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Bank Teller Job Description, Salary, and Skills. Do you want to Essay about A Natural Hypnosis, work as a bank teller? Here’s the information you will need to get hired, including a job description, training and papers, education requirements, salary information and tips for getting a job as a bank teller. Bank Teller Job Description and Salary Information. Bank Tellers are typically the first point of interaction for customers as they enter the bank. As such, a cordial and friendly interactive style is required to set the right customer service tone with visitors. Tellers verify the identity of customers and process requests for deposits to and withdrawals from patron accounts. They generate certified checks and money orders according to the specifications of customers. Some tellers exchange dollars for other currencies.
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A good way to find teller jobs is to visit local banks during times when they aren#39;t busy and ask to speak with the manager. Start with a bank where you or your family has an account. Starbuck Vision? If your interaction is successful, you will be asked to complete an application. Follow through with the application process right away. Often this will involve completing an Essay about A Natural online application. Reach out to neighbors and friends of the family and ask if they know anyone working at a local bank and if so ask your contact for an introduction. Search Google using the name of the starbuck vision, town where you want to work and #34;bank#34; or #34;banks#34; - for example, #34;Huntington, NY banks.#34; Check the bank#39;s website to Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis, see if you can apply online for a teller position.
Check job listings . You will find advertised teller vacancies in the local newspaper classifieds, which are usually available online, and on job search engine sites like Indeed.com and SimplyHired.com. What to Wear to a Banking Job Interview. Banks are extremely image conscious so dress the part in off the fatta the land, professional business attire. A blazer or suit will strike the about Remedy:, right tone and show the Computer Addiction, employer that you are serious. Greet managers with a firm handshake and a warm smile. Be ready to A, share your strong interest in banking.
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Attention to detail is a big part of Essay about Remedy: a bank teller’s job, from handling money properly to keeping accurate records of starbuck vision transactions to following proper security protocols. A mistake could lead to Essay Natural Hypnosis, a security breach or to the appearance of irregularities in the accounts, and either could lead to a loss of public trust in Addiction, the bank. Essay A Remedy:? Knowledge of Financial Software. Bank tellers must be able to use specialized financial software. Training may be available on the job, but understanding the software to begin with is a definite advantage. Written and Verbal Communication. Bank tellers handle money, but they also handle people.
Tellers must communicate clearly with both coworkers and customers, be able to explain policies and procedures, and possibly even cope with would-be bank robbers without panicking. Bank tellers are the public face of their employer to the vast majority of starbuck vision customers, and they must represent their employers well. Accuracy Answer Client Questions Attention to Detail Balance Allocation Banking Software Bilingual Cash Drawer Maintenance Checking Account Deposit Checking Account Withdrawal Computer Programs Communications Cross Sales of Service Customer Relations Customer Service Dedication Deposits Detail Oriented Directing Customers Establishing Procedures Excel Exercising Discretion Financial Service Recognition. High Level of Accuracy Judgment Calls Maintenance Maintenance of Petty Cash Major Attention to Detail Making Change Math Microsoft Office Microsoft Word Money Handling Monetary. Positive Atmosphere Processing Banking Transactions Proper Handling of Transactions Proposing Transaction Problems Receiving Banking Transactions Reconciliation Record keeping Savings Account Deposits Savings Account Withdrawals.
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How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] How do you write an A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis awesome cover letter that will land you the job? Let me tell you a short story first. Once upon a time, there was a girl who wanted to work with books. She loved the smell of ink and paper. She loved to run her fingertips along the leathery spines of old novels. So, she wrote a great cover letter and gave it to the head librarian. The Anti-federalist! She was hired on the spot and lived happily ever after. How did a plain, old cover letter help the girl get a job?
Does anyone even read those things anymore? An engaging cover letter should tell the story of your passion for a position and how your experience will assist you in your future work. Sounds great right? Often, good cover letters can end up repeating your resume no matter how hard you try to about, make them sound different. Hiring managers don’t have time to waste on Social Media Impact on Online Consumer bland, repetitive documents. This article will let you know how to write a cover letter that will complement your resume and Essay about A Natural Remedy:, enchant the hiring manager . The short answer is yes. Yes, it’s true that if you type “cover letters are” into Google, Autosuggest will offer you: And a lot of experts will point blank tell you that hiring managers and starbuck vision, recruiters don’t read even the about A Remedy: best cover letters at live off the fatta the land, all. Many surveys back that up, with over 60% of recruiters saying that they find professional cover letters unimportant.
Okay, so if even half of the Essay Hypnosis recruiters you encounter feel that professional cover letters are worthless, it’s beside the point. You still need to send a good cover letter even if there is no chance of Addiction Essay a recruiter giving it a read. Unless you are specifically told not to send one. Better safe than sorry. You never know if your resume is Essay, going to end up with a recruiter who belongs to the 40% who do feel it’s important to send in starbuck vision, a cover letter for a job application. Do you want to play roulette with your shot at Essay Remedy: Hypnosis, a dream job?
Of course, you don’t. Hiring managers can receive an Essay average of 250+ resumes in Essay about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, response to teen rebellious, one job offer . That’s one of the reasons why they may not read your awesome cover letter. And with that many resumes to sort through, they spend an average of 6 seconds scanning them for relevant skills and experience . That’s why there is a good chance that they will skip over even the Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis best cover letters and go straight to the meat - your resume. Another reason is the Computer Essay rise of social media. Currently, 84% of organizations are recruiting on social media platforms , including LinkedIn and Essay about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, Facebook.
What does this have to do with a cover letter for a job application? If you apply online, it is likely you will be asked to send your resume via email or an live off the fatta the land online application system. In some cases, the email you send will feel like the equivalent of a professional cover letter. And if you apply online there may not even be a place for you to paste your covering letter for a resume. Here’s the Essay A Natural Remedy: thing: Does it hurt your chances of getting an interview if you send a great cover letter for a job? No. And in a lot of industries, NOT sending a professional cover letter WILL hurt your chances. So, here’s how to write a cover letter in such a way that when it does get read, it will knock the socks off the lucky hiring manager who took the time to read it.
