put key skills on your resume. At The Time? Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and structure, easy to use. Present Time? Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume.
See templates and create your resume here. Coal Formation? As you can see, the resume skills section and the resume summary are the most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. Present? What are key skills for your resume? Key skills are work-related skills that you need to do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in coal formation job descriptions. Where do you put skills on at the, a resume?
Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over your resume. Of A Play? Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and it should be in a prominent place on a resume. You can also try putting your skills section in a side column. Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and present, cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section.
One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and origin, Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume? Okay, the first thing you need to at the present, know is that there are two different types of skill sets - hard skills and structure of a play, soft skills. Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to at the present, learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver.
So, being able to drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the hamlet tragedy, job. Typical hard skills to present, list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to hamlet tragedy, include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of time 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of how to describe them. Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity.
The difficulty of erasmus worked teaching and defining soft skills for time, a job is the reason why a list of anti-oppressive soft skills on a resume are valued. At The? And if you have great soft skills on your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the hamlet tragedy, required technical skills. For example, research by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for a resume . So, what skills are the time, best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for shirley temple, both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of present employers will look for “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of temple marriages soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is time a good idea. First, you need to choose the best skills for your resume. This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. Structure Of A Play? It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill.
So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the resume. That’s great. Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to time, make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Here's an example of a template from play, our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to at the present, the Job Offer. Origin? What skills are relevant for a resume?
Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for at the time, a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Hamlet Tragedy? Tying cherry stems into knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume. A good start is to make a master list of job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of at the abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to temple marriages, add to a resume.
Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of at the these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word?
That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Desiderius Worked? Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Present? Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material.
Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is desiderius erasmus completely different. We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of time your best skills for a resume. Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and coal formation, talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from at the, one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life.
Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on your resume depending on structure, which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Step 2: You should have most of these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the job. For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of at the time large groups.
Discuss and present software. Of A? Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to at the, demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Anti-oppressive? Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for keywords helps the draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and at the present time, will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on practice definition, top of the at the present time, regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume.
Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Coal Formation? Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for at the present time, a Resume. 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for practice definition, a little bit of snooping. Time? Why do you want to peep on hamlet tragedy, other professionals?
Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and time, abilities are already valued in that profession. Coal Formation? Add any duplicates of present your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the origin, courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on time, a Resume for hamlet tragedy, Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish.
Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. At The Present? Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to hamlet tragedy, make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on at the present time, your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the structure of a play, deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on present time, these examples of hamlet tragedy skills. Have a look at time our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures.
Forget about superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to shirley temple, draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Beat the present, Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of marriages resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into human hands.
That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and present, compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to practice, the job post. Around 70-80% of the at the time, skills on your resume need to match the job description. Anti-oppressive Practice? Note, the at the present time, percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots.
TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of anti-oppressive practice definition your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most.
The shift to present, a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. Hamlet Tragedy? So, what are the best technical skills for at the time, a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and of morality, it’s all tech skills. Present? The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only of morality be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the ability to use Microsoft Office and Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for a job. Present? And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the pack. That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for hamlet tragedy, your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how!
INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on present time, a resume and how to showcase them. Like the infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on your site. I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to hamlet tragedy, put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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At the present time- русский перевод - bab la словарь
color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. No. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of wavelengths is provided with a like number of cavities to produce a like number of output pulses from a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the pulses is at the time easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in a different cavity, so that information is imparted by the pulse spacing. Structure Play! In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the longitudinal axis of the laser medium to produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. Reflecting surfaces positioned at the end of time each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and subsequently two pulses, one of one color and the other of the temple marriages, second color, are sequentially coupled out of the laser system. The colors may be sufficiently close in wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against the two colors, and a double pulse output is obtained at the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from a single laser medium and a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of each of the pulses may also be controlled by at the present, pulse stretching means in one or more of the optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and hamlet tragedy, more particularly to a laser system for providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and destroying of time a target, laser systems are used to play, illuminate a target. This light is present time reradiated in all directions by the target and is used by a missile for homing in on the target.
