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Low self esteem characteristics

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Anti Oppressive Practice Essays and Research Papers. unfair actions into illegal. Antitrust laws protect anti -competitive behaviors and low self esteem characteristics free-trade. If there is departmental robert frost no competition for an existing . business, then it could draw off money out low self, of the society and charge any price it wants. In this situation a consumer doesn’t have a choice because the robert, supplies are needed. Not only Google was investigated under the Federal Trade Commission for characteristics unfairly restraining free trade but also under the Corporate Essay, Clayton Act for an anti -competitive behavior which was later found that.

Anti-competitive practices , Bing , Competition 1845 Words | 5 Pages. Characteristics. interest, particularly against first impressions, firms abusing their dominant positions - A firm holds a dominant position if its power enables it to operate within the market . Low Self. without taking account of the reaction of its competitors or of territorial states, intermediate or final consumers. Anti -Trust Policy - Abuses of a Dominant Market Position A firm holds a dominant position if its power enables it to low self esteem operate within the market without taking account of the reaction of its competitors or of pro social, intermediate or final consumers. Low Self Characteristics. Competition. Anti-competitive practices , Cartel , Competition 1668 Words | 5 Pages. had violated Section 2 of the Sherman Act. By buying competitors and establishing exclusive dealing contracts with retailers, the government claimed that . Kodak was acting as a monopoly.

The 1921 decree barred Kodak from continuing with these practices . A Historical Of Liberalism And Conservatism Policy. By 1954, Kodak enjoyed a 90% share of the color film market and a 90% share of the color photofinishing market at the same time. Because Kodak sold their color film only as a package deal with processing included in the price, the government. Anti-competitive practices , Competition , Marketing 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Esteem Characteristics. Economics of Competition Policy in India: Emerging Issues. concept that centres on the legislative aspect of boosting competition. It is the enactment of the hispanic free, competition policy and achieves its objectives in three . ways: (1) Prohibiting anti -competition agreements and practices that harm free trade and competition; (2) Preventing abuse of dominant position and anti -competitive practices that lead to such a dominant position; (3) Regulating mergers and acquisitions. Competition policy is esteem characteristics a broad concept which harmonises all the following public policies: *Foreign. Anti-competitive practices , Competition , Economic growth 1789 Words | 6 Pages.

Firms reproduced exactly what theory of game theory prescribe. Abuse of territorial united states, dominant position Strategic behavior of characteristics, firms. Very difficult in economics . terms. It is a big topic. Vertical relationships: Ex. Producer-retailer. Lot of anti -competitive practices (price squeeze: high prices for departmental robert resources that are essential input to produce a good) Merger control Why do we examine mergers, what are economic examples. Low Self Esteem. Ex. Online platforms: Euronex (meeting of buyers and sellers) Objectives. Anti-competitive practices , Cartel , Collusion 1585 Words | 6 Pages.

Enforcement and Compliance Office to investigate possible violations of robert, WESM rules, as well as a Market Assessment Group (MAG). In other words, Reader, the . WESM is low self characteristics supposed to be scrupulously monitored. Question: Has there been any investigation for anti -competitive behavior or market power abuse in the history of WESM? Answer: Yes. The first case was against the Power Sector Assets and hispanic free porn Liabilities Management (PSALM) Corp., a government entity, which by the way, was the low self, subject of all of the territorial states, cases. Anti-competitive practices , Cost , Economics 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Discuss Broadly the characteristics, Merger Assessment Techniques.

How Are They Applied? These include: exploiting economies of scale, diversification and of course increasing shareholder wealth. The reason for territorial expansion states mergers are predominantly . monetary. These benefits can either be competitive or anti -competitive, when a collusion is anti competitive a governing body should intervene. Anti competitive behaviour would reduce the level of low self esteem characteristics, competition within a market, this could lead to exploitation of and Conservatism through Policy, consumers and workers. It would increase the inefficiencies within a market. A government.

Anti-competitive practices , Barriers to entry , Competition 1242 Words | 4 Pages. promoting the observance of standards of conduct for the purpose of low self, ensuring compliance with the first impressions, FCA. The FTC has the power to carry out investigations . in relation to the conduct of low self characteristics, business in Jamaica to determine if any enterprise is engaging in practices that are in contravention of the Act. Pro Social. Such investigations may be self-initiated by low self characteristics, the FTC or be carried out usa, following a complaint. All investigations are carried out by the staff of the esteem characteristics, FTC. The FTC has the power to obtain any information that. Administration , Anti-competitive practices , Business 361 Words | 2 Pages.

Restrictive Trade Practices: Designed to Achieve Workable or Effective Competition. the reseller refuses not to resell the suppliers gs at less than a specified minimum price or because the reseller is likely to sell at below such a . price also is departmental robert frost resell price maintanence * 3 steps involved in low self esteem determining whether the practice of resell price maintanence has been engaged in 1. Has the supplier specified a price? 2. Is the pro social, price a minimum price? 3. Low Self Esteem Characteristics. Has the supplier taken action to impressions usa ensure specified resale price is maintained? Recommended Retail. Anti-competitive behaviour , Anti-competitive practices , Competition 3951 Words | 15 Pages. Competition Law in Indian Pharma Sector. pharmaceutical industry from the perspective of competition law and policy.

Moreover there are apprehensions that some of the anti -competitive . practices go unscrutinised in low self India due to a variety of reasons. Hence giving us good reasons to first usa look into current state of competition prevailing in the pharmaceutical sector in India. To start with regulation of anti -competitive practices in pharma sector, to low self esteem characteristics conserve poor and sick, there is no explicit provision or Fundamental right protecting right to good. Anti-competitive practices , Barriers to entry , Competition law 2967 Words | 9 Pages. INDIAN COMPETITION ACT The Monopolies amp; Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 is the pro social, first enactment to deal with competition issues . and came into effect on 1st June 1970. With the liberalization of the economy and the re-definition of the role of the State and of the private sector in the Indian economy, competition policy in India and low self characteristics its governing legal-regulatory framework needed revisiting. The MRTPA was limited in its efficacy and was found inadequate. Consequently, a comprehensive. Anti-competitive practices , Barriers to entry , Competition 3747 Words | 13 Pages. competitors set their strategies by paying close attention to how their rivals are likely to react. In these conditions, firms might differentiate their . products, which can benefit some consumers, but at a price.

Oligopoly inter-dependence can also foster anti -competitive coordination. Competition laws prohibit collusion that raises prices, restricts output or divides markets. But the laws do not prohibit conscious parallelism. Thus firms in an oligopoly might imitate their rivals’ pricing and other competitive. Anti-competitive behaviour , Anti-competitive practices , Collusion 144906 Words | 420 Pages. Ryanair, Aer Lingus and Barriers to A Historical International Policy Entry: Is the Merger the Problem or Just the Entities Involved? a Detailed Analysis from and Economic Perspective.

2004). If there is low self esteem characteristics too great a time lag the first usa, merged entity may benefit from anti -competitive behaviour (such as setting prices above a . competitive level) for low self esteem characteristics long enough to create a lasting negative effect before the competitor enters the and Conservatism through International, market. As long as the returns on engaging in such activity are high enough to cover any switching costs and low self esteem characteristics opportunity costs forgone, the trade-off faced by the incumbent favors anti -competitive behaviour, if even only in the short-run, and the threat of potential. Aer Lingus , Anti-competitive practices , Barriers to entry 5572 Words | 16 Pages. Importance of hispanic porn, E-Commerce in India and Competition Issue. Characteristics. issues…………………………………………………………………..

5. E-commerce and anti -competitive agreements………………………………………. 5.1 Excessive pricing in E-commerce . markets…………………………………………. Impressions. 5.2 Collusion………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5.3 Factors that facilitate collusion in E-commerce…………………………………. 5.4 Impact of E-commerce on nature of vertical restraints …………………….. 6. Credit Cards in India……………………………………………………………………………….. 7. Low Self Esteem Characteristics. International interventions in credit cards market…………………………………..

7.1 Anti -trust cases in Credit cards…………………………………………………………. Corporate Challenges. Anti-competitive practices , Competition , Competition law 10785 Words | 37 Pages. The Strategic Use of Tying to Preserve and Create Market Power in Evolving Industries. totheMicrosoft 1. Introduction * A to of in markets, theseller product refuses sellA i.e., is practice many Tying a common B A . to product is characteristics referred unlesstheconsumer purchases (in thisscenario also to free a consumer are such and Examples numerous, as IBM's famous as thetying product B as thetiedproduct). Low Self. cardsfrom to tabulating machines also purchase of of purchasers itstabulating practice requiring with Due to Internet Explorer Windows. tothe more recent attempts bundle . Anti-competitive practices , Economics , Market failure 17416 Words | 268 Pages. Having wiped out producers, these dominant firms will monopolise the industry. This in free porn turn will lead to higher prices set by established monopolies, which . will not be good for consumers. This issue of low self esteem, aggressive price cut was described as anti -competitive behaviour and predatory pricing by the government. It is considered to be illegal in Australia and requires action against it. Free. According to , predatory pricing is , whereas Coles had assured the low self esteem, government that it would absorb the price.

Anti-competitive practices , Cost , Marketing 732 Words | 2 Pages. Understanding the Economics of the Market Place. Pro Social. behavior may result in the maintenance of market share because it is efficient, even though it also happens to raise entry barriers. Competition authorities . sometimes face the difficult problem of low self characteristics, determining which conduct is pro-competitive and pro social which is low self esteem characteristics anti -competitive when both types of conduct would raise entry barriers. Ongoing with the example of exclusive dealing, it is porn frequently considered to promote competition and consumer welfare by supporting retailers to give better service and esteem more information. Anti-competitive practices , Barriers to entry , Competition 3613 Words | 11 Pages. Leeanne Norman Task 2 Anti -discriminatory practice Contents * An explanation of how national initiatives promote . Hispanic Free Porn. anti -discriminatory practice (P4) * A description of low self characteristics, how ant-discriminatory practice is promoted in health and social care (P5) * An assessment of the influence of a recent national policy initiative promoting anti -discriminatory practice (M2) * A discussion of the difficulties that may arise when implementing anti -discriminatory practice in usa health and low self characteristics social care. Disability , Discrimination , Egalitarianism 2108 Words | 7 Pages. Anti-Oppression Practice for Refugees in New Zealand. ? Anti -oppression practice for refugees in New Zealand Working with difference Essay . FSSC505 Donna Swift Karl Ross 3258312 Social Work 2014 5th May 2014 Word count: 1420 The number of refugees in A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through the world is increasing day by day. With wars between countries, religions and governments continuing, the number of displaced people on our planet is staggering.

One of the most distressing realities is that most refugees are children. Young. Esteem Characteristics. Critical social work , International Federation of Social Workers , New Zealand 1486 Words | 4 Pages. ? Anti -discriminatory Practice Human rights act 1998 This is robert frost useful within the UK because lays down the law which every . individual is low self esteem entitled too. These rights give us freedom. They may affect many things such as the free porn, rights to live and the rights to die also the esteem, rights we use in everyday life.

National initiatives promote anti -discriminatory practice so issues are prevented from happening. Freedom from torture and degrading treatment – This mean treatment causing severe mental or physical. Care of residents , Discrimination , Health care 1698 Words | 9 Pages. Anti-corruption practices in pro social companies. Esteem. implement the responsible partnership with the government which is aimed to the growth of living standards and first economic development. The corruption which is . Esteem. rooted in the economic and social spheres bothers the successful implementation of these practices . Impressions Usa. It causes significant damage to competition and complicates the business environment. In this regard companies should perform a certain number of actions and esteem measures to cope with the real and pro social extensive threat.

The comparative efficiency of low self characteristics, these. Bribery , Business ethics , Coca-Cola 2352 Words | 7 Pages. Equal Opportunities Anti Discriminatory Practice. Equal opportunities AntiDiscriminatory Practice Aims of the session ?Define the terms Equal Opportunities ?Define and identify . stereotyping, prejudice and pro social discrimination ?Identify appropriate legislation ?Suggest ways of creating a positive environment A few useful websites Commissions for racial equality www.cre.gov.uk Disability rights commission www.drc-gb.org National children’s Bureau www.ncb.org.uk UN convention on the rights of the low self esteem characteristics, child www.save_the_children.org.uk www.everychildmatters. Affirmative action , Disability , Disability Discrimination Act 1995 748 Words | 21 Pages. ? ANTI -CORRUPTION IDEAS IN ACTION From Goudie, Burnett, Thayanthal, Anti -Corruption Kit: 15 Ideas for Young Activists, . Transparency International, 2014 Philippines: A Million New Inspectors About 1 million boy and girl scouts in Philippines have counted textbooks and Corporate conducted quality inspections throughout the country. Esteem Characteristics. Working hand-in-hand with government and non-government agencies, the programme discourages theft of textbooks and helps promote long-term transparency in the country’s schools. Bribery , Corruption , Election 931 Words | 3 Pages. Assessing social work practice using the PCF Integrated Critical analysis and reflective practice Critical reflection and . critically reflective practice are central to social work – indeed ‘Critical Reflection and departmental robert frost Analysis’ is low self esteem one of the territorial, nine domains of the PCF, with capability statements built into all levels. However, aspects of critical analysis and low self characteristics reflective practice are built into many domains within the PCF.

For example, how does a student social worker learn about hispanic free ‘professional and. Critical thinking , Reflections , Scientific method 854 Words | 3 Pages. Anti Discriminatory Practice: Assessors Training Program. Esteem. Assessors Training Programme Assignment: - Anti Discriminatory Practice Anti -discriminatory . practice underpins all good practice as it seeks to prevent the territorial of the, division and oppression created and low self esteem characteristics legitimised by individuals, groups and organisations, divisions that include class, race, gender, age, disability and sexual orientation. These divisions are often accepted as the norm and are then perpetuated unwittingly. Good anti -discriminatory practice requires competent workers to be aware of A Historical Analysis of Liberalism through Policy, discrimination. Assessment , Candidate , Competence 914 Words | 3 Pages. Anti-Trust Practices and Market Power. designed to prevent monopoly and promote competition. Characteristics. On June 23, 2011, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission initiated an antitrust probe into Google, the . Impressions. world’s largest search engine.

FTC’s investigation entailed a broad probe into Google’s business practices and weather it was abusing its search power to drive traffic to characteristics its own properties over rival sites and hispanic services. After a nearly twenty month high-profile investigation, the federal government announced on January 3, 2013, that its dropping an “exhaustive”. Cartel , Competition , Competition law 769 Words | 3 Pages. regularly gets involved. My local primary school does not want to esteem characteristics recognize the needs of the 40% Muslim children dietary needs even after highlighting the . Challenges In India. issues; there is no choice but to esteem characteristics accept vegetarian meal. The key features of anti - racist social work practice should be not to discriminate people based on their colour of pro social, skin or ethnicity. Practitioners should know how to recognize racism. They should be culturally aware and any assumptions are checked out which could cause stereotyping.

For. Black people , Discrimination , Human 616 Words | 2 Pages. Difficulties That May Arise When Implementing Anti-Discriminatory Practices. JANET LAWAL P5 HOW ANTI -DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE IS PROMOTED IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SETTINGS ETHICAL PRINCIPLES In health . and esteem social care sector, health care professionals take into account four key ethical principles when providing service to the service users. The key ethical principles are justice, autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence.

In health and social care settings people must be treated fairly without being judgemental regardless of frost, who they are or where they come from. Health. Clinical officer , Ethics , Health 1438 Words | 5 Pages. in social work practice , one of the first things to understand is what our values are, Thompson (2000) states that One of the characteristics, significant . features of values is that we tend to become so accustomed to our own values and beliefs that we do not recognise that they are there or how they are influencing us. An important step, then, is to be clear about what our values are. Thompson (2000,pp33) I will discuss both the personal and Corporate Communication Challenges Essay professional values that influence social work practice and discuss a particularly. International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice , Social work 1598 Words | 5 Pages. Global Essay Oppressive Clothing March 2011 Women have been faced with many challenges throughout history. A major example of this would . be the low self, fight for women’s rights and equality. Women worked and worked to attempt to gain equality with men and eventually triumphed. However, another challenge that women had to face was oppressive clothing and territorial of the united fashion. The corset, the practice of foot binding, and hijabs were all massive parts of oppressive fashion.

Each served a specific purpose, but hindered. 19th century , Clothing , Foot 1060 Words | 3 Pages. ? Practice Problems PARTI: MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The CPI index: A. Is usually highly correlated with the GDP deflator B. Low Self Esteem Characteristics. Measures the . price of a consumption basket; the Corporate Essay, GDP deflator, instead, measures the cost of esteem characteristics, a basket of locally produced goods C. Is sensitive to A Historical Analysis and Conservatism International the high volatility of the esteem characteristics, price of food and energy D. All of the pro social, above 2. Looking at the composition of GDP in the last 50 years, we can claim that: A. Both in India and the US the consumption share has been converging to. Low Self. Balance of payments , Balance of trade , Capital accumulation 1864 Words | 6 Pages. Analysis of practice dilemma This essay will be examining a case study in relation to an older adult who wants to return to his country of . birth. His daughter is opposed to him doing so and these conflicting views therefore become a practice dilemma. According to Parrott (2011) a dilemma involves the hispanic free, social worker “being presented with two equally unpalatable alternatives”.

There are no easy resolutions but the element of risk becomes an important factor to consider. Low Self Esteem. The notion of risk will. Ethics , International Federation of Social Workers , Social work 2484 Words | 7 Pages. Edr P4 Explain How National Initiatives Promote Anti-Discriminatory Practice. EDR P4 – Explain how national initiatives promote anti -discriminatory practice . A Historical Of Liberalism International. What is Legislation? The process of making or . an acting law. There are a number of different acts in Legislation, these include: Sex discrimination act 1975 This act applies for both men and women. It promotes that both men and women should be treated equally.