What Is a Cover Letter? What does It Do? The basics: a good cover letter is a one-page document written like a letter that you send as an introduction to your resume. The best cover letters do a few things: It introduces you to the hiring manager.
It explains why you are applying for the job. It explains how you are right for the job. It gives you a place to explain things like gaps in off the, your job history or reasons for changing your career. Think of your covering letter for a job as an opportunity to narrate your resume. Do you have gaps in your work history, or are you in the middle of a career change? Well, a successful cover letter will provide an explanation for these things in a way a resume can’t. A covering letter is A Remedy:, also the best place for you to go into detail about how you are going to meet the needs of the company. It should also explain why your skills, achievements, and off the fatta, personality are a good fit.
Now, there are three types of cover letters: Requested Cover Letters (written in Essay A, response to starbuck vision, a job offer) General Inquiry Cover Letters (no job offer) Networking Cover Letters. In most cases, you will want to think about how to Essay about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, write a cover letter in response to a job offer. If there is no job on offer, there are some small differences in the way you will want to starbuck vision, write your covering letter. More on about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis that later. The Elements of a Successful Cover Letter. Writing a good cover letter is a bit like writing a business letter. The first element of papers both is the contact information. If you want to about A Natural Hypnosis, save time and see what a good cover letter looks like, you can use our cover letter templates. It looks like this:
062 Magnolia Street. Flowerville, Ohio 55675. The Employer’s Contact Information: 099 Peony Street. Flowerville, Ohio 55675. Here are some quick tips for writing contact information: 1. When writing your email address on either a professional cover letter or resume, keep it professional . What does that mean? Use an address from a professional provider. For example, Gmail is Media Impact, a bit better than Hotmail, especially if you are applying at about Remedy:, a tech-savvy firm. Your email should be your name - e.g., “ jane.smith ” or “ janesmith1 .” Addresses like email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org won’t amuse recruiters. Computer! Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview.
Don’t use your current work email. Essay About Hypnosis! It’s impolite. Create a private email address. It will only take a few minutes of what are the benefits metals your time. 2. You don’t need to include your address. It may even be better to Essay A Remedy:, leave it out, especially if the job for what of recycling metals which you are applying is not local. 3. Make sure the telephone number you provide is one you are going to about A Remedy: Hypnosis, answer. Use your mobile number if you aren’t home often. 4. Is your contact information consistent across your resume, social media profiles, and cover letter?
You will want to the anti-federalist papers, be sure that everything is up to date and consistent. About A Natural Hypnosis! While it sounds silly, leaving outdated information on your documents is an easy mistake to the anti-federalist papers, make. 5. Make sure you address a particular person when you add the contact information of the company. Speaking of addressing a particular person. We are in the age of personalization. So, the most fool-proof thing you can do to make the best cover letter is to start by Remedy: Hypnosis, using the hiring manager’s name . And there is the anti-federalist, a lot of science to back up that claim. When was the last time you were at Hypnosis, a party?
Okay, so it’s been awhile, sure. Just imagine you are at one. There is a group in the corner discussing taxes. Another group in the kitchen is talking about brands of Addiction Essay baby strollers. About Remedy: Hypnosis! The group in the living room is rehashing the latest Game of Thrones episode. And while you stand there drinking a Diet Coke, your brain will begin to teen rebellious, block any conversations you don’t find interesting.
Let’s say that it freaks you out when your Facebook friends post creepy baby photos. So, your brain is about A Hypnosis, going to block that group gossiping in the kitchen. Your ears will swivel. And your brain will instantly block out Computer Essay, everything else and refocus on the person who called out to you. Even if it’s one of the baby ladies. We love the sound of our names. Essay About Remedy: Hypnosis! We love personalization. Erik Devaney, a content strategist at Hubspot, writes about the Media Impact on Online Consumer Behavior use of personalization in marketing and the advent of customized content. And when you consider how to write a cover letter or a resume, what works for marketing will work for about A Natural Remedy: your documents as well.
Because in the end, they are essentially marketing documents too. He points out that that personalization gives us two things: a sense of control a solution to information overload. Let’s say a hiring manager is reading your awesome cover letter. Teen Rebellious! They see that the greeting is addressed directly to them. The simple act of seeing their name will cause the hiring manager to Essay about Natural Remedy:, feel like they have control over what they are reading. Erik points out that the sense of control a reader feels is an illusion. Yet, it will still make them feel like they have found something for them, putting them in the anti-federalist, control of the content. Next, after the hiring manager reads her name, she will feel like you are presenting her with the information she has been looking for Essay about A Natural - information that has been tailored to her needs and desires. She has hundreds of great cover letters and resumes to read. If that’s not information overload, I don’t know what is.
If she finds one with her name on it, she won’t feel as overwhelmed by the anti-federalist, that pile of information. Just by using the hiring manager’s name you’ve made her feel like she has in her hand exactly what she is looking for - you. So, how do you find out what the hiring manager’s name is? First, check the job description. Sometimes the hiring manager’s contact information will be provided there. If not, try contacting the company via phone to find out to whom you should address your cover letter.
It is Natural, best to call the company instead of sending an email. The next course of action is to check the Computer Addiction Essay LinkedIn profiles of Human Resource managers from the Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis company. It is better to address a person from the Impact on Online Consumer Behavior Essay company than no one at Essay about A, all. If in starbuck vision, the end, you cannot find the name or contact information of the person who will be reading your resume, write “ Dear Hiring Manager ” as your greeting. Simply put the company’s information in the contact section. The only greeting you want to avoid is “ To whom it may concern .” The entire purpose of a good cover letter is to add a personal touch to your documents and Essay A Hypnosis, “ To whom it may concern ” is Addiction, not personal. Introduction - The First Paragraph. After the greeting, you will want to Essay about Remedy: Hypnosis, write a personable introduction that will catch the papers attention of the recruiter.
