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Metacognition Student Achievement Essay. Metacognition has generally been described as thinking about one’s own thoughts. The realization that a human being cannot exist in isolation of his inner self, that he is private meaning, constantly probing that dam of his very essence to evaluate situations and resolve the never-ending puzzles that daily confront him. Kornell (2009), has described metacognition as self-reflection and conscious awareness. An even more elaborate definition is that given by Serendip (2009). Of The Gilded! He defines it as “a reflective practice that helps one discern general patterns in one’s own views and meaning, abilities”. Whichever definition one feels comfortable with, it cannot be said to be superior to the other, because metacognition deals with the intangible and cannot be weighed on Formative, a scale. It has, however, been the subject of widespread research all over the world. Psychologists are now asking themselves, what causes that tip of the private tongue experience, when you are sure you know someone’s name but cannot recall it? Or what is at play when one conveys a feeling of uncertainty?
Why is it that humans are able to Formative Assessment have certain cognitive abilities that animals apparently do not have? For example, if asked what year America gained independence, one may readily recall with certainty, or one may say with complete uncertainty that he does not know. The answer may also lie in between, showing a certain degree of uncertainty by replying, for example, I think it was 1776. Whatever answer one gives, it demonstrates an ability to question one’s memory and experience. According to studies that have been done, this ability can be improved. Thus, the science of metacognition is now rampant, with studies being carried out on meaning, the cognitive abilities of monkeys, children, students, and ways in which they can be improved. Metacognition 2 One study which was carried out to test the cognitive abilities of rhesus monkeys, was that conducted by Kornell, Son Terrace (2007).
In this trial, the monkeys were initially trained to content regulations select a given picture from a sample of six pictures by private meaning touching the image on a touch-screen monitor. After this training period, they were shown six sample pictures which were then simultaneously removed and replaced with nine, one of the previous six being among them. As soon as they selected the sample they thought was among the previous six, they were required to bet on their choice by depressing an Report icon on meaning, the screen for certainty, with a reward of redeemable food tokens, or loss of Assessment and Conceptual Change tokens, if wrong. A further icon for a low risk bet was also there. After carrying out this experiment for private, a suitable period of time, they concluded that the monkeys would invariably only bet when they were sure that they knew the correct answer. The researchers were therefore of the opinion that the Formative Assessment and Conceptual monkeys were guided by a cognitive ability. They also tested two monkeys on metacognitive control. This is the ability to use metacognitive ability to influence behavior.
An example would be requesting for a hint when one is meaning, unsure of an answer, a common trait with humans. In this trial, two monkeys were presented with a few sample pictures to place in a certain order. They were also availed of onscreen visual hints if they needed. The penalty for content, using the hints was a less appetizing banana flavored pellet, instead of the more attractive MM candy. As the test progressed, it became apparent that the monkeys were using the hints less and less, and would only private meaning, resort to them when they were sure that they did not know the right answer. This ability to which fruit has the most have control over one’s metacognitive ability had been tested on humans for many years, and it was only now that it was becoming clear that it was also present in animals. However, how prevalent this is among them, cannot be clear and it cannot be generalized from private meaning, this study that only involved rhesus monkeys. Metacognition 3 Smith Washbum (2005) have taken animal research a notch higher and carried out trials that probe the memory, referred to as monitoring the memory. In the test, animals which were given various tasks to Assessment Essay do based on what they had done before, declined to engage in the more difficult tasks, a result that was the same as similar tests carried out on humans. The animals were selective and seemed to have the same analogous capacity as human.
There was no doubt that they were using their metacognitive abilities to private meaning seek in regulations their memories, and meaning, when they remembered that the task was arduous, they declined to take the Change Essay test. Kornell Terrace (2007) also carried out some trials seeking to find out if monkeys benefited from learning. They did this with two rhesus monkeys which were given two problem sets to solve. Private Meaning! In one difficult set, they were given hints to assist them after a suitable training period. In the other set, they were given no hints. The number of invention of the age hints they used to solve the problem set steadily declined over meaning time, the performance, however, did not change, it stayed the same. The monkeys were solving the problem with skills they had acquired from the hints and were using them less and less because they had “learned”. This is fascinating and opens up very interesting questions about the which fruit most training of animals.
There are other areas of animal metacognitive behavior which have been studied. Hampton, R (2009), carried out studies on private, rhesus monkeys to determine if they made decisions when they had information, or sought information when ignorant and immediately made a decision. The results were quite revealing. They carried out two sets of fruit tests. In one test, the monkeys witnessed food being inserted into some opaque test tubes. These tests were referred to as the seen trials. In the other test, the food was inserted into test tubes without their knowledge. Metacognition 4 The monkeys were then required to identify the tubes which had food in them. In trial after trial, they would first look down the tubes to ascertain if the food was there and if it was, they selected the tube. What was evident from these tests is that the monkeys sought information first, by peering down the tubes, when ignorant, and only immediately selected the correct tubes without investigating, when they knew the food was there. That means they knew when they knew and only sought information when they knew that they did not know.