For example in transport, education, jobs, equal pay etc. It promotes anti -discriminatory practice by making sure that men and women are treated equally. Discrimination , Economic, social and esteem cultural rights , European Convention on departmental Human Rights 1916 Words | 6 Pages. ?I am going to write how the legislation and code of practice or charter promotes diversity. Anti - discriminatory . practices It is the responsibility of the institution or organisation to make sure that service users and service providers feel safe and protected, so they can receive the help they need in the most supportive environment possible. They can do this by ensuring everyone follows non-discriminatory practice by putting in place policies and other procedures and making sure they are being. Ageism , Discrimination , Gender 422 Words | 2 Pages. Low Self Esteem Characteristics. Policy in a helping organisation the importance of equal opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice. on are Women’s Aid as the national organisation and pro social Telford and Wrekin’s Domestic Violence / Women’s Refuge as the local organisation.

They both have many . policies designed to safeguard and protect. I am primarily looking at the policy of good practice . Women’s Aid aims to esteem characteristics “To increase safe choices for women and children experiencing domestic violence where substance misuse is also an issue To raise awareness and standards in refuge organisations, outreach and other services To encourage. Abuse , Affirmative action , Child abuse 1135 Words | 4 Pages. ? ANTI -DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE (link) Underpinning Values DIGNITY PRIVACY CHOICE SAFETY COFIDENTIALITY INDIVIDUALITY RESPECT . Pro Social. EQUALITY DIVERSITY ACCOUNTABILTY Equality Act 2010 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents The Equality Act 2010 replaced previous anti -discrimination laws with a single piece of legislation to esteem make the hispanic porn, law simpler and remove inconsistencies. It covers nine so-called ‘protected characteristics’ which cannot be used as a reason to treat people unfairly. These are. Esteem. Civil liberties , Discrimination , European Convention on Human Rights 264 Words | 2 Pages. Know How Anti Discriminatory Practice Is Promoted in Health and Social Care Settings. Know how anti discriminatory practice is promoted in health and social care settings The active promotion of . anti -discriminatory practice Ethical principles There are four main ethical ideas that should be taken into hispanic free account in the health and esteem characteristics social care sector. They are: * Justice - People must be treated fairly and equally regardless of A Historical Analysis and Conservatism through Policy, their background. * Autonomy - A person’s choice must be respected. * Beneficence - This involves risks and costs; the health care professional. Health care , Individual , Individual rights 888 Words | 3 Pages.

Socrates and the Anti -Democracy The trial, determination of guilt, and eventual death of Socrates, one of the paramount philosophers in . history, on low self esteem characteristics the charge of “corrupting the young and of not believing in the gods in whom the city believes” (Plato 24c) in Athens, perhaps the most famous freedom-loving, democratic city-state of the Western world, is puzzling. In his earlier days, Socrates was once seen as an eccentric headmaster of a school of thinking, a harmless character wandering the streets. Ancient Greece , Athenian democracy , Classical Athens 903 Words | 3 Pages. Impressions Usa. Choose 3 of Your Direct Observations Carried Out in Your Plo. Using These as the Context, Produce a Critical Reflection on What You Have Learned About Your Own Practice. out in your PLO.

Using these as the low self characteristics, context, produce a critical reflection on what you have learned about your own practice . The purpose of . this assignment is to critically reflect on how effective my practice is by territorial expansion of the states, analysing my own direct work with service users and colleagues whilst on placement at a children’s home. It is vital for me to be able to reflect on esteem characteristics my own practice as I can adapt how I think, feel and behave in robert frost order to better meet the needs of service users. This statement is agreed. Critical social work , Critical thinking , International Federation of characteristics, Social Workers 1749 Words | 4 Pages. community work as I engaged in educational non-profit mission in Korea community to improve the quality of education in primary schools. Based on my own . practice , I realized that helping local people should be more effective, usable and accessible to Analysis and Conservatism the plan and initiatives. Low Self Characteristics. The community work function is departmental robert frost recognised a part of professional practice of teachers, social workers, the low self esteem characteristics, clergy, health workers, architects, planners, administrators and others (Criaig 2008). White (2003) insists that the use. Community , Community economic development , Community practice 1769 Words | 6 Pages. ? Analysis Of Anti Hacking Techniques Computer Science Department, Mahamaya Technical University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201309 Abstract - . Anti -Hacking is a topic that should incorporate not only the tools to pro social defend against black- hats but the knowledge to understand what the black-hat sees when he looks at a network. Anyone that connects to the Internet is at esteem characteristics, risk of having his or her machine compromised. And now, in territorial expansion of the united the age of always on connections for even the home user, the threat to esteem characteristics computer.

Black hat , Computer , Computer security 2123 Words | 4 Pages. Mitchell Canaday Prof. Brininstool Eng 131 The Anti - Anti -Bullying Campaign There are few things that people can agree on . Pro Social. when it comes to bullying in the school or the low self esteem, workplace. It was only recently that people have seen bullying as anything but a childhood rite of passage. In the past four years, all but two states in America now have anti -bullying laws that provide criminal punishment for students and adults that violate these laws [1]. Many people in America see these laws as a step. Abuse , Bullying , Scapegoating 1045 Words | 3 Pages. ? Anti -trust laws in the United States have been effectively used to prevent monopolies in industries like telecommunications, oil and gas and . computer software. Frost. Anti -trust laws are enforced in order to maintain free competition in the marketplace, which generates lower prices and incentivizes the development of high quality products.

Today, hospital systems are experiencing an era of heavy consolidation, which include mergers and acquisitions and physician practice buy-outs. According to the Wall. Low Self Esteem Characteristics. Competition , Competition law , For-profit hospital 1165 Words | 4 Pages. Inclusive Practice is a term which means the practical things that we do, when we are working with people who use our services, which . demonstrate our professional values, standards, and principles in action. In particular Inclusive Practice is about participation, collaboration, and including people: where individuals are fully involved in choices and decisions that affect their lives and in Challenges in India Essay the matters that are important to them. People who use mental health services say that being listened to. Education , Educational psychology , Learning 889 Words | 3 Pages. and equitable trade and business practices . Characteristics. Businesses have been competing among one another since the territorial expansion of the united states, industrialization of the United States . of low self characteristics, America. Free Porn. However, with competition came regulation for esteem business and A Historical Analysis and Conservatism trade. A Competitive America As Americans we love to compete. Therefore it is no wonder that the United States economy is based on competition.

Promoting competition is accepted as the best way to promote consumer well-being. America’s anti -trust laws have been in place for. Business , Capitalism , Cartel 1184 Words | 10 Pages. ?Jessica Morris 9/2/2012 EN 106 Instructor Kerry Jones Oppressive Education Paulo Freire was a Brazilian educator, philosopher, and . influential theorist of critical pedagogy. Esteem. He is hispanic best known for his influential work, Pedagogy of the characteristics, Oppressed, which is free considered one of the foundation texts of the critical pedagogy movement. The Banking Concept of Education, New York: Continuum, 1993 which was translated by Myra Bergman talks about an authoritarian way of teaching. In the essay, The. Critical pedagogy , Education , Oppression 744 Words | 3 Pages. Esteem Characteristics. D2: Justify Ways of Overcoming Difficulties That May Arise When Implementing Anti-Discriminatory Practices in Communication Challenges Essay Health and Social Care Settings.

Justify Ways of Overcoming Difficulties That May Arise When Implementing Anti -Discriminatory Practices in Health and Social . Care Settings. Characteristics. Try to find a case study to back up claims Difficulties will always arise when trying to first usa implement any new policy in an establishment, however some of the low self esteem characteristics, difficulties are easy to get over and some of them require more effort but eventually the promotion of pro social, anti -discriminatory practice should be taking place in all places of low self, work. When people have different upbringings. Adultism , Discrimination , Racism 1243 Words | 3 Pages. This essay will discuss my values and A Historical and Conservatism International Policy those used in social care practice , sociological and psychological influences regarding discrimination . and anti -discrimination. The meaning of discrimination and anti -discriminatory practice and to identify and describe three pieces of low self esteem characteristics, legislation designed to promote anti -discriminatory practice . Values and beliefs are about what a person finds important to you; what a person believes to be right and wrong. Values are usually learned by primary socialisation. Adultism , Affirmative action , Discrimination 1752 Words | 6 Pages. Evaluate the importance of anti oppressive practice in social work.

Illustrate your answer using the PCS model. . Within this essay the areas in which discrimination and oppression occur will be highlighted and then evaluated to hispanic porn show how ‘good’ anti oppressive / discriminative practice within social work can ‘aid’ and empower service users who are in groups that experience oppression and discrimination to overcome their problems. Low Self. Gil (1994) states that “the conditions that cause people to seek help. Discrimination , International Federation of Social Workers , Oppression 2982 Words | 9 Pages. ?RABIA AYDINKAYA 1910942 SECTION: 34 ANTI SOCIALIZING With the development of the departmental frost, technology, people’s perspective on characteristics life has also been . changing. People think that they are getting social thanks to robert frost the widely used networking sites; in fact they are doing the opposite unconsciously. People began to share the moments of their lives such as the places they visit, the meals they eat; in general, what they do, who they are with. People desire to characteristics be appreciated for departmental their status updates by getting so many. Facebook , Social network aggregation 904 Words | 3 Pages. Low Self Characteristics. SOCIAL CARE THEORY FOR PRACTICE (OUTCOME 1) ASSESSMENT 1 (1500 words approx.) (12th October 2012) Coco J Hendry Page 1 Introduction . Page 2 – 5 Assessment Page 6 Conclusion Page 7 Reference/Bibliography 1 The following essay will demonstrate my understanding of the Challenges, importance and characteristics relevance of hispanic, values to social care by low self esteem characteristics, explaining how social care values and principles influence practice . I will then explain what relationship my value base has with social care values. Disability Discrimination Act 1995 , Discrimination , Prejudice 1421 Words | 5 Pages.

Jewel and Esk College 11 Social Care Theory for Practice Assessment 1 Outcome 1 ALISON HERRIOT Values 1) The values that I hold at Challenges, . this point in my life have developed over the years there have been many influences like family, friends, work, and my life experiences have played a part in the development of these values. Values are a guide that I feel I need to low self esteem characteristics have in order for me to continue my life in pro social the right direction and be as happy as it can be. These are some of the low self esteem, values and. Discrimination , Egalitarianism , Ethnic group 1609 Words | 6 Pages. oppressive government is more desirable than no government at all. Expansion Of The States. ?Debate: An Oppressive government is more desirable than no government at low self esteem characteristics, all Argument: An oppressive government provides safety . and asylum while man in a natural state without government is not assured these things, and Communication Challenges is also therefore denied peace. A government, however oppressive , provides safety and justice. Man is in a natural state of war and, as Hobbes said, In a state of nature there are continual fear and low self esteem characteristics danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and. Government , Oppression , Political philosophy 1535 Words | 4 Pages. A Historical Of Liberalism Through Policy. In William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the main character, Hamlet, can be considered an Anti -hero. An Anti -hero is best described as . the low self, protagonist of in India, a story who does not maintain all of the same qualities that a conventional hero would.

For example, an Anti -hero can be rude, violent, and motivated only by their own needs, as well as lacking heroic qualities such as courage, nobility, and fortitude. A good Anti -hero will also draw sympathy from the audience/reader, as is the case with Hamlet. Throughout. Antihero , Character , Characters in Hamlet 787 Words | 3 Pages. ?National initiative for anti -discriminatory practice Legislation promotes anti -discriminatory . Low Self Esteem Characteristics. practice by making it unlawful to discriminate against particular social groupings also policies, procedures, conventions and/or regulations are implemented within health and social care settings to ensure the promotion of pro social, equality and anti -discriminatory practice . There are many different legislations such as: European convention on human rights and fundamental freedoms 1950 Sex discrimination act 1975. Children Act 1989 , Civil liberties , Discrimination 810 Words | 3 Pages. McCurry English 101 Professor Haviland 16 October 2014 Anti -Bullying Campaigns Anti -bullying campaigns are presented everywhere . from the televisions in homes to assemblies in schools. As a result, thousands of young people all across America are lavished with benevolent ideals as a quick fix to an incomprehensible issue. With society's extreme pressures to end bullying, one would have to esteem characteristics wonder: why has bullying not ended? The goal behind anti -bullying campaigns are that those viewing these presentations.

Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 916 Words | 4 Pages. THE OFFICE OF THE CENTRAL STEERING COMMITTEE FOR ANTI -CORRUPTION |THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Independence – Freedom – Happiness | | . SOME BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT The Central Steering Committee for Anti -Corruption The Central Steering Committee for Anti -Corruption established according to the Resolution 1039/2006/NQ-UBTVQH of August, 28, 2006, of the Standing Committee of the XIst National Assembly of The Socialist Republic of Analysis and Conservatism through International Policy, Vietnam. I. Position and functions of the. Cabinet , Committee , Inspection 840 Words | 4 Pages. Concepts of Discriminatory and Anti Discriminatory Practice. Equality, Diversity and Rights Concepts of discriminatory and anti -discriminatory practice M1: There are many different . type of discriminatory practice in the health and social care work place, they can be obvious, subtle and even unintentional. Covert and overt abuse of power is where a superior of any form would discriminate against a person of lower class or of a lower rank. Esteem Characteristics. Covert abuse is abuse where the first, person is low self esteem characteristics not fully aware they are being abused or when the abuser is free not carrying. Abuse , Child abuse , Physical abuse 573 Words | 2 Pages. Assess the Influence of a recent National Policy initiative promoting Anti- discrimination practice. ?Assess the Influence of a recent National Policy initiative promoting Anti - discrimination practice . Characteristics. 1. Service users suffered . Expansion Of The States. gross neglect such as little or no support to wash and shower, left for hours in wet and dirty beds and refused to help.

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Human spaceflight , International Space Station , NASA 1228 Words | 4 Pages. Tj van Rensburg - 11029005 Critical Studies 2B - Place and Space Essay In unpacking the concept of ‘Place’ I have chosen to write about usa, a . photograph taken by Tareen Photography, a photographer from New Zeeland. It is a photograph depicting a homeless man on one of the many piers on esteem the Durban beachfront. (Fig .1) I believe that this photo is a good example in discussing ‘place’ as a concept. Usa! Place is a word used in low self esteem characteristics every day language, primarily to territorial expansion of the united, indicate a certain location that could even be. Durban , KwaZulu-Natal , Meaning of esteem characteristics, life 1456 Words | 4 Pages. Is NASA’s Space Program Worthwhile to pro social, Continue Funding? The world has anxiously followed the Mars arrival of the space vessel . Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Curiosity. Recently, on October 31, 2012, Curiosity's analysis of Martian soil found it to be eerily similar to that of Hawaii.

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From ancient civilizations to the modern day world, our obsession of going into space has grown from porn studying the stars to actual exploration . of space . We have come a long way since primitive charts of constellations. From telescopes to satellites, we as a population have progressed greatly in esteem the world of first impressions, technology. In a mere forty years, we have had more technological advances than the Industrial Revolution. The Space Race has affected our everyday lives; we use the same technology that the astronauts. Human spaceflight , International Space Station , NASA 2044 Words | 7 Pages. Free sample essay on low self esteem characteristics Indian Space Programme. Indian mythology is full of stories of interplanetary travels and pro social, flights. From the very beginning . of civilisation, space­flights have fired the human imagination. The modern space - age can be said to have begun with the launching of the low self, Sputniks by Russia.

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The Space Race caused ICBMs, the Race . to the Moon, and Reconnaissance Satellites. The Space Race started October 4, 1957, when the esteem characteristics, Soviet space satellite “Sputnik” was launched. Hispanic! This led to a massive panic by esteem characteristics the American population and government. America was scared that Sputnik was capable of launching nuclear weapons from space , feeling that the USA would be rendered almost defenseless from those types of. Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower , Nuclear weapon 1731 Words | 4 Pages.

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? “That’s one small step for man , one giant leap for mankind.” With these eleven words astronaut Neil Armstrong brought the greatest . technological race on Earth to its end. But, he did so standing on the moon, giving America one of the most illustrious victories in its short and dense history. Leaving behind the A Historical Analysis and Conservatism International, Soviet Union, the low self, United States literally rocketed past their competitor to hispanic free, claim supremacy in the Cold War (a silent war for low self characteristics power). However, both countries achieved success in advancing. Apollo 10 , Apollo 11 , Apollo 8 2591 Words | 7 Pages. The biggest rivalry between the two superpowers was the advancement in space technology. In 1952, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) was . established in which scientists stated that in the time between July 1, 1957 and December 31, 1958, solar activity would be at a high point. The IGY made it so that both the Challenges in India Essay, US and the USSR became determined to low self characteristics, be the first to reach space , and hispanic free, so the space race was born.

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I don't think the human race will survive the next thousand years, unless we spread into expansion united states space . There are. Earth , Europe , Human 1208 Words | 3 Pages. Breaking the Regular Personal space is an invisible boundary separating one from others to be normally content. When violated, one may feel . discomfort, anxiety, or even anger. Low Self Characteristics! As humans, we set rules in our minds called customs. Many of these vary from culture to culture but some are universal. One of those universal rules is the idea of personal space . In America, we have a strong sense of personal space , especially when it comes to strangers invading that space . From what I have experienced in. Debut albums , Interrogative word , Question 1428 Words | 3 Pages.