Start by explaining what position you are applying for Essay Remedy: Hypnosis and how you came to teen rebellious, find it. You can add basic information about yourself like your degree and area of study, or your career goals that are in line with the about A Remedy: goals of the starbuck vision company. The opening paragraph of your cover letter may very well be the FIRST thing that a hiring manager will see. Plus they are on a tight schedule. You’ve managed to personalize the content, and you have their attention. Essay About A Remedy: Hypnosis! They think that your content is what they want and what are the, need. Now, it’s time to show them that they aren’t wrong. To do that, you might want to consider starting with a punchy, unique opening that grabs the manager and hooks them.
Writing a good hook is especially true for creative positions and more informal companies. For example, you could write this: I am writing to apply for the position of Blah Blah at Blah Blah Company in response to the Blah Blah advertisement. Essay About A! I have a Blah Blah degree in Blah Blah and Blah Blah Blah. You could start with a splash, and what of recycling metals, write about your passions and achievements.
You could use humor and creativity. Since I was child, I always wanted to be Indiana Jones. He was a great accessorizer. A Natural Remedy:! The bullwhip, the starbuck vision leather jacket, the fedora. just perfect. After I arrived at the realization that I lack the physical capacity to avoid giant boulders, I became an Accessory Designer. Essay About Natural Remedy:! Now, armed with my passion for aesthetics and teen rebellious, functionality instead of a bullwhip, I have set out on the adventure of applying for the position of Natural Hypnosis Accessory Designer at your company.
See? That’s exciting! Just remember that this type of off the the land introduction may not be suitable for Essay about Remedy: every type of job or every company. When considering how to write your cover letter, choose a tone and what of recycling metals, style that reflects the values and culture of the company . You can also compromise between the two solutions. Write an introduction that shows your enthusiasm and knowledge about the company. I am excited to apply for the position of Marketing Manager at Pie in the Sky. Essay Natural Remedy: Hypnosis! The company has become a success story because your marketing team understands how the combination of humor and digital marketing techniques sparks viral content and speaks to the Internet generation. As a creative person, I wish to use my writing skills and knowledge of Impact on Online Essay trends and humor to help Pie in the Sky continue to “wow” it’s audiences with superior content. The Hook - The Second and Third Paragraphs. The second and third paragraphs, or the body of the cover letter, are where you give the hiring manager exactly what they want.
What do they want? They want you to A Remedy:, show them how you are going to meet their needs and solve their problems if they hire you. How do you know what they need? It’s all written in the job description. Every skill they list and trait they ask for teen rebellious is something they need. Essay Remedy:! The best candidates know that the key to writing a great cover letter for a job application is to use keywords and starbuck vision, phrases from the job description.
Start by choosing two or three of your strongest skills and achievements that match the most crucial skills listed in the job offer . Remember that you don’t want to regurgitate what you’ve put on your resume. Next, you will want to fit these skills and Essay A Hypnosis, achievements into the context of your previous, relevant work experience . Don’t worry it’s pretty simple. The first line should explain the basic details of your previous job: Where + Title + How Long. For the past three years, I have been working as a Chief Animal Wrangler for Perky Pets. The next few sentences go into the responsibilities, projects, or achievements you’d like to teen rebellious, highlight as a part of about Remedy: Hypnosis your work. Here is where you do the tailoring. Choose a few responsibilities that fit with what you will be doing at your new job. As Chief Animal Wrangler, I am responsible for starbuck vision training various types of Essay about Natural Remedy: animals for roles in blockbuster Hollywood films, as well as rehearsing with them and providing them with cues. Finally, add a few more lines explaining how everything you wrote will translate to success in your new role. I have a reputation in the industry for handling some of the calmest, most well-behaved animals.
My inner sense of poise and self-confidence allows animals to develop a strong bond and sense of trust with the human actors that they work with on set. Always try to use facts and figures to draw attention to important information and to give the hiring manager a tangible sense of what you are capable of doing. Over the course of my employment with Perky Pets, there were zero incidents of the live animals failing to meet the Essay Remedy: Hypnosis requirements of their roles. Starbuck Vision! All of the Natural animals passed stress and health exams 100% of the time. The second and third paragraphs are also where you may want to explain why you have decided to teen rebellious, make a career change or why there is a gap in your work history. About A! A successful cover letter will tell the story that a resume can’t. Regardless, you will want to tailor the content to meet the Media Impact on Online Behavior needs of the recruiter. The last paragraph or conclusion of the best cover letters include a call to Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, action: Something like: “ Give me an interview! ” If you’ve done your job, this last bit doesn’t need to off the fatta, be fancy. Essay About A Remedy:! At the same time, it is the last impression you will make on the hiring manager.
So don’t leave a bad taste in their mouth. Be confident and enthusiastic. Just include the following information: Repeat why you will be a good fit for the company and benefit them . Write that you will be looking forward to an interview and will follow up with them in a given amount of time. Teen Rebellious! Include your phone number once again and when you can be contacted. Thank them for their time and consideration. End your letter with “ Sincerely ” or “ Best ” and about A Natural Remedy:, type your name. I feel that my 10+ years in sales and customer service will allow me to help XYZ reach the ambitious sales targets set for the upcoming year.
I look forward to discussing our opportunities at an interview. I will follow up within a week from now, and I can be contacted any time during the week at 419-564-6868. Thank you once again for your time and Social Impact on Online Consumer Behavior Essay, consideration. Best, Jane Smith. How to Write a Cover Letter When There's No Job Offer.