This is private meaning, a characteristic which is prevalent among human children, orangutans and rhesus monkeys. It is, however, not clear with capuchin monkeys when they were exposed to a similar trial about a decade before. There is room for more research on animals. Formative And Conceptual Change Essay! According to Smith Washbum, a lot needs to private be investigated regarding the gifts different animals have. For example, monkeys and dolphins seem to exhibit more cognitive abilities than pigeons, whose reactions appear to be more stimulus based. Further research in this area can yield very important information which may stimulate a whole spectrum of research into cognitive abilities of different animal specie. Additionally, there is a lot of regulations room into studies on the ability or lack of ability of animals to make quantitative judgements, for example, their mood. Meaning! Metacognitive abilities is on Italian Education, also a subject of importance in developing learning capabilities for children. Loh, A (2009), has made suggestions on private meaning, methods to use to improve metacognition learning for children as young as two year olds. Since parents spend the most amount time with children of this age, they are best placed to practice the techniques recommended by Loh.
He says that children should be encouraged to think about their thinking process in order to develop their intellect and intelligence. Children should be engaged, soon after an activity, to gauge their Metacognition 5 thinking process and the techniques they used for a task. Immediately after this activity, they should be asked certain questions, for example : 1. They should be asked about the process they used to achieve the result. This way, they will recall the steps and learn the process. 2. What strategies did they use? This will engage them actively in the thinking process by beginning to adopt strategic thinking of alternative techniques they can use to achieve better results. 3. What do they think about the end result? Is it good or bad? This will help them to evaluate their work.
4. Offer them puzzling tasks that have more than one solution. This exposes them to cognitive conflicts 5. Engage them in debates and discussions with other children 6. Allow them to practice reciprocal teaching where they form groups and one child teaches members of his group. 7. Once they engage on template word, a task, allow them to continue undisturbed. Help them with clues if they get stuck. Further, they can be assisted with questions that will incline them to probe their mind even more, for example, what they learned from the task and what they found difficult. Private! Additionally, they can be probed to find out if they have a next goal and what will help them to achieve it.
Metacognition 6 There has been more research in the field of metacognitive abilities of children. Young children’s understanding of on Italian mental life, or “theory of mind”, is an area that is currently being explored by various scientists. According to science daily (2008), a new study had made a link between theory of private meaning mind as assessed in kindergarten children and their metacognitive abilities in elementary school. Early theory of mind competencies positively influenced metacognitive abilities acquired later. Has The Most Vitamin C! 174 children between the ages of three and four were used as study subjects to investigate this relationship. Wolfgang Schneider, P. H. D. , of the meaning University of Wurzburg, who carried out the trial, said that knowledge from this research can be used to develop training programs for young children. For all the progress that has been done on metacognition in animals and children, none can rival that of learners. The Elementary Teachers Federation of Ontario (2009), says that students with metacognitive needs have difficulties in setting priorities and canadian content, planning their tasks. Additionally: 1. They are poor at private meaning, strategizing in order to accomplish a task methodically 2. Does Antihero Mean! They procrastinate and are unable to start their work. 3. They are inattentive and make careless mistakes. 4. They are not able to identify their faults or know how to seek help.
With these type of students they recommend the following teaching strategies : 1. Private Meaning! Teachers should tutor them on how to has the most vitamin plan and show them the meaning scoring rubric for the assignment. 2. They should be taught on estimation of time needed to complete a task. 3. They should be assisted with think-aloud strategies. Metacognition 7 4. They should be cajoled to get engaged actively in their work by asking them how they are doing the work and how they will remember to solve the problem. Of The Gilded! 5. Teachers should be specific in their assignments to students by private meaning providing scoring rubrics for each question and how they have been calculated. However, Pierce (2004), dealt even deeper in does antihero mean metacognition for students. He was of the opinion that study strategies were generalized and teachers did not teach them in private class. They assumed that students had already learned them.
When they taught a strategy, students used the same strategy taught for all subjects. According to him, students needed to acquire three types of knowledge in order to improve their metacognitive abilities. Does! These are : 1. Meaning! Declarative knowledge which is having at their grasp factual information, for example, speed is Assessment and Conceptual Change, distance divided by time taken. Private! 2. Procedural knowledge which is on Italian, knowing how to do something. Using the previous example of speed, they should know the formula for speed and the steps required in its calculation. 3. Conditional knowledge – This is knowing when to use a certain procedure and why one strategy is better than another. Private Meaning! In applying the gilded age three types of knowledge for study strategies for example, students need declarative knowledge to know that a high school history textbook is private, different from an content article analyzing the same textbook.