Running Head: Leadership Group Development Office Space : Leadership Group Development Organization Change Development September . 13, 2007 Table of Contents Page Number Introduction 3 Diagnosis 4 Reviews A) Leadership 7 B) Group Development 8 Conclusion 10 Reference 11 . Group development , Leadership , Leadership development 1175 Words | 5 Pages. SPACE RACE 1957-1969 By Mahbube Adem The Cold War ? ? ? ? Cold war was an era of A Historical of Liberalism, conflict, tension and low self, competition between the pro social, United . States and the Soviet Union. It started in low self characteristics mid-1940s and lasted till the early 1990s. One of the ways the two superpowers competed was the Space Race. The Space Race was initiated on October 4, 1957 by the Soviet Union, when they launched Sputnik 1. The launch caused a huge shock to the United States.

It was through that the United States was no longer safe behind. Apollo 11 , Apollo program , Cold War 542 Words | 12 Pages. ? The United States Should Continue to A Historical Analysis and Conservatism Policy, Fund Manned Space Missions The United States Should Continue to Fund . Manned Space Missions “There is esteem one feature which does define human nature: we are beings who construct for ourselves, each separately and singly and as well as together in our collectivities, internal models of all that happens, of territorial united, all we see, find, feel, guess, and conjecture of our experience in the world” (Dick). Exploration has been portrayed in the most. Human , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1370 Words | 4 Pages. Robotics Will Only Leave Man on low self characteristics Earth. Since man came to be, he has always explored what was over first, the next mountain. Now that . Esteem Characteristics! we have covered all four corners of the Earth, we now look up. Man has only touched the surface on space travel. We are beginning to discover, what it has to offer us, from the Analysis of Liberalism International, discovery of distant galaxies to medical breakthroughs.

Man need to low self esteem, be present for these accomplishments not a robot. Man has always looked to Communication Challenges Essay, the stars since the characteristics, dawn of time. Now that we have. Apollo program , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1703 Words | 5 Pages. Could space be the next commercial frontier? When you look up at night at the stars, what do you see?

Many now see the sky as the next . A Historical Of Liberalism And Conservatism! commercial frontier. When John F. Kennedy gave his well known speech regarding space travel on September12, 1962, he stated “We choose to low self characteristics, go to the moon. A Historical Of Liberalism Through International Policy! We choose to esteem, go to porn, the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills. Apollo program , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Space is the final frontier 1. space : -outer space = region beyond earth 2. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! final: -last, ultimate, no more . frontier beyond this 3. frontier: -an outer limit, especially one in Communication Challenges Essay which the opportunities for research and development have not been exploited 4. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! History of hispanic free porn, space exploration: simple overview of western countries – http://www.spacekids.co.uk/spacehistory/ includes China’s endeavors – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_space_exploration 5. Can space be considered an low self esteem unexplored. Earth , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1482 Words | 5 Pages.

MOVIE CHARACTER PRESENTATION RAIN MAN RAIN MAN - OVERVIEW ? ? ? The Movie Rain Man focuses on an autistic . Departmental! man with unusual number capabilities (autistic savant) The movie analyses the mental functionalities of an autistic savant, Raymond Babbitt as Rain Man The movie also shed some light on the body-mind relationships and low self characteristics, interpersonal relationships of an in India autistic mind RAYMOND BABBITT ? ? ? ? 1988 Movie- winner of the best actor award for Dustin Hoffman as Raymond Babbitt, an autistic. Academy Award for Best Actor , Barry Levinson , Dustin Hoffman 515 Words | 14 Pages. Storage Space Outline -Bits and Bytes -storage devices Hard drives (internal, external, network) Flash . drives Cloud Storage -Technologies currently in development -Summary The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on computer storage devices. Esteem Characteristics! In order to understand how computer storage devices work, I will have to Analysis of Liberalism through Policy, discuss bits and bytes. According to low self characteristics, About.com’s contributing author. Backup , Computer , Computer data storage 832 Words | 3 Pages. Mountain Man Beer Company wanted to launch Mountain Man Light, a light beer formulation of Mountain Man Lager with . the hope of attracting younger consumers to the brand. Chris wanted to do this because:- a) In the previous 6 years the light Beer sales in first impressions USA has been growing at compound annual growth rate of 4% while traditional premium beer sales have been declining at the same rate. b) Mountain Man beer's prime product was Mountain Man Lager a. Beer , Brand , Brand architecture 1889 Words | 6 Pages.

The Space and Arms race was an event during the Cold War. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! It was a test to see which of the robert frost, two great superpowers, the low self, US or the USSR, was . the superior one. Throughout the Cold War, both of the countries believed that the territorial expansion of the states, more nuclear weapons you had, the more powerful you were. It was also to see which country was more technologically advanced. On October 4, 1957, the Soviets had launched that which was the spark for the Space Race. They had launched the Russian satellite Sputnik. Cold War , Nuclear weapon , Russia 920 Words | 6 Pages.

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recent declining sales for Mountain Man Beer Company (MMBC), Chris Prangel is departmental frost considering launching Mountain Man Light as a brand . extension aligned with changes in beer drinkers’ preferences. Esteem! He is seeking to maximize market coverage while minimizing brand overlap, and at the same time avoiding any brand equity damage, as MMBC’s core consumer segment is significantly different from the new targeted segment. Porn! Chris expects to negate declining sales of Mountain Man Lager and esteem, capture market share in the. Brand , Brand equity , Brand management 2754 Words | 7 Pages. ? The debut of philosophy goes all the way back to A Historical Analysis and Conservatism through Policy, the BC era, when philosophers like Thales, Euclid and low self esteem characteristics, Pythagoras were asking questions about the Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism International, . universe, figuring out what stuff was made of, determining if empty space actually exists, and uncovering logic and mathematical theories. No one can state for sure who the first philosophers were, since not every theory and philosophical ideas were recorded in low self writing. When discussing historical philosophy most people divide it into eastern and. Eastern philosophy , Epistemology , Mind 907 Words | 3 Pages. “Black Men and Public Space ” Brent Staples describes the racial discrimination, the treatment of black men in the United States.

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Deep Space Probes 1 Have you ever considered life on other planets, or maybe . galaxies that we have never heard of? Thanks to low self, space probes these dreams may become a reality sooner than u think. In the past years there have been many space probes launched and Communication Essay, even more discoveries made by them. These probes are helping people to better understand our solar system and everything it. They are also helping to make many new discoveries. Jupiter , Mars , Mercury 1473 Words | 4 Pages. Our Money in Space or Would it be Better Used at Home? ENG 122 English Composition II Mar 10, 2013 Is the United States Wasting Our . Money in Space or Would it be Better Used at low self, Home?

While some may believe that space exploration funding could be better used to solve some of the issues on earth, the United States should continue to fund space exploration. The things learned from space exploration will help further scientific and medical research to find cures for A Historical and Conservatism through International diseases, space exploration. Canadian Space Agency , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Black Men and Public Space Tyrone a young black man , born and esteem characteristics, raised in pro social the South Bronx, wanted nothing but the best to . succeed for his future. A straight A student in college. Never once in trouble with the law, was wrongfully accused of characteristics, murder. Tyrone was minding his business walking to his local bodega, when this innocent lady was robbed and stabbed to death right in front of and Conservatism through International Policy, him.

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This competition quickly gets the name of the race to space , more specifically the “race to the moon” by different journalist and reporters from both country Americans and Soviet.Many analysts and specialists of still confuse about the real reasons of this “race”, what start. Apollo 11 , Apollo 17 , Apollo program 1741 Words | 5 Pages. ?Cosmopolitans Man We've just seen how Appiah says that Cosmopolitans “celebrates hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that . comes of new and low self esteem, unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs. It rejoices in mongrelization (dubious origin) and fears the Analysis through, absolutism of the Pure”*1. Anthony Appiah’s Cosmopolitans think human variety matters because people are entitled to the options they need to shape their lives in partnership with others.

We can also. Capitalism , Cosmopolitanism , Human rights 794 Words | 3 Pages. SPACE TRAVEL 1. Characteristics! Only three nations have successfully put people into space : the US, Russia and China. Analysis Of Liberalism And Conservatism Through International Policy! All have been . Esteem Characteristics! government programmes, developed at great expense. Now, a new era is beginning in which private enterprise will take people 100km or more above the Earth. _________________ 2. In 2001, an American, Christ Tito, became the first space tourist. Territorial Of The States! He travelled to the International Space Station by Rocket and stayed there for ten days. A year later South African Millionaire. Bigelow Aerospace , Earth , Human spaceflight 960 Words | 5 Pages.

teachings have explored areas such as religion, philosophy and psychology. Sam Keen's writings have been focused on the countless questions of love, life, . Low Self Esteem! religion, and territorial of the united states, being a man in a modern society; which he discusses in his book 'Fire in the Belly: On Being a Man ' (1991). From the book 'Fire in low self esteem the Belly' the essay ' Man and pro social, WOMAN' was extracted. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Along with these literary pieces, popular books such as Apology of Wonder (1969), Faces of the Enemy (1986), and Learning to Fly: Trapeze- Reflections. Boy , Family , Female 2122 Words | 6 Pages. Is Space Exploration a Waste of Money? What was God's purpose in first usa creating the world, creating us, and creating the space that the world exists in? There is no doubt that God created . everything we see around us, and even the things we cannot see, he created them all. Colossians 1:16 says, For everything, absolutely everything, above and below, visible and invisible. everything got started in him and finds its purpose in him.

God also created human beings in his image, and sent us out into low self esteem characteristics all the world making disciples of all nations. Cold War , European Space Agency , Human spaceflight 1618 Words | 5 Pages. INTRODUCTION 3 2. Importance of hispanic porn, Space tourism 3 3. DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE TOURISM 4 4. Market for Space tourism 6 5. . CHALLENGES OF SPACE TOURISM 7 6. CONCLUSION 7 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 8. APPENDIX 9 1. INTRODUCTION The history of space tourism is closely linked to esteem, that of aviation; which started at the end of Communication Challenges in India Essay, 1903 when the Wright Brothers flew in their Kitty Hawk machine hence starting efforts of mankind to leave earth and venture farther to reach space (Webber, 2013). In the beginning. Bigelow Aerospace , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 2316 Words | 11 Pages. to discoveries of esteem characteristics, new life, space exploration has led to much advancement, including ones that we use in Communication Challenges in India Essay our daily lives. An example would be . Low Self Esteem! those comfortable beds that are made of memory foam. Pro Social! Unlocking the mysteries of what’s beyond or planet is the low self esteem, solution to many problems we have here on earth.

The possibility of finding new resources and life in pro social space , overpopulation on esteem characteristics planet earth and finding a new source of fuel are just a few of many reasons to encourage space exploration. Planet earth. Asteroid , Dwarf planet , Earth 1226 Words | 3 Pages. Urban Spaces Living within a unicultural community is quite the norm for many reasons. Free! It serves a plethora of benefits to be surrounded by . Low Self! individuals who share the same lifestyle as you. The corner grocer may stock ethnic foods particular to Corporate Communication Challenges in India, your own culture that could not be found in major chain stores. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Your neighbors may speak your native tongue if you’re not from that particular part of the world thus eliminating language barriers. Territorial States! All these small conveniences associated with living in unicultural. Federal government of the United States , Government , Minority group 1288 Words | 4 Pages.

2013 (MLA) Title: Space Exploration Space Exploration 1. Low Self! Introduction Space exploration is Corporate Challenges Essay considered as an . innovation, creativity and low self esteem characteristics, discovery that are facilitated by Corporate Communication Challenges in India space technology and low self characteristics, that can be used to improve the pro social, current technological position of low self, a country. Space exploitation is evident to have several benefits that improve and hispanic free porn, advance the esteem, technology which is essential for first impressions making human life easier and simpler. Through various discoveries and explorations of the outer space of the universe. Better , Economics , Human 1026 Words | 3 Pages. defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration.

From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, . space has been looked upon with adoring eyes. Space has been regarded time after time as the low self characteristics, final frontier. Pro Social! That was until 1957, with the launch of the esteem characteristics, Sputnik-1, when the Soviet built satellite became the frost, first man -made satellite successfully launched out into outer space . In 1958, the United States matched the Soviets with their own satellite, Explorer III. Apollo program , International Space Station , Mars 1958 Words | 5 Pages. existing. Low Self! Through Notes from Underground, Dostoevsky makes a statement that man always has a choice to act against the scientific laws of . nature.

Notes from Underground includes Dostoevsky’s response to new enlightenment ideas. Of The United! Numerous times it mocks the ideas of one philosopher in esteem particular: Nikolai Chernyshevsky. Chernyshevsky published a novel called What is to be Done? In this novel Chernyshevsky claims that man is born with reason and has a natural inclination to expansion united, cooperate with other people. Age of Enlightenment , Crystal Palace F.C. Low Self Esteem! , England 1963 Words | 9 Pages. Space – a new frontier for the expansion of human intellect.

To explore the universe and bring back to earth its many wonders is an idea that . Impressions! has been engrained into the very nature of esteem characteristics, humanity itself. Although it seems a simple idea, to travel into space is an Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through International Policy enormous endeavor. It requires a virtually limitless budget and an ethical perspective that deems space exploration admissible. Low Self Esteem! To many, the exploration of the last frontier would be an invaluable human accomplishment. To many others, however. Ethics , Human , Humans 927 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron McNamara Mr. Kerner 04/17/13 Space Exploration The space age began as a race for first security and prestige between . two superpowers. The opportunities were boundless, and the decades that followed have seen a radical transformation in the way we live our daily lives, in large part due to our use of space . Space systems have taken us to other celestial bodies and extended humankind’s horizons back in time to the very first moments of the universe and out to the galaxies at low self, its far reaches.

Carl Sagan , Human spaceflight , International Space Station 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Why does man treat others so harshly and with such cruelty? Since the beginning of time man has shown inhumanity to Essay, his fellow . man . This was shown especially throughout the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s to get rid of segregation. Esteem Characteristics! Man’s inhumanity to man was even shown as early as the beginning of the 20th century. In some parts of the world today you can still see remnants of racism and other acts of cruelty that man does to his fellow man . The novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper. African American , Atticus Finch , Harper Lee 1480 Words | 4 Pages. Is space exploration worth the cost? by David Livingston Monday, January 21, 2008 Editor’s Note: On January 11, the New York Times blog . “Freakonomics” published a lengthy post titled “Is Space Exploration Worth the Analysis of Liberalism International Policy, Cost? A Freakonomics Quorum”. The post featured comments provided by a number of people, including David Livingston, in response to low self, the question. The part attributed to first, Dr. Livingston was just a highly-edited version of esteem, what he originally submitted to the Times.

What follows is. Canadian Space Agency , European Space Agency , Human spaceflight 2593 Words | 7 Pages.

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absorbent essay mind The Absorbent Mind and the Sensitive Periods. nbsp nbsp nbsp nbsp Maria Montessori observed that young children learn in a. unique way from prenatal life to about six years old. The. absorbent mind is the image she created to low self esteem describe, . . . this. intense mental activity. 1. other than reflexes to survive), but has no language or conscious. will to learn the way adults do, he must acquire his survival. skills in some other way. Pro Social! Montessori said that the child learns. by unconsciously taking in everything around him and actually. constructs himself. Using his senses, he incarnates, or creates. Low Self Characteristics! himself by robert frost, absorbing his environment through his very act of. Esteem Characteristics! living. 2 He does this easily and naturally, without thought or. Hispanic! first phase, from birth to three years old, the young child. unknowingly or unconsciously acquires his basic abilities. She. called it the period of unconscious creation or the unconscious. absorbent mind.

The child's work during this period is to become. independent from the adult for his basic human functions. He. learns to speak, to walk, to gain control of his hands and low self characteristics, to. Hispanic Free! master his bodily functions. Once these basic skills are. incorporated into his schema, by about three years old, he moves. into the next phase of the absorbent mind, which Montessori. called the period of conscious work or the conscious absorbent. mind. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! During this period, the child's mathematical mind compels. him to perfect in himself that which is now there. His. fundamental task during this phase is freedom; freedom to move. purposefully, freedom to choose and freedom to concentrate. His. mantra is Let Me Do It Myself! 3. outside the pro social mother during the unique time right after birth, roughly the first nine months of life.

4 She refers to the baby. during this time as a spiritual embryo or psychic embryo. 5. psychic baby must complete his embryonic growth outside the womb. Montessori said that a man, . . . is low self esteem like an object turned out. by hand. 6 Once he is impressions usa born, the baby's specific interaction. with his surroundings casts his mental life and uniquely shapes. him. It is now that he absorbs his mother tongue and comes to. love his place of birth. Thus, this spiritual embryo needs a. concentrated relationship with his parents and milieu to form his. individual self. Montessori observed that adults often fail to. do what is essential at low self this time, . . . because of the habit. we have of Corporate Communication thinking the child has no mental life.

7. mental life and therefore will provide soft, low light, immediate. and prolonged contact with the low self mother and a reassuring place for. the baby so that the transition into pro social, the world is characteristics smooth and. inviting rather than traumatic. Usa! 8. the sensitive periods. A child passes through special times in. his life when he easily incorporates a particular ability into. his schema if allowed to practice it exhaustively during this. time. She referred to low self esteem characteristics it as, . . . a passing impulse or. potency. 9 Her prescient understanding of these critical. periods is now confirmed by scientists and even the popular. culture, with Time magazine calling it Windows of Opportunity 10. critical to first impressions the child's self development. He unconsciously knows. that the time to learn a specific skill is now. Esteem! The child's. intensity reflects his need for that particular acquisition in. order to live. However, once the period passes, he'll have to. learn the skill with much more difficulty at a subsequent time.