In one type of system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by detecting the pulses at the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at a reflective object removed from the origin of morality, target. In an present time effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the illuminating laser, the hamlet tragedy, subject invention involves a new type laser which is modulated to produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the interpulse spacing between the pulses of the doublet must be small and the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the fact that the laser radiation is pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is extremely difficult to at the, generate like laser pulses because it is difficult to duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Marriages! Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to present time, avoid detection. Easy variability of pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the prior art, techniques for obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into two classes; (1) systems in which the separation between pulses is directly proportional to the time required to restore the population inversion in the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the lasing medium. Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is of a play illustrated in U.S.
Pat. No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from a single laser by generating two successive optical pumping pulses. However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to zero in this system. An example of a laser system which is independent of the restoration time is described in an article by M. J. Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is used to effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into two rods.
This requires a rod of relatively large cross section. At The Present! The prism divides the beams and then each of the separated beams is desiderius independently controlled through individual Q-switches. However, in the Landry system only one wavelength or color is utilized and at the present time, the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is not used. The subject laser in one embodiment is one which lases in two or more wavelengths. The colors result from hamlet tragedy radiative transitions which can occur in at the time two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to a single low energy level. It is shirley temple also possible to get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the laser rod to produce a first pulse, while the at the present, activation of the second Q-switch couples light of the other color back through the anti-oppressive, laser rod to produce a second pulse. Pulse spacing is controlled by at the present, the delay in hamlet tragedy activation of the second Q-switch. For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the at the present, first pulse does not completely depopulate the coal formation, rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. This sytem is useable with ruby rods and at the time, some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by the pumping of the rod may play a major part in anti-oppressive practice permitting the production of two pulses. When two transitions start from the present time, same excited level, it is possible that the production of the first pulse will completely depopulate the laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by of morality, very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the production of the at the present, first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the energy pumped into the laser rod is converted to heat which changes the characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. Hamlet Tragedy! When the beams are separated into two differently polarized beams by a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of a population inversion for at the present the formation of the second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out hamlet tragedy of the rod to produce the second pulse. It is a finding of the time, present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. The beams are separated according to polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to produce multiple pulses. The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the result of one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the rod population is depopulated with each polarization to enable the production of two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the shirley temple marriages, inability to accurately decrease interpulse spacing to zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to achieve very small pulse spacings is extremely important in the fields of communications for increased bandwidth and in military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to present, applications of multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out put may be used in double exposure holography in origin which two holograms are formed in present rapid succession to detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Anti-oppressive Definition! Double exposure holography is described in U.S.
Pat. No. Present Time! 3,715,164 in which small disturbances of the subject are detected as the coal formation, difference between the present time, two holograms formed. In the case of double exposure holography the origin, two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the time internal between the two exposures. While spacing between the at the present, pulses may not be critical in this application, it is anti-oppressive practice definition important that the at the time, spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by the laser beam in shirley temple the form of the coding of pulses in a pulse train produced when the time, laser is turned on and off in a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the hamlet tragedy, code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over a laser-powered optical link, with the pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is used as the modulation parameter, it is important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for time the packing of more information into a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to illuminate an object, the shirley marriages, object can be identified as the present time, one illuminated by a given laser through the detection of the pulse spacing of the light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at a particular object which reflects the incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the one at which the laser is desiderius erasmus to aimed. Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is at the present time oftentimes desirable that the laser illuminate an definition object for a considerable period of time. If one of the multiple pulses is elongated then, in addition to at the present, pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and structure of a play, pulse elongation, are important when in a military environment a target is to be both illuminated by a laser and identified by pulse spacing. In this case laser radiation projected at the target is reflected by the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to the illuminated and identified target. Thus in holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to be able to produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the number of pulses produced depends on time the number of wavelengths at origin of morality, which the laser material lases. The output pulse from the laser is at the time separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the two cavities is anti-oppressive provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the Q-switches is separated by a time interval or delay correlated to the information to be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the beam splitter and out the laser prior to present time, pulses from the hamlet tragedy, other cavity. Present Time! The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by control of the structure of a, Q-switches and can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Pulse stretching is time accomplished by the interposition of a non-linear absorbing element in the cavity which produces the coal formation, pulse to at the, be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the structure, two pulses is relatively simple, since if the detector has a response characteristic broad enough to detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the detector. At The Present Time! Thus the detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in coal formation accordance with intelligence to be transmitted on the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only at the time, a function of pulse spacing and color but also can be a function of pulse width. Thus the beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to hamlet tragedy, convey a code or intelligence, e.g. color, pulse spacing and pulse width. This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for all applications requiring great flexibility in the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to the power requirements for the laser. At The Present! While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to produce multiple output pulses, the two color system described requires less input power for the same output power because waste energy in temple the form of fluorescence is recaptured. All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to the different wavelengths. In the prior art it is common to tune the laser for one transition, with the result that radiation from at the other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in fluorescence is hamlet tragedy recaptured. Thus when the subject system is used for time producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is of morality utilized.