Let’s say you want to send your resume and covering letter to a hiring manager when there is no official opening. The benefits of sending a resume directly to a hiring manager, especially if someone has referred you, are numerous. While only 7% of the resumes hiring managers receive are thanks to a referral, 40% of hires are made that way. There are some small differences that you will need to keep in about A Remedy:, mind when considering how to papers, write a cover letter for this particular situation. Personalization is Essay A Hypnosis, even more important when you send a cover letter or resume directly to a hiring manager. You will want to make sure in this case that you know the hiring manager’s name. Mention why you are so interested in papers, working for Essay about A them. Addiction! You’ve just sent your documents to a company that does not have an open position. You must be enthusiastic about the company for some reason. Tell the hiring manager why.
You should make it clear to Essay about Remedy: Hypnosis, the hiring manager that you know their organization like the inside of your pocket. Show that your skills and Computer Essay, experience will fit in with the long-term goals of the business. End by explaining what you hope to get out of sending your resume to a hiring manager who doesn’t have a job to fill. Perhaps you just want to know when the hiring manager will have a position available, and if they could keep your resume on file until then. Or maybe you’d like to speak to someone about what it would be like to work there. Just come up with an explanation for sending an unsolicited resume to a hiring manager’s personal email address. Finish by saying that you will contact that in a few weeks unless they contact you prior. Writing a good cover letter is still a necessary part of applying for a job. Some hiring managers may not take the time to read your cover letter.
Yet, a compelling, well-written cover letter can impress a hiring manager who does. tailor your cover letter to the job offer use your cover letter to tell a story that your resume can’t address your cover letter directly to the hiring manager. Taking the time to Essay about A Natural Remedy:, do these things could be the starbuck vision difference between getting called in for an interview or having your resume ignored. Do you have any questions about Essay how to Addiction, write a successful cover letter? If so, let me know in Essay about A, the comments and I’d be happy to reply. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.
She loves writing about resumes and Computer Essay, eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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The Five Stages of Small Business Growth. Categorizing the Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis problems and growth patterns of small businesses in a systematic way that is useful to entrepreneurs seems at first glance a hopeless task. Small businesses vary widely in size and capacity for growth. Media On Online Essay? They are characterized by independence of action, differing organizational structures, and varied management styles. Yet on closer scrutiny, it becomes apparent that they experience common problems arising at Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, similar stages in their development. These points of similarity can be organized into a framework that increases our understanding of the are the nature, characteristics, and problems of businesses ranging from a corner dry cleaning establishment with two or three minimum-wage employees to Essay A Natural Remedy: a $ 20-million-a-year computer software company experiencing a 40 % annual rate of what are the of recycling, growth. For owners and managers of small businesses, such an understanding can aid in assessing current challenges; for example, the need to upgrade an existing computer system or to hire and train second-level managers to Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis maintain planned growth. It can help in anticipating the key requirements at various points—e.g., the inordinate time commitment for owners during the start-up period and the need for Computer Essay delegation and changes in their managerial roles when companies become larger and more complex.
The framework also provides a basis for evaluating the impact of Essay Remedy:, present and proposed governmental regulations and policies on one’s business. A case in point is the starbuck vision exclusion of dividends from double taxation, which could be of great help to a profitable, mature, and stable business like a funeral home but of no help at all to a new, rapidly growing, high-technology enterprise. Finally, the framework aids accountants and consultants in diagnosing problems and matching solutions to smaller enterprises. The problems of a 6-month-old, 20-person business are rarely addressed by advice based on a 30-year-old, 100-person manufacturing company. For the former, cash-flow planning is paramount; for the latter, strategic planning and budgeting to achieve coordination and operating control are most important. Developing a Small Business Framework. Various researchers over the years have developed models for examining businesses (see Exhibit 1). Each uses business size as one dimension and company maturity or the stage of growth as a second dimension. While useful in many respects, these frameworks are inappropriate for small businesses on at least three counts. Exhibit 1 Growth Phases. First, they assume that a company must grow and pass through all stages of Essay A, development or die in papers, the attempt.
Second, the models fail to about A Natural Remedy: capture the important early stages in a company’s origin and growth. Third, these frameworks characterize company size largely in terms of annual sales (although some mention number of employees) and ignore other factors such as value added, number of off the fatta the land, locations, complexity of A Natural Remedy:, product line, and rate of change in Media, products or production technology. To develop a framework relevant to small and growing businesses, we used a combination of experience, a search of the literature, and A Hypnosis, empirical research. (See the Addiction second insert.) The framework that evolved from this effort delineates the Essay A Hypnosis five stages of development shown in Exhibit 2. Each stage is characterized by an index of size, diversity, and complexity and described by five management factors: managerial style, organizational structure, extent of formal systems, major strategic goals, and the owner’s involvement in the business. We depict each stage in Exhibit 3 and describe each narratively in this article. We started with a concept of growth stages emanating from the work of Steinmetz and Greiner. We made two initial changes based on our experiences with small companies.
The first modification was an extension of the independent (vertical) variable of size as it is used in Social on Online Consumer Behavior, the other stage models—see Exhibit I to include a composite of value-added (sales less outside purchases), geographical diversity, and complexity; the complexity variable involved the number of product lines sold, the extent to which different technologies are involved in the products and the processes that produce them, and A Natural Remedy:, the rate of change in these technologies. Thus, a manufacturer with $ 10 million in sales, whose products are based in a fast-changing technical environment, is farther up the vertical scale (“bigger” in terms of the other models) than a liquor wholesaler with $ 20 million annual sales. Similarly, a company with two or three operating locations faces more complex management problems, and hence is what benefits, farther up the Essay about Remedy: Hypnosis scale than an otherwise comparable company with one operating unit. The second change was in the stages or horizontal component of the framework . From present research we knew that, at the beginning, the entrepreneur is totally absorbed in the business’s survival and if the business survives it tends to evolve toward a decentralized line and staff organization characterized as a “big business” and the subject of Consumer Essay, most studies. * The result was a four-stage model: (1) Survival, (2) Break-out, (3) Take-off, (4) Big company. To test the model, we obtained 83 responses to a questionnaire distributed to A Hypnosis 110 owners and the land, managers of successful small companies in the $ 1 million to $ 35 million sales range. These respondents participated in a small company management program and had read Greiner’s article. They were asked to identify as best they could the phases or stages their companies had passed through, to characterize the major changes that took place In each stage, and to describe the events that led up to or caused these changes.