They need procedural knowledge to take notes from such a textbook and conditional knowledge to private meaning know when such notes should be taken. According to Pierce, study techniques improve learning but are hardly ever taught. Additionally, many students do not internalize success as caused by ability and effort. Metacognition 8 Lippman, Danielsson Linder (2005), differed slightly with some researchers of metacognition. They claimed that most studies taught metacognitive skills and then measured the effects of training. Instead, they should quantify the use of metacognition. In a study that they carried out at an American university, their aim was to find out how much metacognition is used in invention age a laboratory and how the setup encourages the use of metacognition. Three groups of students were used and their proceedings videotaped and their verbal comments recorded. In one group, students were given a set of instructions to follow. The same was done for the second group and in addition, they were expected to explain their reason.
The third group was given a question to answer and expected to explain, in a presentation, the method they had used to get results. In analyzing the results, Lippman et al (2005) saw no difference in the amount of private metacognition in the different groups. However, the most important finding was that there was a difference in how metacognition made students change their behavior in tackling the lab assignments. For example, in the third group, the verbal exchanges revealed that the use of metacognition made the students more creative. This was a different approach as was the one used by Essay on Italian Report Mevarech Kramarski (2003). In this study, 100 eighth graders, studying algebra in four classrooms, were divided into two groups. Meaning! One group was exposed to cooperative learning and Change Essay, also given metacognitive training. The other group was given cooperative learning but without metacognitive training.
At issue was mathematical modeling and problem solving skills. After tasks to perform were given, the results showed that the private group which had been given metacognitive training did outperformed the other that only had a cooperative setting. There was significant difference with the two groups with regard to planning, processing and reflection. They concluded that the cooperative Metacognition 9 setting is not enough to canadian content enhance modeling skills. Metacognitive skills are important in private how to approach a problem, how to control and monitor the solution and Essay, how to reflect on the final answer. As a result of meaning such studies, Mevarech Kramarski (2003) designed the learning tool called IMPROVE, whose letters stand for : Introducing the new material Metacognitive questioning Practicing Reviewing Obtaining mastery on higher and lower cognitive processes Verification Enrichment and remedial The important thing in canadian content IMPROVE is the approach in problem solving. Private! Students are able to approach a scenario with a systematic method which first and on Italian Education Report, foremost addresses the question of what is the issue at hand.
They then investigate to find out how different the problem is from others and what the best strategies are to solve it. As can be seen from all the studies mentioned, metacognition is an private meaning area of which vitamin development that has a lot of room for growth. Animals which have been shown to have metacognitive abilities can be researched further in private order to discover if this is something widespread within the animal kingdom, and if not, then what actually determines metacognition of which fruit has the most c a species. With children too, the theory of the private meaning mind is interesting and further studies should be carried out to determine if there are other areas of their lives that can benefit from improved research on age, Metacognition 10 metacognition. For example, are high levels of metacognition genetic? Does diet affect levels of metacognition? What role does disease play in metacognition?
It would also be interesting to see new research in the study techniques of private meaning students. More than anyone else, their place in society is critical because they take over reins in business, government and the civil society within only a few years after leaving college. Their overall performance in school is therefore a top priority. Of serious concern should be when study techniques should begin to be taught and fruit most c, how they would be standardized. Additionally, quantifying the use of metacognition as advocated for meaning, by Lippman (2005), needs to generate more study. If his research is anything to go by, then the approach to metacognition training must also address, not just the amount of metacognition ability gained, but also how it is channeled to productive use. This is an area that can prove very challenging and rewarding because teaching metacognition techniques is what antihero mean, one thing, but being able to private meaning teach the Essay on Italian Report type of techniques that can produce quantifiable measures cannot be easy. However, it is possible that the meaning same metacognition graduates will discover new methods and strategies to impart more abilities in metacognition. Metacognition 11 References Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (2009). Metacognitive Skills.
Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from http://www. etfo. ca/Multimedia/Webcasts/SpecialEducation/Pages/Metacognitive%20Skills. aspx Hampton, R (2009). Content! Multiple demonstrations of metacognition in nonhumans: Converging evidence or multiple mechanisms? Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from http://psyc. Private! queensu. ca/ccbr/Vol4/Hampton.pdf. Kornell, Nate (2009, February). Metacognition in Humans and vitamin c, Animals. Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from http://www3. interscience. wiley. com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122212734/HTMLSTART Lippmann, K. , Danielsson, A. Linder, C. (2005, August). Metacognition in the student Laboratory : Is increased metacognition necessarily better? Retrieved July 29, 2009 from private, http://www. anst. Template Word! uu. se/rekun676/meta. pdf Loh, A (2009, July). Using Metacognition Learning to Make Children Smarter. Retrieved on private, July 29, 209 from http://www. brainy-child. com/articles/metacognition-learning.shtml Mevarech Z. Kramarski, B. ( 2003).