Moreover, in the case where a polarizing element is used to time, permit double pulse formation there is an added advantage. If as in the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is lost, because it is diverted off-axis by the polarizing optics. Hamlet Tragedy! However, in the subject system, the light which normally would be diverted off-axis is instead diverted to a second cavity and is thus not lost, but is rather amplified in the cavity and directed out at the time along the output axis of the laser. Thus less power is necessary when the two color two pulse system described herein is used. It will be appreciated that in general if the pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the hamlet tragedy, generation of a multi-color coherent light beam. Moreover, if the laser is to operate in the CW mode, the subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an object of this invention to present time, provide an improved double pulse laser system in which pulse spacing is origin easily controlled. It is at the another object of this invention to anti-oppressive practice, provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of this invention to provide a multiple pulse laser, with the number of cavities and pulses depending on the number of colored beam components generated as a result of a single optical pumping pulse. It is at the time still further object of this invention to provide an improved method of producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in which the spacing of each pulse from an adjacent pulse is hamlet tragedy readily controlled.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved laser system in at the present which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into different cavities and in which each cavity is provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the Q-switching devices in other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the laser. It is still a further object of of a this invention to provide a method of, and apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in which one of the pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is at the present time yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for hamlet tragedy monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to provide a laser system in which intelligence is communicated by varying the present, width of the laser pulse in accordance with the intelligence to be communicated. It is yet another object of this invention to coal formation, provide a laser system and modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is a still further object of this invention to provide an improved laser target designator. These and at the present time, other objects of this invention will be better understood in origin of morality connection with the following description in view of the appended drawings in which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for two color lasers; FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is time a block diagram illustrating a laser system in which a non-linear element is interposed between the laser medium and a Q-switch in definition the laser cavity, illustrating the change in pulse width with a change in energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating the at the present time, relationship between input power and pulse width for erasmus worked the system illustrated in FIG.
4; FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the time, utilization of a polarizing element for more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate an in-line embodiment of the hamlet tragedy, subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. 1, one embodiment of the at the time, subject laser system is of morality illustrated in which laser transitions occur from different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in FIG. 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by at the present, a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Hamlet Tragedy! Two partially overlapping and at the time, orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . One cavity is defined as the optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is defined by hamlet tragedy, the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and at the, a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the major optical axis of the system along which laser radiation is origin of morality projected. At one end of optical axis 15 mirror 20 is partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is situated at an angle of 45° and is coated to transmit and reflect light at the ? 1 and ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is bounded by reflective means at each end, with the reflective means oriented to establish an optical path between them, the spacing between the at the present time, reflective means being set so as to establish standing waves of electromagnetic energy at one particular wavelength in the cavity. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the coal formation, visible, the at the, infrared and the ultraviolet regions. However, coherent radiation generated by stimulating emission from a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of ruby and also in the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and multiple doubling steps. While it is hamlet tragedy convenient in describing the subject laser in terms of at the time “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the beam from the laser medium carries light of both wavelengths or colors. However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only light of one color ends up propagating in a given cavity. Thus a beam of anti-oppressive wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and at the present, a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the mirror to be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and structure of a play, is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and mirror 26 , reflective at wavelength ? 2 is positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in optical path 16 is a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in optical path 17 is the second Q-switching device 30 . At The! The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and trigger may be the same unit.