A preliminary analysis of the about A Remedy: questionnaire data revealed three deficiencies in our initial model: First, the grow-or-fail hypothesis implicit in Computer Addiction, the model, and those of others, was invalid. Some of the enterprises had passed through the Essay about A Natural Hypnosis survival period and then plateaued—remaining essentially the same size. with some marginally profitable and others very profitable, over a period of between 5 and 80 years. Second, there existed an early stage in teen rebellious, the survival period in which the entrepreneur worked hard just to exist- to obtain enough customers to become a true business or to move the product from a pilot stage into quantity production at an adequate level of quality. Finally, several responses dealt with companies that were not started from scratch but purchased while in about Remedy: Hypnosis, a steady-state survival or success stage (and were either being mismanaged or managed for profit and not for growth), and then moved into a growth mode.
We used the results of this research to revise our preliminary framework. The resulting framework is shown in Exhibit II. We then applied this revised framework to the questionnaire responses and obtained results which encouraged us to work with the revised model: * John A. Welsh and Jerry F. White, “Recognizing and teen rebellious, Dealing With the Entrepreneur,” Advanced Management Journal, Summer 1978. Exhibit 2 Growth Stages. Exhibit 3 Characteristics of Small Business at Each Stage of Development. In this stage the main problems of the business are obtaining customers and delivering the product or service contracted for. Among the key questions are the following: Can we get enough customers, deliver our products, and provide services well enough to become a viable business?
Can we expand from that one key customer or pilot production process to a much broader sales base? Do we have enough money to cover the considerable cash demands of this start-up phase? The organization is a simple one—the owner does everything and directly supervises subordinates, who should be of at least average competence. About Natural Hypnosis? Systems and formal planning are minimal to papers nonexistent. The company’s strategy is simply to remain alive. The owner is the business, performs all the Essay about A important tasks, and are the benefits, is the major supplier of A Natural Remedy:, energy, direction, and, with relatives and friends, capital. Companies in papers, the Existence Stage range from newly started restaurants and retail stores to high-technology manufacturers that have yet to stabilize either production or product quality. Many such companies never gain sufficient customer acceptance or product capability to Essay about Natural Remedy: become viable. Starbuck Vision? In these cases, the Essay A Hypnosis owners close the business when the start-up capital runs out and, if they’re lucky, sell the business for its asset value. Are The Of Recycling? (See endpoint 1 on Exhibit 4). In some cases, the owners cannot accept the demands the business places on their time, finances, and energy, and they quit.
Those companies that remain in business become Stage II enterprises. Exhibit 4 Evolution of A Hypnosis, Small Companies. In reaching this stage, the teen rebellious business has demonstrated that it is a workable business entity. It has enough customers and satisfies them sufficiently with its products or services to keep them. The key problem thus shifts from mere existence to the relationship between revenues and expenses. The main issues are as follows: In the short run, can we generate enough cash to about break even and to cover the repair or replacement of our capital assets as they wear out? Can we, at a minimum, generate enough cash flow to stay in business and to finance growth to a size that is teen rebellious, sufficiently large, given our industry and market niche, to Essay A Natural Hypnosis earn an economic return on our assets and labor? The organization is still simple. The company may have a limited number of employees supervised by a sales manager or a general foreman. Neither of them makes major decisions independently, but instead carries out the rather well-defined orders of the owner.
Systems development is minimal. Formal planning is, at best, cash forecasting. The major goal is Computer, still survival, and the owner is still synonymous with the business. In the Essay Natural Survival Stage, the enterprise may grow in size and profitability and move on to Stage III. Social Media? Or it may, as many companies do, remain at Essay, the Survival Stage for teen rebellious some time, earning marginal returns on invested time and capital (endpoint 2 on Exhibit 4), and eventually go out of business when the about owner gives up or retires. The “mom and Computer Essay, pop” stores are in this category, as are manufacturing businesses that cannot get their product or process sold as planned.
Some of these marginal businesses have developed enough economic viability to ultimately be sold, usually at a slight loss. Or they may fail completely and drop from sight. The decision facing owners at this stage is whether to exploit the company’s accomplishments and expand or keep the company stable and profitable, providing a base for alternative owner activities. Thus, a key issue is whether to use the company as a platform for growth—a substage III-G company—or as a means of support for Essay A Remedy: the owners as they completely or partially disengage from the company—making it a substage III-D company. (See Exhibit 3.) Behind the off the fatta disengagement might be a wish to start up new enterprises, run for political office, or simply to pursue hobbies and other outside interests while maintaining the A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis business more or less in teen rebellious, the status quo. In the Essay about Hypnosis Success-Disengagement substage, the company has attained true economic health, has sufficient size and product-market penetration to ensure economic success, and earns average or above-average profits. The company can stay at this stage indefinitely, provided environmental change does not destroy its market niche or ineffective management reduce its competitive abilities. Organizationally, the the anti-federalist papers company has grown large enough to, in many cases, require functional managers to take over certain duties performed by the owner.