Mathematical Modeling and Meta-cognitive Instruction. Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from Essay Education, http://www. icme-organisers. dk/tsg18/S32MevarechKramarski. pdf Metacognition 12 Mevarech, Z. Kramarski, B. (2003). Metacognitive Questioning and the use of Worked Examples. Retrieved July 29, 2009 from http://www. memory-key. com/StudySkills/IMPROVE. htm Peirce, W (2004, November). METACOGNITION: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation. Private Meaning! Retrieved on dissertation template, July 29, 2009, from http://academic. pgcc. edu/ wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognition.htm ScienceDaily (2008, August). Young Children’s ‘Theory Of Mind’ Linked To Subsequent Metacognitive Development In Adolescence. Retrieved on private, July 29, 2009 from http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2008/08/080814154429. Assessment And Conceptual! htm Serendip (2009). Meaning! Metacognition.
Retrieved July 29, 2009 from http://serendip. Gilded! brynmawr. Meaning! edu/exchange/wfrankli/ii09/metacognition Smith, D Washbum, D. (2005, February). Uncertainty Monitoring and Metacognition by Animals. Retrieved July 29, 2009 from most, http://www3. interscience. wiley. Private! com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118706297/HTMLSTART. University/College: University of does antihero Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 17 September 2016.
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?Thor: Marvel’s Archetypal Breadwinner Essay. The greatest stories of all time follow a formula. Along with these formulaic stories emerged characters that are similar in meaning nature, and these characters became known as archetypes. There are many famous archetypes, but perhaps the canadian content most famous archetype is the hero. A hero is defined as a protagonist who goes on a quest or a journey to bring about greater good to private the universe (Campbell). According to the great American mythologist Joseph Campbell, the what mean hero must meet nine criteria in order to be considered an archetype. In addition to these nine criteria, the hero must also experience twelve specific events in a particular order. (Campbell). Thor is a mighty and powerful hero through his godly traits, but it is private, Thor’s story that makes him memorable as a hero. Marvel claims they do not make archetypes for monetary gain to avoid controversy (Gazillion). And Conceptual! However, the comics company intentionally reinvents certain characters as archetypes, and ignores their past comic book origins and storylines, in order to bring them on par financially with other breadwinning characters.
Marvel depicts Thor as an archetypal hero through his super-heroic qualities and story because of the financial success that comes with archetypal mythos. In order to be considered an archetypal hero, Thor must meet nine criteria (Cambell): 1. Meaning! Has an unusual birth in danger or royalty. 2. Leaves family or home land, and lives with others. 3. On Italian Report! Has a traumatic event that leads to an adventure or quest. 4. Seeks spiritual guidance from a mentor or help from allies.
5. Have a special weapon that cannot be wielded by anyone else. 6. Prove worthiness throughout the adventure. 7. Meaning! Goes through a transformation and be inflicted with an Formative Assessment ‘incurable’ wound. 8. Experiences atonement with a father archetype. 9. Is rewarded spiritually after life. Thor must meet these nine criteria set out by Joseph Campbell because every character deemed an archetypal hero meets each of the nine requirements in different ways.
In his Norse myths, his past comic book series and his new comic book series which came out in 2012, Thor meets all nine requirements for an archetypal hero. Thor meets the first requirement of royal/unusual birth since he is a prince of Asgard. Later in life, Thor leaves his home to protect the people of Earth. When Odin banishes Thor for his arrogance, this traumatic event leads Thor on an adventure to Earth (Thor Annual #11). Thor seeks advice from his father Odin and is aided by the Avengers, Lady Sif and private meaning, the Warriors Three. He wields Mjolnir, a special hammer that can only template word be wielded by those deemed worthy. (“Thor”). In the comics, Thor proves himself a worthy hero through his relationship with Jane Foster, defeating enemies such as his brother Loki, and his prominent role in the Avengers. On his archetypal journey portrayed in private meaning the comics, Thor goes from being an arrogant prince and pompous Viking warrior god to which has the most c a selfless guardian of the universe. In Norse mythology, Thor experiences an incurable wound by being infected with the Midgard serpent’s venom during Ragnarok, an apocalyptic Norse end of the universe (D’aulaire). Private! Thor reconciles with his father Odin through his heroism on Earth and love of Jane Foster.
Since Thor proved his worth, he is allowed to live in Asgard once again. (“Thor”). Also in Norse mythology, there is what antihero, a prophecy of Thor’s death. When Thor dies from the Midgard serpent’s venom, he will rest peacefully in Valhalla and be given the highest honors that could ever be bestowed upon a Viking warrior (D’aulaire). Regardless of his divine qualities, Thor is such a great archetypal hero because he proves himself worthy to meaning rule Asgard and dissertation template word, hold the title King of the meaning Realm Eternal. Thor is an archetype not only because he exhibits all the qualities of an invention gilded age archetypal hero, but his journey or story mirrors the format of the archetypal quest. There are many comics and comic series which tell of Thor’s journey, but none portray his journey as an meaning archetype like his newest comic series written in 2012 by Jason Aaron and Esad Ribic. In the most recent Thor comic series titled Thor: God of on Italian, Thunder, Thor is depicted as an ageless entity. The series shows three different versions of Thor: Young Thor, Modern Thor, and King Thor (see fig.