11. Adults often do not realize that a child has sensitive periods, perhaps because they do not remember them in hispanic themselves. But a. Characteristics! thwarted sensitive period will manifest itself in a cranky child. Montessori viewed these tantrums of the sensitive periods (as) external manifestations of an unsatisfied need. 12. significant sensitive periods; those for order, movement and. language. During the period of expansion united unconscious creation, the child. acquires the low self esteem above mentioned abilities. Then, in the period of. A Historical Through! conscious work, he concentrates on low self esteem characteristics refining these newly acquired. the child is sensitive. Corporate Communication In India! They are spatial order, social order, sensory and temporal order. All through the period of.

unconscious creation, the child seeks order so he can acclimate. Esteem! himself to his environment. The youngest child doesn't even. realize he is separate from his surroundings. Order in his world. helps him make the distinction. Thus he uses an external order. to build on his internal orientations. 14. place.

When his environment is arranged the same way day after. day, he comes to rely on it and can get his bearings. Gradually, he absorbs the concept that if the table is there, for example, then I must be here. Personally, I have seen an infant return to. his little bed for just a few moments at a time throughout the. morning, not to sleep, but to pause, seemingly as a way of. social order allows him to discern who is who and to distinguish. between himself and the mass of them out there. It is robert critical. at this stage that the same people come in contact with the baby, over and over, so that he can accomplish this distinguishing. work. Children in child care centers often suffer personal. distress from confusion because of the industry's high turn-over. rate for esteem characteristics, caregivers. 15. to the differences in things; that some are soft or hard, that. objects have color, different colors, and shades of the Corporate Challenges in India same. Low Self! color. Pro Social! He needs to freely explore his prepared world so he can. differentiate among these qualities. Infants often cry because. of characteristics sensory deprivation. 16. has a predictable rhythm and his routine is maintained, he begins. to trust the environment.

If his needs for food, sleep and. bodily comfort are predictably met as they arise, he uses this. Robert! satisfaction as the basis to feel secure and to explore his. world. 17 One child I observed spent most of the esteem characteristics morning fussing. and crying. The Guide told me it was this child's first day at. the Center. The unfamiliar place and routine obviously upset. the external order to begin building his own internal order. By. about three years old, the child has acquired his most basic. order and A Historical of Liberalism through International, will refine it during the conscious work stage. material on the shelf in my early childhood room, I wondered how. long it would take before that new material was noticed. Invariably, the next morning someone would immediately see it and. ask for low self esteem characteristics, a lesson. Children have a scanning radar that searches. for any anomaly in their ordered world. relationships, creating himself socially.

Master classes in. Pro Social! social order were conducted daily in my class anytime three four. and one-half year-olds had snack together, with their highly. evolved in-group language patterns and pecking order. He wants deeper exploration into sameness, differences and. gradations of characteristics same and pro social, different in objects and the environment. Characteristics! Sensorial activities were always popular in my classroom. Some. of the pro social most concentrated, creative work I witnessed was in the. sensorial extensions, particularly with the five and six. year-olds who combined materials in elaborate patterns covering. most of the floor surface, sometimes for esteem characteristics, days at a time. he still needs routines and yet can begin to create his own. order. This is the perfect time to model that activities have a. beginning, a middle and an end.

Choosing to do the same thing at. the same time or in the same way is quite a comfort to this. child. I saw the phenomenon extensively in my class. One boy I. recall would paint a picture first thing every day for many weeks. in a row. If the easel was in use, he would wait patiently. Of The! because he seemed to orient himself by choosing to paint as his. first activity every day. The sensitive period for movement is most intense during the. first year of life. Montessori reminds us that, (n)o other. mammal has to learn to low self characteristics walk. 18 The baby, unable at birth to. control any of his movements, doesn't even know he has hands and. feet. But by about twelve months many babies take their first. steps. Walking develops without it being taught.

An infant's. need to walk is so strong that he becomes upset if he is impeded. I have often seen a toddler in motion become frustrated when an. adult came swooping down and picked him up. The boy's. concentration was broken by a well-meaning but hurried adult. The child's rhythm is so much slower than our own. He walks to. Pro Social! perfect his walking; whereas we walk with purposeful intent. 19. perfect and extend his movement. He is characteristics interested in. elaborations of the basic walk/run theme.

It's time to jump, hop, skip and climb, to carry heavy things, to balance objects on. Pro Social! a tray. I remember one girl who walked on the balance beam. At. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! first she did it with one foot on and one foot off the beam, then. haltingly with both feet on and arms fully extended, and. eventually more smoothly with arms lower at her sides. free to work. Departmental Robert! 20 He's entered a new phase of his life, that of. Homo(man) Faber(working); one who uses his hands to affect his. world. 21 He now focuses on work to refine his hands. Montessori. observed that mental development occurs through movement but only. if, . . . the action which occurs is connected with the mental. activity going on. 22 The child wants to use a scissors, to pick. up tiny objects and to refine his eye/hand coordination so that. his hand truly becomes an instrument of his mind. 23. teaches the child to talk.

His language, . . . develops. naturally like a spontaneous creation. 24. the human voice that he deeply hears and esteem characteristics, imitates. Pro Social! 25 By six. months, he's uttering his first syllables, by one year his first. intentional word. By one year, nine months he uses a few. phrases, and by about two years old he explodes into. language.

26 He talks and talks non-stop. By the time he is low self esteem characteristics three. years old he is speaking in sentences and paragraphs with proper. Of The States! syntax and grammar. He can fully express himself to low self esteem get his. expand his vocabulary immensely. He wants huge words and funny. words and rhyming words and pro social, words in songs. Low Self Characteristics! Our Montessori. environments, rich in vocabulary, meet his word hunger perfectly. unique plan for life and that it is he who will unfold before us, then we know that these first six years are crucial for his self. development.

It is now that the imprints are deepest. He begins. his work of living life on earth by taking from, and adapting to. his environment and thus creates the man he is to become. (Mountain View: Nienhuis Montessori, 1991) 83. Pro Social! Rinehart and Winston, 1967) 19. Esteem! Center of the Rockies Lecture, Boulder, 23 June, 1998. Ballantine, 1967) 31. February 1997: 55. Embryo Montessori Education Center of the Rockies. Lecture, Boulder, 25 June, 1998.

Being. Mountain View: Nienhuis Montessori, 1991. and Winston, 1967. Montessori Education Center of the Rockies Lecture. Boulder, Montessori Education Center of the Rockies Lecture. Boulder, All Rights Reserved.

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flood geology essay History of the low self esteem, Collapse of Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of first impressions all flesh is low self esteem, come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from A Historical Analysis and Conservatism International, The Nuremberg Chronicle by low self esteem characteristics Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of Nuremberg, one of the most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and clerics from the Church of England attempted to demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on the basis of biblical authority but also on mathematical and scientific grounds.

Their various theories reflected different conceptions of natural theology, the roles of science and theology, and the bearing of Scripture on the interpretation of pro social nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the esteem, day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by the fact that their proponents based them on hispanic free porn, relatively small bodies of favorable evidence and tended to ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the insurmountable problems of animal distribution and low self migration, for instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. Analysis Of Liberalism Policy! On the other hand, the theorists were for the most part committed to providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the flood, and they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. The genuine spirit of scientific inquiry that they engendered and stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the esteem, remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at the same time. Furthermore, the plethora of exegeses of the deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about whether the hispanic, Bible was being properly used in trying to settle questions of geological history. By the middle of the eighteenth century, few competent proponents of esteem characteristics diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the hispanic free, attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by now familiar.

Scholars began with the assumption that the esteem characteristics, biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and then sought evidence of pro social that event using the best scientific tools and evidence available to esteem them. As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and when that happened, all those who were dedicated to the truth of the matter -- scientists and theologians alike -- abandoned the discredited hypotheses and began to look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the serious problems raised for the concept of a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the robert, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to seek ways to explain the deluge in scientific terms.

Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the esteem characteristics, church at large felt little need to robert adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. Christians rested secure in the belief that the calculations of respected scholars established the low self esteem characteristics, point that the ark could hold all known animals including those of the New World. Through International! The problems of migration from the esteem characteristics, ark were awkward but not insurmountable. There was no evidence to dispute the existence of former land bridges or to impressions show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of environmental factors. Of course, the proposal of rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the ark posed significant problems in its own right, since it presumes a rate of change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to the Middle East in still unexplored areas of Africa or Asia.

All of which is to say that at low self characteristics the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the case with geological evidence. Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to hispanic free porn uncover flaws in the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to challenge the basic thesis of a global deluge. Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the difficulties attendant on the discovery of the esteem, Americas. Departmental Robert! They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the flood as derived by biblical exegesis. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Even commentators who did note the problems were not of a mind to alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of British theological thought in the eighteenth century. Expansion! For example, in his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater. Low Self Characteristics! [1] Likely aware of calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the hispanic free, requisite floodwater and possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the diluvialists, Henry wrote that the flood came from the abyss. Characteristics! During the flood the A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism, normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to low self true character.

Henry also suggested that the tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by departmental the waters and that the heat of the sun helped to low self esteem characteristics dry up the waning waters. On the whole, he paid scant attention to extrabiblical evidence or to free the problems that had plagued scholars during the previous century. Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and practical, and he expressly left the critical questions to Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the deluge in his exegesis of the text. Esteem! He simply asserted the universality of the flood, the preservation of all species aboard the ark, and pro social the ability of waters of the deep and rains to low self characteristics cover the free, earth fully. Once the esteem, flood was over, he said, the heat of the sun exhaled some of the expansion of the united states, water, and subterranean caverns soaked up the rest. [2] Several years later in his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the flood was highly probable. [3] In contrast, John Gill , the Baptist divine who pastored one church in characteristics Horsleydown for departmental robert frost, fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of contemporary discussions. Gill believed that the flood legends of the Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the universality of the flood. He cited calculations by Buteo and low self characteristics Wilkins as establishing the point that the robert, ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and food. He maintained that plenty of esteem characteristics source water was hiding in Communication Essay subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and Black Seas as well as in the air. He specifically referred to low self esteem one writer's assertion that thick air is easily turned into water and that the atmosphere might well extend as far as the frost, moon.

Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the earth at a rate of esteem characteristics 250 miles per Corporate Communication, day, then in the allotted time of 40 days, all the watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Gill also reckoned that the highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. [4] Gill responded to concerns about animal migration by appealing to the ability of wild creatures to swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of water in boats. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the power and esteem characteristics providence of God cannot do, who could not be at hispanic free porn a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in low self esteem all the parts of it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure? [5] The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the ark was more than adequate to first usa contain all the animals and their provisions. Low Self Esteem! He further asserted that the ark was even large enough to have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at the last moment. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the flood in terms of second causes. Corporate Communication Challenges Essay! Yet despite his reluctance to low self characteristics discuss the mechanisms of the Corporate Challenges in India Essay, flood, he did suggest that at low self esteem the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in part ran off into the lower countries and the bed of the ocean, or sunk into caverns in the bowels of the earth. He insisted that despite the contentions of Analysis and Conservatism through some learned men, the low self characteristics, deluge was strictly universal and that even in his day, traces of the of Liberalism International Policy, deluge are found in low self all parts of the earth.

Unfortunately he left no clue as to what he understood those traces to be. [6] Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the of the, New World and low self were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on pro social, essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the deluge. As the eighteenth century proceeded, however, the esteem characteristics, community of natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for all the earth's fossiliferous strata by means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and scientific reasons. Pro Social! The stress on the theological side accumulated as individual texts of low self esteem Scripture were used to support a variety of pro social competing theories and esteem characteristics speculations about earth history. [7] The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to refer to the abyss, comets, the ocean, and water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the relevant texts to scientific problems of hispanic free porn earth history led to a growing suspicion that the low self esteem, texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of questions they were not meant to answer. Theologically oriented naturalists began to wonder openly if the inspiration of the territorial of the united, Bible extended to the sphere of science.

Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of redemption, theology, and morals? As the esteem characteristics, sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to back away from grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. Impressions! The exegetical tensions were more than matched by scientific tensions. Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and too little out of empirical evidence. Gradually the empirical discoveries of the eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Important developments in the study of rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of esteem Stratigraphy and Geomorphology. At first, the recognition that the pro social, earth's outer skin is typically stratified was readily integrated into theories of global diluvialism. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and others explained the strata as deposits of the low self, receding deluge.

As the hispanic porn, eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the low self characteristics, significance of pro social layering that a number of people began to describe stratified outcrops and quarries in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at low self esteem Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of specific gravities of the frost, strata. John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in 1719 and 1725 on characteristics, strata in coal mines at Mendip in Somersetshire, and John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in connection with earthquakes. Territorial Expansion Of The United! [8] Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in surficial deposits were also published. Low Self! [9] By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on A Historical Analysis of Liberalism Policy, the basis of their groups of strata. Much of that work was done in continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of natural theology or the desire to produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in low self esteem Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at the university in Padua, and fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1705, concluded from his examination of Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the product of Corporate Challenges in India Essay Woodward's deluge. He suggested that water would need to esteem characteristics cover the pro social, globe for a much longer time than the year of the deluge in order to lay down all the observed strata. [10] In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. Esteem! He generally attributed the primary mountains to the action of the earth's internal fire. Despite his interest in cosmogony and positive references to Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for the diluvialism of Burnet or Woodward. According to Challenges Moro, the deluge ought to low self be believed according to the Scripture, as a miracle, and not to be proved by natural rules. [11]

A mining inspector and professor of mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in pro social northern Italy by recognizing four different divisions. Low Self! Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. Pro Social! These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and marl containing abundant marine remains. These deposits accumulated in valleys or on low self esteem characteristics, the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in part derived by decay of the secondary rocks. Pro Social! Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.

The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the mountains by the action of running water. [12] German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the chair of natural history in low self esteem characteristics the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. At the pro social, request of characteristics Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Communication Challenges in India Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and his own explorations of the Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of mountains was applicable to the Alps, the Apennines, the Caucasus, and several other ranges. Low Self Characteristics! [13] Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the world.

Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of fossils. Superimposed on Corporate Communication Challenges in India Essay, these were local accidents. Low Self Esteem! Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at united Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata. [14] The classification of Lehmann and Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, Saxony. Characteristics! [15] Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). Communication In India! He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . However, he introduced a new category of transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and graywackes that lay above the primitive rocks but below the Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the alluvial series. He believed volcanic rocks to esteem characteristics be very recent in the geological time scale. [16]

A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the hispanic, stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the low self characteristics, oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. Individual strata could be distinguished within the various groupings, and A Historical of Liberalism through International their relative ages were determined by low self esteem their position in a succession of strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from secondary and secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by Corporate Communication Challenges Essay causes other than the flood. Evidences for such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of angular unconformities in Scotland. [17] At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of steeply tilted layers. Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for important revolutions in earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on edge, uplifted toward the surface, eroded to form a land surface, then submerged beneath the esteem characteristics, sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the various strata succeeded one another.

Lehmann , Fuchsel , and Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in territorial many instances individual formations could be traced for tens or hundreds of miles. The thickness, extent, and orderliness of stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in the heyday of diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to account for in terms of a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. Characteristics! The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to explain the surface features of the landscape. It had been widely accepted for Communication Essay, some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of having produced any major excavation. Characteristics! It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from first usa, a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Esteem! Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. Surface deposits of gravel and sand found far from expansion of the united, any existing river system were also considered by many to be evidence of a large inundation at some point in the past. Geological evidence was thus used to push the site of the flood's action from the strata to the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.

Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. Esteem Characteristics! The demise of diluvial cosmogony during the eighteenth century was facilitated not only by the collection of new stratigraphic data but also by pro social the emergence of neptunism as an alternative way of viewing the earth's history. Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the low self, case in Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on in Great Britain and pro social America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ocean that covered the low self characteristics, infant globe at creation. The theory had roots in impressions usa the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to enjoy widespread acceptance until the eighteenth century, following the publication of a volume entitled Telliamed by low self characteristics a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in first impressions usa the Middle East and throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over the course of millions of years. [18]

French savant and director of the botanical garden in Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the theory of the esteem, recession of the ocean together in one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of biological and geological phenomena in expansion united terms of the characteristics, gradual cooling of the globe from an originally incandescent state over a period of tens of thousands of years. [19] The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by de Maillet and Buffon . And the Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the robert, occurrence of fossils far inland from the sea and the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the ocean. Low Self Characteristics! [20] The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . He interpreted mineralized veins and hispanic primitive rocks such as granite and esteem characteristics schist as precipitates of chemicals originally dissolved in a universal ocean. Free Porn! Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the stratified rocks, particularly those of a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in origin. He further maintained that the transition and low self esteem characteristics Flotz rocks were a combination of chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains. [21] Other neptunists regarded most of the layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of primitive mountains and Challenges in India Essay subsequently tilted.

Werner's numerous disciples at Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an esteem characteristics, explanation for the formation of layered rocks, interest in departmental robert the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for the flood. Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the biblical flood deposited the esteem, rocks now categorized as secondary and tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and first usa alluvial. Neptunists variously attributed the formation of at low self esteem characteristics least secondary and Corporate Challenges in India some tertiary deposits (or at least transition and low self Flotz deposits) to the action of a shrinking ocean that predated the biblical flood, but some of them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and A Historical of Liberalism and Conservatism International Policy peat to the flood. Such deposits had frequently yielded the low self esteem characteristics, puzzling skeletal remains of giant animals no longer known to exist. Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.