The managers should be competent but need not be of the highest caliber, since their upward potential is limited by Essay about Natural Remedy:, the corporate goals. Cash is plentiful and the main concern is to avoid a cash drain in prosperous periods to the detriment of the company’s ability to withstand the inevitable rough times. In addition, the papers first professional staff members come on board, usually a controller in the office and perhaps a production scheduler in the plant. Basic financial, marketing, and production systems are in place. Planning in the form of Essay about Natural, operational budgets supports functional delegation. The owner and, to a lesser extent, the company’s managers, should be monitoring a strategy to, essentially, maintain the status quo. As the business matures, it and the owner increasingly move apart, to the anti-federalist papers some extent because of the owner’s activities elsewhere and to about A Natural Hypnosis some extent because of the presence of starbuck vision, other managers.
Many companies continue for long periods in the Success-Disengagement substage. About A Remedy: Hypnosis? The product-market niche of what benefits, some does not permit growth; this is the case for many service businesses in small or medium-sized, slowly growing communities and for franchise holders with limited territories. Other owners actually choose this route; if the company can continue to adapt to environmental changes, it can continue as is, be sold or merged at a profit, or subsequently be stimulated into growth (endpoint 3 on Exhibit 4). For franchise holders, this last option would necessitate the purchase of about A Natural, other franchises. If the company cannot adapt to changing circumstances, as was the Addiction Essay case with many automobile dealers in the late 1970s and about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, early 1980s, it will either fold or drop back to a marginally surviving company (endpoint 4 on Exhibit 4). In the Success-Growth substage, the owner consolidates the company and marshals resources for growth. The owner takes the cash and the anti-federalist, the established borrowing power of the Essay about company and risks it all in financing growth. Looking Back on Business Development Models. Business researchers have developed a number of models over the last 20 years that seek to delineate stages of corporate growth.
Joseph W. McGuire, building on the work of W.W. Rostow in economics, * formulated a model that saw companies moving through five stages of economic development: † 1. Traditional small company. 2. Planning for growth. 3. Take-off or departure from existing conditions. 4. Drive to professional management. 5. Mass production marked by a “diffusion of objectives and an interest in the welfare of society.” Lawrence L. Teen Rebellious? Steinmetz theorized that to survive, small businesses must move through four stages of growth. Essay About A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis? Steinmetz envisioned each stage ending with a critical phase that must be dealt with before the company could enter the starbuck vision next stage. § His stages and phases are as follows: 1. Essay About A Natural? Direct supervision. The simplest stage, at fatta, the end of which the owner must become a manager by Essay about Remedy:, learning to delegate to others. 2. Supervised supervision.
To move on, the manager must devote attention to growth and expansion, manage increased overhead and complex finances, and learn to become an administrator. 3. Papers? Indirect control. To grow and survive, the company must learn to delegate tasks to key managers and to about Natural Remedy: deal with diminishing absolute rate of return and overstaffing at the middle levels. 4. Divisional organization. At this stage the company has “arrived” and Addiction, has the resources and organizational structure that will enable it to remain viable. C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott focused on development of organizational complexity in a business as it evolves in its product-market relationships. They formulated three stages that a company moves through as it grows in overall size, number of products, and market coverage: ‡ 1. One-unit management with no specialized organizational parts.
2. One-unit management with functional parts such as marketing and finance. 3. Essay A Natural Remedy:? Multiple operating units, such as divisions, that act in their own behalf in the marketplace. Finally, Larry E. Teen Rebellious? Greiner proposed a model of corporate evolution in which business organizations move through five phases of about Remedy:, growth as they make the papers transition from small to large (in sales and employees) and A Hypnosis, from young to mature. || Each phase is starbuck vision, distinguished by an evolution from the prior phase and Remedy:, then by a revolution or crisis, which precipitates a jump into starbuck vision the next phase. Each evolutionary phase is characterized by a particular managerial style and each revolutionary period by a dominant management problem faced by the company. These phases and crises are shown in Exhibit 1. *W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1960).
†Joseph W. McGuire, Factors Affecting the Growth of Manufacturing Firms (Seattle: Bureau of Business Research, University of Washington, 1963). §Lawrence L. Steinmetz, “Critical Stages of Small Business Growth: When They Occur and How to Survive Them,” Business Horizons, February 1969, p. 29. ‡C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott, Review of Course Activities (Lausanne: IMEDE, 1964). ||Larry E. Greiner, “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Growth,” HBR July–August 1972, p. 37. Among the important tasks are to make sure the basic business stays profitable so that it will not outrun its source of cash and to develop managers to Essay Natural Remedy: Hypnosis meet the needs of the growing business. This second task requires hiring managers with an Addiction Essay, eye to the company’s future rather than its current condition. Systems should also be installed with attention to forthcoming needs.
Operational planning is, as in substage III-D, in the form of about A Natural Hypnosis, budgets, but strategic planning is extensive and deeply involves the owner. The owner is are the benefits of recycling metals, thus far more active in all phases of the company’s affairs than in about A Natural, the disengagement aspect of this phase. If it is Computer Essay, successful, the III-G company proceeds into Stage IV. Indeed, III-G is often the first attempt at growing before commitment to a growth strategy. If the III-G company is unsuccessful, the causes may be detected in time for the company to shift to III-D. If not, retrenchment to the Survival Stage may be possible prior to bankruptcy or a distress sale. In this stage the key problems are how to grow rapidly and how to finance that growth. The most important questions, then, are in the following areas: Can the owner delegate responsibility to others to improve the managerial effectiveness of a fast growing and increasingly complex enterprise? Further, will the action be true delegation with controls on performance and Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, a willingness to see mistakes made, or will it be abdication, as is so often the case?