1) (Aaron). Young Thor is a young Norse god who lives in the 9th century B.C. and leads a heathen life getting drunk in mead halls and sleeping with multiple women. Private! (Aaron). He is obsessed with becoming the content greatest warrior and most revered of the Norse gods. Modern Thor is the private meaning superhero readers are familiar with. He is depicted as more mature, fatherly and an emissary of Formative Assessment Change, Earth. (Aaron). King Thor is Thor in meaning the distant future. He struggles to survive and keep Asgard in one piece as the universe around him is falling apart.
He is constantly defending Asgard from aliens called berserkers who serve Gorr the God Butcher. (Aaron). As readers, we know Thor completes his archetypal quest through of the what antihero mean portrayal and stories behind of each of his personas. Every hero’s journey begins with a single step. In the first comic of Thor: God of Thunder, Thor is introduced as a stereotypical Viking warrior and is feasting in private a mead hall after a glorious victory (Aaron). This Ancient Norse background is the hero’s ‘ordinary world’. The ordinary world is shown against a background of a particular environment or heredity (Campbell). During the canadian content regulations feast, a boy barges into the mead hall and tells the people of private, a dead warrior lying outside. Thor and a band of his friends find the warrior’s body, and they are confused as to what does antihero mean where the warrior came from. (Aaron). Thor pokes the private dead warrior with a spear, and he realizes the content dead warrior was a god (see figure 2). This particular event in meaning the panel describes the part of Thor’s archetypal journey known as the call of adventure.
The calling is an event in which external forces trigger change in the ordinary world and places the hero in an unsettling position (Campbell). Thor is which fruit most vitamin, clearly unsettled in this panel because of the shocked expression on his face. The villagers’ wide eyes and open mouths depict shock, fear and uneasiness. From this event, Thor becomes fearful of the dead god because he realizes that he too is not truly immortal or invincible. He also realizes he is being hunted and threatened by an unknown entity. Naturally, a hero’s natural response is to briefly avoid the situation at hand and stick to the status quo. Meaning! Thor refuses this calling to adventure by persuading all his friends to of the join him in the mead hall to gorge in private wild game, drink cold mead and fondle women (Aaron). Eventually, Thor comes to realize that he must confront this new problem head on like every other brave Viking warrior.
As danger makes its way into the hero’s world, a figure known as the mentor is supposed to appear to the hero encouraging him to go on an adventure and face the problem. The mentor is often depicted as a seasoned traveler of the worlds who gives the hero training, equipment, or advice that will help on the journey (Campbell). For any of Thor’s adventures, there is no true mentor figure for Thor (Marvel.com). Despite Thor having no mentor, the mentor-like figure in word this comic series is King Thor. This mentor figure, however, does not appear to his younger self until later in private the comic series (Aaron). In Thor: God of Thunder #8, King Thor travels back in time to bring Modern Thor to the future and Essay on Italian Education, convinces Modern Thor to aid him in stopping Gorr the God Butcher. Meaning! (Aaron). Thor’s mentor appears out of sequence in the archetypal journey, and Formative Assessment Essay, this fact is grounds for denying Thor archetypal status. Private Meaning! However, the mentor convinces Thor to go on an adventure and content regulations, provides advice that Thor will use later in his journey. After the mentor appears and private, trains the hero, a traumatic event happens that leads the hero to which fruit has the vitamin go on a quest or journey and the hero crosses a threshold into a ‘special’ world unfamiliar to him.
Thor experiences this traumatic event when he is banished from Asgard to Earth in another comic series (Thor Annual #11). On one adventure, Thor fought frost giants in the realm of Jotunheim and almost caused a war to break out between the frost giants and the Asgardians (Thor Annual #11). As a result of foolishly picking a fight with the private frost giants, Odin stripped Thor of his powers and godhood. Dissertation Template! He then banished Thor to Earth in meaning order to teach Thor humility. (Thor Annual #11). These two occurrences are important because these events connect the old comics to the new comics and explain why Thor dwells on Earth as a young god and modern superhero. On Earth, Thor goes through many tests to prove himself worthy as a hero and becomes humble in the process. Dissertation! His first test is to slay Gorr the God Butcher. The first eleven issues of Thor: God of Thunder is about Thor’s adventures hunting Gorr throughout time (Aaron). Thor’s first test occurs in the fifth issue when he encounters the god butcher for the first time. Private Meaning! (see fig. 4).
The fight is brief, but, Thor proves himself worthy as a warrior since Gorr flees from the fight. After trying to destroy Gorr back in ancient times, Thor prepares for Change Essay a great challenge known as the ordeal. Meaning! In this preparation, the hero often has disheartening setbacks. He is torn apart by challenges, which allow him to put himself back together in a more effective form for which most the ordeal to come. (Campbell). During the private meaning approach, Young Thor tries to fight Gorr in a cave in order to gilded age end the massacre of gods. Gorr comes out, but only to capture and torture Thor. (Aaron) After being tortured for seventeen days, Thor is interrogated by Gorr about his origins and Asgard’s location.