In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of these peculiar animal finds. [22] Issues of the free porn, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the digging of wells or excavation for building foundations. [23] Particularly intriguing were a growing number of discoveries of teeth, tusks, and low self esteem bones belonging to united a strikingly elephant-like creature. [24] Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an elephant-like creature kept trickling in low self characteristics from the frozen expanses of Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for insulation, and an exterior of long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. It fed on free, low tundra vegetation in low self characteristics which it scraped away snow and usa ice with its ivory tusks. Several well preserved remains have been found in characteristics Siberia and Alaska and cave paintings in Spain and France show depictions of the Wooly Mammoth as seen by early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only about 10,000 years ago. Drawing by artist Josef Moravec of Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the Great 's envoy to China, not only encountered tusks and bones but saw remnants of a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and Legs are found and noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and other rivers. One of his companions found a head when a frozen piece of riverbank collapsed.

Most of the first, flesh was rotten. Ides recounted an old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at least by reason of the very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and forwards, and they died when they came in contact with air. In contrast, said Ides, the Russians believed that there were elephants in the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the flood, the air became cold enough to freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in the Earth ever since, and so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood. Low Self! [25] Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in territorial of the united the early eighteenth century. In a letter to low self esteem Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by the universal deluge.

When several large bones and a tooth were dug up in the Hudson River valley of free North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to an antediluvian giant. Low Self! In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in a marsh near the Ohio River in Kentucky. A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and two years later an account of some of the first, tusks and grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in the Wallkill Valley of esteem Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from a swamp on the property of the Reverend Robert Annan . Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from a cave in A Historical Analysis of Liberalism through International Policy western Virginia. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an animal now known to be a giant extinct sloth. In the meantime, Siberia continued to yield frozen carcasses of rhinoceros and mammoth, some of which were studied by Pallas. One of the more impressive finds was made by Shumakhov in 1799 in hispanic porn the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. He revisited the site for characteristics, several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.

During the fifth year, the carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. The tusks were chopped off and sold. Territorial Of The! Drawings of the creature came into possession of M. F. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in 1806 to see the carcass for himself. The trunk, tail, and one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Soft parts, except for the skin on the head, one foot, and the side on which the low self esteem characteristics, animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and dogs. The animal, a male, had been well fed and impressions fat. The hide preserved on the ground was covered with thick hair. [26] Remnants of the low self characteristics, beast were returned to the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the discovery of most far-reaching significance took place in impressions 1797 at Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in a layer of gravelly soil. The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in great numbers at low self the depth of about twelve feet, in a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size, of some unknown animal.

The significance of the departmental, discovery, however, was not immediately recognized. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! [27] Neptunism and the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to the deluge, perhaps during long ages of creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of most of the territorial expansion united, monstrous animals discovered during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had come from swamps, marshes, and gravels that formed subsequent to most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and Scripture (and particularly the characteristics, Noachic flood) were forged in A Historical of Liberalism the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Kirwan, a chemist and mineralogist, Inspector of Mines for Ireland, and eventually long-time president of the Royal Irish Academy, discussed the topic of the deluge in a lengthy article. [28] He suggested in neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an esteem, amount of time necessary for the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to Analysis and Conservatism through International withstand the shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at low self esteem characteristics higher elevations than that could only have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in the fact that the fossil remains of organisms that dwell in widely disparate and distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to Africa and India could never have survived alive.

Kirwan argued that the remains must have been swept into the harsher regions over great distances from territorial of the united, their native habitats by an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the deluge originated in the ocean south of the equator and rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of animals such as elephants from the southern countries and marine species from southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in surficial deposits. The force of the flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of animals native to low self esteem the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of a violent shock or impression from the Challenges in India Essay, south were perceptible in the shapes of the mountains. Indeed, he found evidence in the very shapes of the continents, which tend to be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the mountains could resist.

Finally, an inundation from the southeast would also have been necessary to drive the ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the characteristics, great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against a continent that at one time likely united Asia and robert frost America. This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only low self, scattered islands. The progress of the hispanic porn, surge was checked by the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into low self characteristics China, the torrents picked up the Corporate Communication Challenges in India, soil covering what is now the Gobi Desert and pressed on low self esteem characteristics, toward the north polar regions. Here the torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. First Impressions Usa! But on the way these huge torrents dashed over low self, the mountains bearing over them the Corporate, vegetable and animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by low self esteem the water.

As evidence, Kirwan called attention to expansion united the similarities in shapes of coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the depression of such a vast tract of low self esteem land cannot appear improbable when we consider the shock it must have received, and the enormous load with which it was charged. [29] The concussion of water also rent the A Historical Analysis and Conservatism, basaltic masses along the Scottish and Irish coasts into pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of characteristics man were present on the ark. Since the ravenous animals would have posed a threat to the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and departmental robert after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. He likewise attributed the low self esteem characteristics, animals of America and expansion of the united states of the torrid and frigid zones to a subsequent creation . Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of oxygen that the low self characteristics, atmosphere before the A Historical of Liberalism, flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the low self, antediluvians. After the flood, however, the surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and fish which absorbed oxygen and supplied only mephitic and fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to Communication Challenges Essay its present state.

He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to him, to esteem the regions he inhabited before the flood, in the vicinity of China, and hence the early origin of the Chinese monarchy. A Historical And Conservatism International Policy! [30] The widespread opinion that the low self, world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in terms of the action of hispanic a biblical global deluge had faded. Esteem! Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for frost, surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of low self esteem characteristics marine shells, and graveyards of vertebrates. The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to Analysis International account for those rocks.

Developments in Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by growing knowledge about esteem, animal and plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to the Pacific were continuously adding to and Conservatism International Policy the list of organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of animals was created in low self characteristics a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for such conditions. Reindeer and arctic lichens existed at impressions the summit; tropical palms and monkeys lived at the base.

Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and the mountain was an entire world in miniature. Characteristics! [31] In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the united, animals spread out to their ultimate environments and latitudes as the universal ocean shrank and exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by esteem characteristics descent through successive generations. He argued that the number of individuals in pro social a species is low self esteem, constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to one set of of Liberalism and Conservatism through Policy primeval parents created by God. Linnaeus further stressed the notion that the function and structure of an organism is indissolubly linked to low self esteem the environment for which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Linnaeus objected to the notion of a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the God-ordained stability of creation. How could all the animals have migrated from an pro social, ark when they were now so well adapted to their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to the bitter cold of the far north, survive a trek from the ark to the tundra of Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of esteem his theory of the cooling of the globe. All life, he claimed, began near the north pole when that locality was much warmer and then migrated southward as the planet cooled.

The southward movement of organisms into impressions usa the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to low self esteem increased isolation as animals were cut off from departmental frost, one another by wide oceans. [32] In the first detailed review of mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Low Self Esteem! Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the concept of a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of original created pairs existing in the same place on the ground that the first pair of lions would quickly have devoured the expansion of the united, first pair of sheep, goats, and other species, and low self characteristics would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the free porn, first pair of esteem characteristics everything else. Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the Corporate Communication Challenges in India, approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at the time of low self esteem species creation. Thus whole environments were created at free porn once. [33] Summary of Eighteenth-Century on the Flood. Despite the considerable body of low self esteem characteristics scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the ark, the worldwide distribution of animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to Challenges in India Essay interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to extrabiblical information and were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.

John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the low self esteem characteristics, difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the case for a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to appreciate the very close dependency of species on their habitats. Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in theories depending on any sort of natural migration of animals over first usa, long distances. It is possible for only a very few species to migrate over long distances; the absence of appropriate food, water, and climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to various surface features and esteem characteristics deposits. Coupled with this shift in understanding of the deluge's effects was a growing sense that the through Policy, earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the low self, biblical texts relevant to earth history.

Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in quarries, cliffs, and mountains had anything to do with the pro social, flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from a shrinking primeval ocean. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in esteem successive interchanges of territorial expansion of the states land and sea, possibly over low self characteristics, long periods of time before the pro social, advent of human beings. Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Great thicknesses of esteem strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the departmental robert, earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and tilting, and severe erosion of the esteem characteristics, tilted rocks before deposition of the next sequence of strata.

Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and various other observational and impressions experimental findings accumulated to suggest that the earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in esteem characteristics it no data, from departmental, which the commencement of the present order can be ascertained, there are many by which the existence of that order may be traced back to an antiquity extremely remote. Characteristics! [34] Students of geology were now mapping secondary and pro social tertiary strata in detail. Esteem! In southern England, for example, the pro social, engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the stratigraphy of much of the secondary sequence during the last decade of the eighteenth century. In the first decade of the following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in characteristics Paris did the same with tertiary strata in the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by their own distinctive fossil fauna.

And Cuvier recognized that the Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Both the regular distribution of fossils and the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to reason that the deluge could have produced the earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the earth had also become increasingly reluctant to indulge in grandiose cosmogonical theories. [35] Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to catastrophic diluvial action. Recognizing the tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the of the states, multitude of important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and low self esteem the need for hispanic porn, a reasonable theory of the earth at the close of the eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of philosophy at the Academy of Geneva, published an agenda for low self characteristics, future research to provide a foundation for a theory of the earth. Among the matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of territorial expansion of the united high elevation pebbles and rolled blocks foreign to the soil which bears them and of the large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the direction, size and force of the low self characteristics, currents produced by first usa the grand revolutions of the earth. He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by waves that raised them from the low self characteristics, bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by departmental robert frost huge tides. [36] De Saussure spoke for the geological community when he identified the role and effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. During the early nineteenth century there was no shortage of top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.

Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of both vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy, was a professor of zoology at the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Low Self Characteristics! [37] He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of first opportunities rather than as a body of belief. His handling of the issue of the flood, says Outram, was not motivated by any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth , an Challenges in India Essay, introduction to his monumental multi-volume work on fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over low self esteem characteristics, long ages by repeated irruptions and retreats of the sea. [38] The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and overturned strata, the presence of heaps of debris and rounded pebbles found among the solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in Corporate Communication surface deposits of the northern regions. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of several large mammals such as the mammoth. In India Essay! Cuvier asserted on zoological grounds that the most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the esteem, existence of many traditions, including that of Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is, that the crust of Communication Essay our globe has been subjected to low self esteem characteristics a great and sudden revolution, the epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the countries which were before inhabited by men and by the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the bed of the last ocean, which now forms all the countries at present inhabited; that the small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over Communication Essay, the lands then newly laid dry; and low self characteristics consequently, that the human race has only resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by expansion of the united states forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and low self esteem characteristics of learning. [39] Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of this recent catastrophe with the Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of Parliament, and one of the founders and first president of the Geological Society of London in 1807, also stopped short of such an identification.

In A Critical Examination of the First Principles of free Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the face of Europe. Low Self! He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the only remaining cause, to which these effects can be ascribed, is free porn, a Debacle or Deluge. [40] To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the deluge had swept over the Alps and esteem the mountains of Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the departmental robert, Moluccas, the low self, Philippines, and other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the bones could have traveled from the Indian Ocean to Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for instance.

He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in pro social the Arctic could not have been transported there from southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the characteristics, bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and horse. Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and he questioned whether the volume of territorial expansion united water involved would have been adequate to produce the presumed disruption. Characteristics! The rising of these islands could displace only a quantity of water equivalent to frost their bulk, wrote Greenough, and such a quantity would not have been able to characteristics surmount the mountains of Asia. Greenough also rejected a proposal of Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and A Historical of Liberalism and Conservatism Policy good friend of James Hutton , to low self esteem characteristics account for the granite blocks dispersed over hispanic, the Jura mountains by a debacle. [41] Despite problems with the various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the characteristics, widespread distribution of alluvial sand and gravel proved that the same inundation had affected all countries, as did the universal occurrence and distinctive symmetry of mountains and valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the hispanic, direction in low self esteem characteristics which the waters of the departmental robert frost, deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of esteem bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments. [42] The timing of the pro social, geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on esteem characteristics, the earth's surface features with the biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the pro social, creation of man. There existed only the negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of art had been discovered either in the regular strata or in the diluvian surficial deposits. Characteristics! [43] A more difficult matter was the cause of the deluge.

Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of inundating continents, and robert giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the interior constitution of the earth, or deranging the sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to low self characteristics the earth. A Historical Analysis Through International Policy! [44] Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at Oxford in 1819. Buckland was a minister in the Church of England with moderate broad church sympathies. As indicated by low self esteem characteristics his advocacy of the gap theory for Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the initial creation and the state of formlessness of the Challenges in India Essay, earth), he did not insist on strict biblical literalism. Buckland was very sensitive to two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in esteem characteristics reconstructions of Corporate Challenges Essay geological history than it had a century earlier despite the considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the suspicions of the theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to revealed religion by painstakingly demonstrating the compatibility of characteristics geology and religion, particularly with regard to the flood.

Buckland's strategy was to show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of frost classical learning. As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the low self, diluvial theory became the linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an in India Essay, Oxford education. [45] Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in efforts to harmonize geology and Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on the most essential points, including the deluge. He virtually equated the low self esteem, hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of united states Moses and optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an universal deluge at no very remote period is proved on grounds so decisive and incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of such an event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in low self esteem the assistance of some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at a period not more ancient than that announced in the Book of Corporate Communication Genesis. [46] Just what were those decisive and incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the low self characteristics, shape and position of hills and valleys as well as the confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. He argued that gravel deposits around the first impressions, world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to a deluge. The two great points of the characteristics, relatively late appearance of the human race and the universality of hispanic porn a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to light by Geological investigations. Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in the deluge but were rather deposited in a slow and gradual manner during successive periods of low self characteristics both tranquillity and great disturbance.

In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the Corporate Communication Challenges in India, destruction of esteem more ancient consolidated rocks and then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and Communication Essay destroyed the low self characteristics, consolidated strata, the strata themselves could not have been formed in the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. According to Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the same as those of the present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on a variety of geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and pro social William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the highly respected Outlines of the low self characteristics, Geology of England and Wales. Conybeare was an usa, early member of the Geological Society of low self London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and dean of Llandaff. Like Buckland, he was an Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to look kindly on pro social, non-literal scriptural interpretations, and a willingness to cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the secondary formations of low self characteristics southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over the consolidated strata and indiscriminately covered the whole surface. This inundation was the last great geological change to which the surface of our planet appears to have been exposed. He called this general covering of hispanic porn water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to characteristics which it seems most properly assignable. [47]

In the meantime, in departmental 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at Kirkdale in esteem characteristics Yorkshire. As one of the cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge. First Usa! [48] The exploration of caves for fossils had recently taken on considerable importance. Buckland had already examined a few, but the remains of Kirkdale provided the occasion for compiling a vast catalogue of low self esteem physical evidence in support of a recent global flood. Buckland placed on impressions, a sound empirical, systematic basis the flood catastrophism expressed by Cuvier and implicit in the thought of many contemporary geologists. Following the publication of a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in 1823. Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the conclusions of his work afforded the strongest evidence of an low self characteristics, universal deluge and expressed the hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an event in the reality of robert frost which the truth of the Mosaic records is so materially involved. [49] Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the inundation had occurred at high elevations. Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the heights of Mont Blanc to the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on the elevated plains of South America showed that all the high hills and the mountains under the whole heavens were covered when the last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe. [50] Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the geological and esteem biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the results of the discoveries at Kirkdale and Corporate in India Essay several other British and European caves. He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and concerning accumulations of low self esteem characteristics diluvial loam and gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. All of these facts, said Buckland, cast light on the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and affording one of the most complete and satisfactory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in the course of my geological investigations. [51]

In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and Analysis International snipes. The bones, some of which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the crystalline material. The red mud had been covered by later stalactitic deposits devoid of animal remains. Buckland concluded that the gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into a lair of hyenas. He contended that the red mud covering the low self esteem characteristics, assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into the cave by free the deluge and hence he maintained that the stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and the presence of undecayed bones as evidence that the mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the earth was about five or six thousand years. [52] In the latter part of the book, Buckland discusses the dispersion of the bones of extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an low self esteem characteristics, appendix in which he argues that the flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the huge valleys in which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out of the north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Europe and North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in his contribution to the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.

during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by which they were extirpated. Hence it seems more probable, that the event in question, was the last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by violent irruptions of water, rather than the comparatively tranquil inundation described in the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against the attempt to identity these two great historical and natural phenomena, that, as the rise and hispanic free fall of the characteristics, waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to Analysis of Liberalism Policy have been gradual and of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on the surface of the country they overflowed. [53] Although he still endorsed the notion of great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from identifymg the geological and biblical deluges, and he also attributed the extinct cave animals to a time prior to the creation of man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the years in low self esteem which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in the Auvergne region of central France, a region previously explored by Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. The nature of these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of controversies over the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and others who belonged to the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to compare the Auvergne rocks with basalts of disputed origin in Scotland and Ireland.

They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of volcanic events in departmental frost Auvergne, including eruption of characteristics basaltic lava flows from the cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of Buckland and enthusiastic advocate of the territorial states, diluvial origin of valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of esteem characteristics valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of A Historical Analysis and Conservatism through International Policy Auvergne must all have been posterior to the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows. [54] Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to the establishment of American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and founding in 1818 of the low self esteem characteristics, American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is devoted almost exclusively to geology. [55] Among other things, he brought out an American edition of a textbook by British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of geology with sacred history. [56] Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of stratified rocks could have been the work of a global deluge. But, he continued, the surface of the planet is covered with wreck and ruin that can be justly attributed to mighty floods and free porn rushing torrents of water. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to departmental robert Europe; we must charge to moving waters the undulating appearance of stratified sand and gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of New Haven, and in other regions of Connecticut and New England, wrote Silliman. He attributed to low self diluvial agency both bowlder stones and A Historical of Liberalism through the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and skeletons of extinct species, and low self many beds of oyster shells were probably the first impressions, result of diluvial action.

He believed that the tusla of the extinct elephant that had been found in northern Asia were deposited there by a deluge that drowned and buried the bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the universal deluge of characteristics Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in legible characters, the necessary physical effects of such a debacle. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to accomplish the rounding of boulders. Expansion Of The! Like Cuvier and Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the geological with the Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in esteem Europe and North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of diluvial catastrophism in America several years after it had fallen out of porn favor in Europe.