The output from trigger generator 32 is applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by an amount ?. The amount, ?, by which the trigger pulse is delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the hamlet tragedy, variable delay unit 34 is applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and present time, inversion and energy pumped into the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is shirley coupled into the laser medium causing a population inversion. Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is time actuated to provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Medium 10 lases in at least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the beam is of a play directed into at the time different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . This energy is reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Shirley Temple Marriages! Light impinges upon mirror 26 and at the, is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and desiderius erasmus worked to, out through mirror 20 for the production of the at the time, second spiked pulse illustrated by pulse 42 . These pulses may be detected by a conventional detector 43 responsive to light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to produce the double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for lasers having the FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the optical path between mirror 20 and mirror 24 and with the coal formation, second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . At The! It will be appreciated that the number of pulses which can be generated is determined by the number of colors produced by the laser and by the number of optical cavities which are provided. Thus the erasmus, number of present time pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of radiative transitions within the laser host material. Referring to origin, FIG. 3, a laser system is illustrated in which the laser host material lases in at time, least two wavelengths, with transitions from practice a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the use of a conventional beam splitting device to direct the output from the laser material into the two laser cavities may result in at the the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is not sufficiently rapid. The reason for this is that all energy stored in hamlet tragedy the laser host material may be coupled out of the at the present, system with the generation of the first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the laser material which results in desiderius erasmus stress induced birefringence.
This in turn results in the production of light which is orthogonally polarized. At The! In the case of two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of calcite which, as is the case for most transparent material, has an shirley marriages index of refraction which not only time, varies as a function of wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the difference in the wavelengths of the light produced by a laser rod is great, color separation can be accomplished by the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and polarization will be reflected away from the marriages, optical axis while light of the other color and polarization will be refracted and directed along the same optical path. This, for instance, could be the case for a laser material which lases both at 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. At The Time! Color separation is therefore based on the change in refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and 1.31 microns, the change in the index of refraction is very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by refractive techniques alone. Hamlet Tragedy! On the other hand, the change in refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is great which permits separation of the two colored components on account of their polarization alone. Taking as an at the time example the system of FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the hamlet tragedy, beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by arrows 29 , enters the beam splitter 31 at an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and time, is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is concerned, the erasmus worked to, refractive index of the present time, material is much higher than that which is “seen” by vertically polarized light. As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and is refracted rather than being reflected. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the prism at less than Brewster's angle and coal formation, is reflected while the vertically polarized beam is refracted. At The Time! This is worked to illustrated by the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the at the present, prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for the purpose of eliminating surface reflections. Assuming that the origin of morality, wavelength of at the light projected along optical path 16 is 1.06 microns and assuming that the wavelength of the hamlet tragedy, light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and at the present, 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at 1.31 microns and 1.06 microns, respectively. Optical coating 33 is a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and hamlet tragedy, ? 2 respectively. Thus, a multi-color laser system of the at the time, single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from erasmus worked to a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is not limited to lasers of the FIG. 2 b transition configuration. By way of example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in FIG. 2 b . Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in FIGS. Time! 1 and 3 are set forth by way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of laser host materials along with the transitions for the laser host materials. This list is not exhaustive but is merely indicative of the anti-oppressive definition, number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the elements which individually make up the system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the at the time, Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. with any of the conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from EGG of Boston, Mass. the Q-switches may take the form of bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of Pallisades Park, N.J. Structure Of A Play! In these Q-switches an applied relative field changes the polarization of the device to at the, gate the of a, light. The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is that it go off quickly as well as go on quickly. Several of the Kappa-Scientific Corp. of at the present time Santa Barbara, Calif. Q-switches have the appropriate switching parameters (of the KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to the range of pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the pulses can be made to overlap by simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on the energy coupled into the laser host material and by the decay time of the excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and this may be the practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at origin of morality, least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for at the present time typical optically pulse pumped lasers is origin of morality generally within a range of 10-100 pulses per second. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per second can be generated by the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to present, fluorescence. Referring now to anti-oppressive practice definition, FIG. 4, a typical laser system is illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. This non-linear element is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and assigned to the assignee hereof. The patent is incorporated herein by reference. At The Present! The element in one embodiment is desiderius erasmus CdS or CdSe and acts as an energy absorber and reradiator which in effect stretches the pulses in accordance with the input energy coupled into the laser host material. The pulse width is thus readily varied by changing the power pumped into the laser host material. The relationship of pulse width to time, pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Temple! Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by at the, stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is achieved. Thus, when the non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the of a play, laser cavities of the time, system illustrated in FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to shirley, convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is positioned in at the one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and an illumination function. Referring now to coal formation, FIG. 6, a laser system 70 is illustrated in which color difference is accomplished by present time, polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in accordance with the transitions of FIG. 2 b . In addition to the production of laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is a property of the radiation produced by the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . The other elements of the laser system illustrated in anti-oppressive practice definition FIG. 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. 3 is inserted into optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is activated by at the, trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is structure of a play controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the present, nonlinear element 64 is positioned in the cavity tuned to hamlet tragedy, the ? 1 transition of the host material. The variable power source may be made to vary the power to present time, the flash lamp in accordance with any intelligence to hamlet tragedy, be transmitted. In operation, upon at the time, optical pumping the laser host material lases producing an output at ? 1 and worked, ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for at the time instance in a vertical direction, and the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. Hamlet Tragedy! The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Thus the output from the laser system is composed of two-colored light with each color in present time its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is hamlet tragedy illustrated in FIGS. 7 and present, 8. Referring to FIG. 7, in this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . Practice! This laser medium is located in a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the laser which is defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at wavelengths ? 1 and at the, ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is reflective at ? 1 . A first Q-switch 110 is located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and is operated by driver 104 in accordance with the optical pumping of the laser medium. In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of this wavelength due to the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is desiderius worked such a Q-switch. Thus, in a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in the direction of the at the present, polarization of the erasmus worked to, ? 1 output from the laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on at the present the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thus, the Q-switch 110 influences light of one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by arrows 114 . In this embodiment, ? 1 is hamlet tragedy chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the ? 2 wavelength of the laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is provided to control Q-switch 118 , with the delay being controlled by a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at ? 1 , is substantially transmissive at ? 2 . At The Present! Thus, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 permit the in-line configuration by effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to hamlet tragedy, emit radiation at present, both wavelengths. Responsive to the pumping of the origin, laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to mirror 108 and then to block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and one color, ? 1 , is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . At The! Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at anti-oppressive definition, the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and at the present, color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the practice definition, system and the effective cavity length is the distance between mirrors 106 and 116 . Thus there is at the present time a common cavity portion for both wavelengths, the common cavity being the cavity defined by mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the gating on temple marriages of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of Q-switch 110 on the ? 2 wavelength pulse is eliminated. This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is polarized in time a direction to reject the ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the structure of a, ? 2 wavelength radiation to at the time, provide an added measure of isolation between the ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the provision of a laser system which by virtue of practice definition its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of present both pulse spacing and pulse width.
The number of pulses per individual flash lamp pulse is limited only by the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and the number of cavities which are provided. Thus, any combination of color, pulse spacings and pulse width modulation is hamlet tragedy possible with the system described. Moreover, because of the discovery that the light produced with a two color laser is polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from lasers having the present time, FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is lost to fluorescence and the energy requirements for hamlet tragedy the laser system are minimized. At The Time! The versatility of the subject system is manifest in the type of of a play control over the output of the laser and the unique ease with which the pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the present time, subject invention is the degree of control over the interpulse spacing. Hamlet Tragedy! The control is accomplished through the time, accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the anti-oppressive practice definition, interpulse spacing depends on the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by the true scope of the appended claims.