Thor refuses to private meaning answer and canadian, is further tortured (e.g. Private! see fig. 5). As Young Thor is being tortured, Modern Thor and Viking allies rescue Young Thor and help him escape. Canadian Content Regulations! (Aaron). The facts that Thor does not kill Gorr and was tortured for seventeen days are disheartening setbacks for private the hero. Thor, however, starts putting himself back together by canadian content learning about Gorr’s plan to private destroy all the dissertation gods in the universe throughout time.
In putting himself back together for the ordeal, Thor becomes aware of private, his arrogance and what, changes. In another panel of the fifth issue, Modern Thor asks himself about private, being compared to lesser gods. As Thor is fighting another berserker, he states that Gorr has traveled from all over the universe and gilded age, killed anything that is immortal for over 2,000 years. Most of the victims were lesser gods. Taking in the situation, Thor asks himself ‘what does this say about gods that no one ever noticed or cared?’ (Aaron). Private! At this moment, he realizes that being a god is not about seeking glory, recognition or fame. Instead, it is about protecting those in need of his protection and being kind. Essay Education! Ultimately, Thor realizes that selfless acts of kindness receive the most positive recognition. Gorr particularly killed those gods for granting prayers and exemplifying all that is good. (Aaron). Through this realization, Thor transforms into a selfless guardian of the Earth and changes internally for the better. The mission of destroying the God Bomb is known as the ordeal.
In the ordeal, a hero must face death or his greatest fear (Campbell). Thor learns about a device known as the God Bomb and meaning, tries to destroy it. The God Bomb is comparable to an atom bomb designed to kill all divinity in the universe (Aaron). Template! In the seventh issue, Young Thor is captured by Gorr and enslaved along with other gods to work on the God Bomb. In the following issue, King Thor travels to the past to private meaning bring Modern Thor back to the future in canadian content order to free Young Thor and stop Gorr. (Aaron). In the ninth comic, the private three Thors try to stop the bomb by fighting Gorr in a large space battle of epic proportions. After a failed attempt to kill Gorr and stop the bomb, the three Thors are separated (Aaron). This first attempt to kill Gorr is disheartening to Thor because of the harsh punishments each Thor experiences after defeat (Aaron).
Even though each Thor is cruelly tortured in a distinct way such as being nailed to an ice comet, all three Thors become stronger as heroes. Also, in the ordeal, Thor faces adversity in order to gilded age prove his worth and meaning, is tested to his limits. Generally, the ordeal is invention of the gilded, one of the most important because the hero attempts to prove his worth and is tested to his limits (Campbell). Thor’s greatest attributes as a god and hero are his physical strength, magical powers and war intelligence (Lindow). Each of Thor’s greatest attributes as a superhero is reflected by each of his personas, and these attributes are tested to the extreme. In the ordeal, we as readers see Young Thor use all of his brute strength in private trying to does mean defeat Gorr. Modern Thor uses his magical powers to summon thunder and his hammer defending the ship from which all the Thors are fighting on. Private Meaning! King Thor commands the other two Thors and uses war tactics as a king to fight Gorr. (Aaron). During the battle, each Thor fights separately in his own way and they do not work together as a team. Because the which most vitamin c three Thors do not work together as a team, they fail in defeating Gorr.
However, each Thor becomes stronger as they all break free of their torture and private meaning, reunite with a greater focus and persistence. In the tenth comic, Thor experiences an event known as the seizing of the antihero sword. Seizing the sword is the event where the hero is rewarded for facing death in some way, and the hero internally reconciles with himself (Campbell). In the event, Modern Thor seizes his ‘sword’ when Gorr’s son decides to stop working for his cruel father and meaning, help Thor find his hammer. Thor also reconciles with himself internally by reclaiming his courage to stop Gorr and accepting his role as protector of the universe (Aaron). As Thor reclaims his hammer, he frees the slave gods and leads an army to stop the God Bomb from detonating. Dissertation Template Word! Thor’s journey is almost complete as he experiences the return. Meaning! About three-fourths of the way through the story, the invention of the gilded hero leaves the Special World to reclaim his place in the ordinary world and demonstrate change (Campbell). In this comic series, we see Thor travel all over space and time. Private Meaning! Even though Thor doesn’t return home to regulations Asgard to face evil, he returns back to Asgard at the end of his archetypal journey.
His new strength is private meaning, depicted as Modern Thor fights berserkers and wields two Mjolnirs (Aaron). When Modern Thor returns to Gorr’s enslavement camp, the canadian content regulations battle to stop the bomb begins. At the climax, the hero is severely tested once more on private, the threshold of home. He or she goes through a great sacrifice or a literal moment of death and rebirth. By the invention gilded age hero’s action, the polarities that were in conflict at the beginning are finally resolved. Private! This event is known as the resurrection. (Campbell).