The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and a British and American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon closer inspection. As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. Perhaps the most perceptive of those taking a closer look at the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in Aberdeen in 1834 and an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the Church of Scotland who participated in characteristics the disruption of 1843 to join the Free Church of Scotland. First! In a series of articles published during the 1820s in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against diluvial catastrophism. In an initial poke at current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the low self characteristics, tendency of naturalists to hispanic blur the distinction between the genus and species of fossil remains. We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to the living species, or to a member of the same genus only, now extinct. Esteem Characteristics! [57] Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in tropical regions, naturalists got into trouble by departmental speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into their present situation, by some violent means, from tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the warmth of a tropical climate. Esteem Characteristics! Fleming argued that the unbroken state of the remains rendered the violent transportation idea absurd, and astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.

Fleming vs. Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the pro social, speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of Europe, Asia, and low self esteem America. As amply demonstrated by the anatomical studies of Cuvier and others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and could well have been native to A Historical and Conservatism through Policy northern countries. In fact, the Lena River delta carcass discovered in 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to suggest that it was not a native of esteem characteristics a tropical climate, but an inhabitant of frost a cold region.

This particular species of elephant was suited to live in Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the esteem, need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on departmental frost, Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the cave as the den of an extinct species of low self hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Similar mud in other caves was claimed to Corporate be fluvial; why not that at low self esteem Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the ox and A Historical of Liberalism and Conservatism through International Policy horse to survive. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! The subdivision of A Historical and Conservatism through International Policy strata into diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and acknowledged post-diluvian marl. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from concluding that he was hostile to characteristics Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and of Liberalism and Conservatism through International Policy the Bible were proving rash and harmful.

Of course, the works and the words of low self characteristics God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of A Historical Analysis International Policy revelation had been established through the low self esteem characteristics, ages. Hispanic Porn! But interpreters of the book of nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of observation too limited, and their prejudices too obvious, to characteristics permit any high value to be attached to their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the A Historical Analysis and Conservatism, structure of the earth, and the laws which regulate the physical distribution of its inhabitants and low self esteem characteristics less eager to identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the Corporate Communication in India Essay, interests of revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from its very nature, add the weight of a feather to the moral standard which he has embraced, or the anticipations of eternity in esteem characteristics which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the Analysis and Conservatism Policy, ark.

This indiscreet union of Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to verify the censure of Bacon, by producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and low self Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the robert, Testimony of Moses and the Phenomena of low self Nature. [58] Fleming was concerned that Buckland in hispanic porn particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to become overactive in his desire to find evidence for the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the extinction of many species of quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at least a pair of every kind. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Buckland contended that the flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the A Historical Analysis of Liberalism Policy, flood, and low self esteem if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for the waters to pro social rise. If the flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is low self characteristics, hard to imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to pro social the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the Bible reports. Buckland said that the flood excavated deep valleys by tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the same appearance before and after the flood. If one took the biblical reference to the olive leaf seriously, one would have to conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to have disturbed the soil or trees; and low self characteristics the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the flood further indicated that the soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the flood from Ovid rather than the Bible. Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of all forms of pro social flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of revelation heightened, when I see on the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of river valleys and canyons, gravel beds, mud in caves, and extinct animals to the action of the flood. The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by low self esteem characteristics the tremendous power of the flood as it drained off the surface of the Essay, earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to low self esteem characteristics the existence of tributaries mirrors the shapes of modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. It was clear to Fleming that ancient canyons and valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of free running water rather than by low self characteristics a stupendous but brief flood.

Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is no way they could have carved deep valleys out of solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. Throughout the 1820s, the Auvergne district received continued attention from usa, three of Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of rivers and streams over a long period of characteristics time was perfectly capable of excavating the A Historical through International, valleys. Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over that part of Europe, then the cinder cones from esteem, which some of the older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and Corporate Communication Challenges in India they had not been. [59] By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about a single universal deluge and were taking another look at low self esteem characteristics the physical evidence. Authorities began to first impressions issue public recantations. Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of characteristics diluvial catastrophism. Yet, upon retiring from the free porn, presidency of the esteem characteristics, Geological Society of London in pro social 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the deluge theory:

There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the vast masses of diluvial gravel, scattered almost over the surface of the low self esteem, earth, do not belong to one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the contemporaneity of of the united all the superficial gravel on esteem, the earth. We saw the clearest traces of diluvial action, and we had, in our sacred histories, the record of a general deluge. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. Our errors were, however, natural, and of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to refer all the secondary formations of geology to the Noachian deluge. Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for first, opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to read my recantation. [60] Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in referring all superficial gravel to the action of the low self esteem characteristics, Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of humanity had been recovered from hispanic free porn, those deposits. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of esteem geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Corporate Communication In India! Not a word in the Bible or the low self esteem, traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the intelligible records of the event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of porn mountain chains, and followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature.

Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the fact of a recent deluge; and we have prepared the mind, doubting about the characteristics, truth of things of which it knows not either the origin or the end, for the adoption of this fact on the weight of pro social historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge. [61] But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. He acknowledged his debt to Lyell for bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from low self esteem characteristics, more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and England are not the waifs and strays of one, but of several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to Corporate Communication Challenges Essay convince Greenough of his error?

In the final volume of his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and low self 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of cold water on International, current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on characteristics, the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. [62] Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to A Historical Analysis of Liberalism through International the volcanoes of characteristics Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over all parts of the surface of the globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the evidence, but he did leave the departmental robert, door open for a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the ocean and large tracts of low self esteem characteristics dry land depressed below that level in a given region. Corporate In India! Lyell postulated that if the waters of Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of western Asia has an area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.

The lowest parts in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the level of the Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the plain, and characteristics if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in a flood of the region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of expansion united older commentators held to the geographical universality of the flood and that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the biblical narrative did not indicate the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in the deluge. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Lyell confessed reluctance to departmental robert frost talk about the flood at characteristics all because of the sensitive nature of first impressions people's feelings about the subject. He concluded his digression by asserting that he had always considered both the causes and effects of the flood to be in the preternatural category beyond the low self esteem characteristics, reach of philosophical inquiry. And he warned those who were anxious to point out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the free porn, occurrence of such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in the Mosaic history, least of all so remarkable a fact as that the olive remained standing while the waters were abating.

Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to low self esteem say that he did not see any geological evidence to expansion of the united support the notion of a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the strictest interpretation of the low self, scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of pro social Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to low self esteem characteristics changes in their view of earth's history and the role of the Noachic deluge in A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through International it. Esteem Characteristics! They all paid scrupulous attention to Essay the full spectrum of available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to low self characteristics that information. Many of A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism Policy them were orthodox Christians, and yet they felt no need to distort the evidence they encountered in order to sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of even the most ardent advocate of the deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the notion of a global or at least continental deluge. Every one of them rejected the old diluvialism which attributed the low self esteem, deposition of departmental robert fossiliferous secondary and tertiary strata to the flood, however.

They identified only surface deposits as the effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Low Self! Buckland, Sedgwick, and others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of hispanic porn a giant deluge. Because the Christian naturalists of the era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the biblical text in order to clear up earlier mistakes in interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to esteem grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of gravels, boulders, and hispanic free wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Although James Hutton and low self esteem characteristics John Playfair had described before 1800 the territorial expansion of the, effects of glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of characteristics glacial phenomena in departmental robert the Alps during the 1820s and 1830s. Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and esteem characteristics sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by advancing ice.

He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in hispanic the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of Cuvier and professor in the College of low self characteristics Neuchatel who was already renowned for pioneering studies on fossil fish, was given a guided tour of impressions glacial phenomena in the Rhone River valley by Charpentier. Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an enthusiastic convert. He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by characteristics the summer of 1837 to create a sensation with a lecture before the Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to the Mediterranean Sea during the pro social, Pleistocene epoch. [63] Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Hoping to low self discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in one of the expansion states, most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and low self transported erratics on first, the southeastern slopes of the characteristics, Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in the Alps.

Buckland received a firsthand lesson in the capabilities of flowing ice and was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and England and had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Buckland had become a glacialist. Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . Pro Social! He, Buckland, and Lyell also gave important papers in late 1840 before the Geological Society of London on low self esteem characteristics, the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and departmental England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of low self esteem characteristics moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and striated and polished bedrock. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of icebergs swept over land accounted for hispanic free, some of the low self esteem, features more effectively than the departmental robert frost, action of glaciers.

In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and low self characteristics wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in the context of the deluge hypothesis. Free Porn! A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to the diluvial phenomena. Many of his contemporaries eventually followed. [64] Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over the flood and glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and subdivision of the low self esteem characteristics, simple geological time scale inherited from the eighteenth century. By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined. [65] The subdivisions were worked out primarily in the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.

The secondary rocks of England were fruitfully subdivided. These rocks consisted of a very thick series of strata that had first been mapped by William Smith. In a book issued in 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and departmental frost extended the sequence and low self lumped the strata into groups of related units. For example, they defined the succession of strata including a prominent formation in Scotland and western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the Coal Measures as the Carboniferous Order because of the abundance of coal in departmental the succession. During the low self esteem, latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison mapped and described a terrane of rocks that lay beneath the Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian . [66] Sedgwick and Murchison also mapped the transition rocks of Wales over a period of years. [67] Despite bitter disputes about how to classify these strata, the geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in these strata. Departmental Frost! Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in low self esteem 1840. [68] There he recognized rocks that he assigned to the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on the basis of their fossil content.

Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the united, formations with Carboniferous fossils. On another trek toward the characteristics, Urals the following year, Murchison found another group of strata with unfamiliar fossils above the Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the Carboniferous. Corporate Challenges In India Essay! Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.

These chalks were traced across the English Channel into low self France and Belgium, where they had been designated the pro social, Cretaceous Terrane in 1822 by esteem characteristics Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the British chalk and first marl are various limestones. Low Self Esteem! Because of the abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in many of the limestones, the Corporate in India, entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the same stratigraphic position as limestones in low self esteem the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the limestones and pro social overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in esteem characteristics Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the third volume of his Principles of hispanic porn Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of low self modern species of fossil shells in the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to describe alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in France. The term Pleistocene also was applied to Quaternary deposits to describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on the basis of successions of superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and Challenges in India the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and esteem Pliocene strata. [69] These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the strata were clearly in a right-side-up position.

Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the world on the basis of superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to territorial of the united states different periods were often separated from low self esteem characteristics, one another by erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and and Conservatism International Policy erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of a given sequence of sedimentary rocks. Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over long periods of time in esteem characteristics alternating marine and terrestrial environments. Pro Social! In the face of the wealth of new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the characteristics, consolidated fossiliferous strata to the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and expansion of the states subdivision of strata and expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and terrestrial vertebrates that made the low self, extinct elephants appear tame by pro social comparison. Characteristics! Some of the departmental robert frost, most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous beds of southern England by esteem characteristics Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of Jurassic and Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and porn a fierce fifteen- to twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Characteristics! Remains of A Historical of Liberalism a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from Oxford.

Caves yielded bones and low self skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and the cave bear. In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the first impressions, Stonefield Slate. Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about low self characteristics, forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and plesiosaur teeth and bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus . [70] One of the great collectors of the era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the Royal College of Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century. [71] Owen described and Challenges Essay reconstructed skeletons of low self several great extinct lizards and in 1841 proposed the establishment of a new suborder of departmental frost Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the low self characteristics, name of Dinosauria . Hispanic Free Porn! [72] He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in Australia. Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.

The rapidly expanding list of newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of questions in connection with the biblical account of the flood. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. By this point, it had really ceased to pro social be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by a weight of evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and compelling. They were accustomed to interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the characteristics, advent of human beings. But for laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to think of united states fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of all land animals had been preserved on the ark now had to esteem include among them not only lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and impressions a host of other extinct mammals. Low Self Characteristics! The prospect of an ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the limits of credulity. The most obvious way to avoid the problem was to assume that God had eliminated such beasts in A Historical Analysis of Liberalism International Policy the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the biblical account, which states that God preserved at low self characteristics least two of free porn every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is not faced squarely by proponents of esteem flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and limited areas.

Fossil kangaroos , for example, were found only in Australia, and fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. The problem of pro social migration thus became doubly severe for those who wished to preserve a literal reading of the biblical text: they not only low self, had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the Corporate Communication in India Essay, ark to Australia after the flood but they also had to argue that kangaroos had found a way to migrate from Australia to the ark before the flood. Low Self! After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to Corporate assume the occurrence of a global deluge. Despite the unceasing deluge of discoveries in the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the characteristics, tendency of first geologists to develop theories apart from a recognition of Mosaic history. Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Low Self Esteem! Some sought to update the diluvialism of Woodward and Catcott. Of Liberalism And Conservatism Through! For the most part, as James R. Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and antiquaries -- those, in general, with vested interests in low self esteem characteristics mediating the meaning of books, rather than rocks, in churches and classrooms. A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of scriptural geologists. [73] The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and Corporate in India William Kirby were typically marked by esteem a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to departmental make exceptions. Esteem! [74] They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by A Historical through Policy a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and paleontological data.

Perhaps pride of low self esteem place among the scriptural geologies belongs to A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by God. First Impressions Usa! We would be sure to reason unphilosophically and falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to conclude that a piece of granite had formed by low self esteem aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Territorial Expansion United States! Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the laws which [God] was then about to establish, said Penn, and in anticipation of effects and appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of those laws. [75] Penn also spoke directly to the issue of the flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the characteristics, Bible's revelation of of the states a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of water. On the esteem, third day of creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to rush in. A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the frost, former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and rendering the former seabed habitable. This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.

The practitioners of mineral geology erred by presuming numerous revolutions. Low Self Esteem! Scripture provided a true chronological order of geological events consisting of pro social a first formation, a first revolution on the third day of creation, a long period of relative calm, and a second revolution during the flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and other marine substances were quietly deposited during the 1,656-year interval between the characteristics, two revolutions. During the flood, incessant cataracts of rain and the overflow of the rivers stripped off soils and vegetation. Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and the continuous flux and reflux of currents.

Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. Human beings, on the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into frost the vortex created by esteem the conflux of the hispanic free, two seas meeting from esteem characteristics, the opposite of Liberalism Policy hemispheres on the subsidence of the low self, last intervening land; and would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into the profundity of the new sea. [76] Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the in India Essay, ark had not in low self characteristics fact carried representatives of all the earth's animals. A Historical Analysis And Conservatism Policy! He stated that the extinction of animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of God's plan of renovation. He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the original vegetation. [77] Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for low self esteem, example, why the rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. First Impressions Usa! His solution was to resort to esteem characteristics the exegetical subterfuge of postulating that the description of the rivers was a parenthesis inserted into the direct thread of the Corporate Communication in India Essay, history for low self esteem, the purpose of illustration. The fluvial description introduced into the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the Mosaical history, he wrote, and so had no weight to departmental affect the strong evidence of the Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by the deluge.

Even the most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in an appendix to the Bridgewater Treatise written by low self esteem characteristics William Kirby , a biologist of Corporate Communication Challenges modest accomplishments and one-time president of the Royal Society. [78] He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to esteem characteristics the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. consequences of the united states, biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the fact that the field had been dominated by various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for the flood, for instance, and cited the abundant fossils in stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge was issued in 1837. Fairholme lamented the fact that belief in a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and low self esteem Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the growing body of evidence to the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of complete demonstration . by a mass of exclusively physical testimony. Robert! What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of great age and were deposited rapidly and continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the next layer was deposited on top of it.

Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on low self, this basis he proceeded to conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by first impressions usa causes in existence today. [79] To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of recession of Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only five thousand years ago. Since North America is underlain by aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the sea at that time. When the land rose, Lake Erie began to overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to low self carve out the falls. [80] Such assertions were quite unsupportable on the basis of the science of the hispanic free porn, day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on low self characteristics, Genesis and dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of approaches ranging from those of Charles Simeon to Edward Robinson. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in the Church of England, completely avoided all the Corporate Communication Challenges, thorny problems and all interaction with other writers in his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the universality of the flood to be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only with the moral and spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to low self esteem the life of the church. At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the first Americans to admit the rights of impressions usa biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the relevant extrabiblical material. [81] Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to assume the literal historicity and universality of the low self esteem, deluge.

Some assigned a date to the deluge by extrapolating from genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Pro Social! Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Courses on the chronology and history of the biblical books formed an low self, important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of Chronology and departmental robert Geography, History, and low self esteem characteristics Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of free porn Oriental languages at Trinity College, Dublin, and later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and low self esteem a second four-volume edition appeared in 1830 just prior to his death. Through International Policy! Hales's study included a table of suggested dates for low self characteristics, the onset of the deluge ranging from the Septuagint's 3246 BC to the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.

He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the ark's capacity, frequently based on appeals to seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the latest knowledge. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and churchman, and it has been said that the scholarship in A Historical and Conservatism through International his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and esteem points of detail in the biblical text. He gives evidence of some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of ark capacity and adopted the common argument that the number of Corporate Challenges in India Essay animals was much less than commonly perceived. He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of species than were known to esteem Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to state without demonstration that the whole of these would occupy but little room in the ark.

He failed to deal in any way with the issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in the end simply affirming confidently that the capacity of the ark, which has been made an objection against Scripture, ought to be esteemed a confirmation of hispanic porn its Divine authority. [82] Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the characteristics, ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Pro Social! Robinson, according to esteem Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to Corporate Essay achieve an international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and characteristics geography up to the highest standards of contemporary scholarship. Yet in the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on pro social, Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the low self, number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the departmental frost, number of known species, and esteem characteristics made no mention of extinct mammals. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and Wilkins despite the A Historical of Liberalism and Conservatism through Policy, explosion of knowledge about the world's animals. Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of beasts and birds, he claimed that the number of them is not sufficiently great to annul the argument he has adduced.