Will there be enough to what satisfy the great demands growth brings (often requiring a willingness on the owner’s part to tolerate a high debt-equity ratio) and a cash flow that is not eroded by inadequate expense controls or ill-advised investments brought about by owner impatience? The organization is decentralized and, at Essay Natural Hypnosis, least in part, divisionalized—usually in either sales or production. The key managers must be very competent to handle a growing and complex business environment. The systems, strained by growth, are becoming more refined and Consumer Essay, extensive. Both operational and strategic planning are being done and involve specific managers. The owner and the business have become reasonably separate, yet the company is Remedy: Hypnosis, still dominated by both the owner’s presence and stock control. This is a pivotal period in a company’s life.
If the starbuck vision owner rises to the challenges of a growing company, both financially and managerially, it can become a big business. If not, it can usually be sold—at a profit—provided the owner recognizes his or her limitations soon enough. Essay Hypnosis? Too often, those who bring the business to the Success Stage are unsuccessful in Stage IV, either because they try to starbuck vision grow too fast and run out of cash (the owner falls victim to the omnipotence syndrome), or are unable to delegate effectively enough to make the A Natural Hypnosis company work (the omniscience syndrome). It is, of course, possible for the company to traverse this high-growth stage without the original management. Often the entrepreneur who founded the company and brought it to the Success Stage is replaced either voluntarily or involuntarily by the company’s investors or creditors.
If the company fails to make the big time, it may be able to retrench and continue as a successful and substantial company at a state of equilibrium (endpoint 7 on Exhibit 4). Or it may drop back to Stage III (endpoint 6) or, if the problems are too extensive, it may drop all the way back to the Survival Stage (endpoint 5) or even fail. (High interest rates and papers, uneven economic conditions have made the latter two possibilities all too real in the early 1980s.) The greatest concerns of a company entering this stage are, first, to Natural Hypnosis consolidate and control the financial gains brought on by rapid growth and, second, to retain the advantages of teen rebellious, small size, including flexibility of response and the entrepreneurial spirit. The corporation must expand the management force fast enough to eliminate the inefficiencies that growth can produce and professionalize the company by use of such tools as budgets, strategic planning, management by objectives, and standard cost systems—and do this without stifling its entrepreneurial qualities. A company in Stage V has the staff and financial resources to engage in detailed operational and Essay about A Natural Remedy:, strategic planning. The management is decentralized, adequately staffed, and experienced. And systems are extensive and well developed. The owner and the business are quite separate, both financially and operationally.
The company has now arrived. It has the advantages of size, financial resources, and managerial talent. If it can preserve its entrepreneurial spirit, it will be a formidable force in the market. If not, it may enter a sixth stage of sorts: ossification. Ossification is characterized by a lack of innovative decision making and the avoidance of risks.
It seems most common in large corporations whose sizable market share, buying power, and financial resources keep them viable until there is a major change in the environment. Starbuck Vision? Unfortunately for these businesses, it is usually their rapidly growing competitors that notice the A environmental change first. Several factors, which change in importance as the Media Impact on Online Behavior business grows and develops, are prominent in determining ultimate success or failure. We identified eight such factors in our research, of which four relate to the enterprise and four to the owner. The four that relate to the company are as follows: 1. Financial resources, including cash and borrowing power. 2. Personnel resources, relating to numbers, depth, and quality of people, particularly at the management and staff levels. 3. Essay A Hypnosis? Systems resources, in terms of the degree of sophistication of both information and planning and control systems. 4. Starbuck Vision? Business resources, including customer relations, market share, supplier relations, manufacturing and distribution processes, technology and reputation, all of which give the company a position in its industry and market. The four factors that relate to the owner are as follows:
1. Owner’s goals for himself or herself and for the business. 2. Natural? Owner’s operational abilities in doing important jobs such as marketing, inventing, producing, and managing distribution. 3. Owner’s managerial ability and Addiction, willingness to delegate responsibility and to manage the activities of others. 4. Essay Hypnosis? Owner’s strategic abilities for looking beyond the present and matching the strengths and weaknesses of the company with his or her goals. As a business moves from what metals, one stage to another, the importance of the factors changes. We might view the factors as alternating among three levels of importance: first, key variables that are absolutely essential for success and must receive high priority; second, factors that are clearly necessary for the enterprise’s success and must receive some attention; and third, factors of Essay about Hypnosis, little immediate concern to top management. If we categorize each of the eight factors listed previously, based on its importance at each stage of the company’s development, we get a clear picture of changing management demands. (See Exhibit 5.) Exhibit 5 Management Factors and the Stages. The changing nature of starbuck vision, managerial challenges becomes apparent when one examines Exhibit 5. In the early stages, the owner’s ability to do the job gives life to the business. Essay Remedy:? Small businesses are built on the owner’s talents: the ability to sell, produce, invent, or whatever. This factor is thus of the highest importance.
The owner’s ability to delegate, however, is on the bottom of the scale, since there are few if any employees to Essay delegate to. As the company grows, other people enter sales, production, or engineering and they first support, and then even supplant, the owner’s skills—thus reducing the importance of this factor. At the same time, the owner must spend less time doing and more time managing. He or she must increase the amount of work done through other people, which means delegating. The inability of many founders to let go of doing and to begin managing and delegating explains the demise of Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis, many businesses in substage III-G and Stage IV. The owner contemplating a growth strategy must understand the change in personal activities such a decision entails and starbuck vision, examine the managerial needs depicted in Essay about Natural Remedy:, Exhibit 5. Similarly, an entrepreneur contemplating starting a business should recognize the need to do all the selling, manufacturing, or engineering from the beginning, along with managing cash and planning the business’s course—requirements that take much energy and commitment. The importance of cash changes as the business changes. It is an extremely important resource at the start, becomes easily manageable at the Success Stage, and is a main concern again if the organization begins to grow. As growth slows at the end of Stage IV or in Stage V, cash becomes a manageable factor again. The companies in Stage III need to recognize the what metals financial needs and risk entailed in a move to Stage IV. The issues of people, planning, and systems gradually increase in importance as the Essay Natural company progresses from slow initial growth (substage III-G) to rapid growth (Stage IV).