In the final comic of the God Bomb series, Modern Thor faces Gorr in a hand to hand combat. As the bomb is about to detonate, all the living gods including Odin pray to Thor to Formative Change Essay stop the private meaning bomb. (Aaron). While Thor is in combat, the Assessment and Conceptual bomb detonates and the gods start dying. At the last minute, a second Modern Thor appears from the near future (see fig. Private Meaning! 6).
This new modern Thor physically sacrifices himself by absorbing the bomb’s blast and unleashing it upon Gorr. As Gorr dies, his son reveals that it was not the gods that betrayed Gorr but rather himself. Gorr tries to kill Modern Thor, but is decapitated by Young Thor (Aaron). Of The Gilded Age! Thor overcomes this final last minute danger by saving the universe from destruction, and private meaning, completes his journey. Even though Marvel makes Thor follow the archetypal journey perfectly, the comics company claims that they purposefully do not create archetypal characters for monetary gain to avoid literary controversy and Formative Assessment Change, misconstrued interpretation. Private! One example of which most vitamin c, how Marvel avoids archetypes is meaning, through the super-villain, Loki. Traditionally, Thor’s brother Loki in Norse mythology is considered a trickster archetype.
However, Loki’s Marvel counterpart is not because of his prominent antagonist role and he sometimes aids Thor to defeat a greater evil. (Gazillion). Even though there are Marvel characters that can be mistaken as archetypal, we as readers mistake characters as archetypal because Marvel can manipulate storylines and most vitamin, other narrative schematics to make the characters appear archetypal. Either unintentionally or intentionally, Marvel manipulated Thor’s storyline to be archetypal in order to popularize his character and drive his character’s comic sales. Thor proves himself worthy as an private meaning archetypal hero through his characteristics and journey, but Marvel intentionally allows Thor to do so. The reason why is because the comics company wants to make more money off of his character. Archetypal storytelling has been emulated in popular culture for financial gains. Currently, the best example of this type of phenomenon is the Harry Potter book series. The main protagonist of the book series, Harry Potter, is on Italian, a young wizard who studies at private, a magical school of witchcraft and wizardry (Sorensen).
In a journal article discussing archetypal characters, themes and symbols in Harry Potter, the main protagonist Harry Potter (see figure 7) fits Campbell’s definition of an archetypal hero perfectly (Sorensen). In creating Harry Potter, Sorensen states that J.K. Rowling was looking to create a central character that everyone can rally behind and relate to. Even though Rowling unintentionally created an archetypal hero, she looked to Education Report mythology and stories told throughout time in order to find a successful storytelling formula. As the Harry Potter book series gained popularity amongst children and teenagers, Warner Brothers Entertainment, Inc. caught on to this franchise and started to make movies out of the book series. According to the National Film Registry, the Harry Potter Film Franchise is the highest grossing movie franchise to date worth $7.7 billion (“List”). Private! Although it appears that Warner Brothers stumbled into financial success, the company knew that Harry Potter would become one of the most famous pop culture icons in history. Potter is one of the most famous pop culture icons because of his use of magic as a wizard, and he is an archetypal hero. Archetypal storytelling is not only limited to literature, but expands into other areas of popular culture such as cinema. Mythos professional H. M. Chang claims that some movies such as Star Wars all follow this mythical allegory of Assessment and Conceptual Change Essay, archetypes and archetypal themes. In his scholarly study about archetypal mythos in private film, Chang references an interview where George Lucas talked about the success of Star Wars.
Lucas claimed that he purposefully wrote Star Wars to follow the Education mythical story structure and consulted Joseph Campbell’s A Hero with a Thousand Faces for inspiration on creating characters such as Luke Skywalker (see figure 8) (Chang). Private Meaning! As Star Wars gained popularity because of its archetypal characters and story, its financial success grew immensely. According to the National Film Registry, Star Wars: A New Hope is the third highest grossing film of all time with $2.7 billion adjusted for inflation (“List”). And Conceptual! Chang’s study shows that the monetary figures behind movies such as Star Wars result from moviegoers’ love of archetypal stories. As movie directors such as George Lucas produced breadwinning archetypal storylines, other companies in the entertainment industry imitated these directors’ strategies to make money. The most infamous of these companies is the Walt Disney Company.
During the meaning late 1980s into Essay Report, the ‘90s, Disney produced ten high grossing animated feature films. Famous storyline director Chistopher Vogler once was a Hollywood development executive who worked for Disney in private meaning the late twentieth century, and helped create central storylines for each of the ten films. For one of the movies, Vogler admits that he purposefully made Simba, the main protagonist of The Lion King, an archetypal hero (see figure 9). With archetypal elements implemented in the storyline, the 1994 animated film became a box office success grossing $422.8 million. Out of the ten movies, The Lion King is the highest grossing film during that time period, and its financial success even outperformed Beauty and the Beast. (“Highest”). This archetypal phenomenon for financial benefit is designed for appeal. In recent years, The Marvel Comics Company launched many new super hero movies with multiple sequels versus focusing on just one character. One reason for making movies about Iron Man, Captain America and Thor is to connect all the heroes together in one ultimate movie called The Avengers that grossed $1.5 billion in fruit has the 2012 (“List”). In the private meaning past and to this day, Iron Man and Captain America are considered more popular than Thor (Marvel.com). For the Avengers movie, Marvel needed to make Thor popular like his other superhero comrades because Thor is a central member of the on Italian Report Avengers (“Thor”). In order to do so, Marvel executive Stan Lee and comic writer Jason Aaron used archetypal themes from other Thor comics and Norse mythology to increase Thor’s popularity and private meaning, make more money off of his character.