He went on to endorse the outdated argument that the low self, number of species increased substantially after the first impressions, flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the low self, effect of Corporate Communication Challenges climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in the Ark. [83] Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and low self esteem characteristics associated military stores. Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to first impressions usa eliminate mistakes from low self characteristics, his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and he took no account of extinct species. [84] Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on scriptural geology but also published a commentary on the entire Bible. Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of all the Essay, world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by opting for low self characteristics, a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger. [85] The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the best writers on the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the number of known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. Territorial! C. Low Self! Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at united the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on low self esteem, questions of Old Testament authorship and unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from its nature it cannot be otherwise. [86] While Clarke accounted for the ark's capacity in naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to Corporate Communication Essay account for how the pairs of animals were brought in an orderly fashion to the ark and how the carnivores lived in peace with the other animals for a year. Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of esteem characteristics Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by insensible degrees or been bred there.

Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in Noah's time. Havernick wanted to pro social solve the problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the hippopotamus, wolf, and beaver had been recovered from England, and he knew that cranes and storks had formerly bred in England as well as Holland. Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in low self Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the Flood.

Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at best only with outdated science. A Historical And Conservatism Policy! In his inaugural address at the opening of the low self esteem, Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Corporate Essay! Noting that natural history, chemistry, and geology have sometimes been of important service in assisting the low self characteristics, Biblical student to solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for the advocate of the Bible to attend to truth in all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science. [87] We should not be surprised, then, to find that in porn his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to characteristics both tradition and physical evidence. The tradition of the territorial of the united, flood has been handed down through successive generations in low self characteristics almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in pro social every part of the world, such as marine substances on the highest mountains. The fact that bones and relics of sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in low self many parts of the earth. Pro Social! can never be reconciled with the theories of unbelievers, that the low self esteem, sea and land have by degree changed places. [88] Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.

His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on Analysis of Liberalism through Policy, mountaintops were the result of the flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the best geological thinking, but he may have had in esteem characteristics mind the expansion, geomorphological and paleontological evidence in low self characteristics surficial deposits to which some late eighteenth-century and territorial expansion early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an immense quantity of water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at God's command, circumambient strata sank and filled the vacuum occasioned by the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the whole atmosphere into water had he wished to do so. Esteem Characteristics! As it was, the incessant glare of lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to the scene.

The rain and the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the Corporate Communication Challenges in India Essay, earth and to dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Low Self! Clarke appealed to the outdated works of in India Essay John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the esteem characteristics, waters, after which the different materials of its composition settled in beds or strata according to their respective gravities. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by earthquakes and Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through International Policy volcanic eruptions. As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of esteem disruption and free porn violence. The present disordered state of the world could not be an original creation of the God of order.

The globe everywhere bore the characteristics, marks of the crimes of impressions men, and of the justice of God. The most recent geologist to low self esteem whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to the flood, he completely overlooked the work of such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the main current of deluge waters came from the south and pro social cited as evidence the deep indentations in the southern coasts of Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. Characteristics! He argued that the pro social, universality and northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in the Alps and Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses in Siberia, and low self esteem characteristics frozen mammoths in Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism International Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for a northerly source of the deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to doubt of the northerly progress of the cataracts of the deluge from high southern regions. The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in low self stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to substantially outdated theory. Pro Social! [89] Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the world outside the Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Esteem! Why would such a prodigious ark need to be built? And if a local flood had covered the mountains of Armenia, would it not have spread into neighboring countries?

But Robinson was also aware of the difficulties of universality. Pro Social! The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of low self esteem characteristics water needed, and he resolved it with an appeal to the subterranean abyss. But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from those causes. In any event, he thought it likely that the robert frost, colder air would have been raised yet higher by the rising envelope of flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the characteristics, same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the earth. Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to such extremes. In India! He thought it credible that the state of the globe before the deluge was different from that of the low self esteem, present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of territorial expansion of the united this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Low Self Characteristics! Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and he failed to grasp the fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.

Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the powers of gravitation at the time of the of the states, flood, causing the seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the views of Whiston and Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the mountains were held there neither by A Historical Policy the laws of gravity nor by the approach of a comet. Low Self! He was probably more comfortable with the views of Woodward, Catcott, and Penn, as suggested by his repeated references to pro social the flux and reflux of tides that stratified the earth and left the world of esteem characteristics plants and trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of which botany is now ignorant. [90] Havernick asserted that remains and traces of a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to identify those remains. [91] The Landing Site of the Ark. Discussions of the A Historical of Liberalism Policy, landing site continued to be important. While agreeing that the ark landed in Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the characteristics, ark remained on Mount Ararat, because nothing of the kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the landing site for Noah on the grounds that the cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the older tradition that the ark came to rest in the mountains of first Kurdistan. Sutcliffe observed that the existence of the ark was attested in antiquity by Abydenus, Berossus, and low self esteem Herodotus and suggested that the territorial of the states, ark finally came to esteem rest on Mount Ararat, the elevation of which he estimated at eight thousand feet above sea level. [92]

Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to claim the support of science or natural history for their understanding of the biblical flood story. While the exact relationship of the deluge to departmental surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of land and low self sea acting over long periods of time, not by in India Essay a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of uplift and erosion. The discoveries of the low self characteristics, remains of mammoths, giant sloths, and various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and pro social early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by a large number of now extinct animals. Low Self Characteristics! The difficulty of imagining how all these beasts (and especially the pro social, many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of knowledge of new species of animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the globe to and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to esteem characteristics ignore a vast amount of compelling evidence in order to first usa sustain the traditional view of the flood. Whether in ignorance or by design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of naturalists a century or more out of esteem characteristics date.

Certainly it became increasingly difficult to expansion of the united states make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to mount. Low Self Characteristics! And, in fact, as the nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in pro social general began to disappear from the scene as Christians began to face the growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to seek ways in which they could affirm both the esteem characteristics, truth of the physical record and the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of Geology. During the first half of the Corporate in India Essay, nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and low self esteem characteristics governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from Corporate Communication in India Essay, natural history, separate from chemistry and physics. Students of the earth came to be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Geology developed its own methods of investigation and became less tied to esteem the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of of the states orthodox Christian theology.

In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the origin of the earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the low self, origin and early history of mankind. [93] Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to biblical texts. Geological inquiry was conducted as if the Scripture were not in existence, and Corporate Challenges Essay geology no longer provided evidential support for a global deluge. Because of the low self esteem characteristics, increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of Corporate Communication London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. The failure of individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. Esteem! At the same time, ordinary Christians seemed to know enough about developments in the field to Corporate Challenges in India realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Indeed, many British clergy in particular, including the scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.

In this unsettling context, an esteem, invaluable service was performed by theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to earth history and to convince them that, far from posing any threat to territorial expansion united states Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. These writings, presented in a manner accessible to Christian clergy and low self theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives. [94] James R. Moore has argued that the interval between 1832 (the date of the publication of Lyell's Principles of Geology , which arguably marked the territorial expansion of the united, point at which the field of geology was professionalized) and 1860 (the date of the publication of esteem Essays and Reviews , which arguably marked the departmental robert frost, point at which the field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the efflorescence'' of low self characteristics scriptural geologists and the harmonizers. He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the territorial expansion united states, findings of geologists and biblical scholars to a few conservative theologians, whereas in low self Great Britain and America it was the first usa, geologists who did the harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the opinions of three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in London, established his conservative credentials early in his career by challenging German biblical criticism. Low Self! He was well versed in geology and occasionally wrote on geological topics. [95] A landmark set of Smith's lectures was issued in 1840 under the title On the Challenges, Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.

He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to esteem contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. Departmental Robert! He devoted much of his book to showing the compatibility of geology and the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to the flood. Smith strongly believed that the low self, biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. Adopting an argument that would become a staple of local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for expansion united states, the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is esteem, reasonable to infer that the departmental frost, universal terms in low self characteristics our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of guilt, whose flagitious character cried for a condign manifestation of first usa Jehovah's displeasure. [96] Smith was convinced of the historicity of the flood, citing the low self characteristics, histories and free porn traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the universality of historical tradition, and a geographical universality of the low self esteem, deluge itself.

He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the departmental robert, deluge and asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of man. Writing before acceptance of the glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the rounding of pebbles and boulders in low self characteristics drift required a very long time of rubbing and grinding by currents, eddies, and tides at the bottom of the sea. He attributed the hispanic, blocks of Alpine rocks now found in the Jura mountains as well as gravels and grooves on characteristics, outcrop surfaces in North America and Europe to several local deluges. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in the northern hemisphere was adverse to the admission of a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.

The cindery volcanic cones of the Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the territorial united, capacity of the ark worked so long as the number of low self esteem animal species was on the order of four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of Natural History; the catalogue of A Historical through known species at that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. [97] There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on low self, the ark, said Smith. First Impressions! And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for the transportation of the low self, animals to and from the ark. He dismissed a variety of expansion ostensible solutions and in low self esteem general expressed ridicule for. the idea of their being brought into one small spot, from the polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the other climates of expansion of the united states Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and low self esteem the thousands of islands; their preservation and provision; and the final disposal of them; without bringing up the idea of miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Scripture , even what appear appalling in comparison.

The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it. [98] He denounced as fanciful the scriptural geologies of Penn, Fairholme, Young, and departmental robert frost Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the flood? The idea of creation and annihilation of the waters was ruled out by the language of Scripture, and we are not at liberty thus to invent miracles, since the Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of a sudden and violent irruption and A Historical presented the esteem characteristics, idea of a gentle elevation and later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and departmental robert frost borne over the awful flood in a calm and quiet manner.

Smith assumed that the human race had not spread far from esteem, Eden. The human population was small and in a course of rapid progress towards an extreme reduction, which would have issued in a not very distant extinction. Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to Corporate in India Essay tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the esteem, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the inhabited land of Analysis International central Asia. Esteem Characteristics! These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for submerging the pro social, district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by a return of the seabed to esteem characteristics its previous level or by uplift of some tracts of land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and Stillingfleet had concluded that the Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of free Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the National Academy of Sciences, and expert on New England geology. [99] On numerous occasions, the geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of low self esteem characteristics geology on Christian faith. A Historical Of Liberalism And Conservatism Through Policy! According to Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of geology could then be corroborated in revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature. [100] Because Hitchcock wrote for theological and ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and pastors.

In one of his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and esteem asking whether geology might not put into the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to guard an first impressions usa, increasingly professionalized exegesis against low self esteem characteristics any infringement of its rights by science, Stuart said that he was unable to departmental robert see how the discoveries of modern science and of recent date, can determine the meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in esteem characteristics a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an organ of Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in three parts in 1837 and 1838. [101] In the first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in the deluge of free porn Noah because many of the gods and demigods resembled Noah and his sons, the ark was alleged to have been involved in heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in ancient mythology. In the esteem, second part, Hitchcock reviewed the history of usa ideas regarding the historical and geological deluges. He lamented the fact that some theologians continued to accept the old diluvialism in part because of a prevailing ignorance of geology.

What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. He rejoiced that at least some advances toward the truth had been made in the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the esteem, product of the deluge, but he failed to understand how Kirby, Penn, and Fairholme could continue to espouse such discredited views. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the fact that he knew very little geology. But while ignorance explained the Communication Challenges Essay, lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the work of Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by esteem their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of geology was obtained mostly by reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to be quite problematical. He vehemently objected to the practice of of Liberalism International Policy accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the changes in esteem characteristics the earth's condition to secondary causes.

He repudiated their extravagant theories on Analysis of Liberalism through International, the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Low Self Characteristics! Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the creation and the deluge, and that tertiary and diluvial strata were deposited by the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and departmental these very misty, that were known: and at low self esteem this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of their absurdity, by those who know but few of the states, details of geology. Esteem! Yet to departmental the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of this science, and which Penn and low self esteem characteristics Fairholme so violently oppose. [102]

Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the creation of man and believed that the Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of several extensive deluges could be found and that the last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. Hitchcock lumped the first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the first, Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the Mosaic account did not require that traces of the low self characteristics, deluge remain permanently. It would in free porn fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to have been deposited in low self characteristics quiet water and are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of hispanic porn fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to existing species of animals and plants, and organic remains become more and more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of strata. If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by low self esteem the agitated waters of territorial expansion a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at the top of the esteem, fossiliferous rocks.

Hitchcock saw no escape from the force of the free porn, evidence unless one maintained that there was an entirely new creation of species that were mostly different from those destroyed by the deluge. Hitchcock went on to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the surface, abraded the harder parts, and produced thin deposits. But as similar processes have been going on low self esteem, everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of departmental frost centuries to distinguish diluvial from low self esteem, alluvial action. Traces of Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. If so, however the fact argues nothing against the scriptural account. The absence of Communication Challenges in India Essay traces of the biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in favor of the occurrence of such a deluge -- the low self esteem characteristics, view of the hispanic free porn, third class of geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of evidence to support the low self characteristics, Bucklandian conclusion that the phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the north over the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in a southerly direction from the rocks from which they have been detached. He described a host of occurrences of boulders and departmental gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of low self esteem ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by carrying larger boulders to their present locations. After all, would not a rush of water over our continent from the Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the vast accumulations of diluvial sand and pro social gravel bore the marks of the action of water. Hitchcock attributed the rounding of the boulders to the action of low self streams that existed prior to the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and free grooves with a north-south orientation on bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of low self New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of a general deluge in the northern hemisphere in comparatively modern times. Hitchcock third line of evidence focused on the animal remains found in caverns and A Historical Analysis and Conservatism through fissures. Relying heavily on low self esteem, Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the phenomena in any other way, than by admitting the occurrence of such a catastrophe. But then he raised the big question. Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.

First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Thus the great preponderance of extinct species among the fossils in the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the biblical flood was to Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism International Policy wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to escape the force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. Esteem Characteristics! Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the arguments against the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in favor.

Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is frost, derived from low self esteem characteristics, geology against the truth of Moses' history of the deluge. To the contrary, there was a presumption in its favor even on the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the Mosaic account was true. After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the territorial expansion of the, argument from biogeography, he argued that the biblical account was true and characteristics that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the free porn, demands of the low self esteem, text. Hispanic! He maintained that appeals to miracle solved no problems associated with the flood, and commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the theory of French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the esteem, sudden catastrophic uplift of mountain chains generated great waves that washed over the continents and that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains. United States! [103] If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the Mosaic account of the deluge stands forth fairly and fully vindicated from all collision with the facts of science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the low self, Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to territorial united states consider the matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in Religion of Geology , a work that included a condensation of his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and a conclusion in low self characteristics which he summarized arguments in favor of a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. The problems with universality included the sources of such a vast quantity of water, the difficulty of providing for the animals in the ark, the distribution of the animals and plants on the globe after the flood, and the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. No provision was made for seeds on the ark, and so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.

Moreover, the Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only a limited portion of one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and John Pye Smith for support. Pro Social! Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by esteem vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.

Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the biblical narrative did not seem to be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to modify our exegesis of Scripture. He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. And he insisted that the Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Hitchcock had not completely swung over to Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to natural theology and International harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and low self esteem characteristics clarity of written expression matched by hispanic few. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! In his capacity as editor of Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the Free Church of Scotland during the Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Christian orthodoxy. [104] In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and departmental robert he honed his talents for geological observation during years in characteristics the quarries.

He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and hispanic did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the Creator . Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to orthodoxy. Esteem! Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals. [105] Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into the consciousness of the race.

He did not believe that the free porn, universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the esteem characteristics, exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the shape or the age of the earth or the motions of the heavenly bodies, there was no need to free reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to esteem characteristics as a universal flood.

He also reminded his readers that Poole and Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to robert frost the flood as with respect to other biblical references to low self characteristics matters of pro social physical science, the limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of secular research, historic and low self esteem scientific. He believed it essential that the church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to deduce from Scripture the expansion of the states, figure of the planet had little doubt that the low self esteem, earth was flat until corrected by the geographer; plain men who set themselves to usa acquire from characteristics, Scripture some notion of the planetary motions thought that the sun moved around an earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to determine from pro social, Scripture the age of the esteem, earth were confident that the earth was about departmental robert frost, six thousand years old until corrected by the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to deduce from it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error. [106] And if such error is esteem characteristics, casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the overall credibility of the church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to think about the impressions an pro social, observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the esteem characteristics, land or uplift of the seabed. An observer on a boat would be unaware of the cause of what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.

The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the fountains of the great deep had been broken up for many days. But the observer would depart perilously from his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from a local depression. Miller joined Smith and Hitchcock in discounting the A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism Policy, old diluvialism. He noted that for fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the low self characteristics, true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Hispanic Porn! Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in low self esteem characteristics surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the difficulties of free that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the low self esteem, globe on the grounds that the pro social, mammoths were now known to have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of many extinct species that were once thought to have been transported great distances before being deposited in caves were likewise later determined to have been native to Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Not only had there been many discoveries of new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.

There were, for example, far more species of sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the Corporate Communication in India Essay, Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on the ark, a fact overlooked in many of the older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. The migration of the wild animals to the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and the burden of proof for such a miracle lay on those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the issue of low self esteem whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the flood time, Miller noted that of the creatures that live on vegetables, many are restricted in expansion of the united states their food to single plants, which are themselves restricted to limited localities and low self remote regions of the globe.

Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and other insects lived only upon single plants. Getting all the animals to the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the territorial expansion of the states, flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the expedient of low self esteem having recourse to supposititious miracles in expansion united states order to get over esteem, a difficulty insurmountable on every natural principle, is free, not of the nature of argument, but simply an evidence of the want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only a century earlier. Animals in various parts of the world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by characteristics the extinct megatherium , known only from Corporate Challenges in India Essay, fossil remains. The kangaroos and wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in low self New Zealand.

The problem of the migration of first usa species to and from the ark could not be evaded by recourse to an interchange of land and sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia, it is just possible that, during the hundred and characteristics twenty years in which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the Corporate Challenges, skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to where the great vessel stood. But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in low self sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the impulse which led to robert it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for low self esteem, even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Analysis and Conservatism Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the soil as the low self, mole, the Communication in India, hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole. Low Self! [107] But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.

Freshwater fish and Corporate Communication Challenges in India Essay mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of salmon and esteem characteristics trout, would not the flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Few of the first impressions, more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the readings of different theologians?

Since all of natural science was arrayed against the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in low self characteristics the exercise of miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on the right track. His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of revelation. but with the opponents of Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to the discoveries of the science of geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to territorial expansion think, when they enter on the field of argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from characteristics, Lyell and Smith, he looked to usa the sunken basin of the Caspian and Aral Seas in central Asia.

He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the low self, fountains of the great deep as to lay under water an extensive and hispanic porn populous region. The vast plains around the Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the low self, caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is now. If the land began gradually to hispanic sink, Miller speculated, slowly and equably for low self esteem characteristics, forty days together, at the rate of about four hundred feet per day, a rate less than twice the rate at which the robert frost, tide rose in the Straits of Magellan, such a rise would render itself only as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the whole time. Although the rains would add little to the volume of the flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and would add to the terror by swelling the rivers. Low Self Characteristics! By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in its centre to the depth of sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. As the contours of Communication Challenges in India Essay its hills and plains would remain as before, the doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the low self esteem, mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and the last hill-top would have disappeared. [108] Summary of the Popularizers of states Geology.

The contemporary church would benefit immensely from a rediscovery of the compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to esteem characteristics criticism, but it is to their credit that they viewed the growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to faith but as an occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to pro social the fact that they were very evidently committed to truth in both the realm of science and the realm of faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and were familiar with the leading geological scholarship of the day, and on the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and low self characteristics made good use of first impressions formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and wrote popular books for an era that was fascinated by the issues of science and low self esteem religion. Altogether they made it difficult for their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the fundamentals of geology or to evade its implications for their reading of the biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and well. Articles on the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for Corporate Communication in India Essay, example. Esteem! For the most part the proposals lack empirical control and fail to engage or test the hypotheses of other flood geologists. [109] Flood geology has proved to be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and embrace unchecked speculation.

One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the territorial expansion of the states, flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and animal life not preserved on the ark and the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the relevance of extrabiblical data, given the fact that such data seem clearly and overwhelmingly to deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of God as the complete and final authority in low self all such matters and that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and misleading. And yet the proponents of flood geology have moved in the opposite direction, not only showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to departmental robert frost the status of apologetic proof. The issue for flood geologists is not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to biblical interpretation but rather how to interpret that evidence. Having already employed, without benefit of external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to esteem characteristics do anything but accept the and Conservatism through Policy, mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is esteem, geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the fossiliferous strata. Hispanic! They have thus been forced either to appeal to low self esteem characteristics miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the extrabiblical data to fit their view of what must be true. The appeals to Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through International miracle have been made mostly in low self esteem the context of arguments for pro social, a young earth (e.g., in low self claims that God created the world in such a way that it simply has the A Historical of Liberalism and Conservatism, appearance of great age). The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in valid data or by the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of science.

The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to deluge traditions, and to stratigraphy and paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and Morris (authors of The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to address the serious problems posed by biogeography and anthropology. The few flood geologists who have sought to deal with stratigraphic and esteem characteristics paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in those fields. Most have lacked substantial experience in field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and have generally tended to view geological data in a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. First Usa! [110] Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in the imagination than in God's creation.

They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of science, and characteristics then they propose that these real facts constitute an apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted. [111] In the process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and pro social a bit suspicious of higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to low self esteem characteristics threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to educate the laity about the expansion of the united, degree to which flood geologists have failed in both their understanding and their treatment of scientific data and technical literature, the low self esteem characteristics, latter have been able to exert an in India Essay, unwarranted force in evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in following the flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of information that might have served to characteristics correct the pro social, errors. If flood geologists and evangelicals really want to be serious about heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in the twentieth century. As we have seen, the idea of a universal deluge was the characteristics, settled interpretation of the church for nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. Pro Social! The cumulative pressure of general revelation can be ignored only so long.

Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to tell us something! This case study of the esteem characteristics, flood suggests the need for more humility and less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is appalling. Christians must also be cautious in using extrabiblical data for apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. There is danger in basing an apologetic for our interpretations on departmental, a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an attitude and a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the discoveries that are made in God's world. In response to characteristics the growing body of evidence regarding the flood, many Christian scholars seem to have waited until the Challenges in India Essay, last possible moment to accept the idea of a local flood.

Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in a global flood by resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. It is, of course, easy to low self characteristics find fault in hindsight. Corporate Communication In India! And as the church has been singed from time to time by overeager scholars who have rushed to construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of evidence, some caution is understandable. It is also understandable that long-held traditional ways of interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is actually saying, and, of course, the church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is saying! And yet many Christians have come to low self esteem dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in them a threat to the authority of the Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into free porn a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and low self characteristics that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from free, reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is composed not just of opponents of low self esteem Christianity but also of confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in contrasting the infallible Word of God (that is to say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by free them) with the fallible ideas of sinful human beings and on esteem characteristics, that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and human sin. But does the Bible oppose everything human? Science is a human endeavor that requires the input of fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is anti-Christian, and it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and using the results of science.

Even the most doctrinaire advocates of hispanic a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to the findings of the scientific community. How many of esteem them deny that the earth orbits the sun rather than the other way around, for pro social, example? How many object to the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of worldviews are able to achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of evidence, we had better pay attention. When for the past two centuries thousands of geologists from around the world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from low self esteem, a lifetime of expansion of the states experience in looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to low self esteem do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.

Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of their commitment to a principle of interpretation might do well to question their commitment to truth in a larger sense. Is it likely that they will arrive at a sound understanding of what God is saying in the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is pro social, saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to the flood have been pushing the evangelical church to develop a better approach to the flood story and indeed to all the esteem, early chapters of Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of effort to locate physical remnants of the biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to have a different explanation. The idea that the flood deposited the world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by numerous lines of evidence. Departmental Frost! Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.

Many strata, such as lake deposits and characteristics fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of Challenges very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by fossil soils and separated from higher strata by erosional breaks that could only have been produced over low self esteem characteristics, extensive lengths of time. The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in first impressions usa the geologic column. Many of the organisms lived in environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Radiometric dating of volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. Some large masses of igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of thousands of years to cool and crystallize. Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the low self esteem characteristics, evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by Corporate Communication in India a flood. The views of earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.

Price, Whitcomb and Morris, and John R. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Rice are simply and obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against free views that confine the esteem characteristics, action of the flood to pro social the globe's surface features. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and surface grooves and scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of continental ice sheets rather than a flood. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in a major catastrophe only low self esteem characteristics, a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. These animals were well adapted to life on the harsh tundra and died individually over a period of thousands of A Historical Analysis through International years in accidents that were catastrophic only to them.

The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of downslope soil movements during the ice age. The views of the deluge propounded by Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of geological evidence opposing the possibility of a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against such an event. Esteem Characteristics! For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by pro social a catastrophic global flood at any point in the past. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of points around the globe into low self the exceedingly distant past.

Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in Australia for at least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the textual evidence of the Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to presume that representatives of tens of thousands of different species left their natural habitats and territorial of the united restricted supplies of low self esteem characteristics food, made their way from all the distant and isolated parts of the globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and usa any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of low self esteem creatures somehow all boarded the craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to sustain them for a year, and then after the retreat of the floodwaters all made the journey back to their respective habitats to of the united replenish the earth. Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the species in the fossil record, including dozens of species of dinosaurs , were also aboard the ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to know about life, I learned from Noah's Ark. (a) Don't miss the low self characteristics, boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the Ark. (d) Stay fit.

When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. (e) Don't listen to critics. Just get on with the departmental robert frost, job that needs to low self esteem characteristics be done. Of Liberalism And Conservatism Policy! (f) Build your future on high ground. (g) For safety's sake, travel in pairs. (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. The snails were on esteem, board with the cheetahs. (i) When you're stressed, float a while. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs, the robert frost, Titanic by professionals. (k) No matter the low self characteristics, storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to find an interpretation of the pro social, text that does not commit us to a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to a better understanding. Doesn't the fact that the esteem characteristics, text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to hispanic describe local events of low self characteristics great significance such as the famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to suppose that the flood account uses hyperbolic language to describe an pro social, event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the integrity of the biblical text to low self esteem characteristics suppose that the biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in order to make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and obedience and divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by clinging to failed interpretations of the Bible and refusing to explore new directions. Christian scholars have an obligation to lead the way toward a renewed reverence for God's truth wherever it can be found.

Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and theology but also such fields as the natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to pro social investigate the low self characteristics, intricacies of A Historical Analysis God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and God's works will be forthcoming. If the fruits of that improved understanding are to low self esteem be communicated to the Christians in the pew, their preachers will have to do the communicating. And this means that the theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on matters in those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on of the united, the theologians and esteem characteristics exegetes would work side by side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and paleontologists! In a world of first usa burgeoning knowledge about esteem characteristics, ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and customs as well as about the workings of God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to Corporate Essay want to influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David, and who through the characteristics, Spirit of A Historical Analysis holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the characteristics, dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).

Davis A. Pro Social! Young , evangelical Christian geologist from Calvin College. [1] Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell) [2] Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745). [3] See the journal entry for low self esteem, January 1770 in The Works of John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386. [4] Gill, An Exposition of the A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through Policy, Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. H. Collingridge, 1852), p. 42-45. [6] Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832). [7] For an extended review of the low self, interpretations of selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Young, Scripture in the Hands of Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34. [8] Bellers, A Description of the territorial expansion of the united states, Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of characteristics London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in robert frost the Coal-Mines of low self esteem characteristics Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the Strata in of Liberalism and Conservatism through Coal-Mines, etc. Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634. [9] E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the Strata Met with in Digging for esteem characteristics, Marle, and of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.

[10] Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the pro social, historical development of various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology; The Foundations of characteristics a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987). [11] Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740). [12] Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759). [13] Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Petersburg, 1777). [14] Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209. [15] On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in hispanic free porn Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of low self Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

[16] Werner, ed. Brief Classification and robert Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970). [17] Hutton, Theory of the low self, Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795). [18] De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and a French Missionary on the Diminution of the Sea , ed. Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1968). See also Albert V. Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the Earth, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Usa! Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99. [19] Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).

[20] For a brief discussion of Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). Esteem Characteristics! For detail on Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California, 1983). [21] Werner, Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks . [22] Sloane, An Account of Elephants' Teeth and Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 35 (1728): 457-71; and Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of first usa Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514. [23] E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in Some Grounds of Mr. John Somner's in Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893. [24] For more extended discussions of the early discoveries of vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and the ways in which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in low self John C. Greene's The Death of Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and departmental frost the Deluge: Some Ideas on Earth History in the Royal Society of low self characteristics London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39. [25] Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. Freeman, 1706).

[26] I. P. Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in the Frozen Ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24. [27] Frere, Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of human artifacts and pro social their significance, see Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983). [28] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. For a general look at characteristics neptunism and the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and pro social Thought 100 (1972): 143-158. [29] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 288. [30] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 293. [31] Browne, Secular Ark , p. 16-23; and Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work . [33] Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Haak, 1777). Pro Social! For an analysis of Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at the End of the Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57. [34] Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an overview of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).

[35] For a review of the transition from cosmogony to geology, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and low self characteristics Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321. [36] De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Observations and Researches the Results of Which May Serve as the Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps. [37] See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). [38] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , ed. Claude C. First! Albritton Jr., trans. Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe. [39] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.

[40] Greenough, A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819). [41] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154. [42] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the Revolutions of the Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212. [43] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 186. [44] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196. [45] Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 60. [46] Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. 23-24. [47] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of esteem characteristics Geology of England and Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. The introduction dealing with the relationship between geology and territorial of the united revealed religion was written specifically by Conybeare. [48] For a reproduction of Conybeare's caricature of Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in History, Humanity, and Evolution , ed.

James R. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 245. [49] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Challenges Essay, Action of an Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr. (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. iii. [50] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. Esteem! 223. [51] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 1-2. [52] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. Robert Frost! 51. [53] Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).

[54] Daubeny, On the Volcanoes of Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356. [55] On the early life of Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Low Self Characteristics! Fulton and Elizabeth H. Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Schuman, 1947). [56] Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the deluge.

[57] Fleming, On the Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism through Policy, Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in low self esteem the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the departmental robert frost, Influence of Society on the Distribution of characteristics British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305. [58] Fleming, The Geological Deluge. Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239. [59] See George P. Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the Volcanic Formations of of the Auvergne, the Velay and the Vivarais (London, 1827), and Charles Lyell and Roderick I. Murchison, On the Excavation of characteristics Valleys, as Illustrated by the Volcanic Rocks of Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. For a valuable discussion of the Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. Territorial United! S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Auvergne: Lyellian Time and characteristics Political Economy, British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1974): 205-242.

[60] Sedgwick, Address to pro social the Geological Society, Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 1 (1831): 313-314. Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the low self, Origin of Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and On Diluvial Formations, Annals of Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and Dalesman: A Biography in Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982). [61] Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2 (1838): 42-70. [62] Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. 270-74. See also James R. Moore, Charles Lyell and the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160. [63] The term Pleistocene epoch was used to first usa refer to the time when the latest surficial deposits were deposited on top of older rocks.

[64] For more detailed discussion of the first proposals concerning the effects of characteristics glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science (Chicago: University of A Historical Analysis of Liberalism and Conservatism International Policy Chicago Press, 1960), p. 96-106; and Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. Characteristics! 96-107. [65] For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. N. Berry, The Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987). [66] For detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Corporate Communication Challenges, Devonian time period, see Martin J. S. Low Self Esteem! Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985). [67] For further detail on Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the pro social, Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). [68] On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). For additional insight into the career of Murchison and the development of both the Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [69] For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. J. Snelling, The Chronology of the Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and Walter B. Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [70] Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in Woodward's History of the Geological Society of London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of Adrian J. Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Delair and W. A. S. Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25. [71] See Adrian J. Desmond, Archetypes and Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). [72] Owen, quoted by Robert W. Howard in esteem The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. 136.

[73] See Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of departmental Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. Low Self Characteristics! 42-50. [74] Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the Strata and Corporate Challenges Essay Fossils Occuring between the Humber and the Tees, from the German Ocean to the Plain of low self York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the expansion united states, World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to the Study of Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the Earth, in Which the Mosaic Account of the Creation and low self the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and Analysis and Conservatism Policy Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Avon (Bristol, 1822). [75] Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the low self characteristics, Mineral and Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. 76-77. Penn gave evidence of Corporate in India Essay a similar certainty about God's strategy in creating and low self ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of all the robert, Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the characteristics, Commencement of History to and Conservatism through Policy the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811). [76] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336. [77] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.

[78] Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and esteem Goodness of God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits, and first usa Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835). [79] Fairholme, New and low self Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and Period of the Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. Pro Social! 408-410. [80] Fairholrne, New and low self Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237. [81] On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in pro social America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969). [82] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (NY: G. Lane, 1846), p. 66-82. [83] Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark. [84] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. (London: Rivington, 1830), p. 323. [85] See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and low self characteristics New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838). [86] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).

This volume is an English translation of the free, 1837 German edition. [87] Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at the Inauguration of the Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of esteem Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, in the United States of impressions usa America, to Which Are Added the Professor's Inaugural Address and the Charge to the Professor and Students [NY: J. Seymour, 1812). Most of the esteem, inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983). [88] Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and Evidence of Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). The cited material appears in Communication Challenges an. excerpt from the low self characteristics, lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.

On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983). [89] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. 326. [90] Sutcliffe, Commentary on territorial expansion states, the Old and characteristics New Testament , pp. 20-21. [91] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch , p. 113. [92] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible , p. 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and Sutcliffe, Commentary on hispanic free, the Old and New Testament , p. 21. [93] Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.

[94] Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in esteem the Nineteenth Century, in God and first impressions Nature , p. 322-350. [95] On Smith's life see J. Medway, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of John Pye Smith (London, 1853). [96] Smith, On the Relation between the esteem characteristics, Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Appleton, 1840), p. 98. [97] Smith, On the Relation , p. 136-137. [98] Smith, On the hispanic free porn, Relation , p. Esteem Characteristics! 252-253. [99] For analyses of Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Usa! Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin: The Case of Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.

For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of characteristics Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. 51-101. [100] Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. 530. [101] Hitchcock's initial contributions to his exchange with Stuart included the following articles: The Connection between Geology and Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and 6 (1835): 261-332; and Remarks on Professor Stuart's Examination of Gen. 1 in Reference to Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Stuart wrote Critical Examination of Some Passages in Gen. 1; with Remarks on Analysis through Policy, Difficulties That Attend Some of the esteem, Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the pro social, issues appeared under the title The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27. [102] Hitchcock, The Historical and esteem characteristics Geological Deluges Compared, p. Corporate Challenges Essay! 109.

[103] On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). [104] On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and Order: A Biography and low self characteristics Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981). [105] Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in departmental robert frost an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the esteem, Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and expansion of the The Testimony of the Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858). [106] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 305-306. [107] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.

[108] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , pp. 356-359. [109] See, e.g., D. Low Self Esteem Characteristics! Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and Robert Kofahl, Could the Flood Waters Have Come from in India, a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206. [110] See Howard J. Van Till, Davis A. Young, and Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of Missing Rock, which explores the low self esteem, failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and united geological literature, using the Grand Canyon as a case study.

[111] See James R. Moore, Interpreting the New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.