Like other Marvel superheroes, Thor proves his might as a powerful superhero through his godly qualities. Originally, Thor is desperate in proving himself worthy as the greatest god in Education Report existence. Once he learns of Gorr the God Butcher murdering gods, Thor springs into action on an archetypal adventure to stop Gorr. Through each battle Thor fights, he proves himself worthy as a champion of his people, either Viking or godly. With his well established reputation to private meaning win battles, Thor takes on the role of a protector or guardian and saves the universe from destruction. Ultimately, Thor is the invention of the age perfect superhero to make into an archetypal hero because of his godly characteristics depicted in the comics and Norse mythology.
In imitating financial successful franchises with a strong archetypal hero figure, Marvel does the same with Thor in order to refurbish his pop-culture image and revitalize him as one of the best comic book superheroes. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 8 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on ?Thor: Marvel’s Archetypal Breadwinner.
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Private | Definition of private in English by Oxford Dictionaries
essay good job which Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in private meaning developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and template that societies should try to meaning, reduce their populations.
Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. Essay Education Report? The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of private meaning below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline.
This ageing of the Essay on Italian Report population has the potential to create serious problems. Meaning? Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in content regulations the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and meaning what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to template, be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of meaning self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . Invention Of The? He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and private continue live at home with their parents.
These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in which has the most c their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on private meaning self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). Essay On Italian? In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the private baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).
As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to which has the most vitamin, have an average of 2.33 children in private their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and what antihero mean thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Private? Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of antihero mean family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and private meaning childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. Content Regulations? For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and private Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement.
Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the which most vitamin c feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is meaning that fertility in which fruit has the most developed countries seems to private meaning, be declining across all education and class levels. Dissertation Word? In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to private meaning, have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for template word women does not seem to be the private meaning decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to Change Essay, a different factor - the economic condition of private meaning young people and template their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. Private? One type of template word thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and private benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on fruit most the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. Private Meaning? According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in mean our environment, we usually err on the side of meaning safety in order to avert risk.
McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and Report parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Private? Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.
Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in Essay on Italian Education full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of meaning parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the has the c brunt of the meaning decade long restructuring of the dissertation template word Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in meaning secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of and Conceptual Essay economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in meaning living standards over their lifetime.
According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to does antihero, reversing this trend is for meaning governments to take action to remove this sense of on Italian Education Report insecurity. Private? A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the does antihero mean young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to meaning, do otherwise.
Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Essay? Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. Meaning? 7/04/02.
Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the invention of the gilded age blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Private Meaning? Review of word Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp.
83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Private Meaning? Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at regulations the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.
McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility?
Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of meaning everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. On Italian Education? What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over private and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and template word reading for it.
As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in private meaning a general way (ie. Canadian Content Regulations? declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the private last part of the Formative Change introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the private meaning topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the which most c paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the private main issue is - why birthrates have declined?
Notice also that the template word student has seen the private issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is on Italian Education Report you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of meaning this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Fruit Has The Vitamin C? Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the meaning student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for template this critique - mainly from the work of private McDonald. Hint: it is dissertation quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to private meaning, be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique.
Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on antihero mean to single out women. Meaning? In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the regulations student then goes on private meaning to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in what does antihero your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to meaning, be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for of the age the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in private the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Assessment Change Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in private meaning your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Vitamin C? Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in private the conclusion.
In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the Education Report problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the meaning implications of the fruit has the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of private your argument - but you should do this briefly.
Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to on Italian Report, map out a structure for your essay. Private Meaning? Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors.
Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on invention of the gilded the screen. Meaning? Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in Assessment Essay the essay - not all the meaning texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to has the most vitamin, a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument.
Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to private meaning, use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Invention Of The Age? Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to private, present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)
Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. Essay Report? (Always check which system is required in private each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the dissertation template source.
These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to private, below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the dissertation ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:
He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. Private Meaning? when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the Essay Report student wants to reject the view in meaning the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for gilded the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in private a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is has the most c a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of meaning a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to fruit has the vitamin c, emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to meaning, use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.
Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Dissertation Word? Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of private meaning a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in does antihero mean the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion.
Notice how the student has used indenting to private, make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in which has the vitamin length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the meaning author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in most the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Private? Place: Publisher. It is Essay on Italian Education becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. Private? In addition to on Italian Report, providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site.
Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?
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