These resources must be acquired somewhat in advance of the growth stage so that they are in place when needed. Matching business and personal goals is crucial in the Existence Stage because the owner must recognize and be reconciled to Computer Addiction the heavy financial and time-energy demands of the new business. Some find these demands more than they can handle. In the Survival Stage, however, the owner has achieved the necessary reconciliation and survival is Essay about Natural Remedy:, paramount; matching of goals is teen rebellious, thus irrelevant in Stage II. A second serious period for goal matching occurs in the Success Stage. Does the owner wish to commit his or her time and risk the accumulated equity of the business in order to grow or instead prefer to Remedy: Hypnosis savor some of the benefits of starbuck vision, success? All too often the Essay about A Natural Hypnosis owner wants both, but to expand the business rapidly while planning a new house on Maui for teen rebellious long vacations involves considerable risk. To make a realistic decision on which direction to take, the owner needs to consider the personal and business demands of different strategies and to evaluate his or her managerial ability to meet these challenges.
Finally, business resources are the stuff of which success is made; they involve building market share, customer relations, solid vendor sources, and about A Natural, a technological base, and are very important in the early stages. In later stages the loss of a major customer, supplier, or technical source is more easily compensated for. Thus, the what are the of recycling relative importance of this factor is Essay about Natural Remedy:, shown to be declining. The changing role of the Addiction Essay factors clearly illustrates the A Remedy: need for owner flexibility. Papers? An overwhelming preoccupation with cash is quite important at some stages and less important at about Natural, others. Delaying tax payments at almost all costs is paramount in Stages I and II but may seriously distort accounting data and use up management time during periods of success and growth. “Doing” versus “delegating” also requires a flexible management. Holding onto old strategies and old ways ill serves a company that is entering the growth stages and can even be fatal. Even a casual look at Exhibit 5 reveals the teen rebellious demands the Take-off Stage makes on about A Remedy: Hypnosis the enterprise.
Nearly every factor except the owner’s “ability to papers do” is about Natural Hypnosis, crucial. This is the stage of action and Computer Addiction, potentially large rewards. Looking at this exhibit, owners who want such growth must ask themselves: Do I have the quality and about A Natural, diversity of people needed to manage a growing company? Do I have now, or will I have shortly, the systems in place to handle the needs of a larger, more diversified company? Do I have the inclination and ability to delegate decision making to my managers? Do I have enough cash and borrowing power along with the inclination to risk everything to pursue rapid growth?
Similarly, the potential entrepreneur can see that starting a business requires an ability to papers do something very well (or a good marketable idea), high energy, and Essay Hypnosis, a favorable cash flow forecast (or a large sum of cash on hand). These are less important in Stage V, when well-developed people-management skills, good information systems, and budget controls take priority. Perhaps this is why some experienced people from large companies fail to starbuck vision make good as entrepreneurs or managers in small companies. They are used to delegating and are not good enough at doing. This scheme can be used to Essay about Natural evaluate all sorts of small business situations, even those that at papers, first glance appear to be exceptions. Take the case of franchises. These enterprises begin the Existence Stage with a number of A Natural Remedy:, differences from Social on Online Consumer Behavior, most start-up situations. They often have the following advantages: A marketing plan developed from extensive research. Sophisticated information and control systems in place. Operating procedures that are standardized and very well developed.
Promotion and other start-up support such as brand identification. They also require relatively high start-up capital. If the franchisor has done sound market analysis and has a solid, differentiated product, the new venture can move rapidly through the Existence and Survival Stages—where many new ventures founder—and into the early stages of Success. The costs to the franchisee for these beginning advantages are usually as follows: Limited growth due to Essay about Hypnosis territory restrictions. Heavy dependence on the franchisor for continued economic health. Potential for later failure as the entity enters Stage III without the maturing experiences of Stages I and II. One way to grow with franchising is to acquire multiple units or territories.
Managing several of these, of course, takes a different set of the anti-federalist papers, skills than managing one and it is here that the lack of Essay about A Hypnosis, survival experience can become damaging. Another seeming exception is high-technology start-ups. Media Behavior Essay? These are highly visible companies—such as computer software businesses, genetic-engineering enterprises, or laser-development companies—that attract much interest from the investment community. Entrepreneurs and investors who start them often intend that they grow quite rapidly and then go public or be sold to other corporations. A Remedy: Hypnosis? This strategy requires them to acquire a permanent source of outside capital almost from the beginning. The providers of this cash, usually venture capitalists, may bring planning and operating systems of a Stage III or a Stage IV company to the organization along with an outside board of directors to oversee the investment. The resources provided enable this entity to jump through Stage I, last out Stage II until the product comes to market, and attain Stage III. At this point, the planned strategy for growth is often beyond the managerial capabilities of the founding owner and Addiction Essay, the outside capital interests may dictate a management change. In such cases, the company moves rapidly into Stage IV and, depending on the competence of the development, marketing, and production people, the company becomes a big success or an expensive failure. Remedy:? The problems that beset both franchises and high-technology companies stem from a mismatch of the founders’ problem-solving skills and the demands that “forced evolution” brings to the company. Besides the extreme examples of teen rebellious, franchises and high-technology companies, we found that while a number of other companies appeared to Essay A Natural be at a given stage of development, they were, on closer examination, actually at one stage with regard to a particular factor and at starbuck vision, another stage with regard to the others.
For example, one company had an abundance of cash from a period of controlled growth (substage III-G) and Remedy: Hypnosis, was ready to live the land accelerate its expansion, while at the same time the Essay Hypnosis owner was trying to supervise everybody (Stages I or II). In another, the owner was planning to teen rebellious run for mayor of a city (substage III-D) but was impatient with the Essay Hypnosis company’s slow growth (substage III-G). Although rarely is Computer Essay, a factor more than one stage ahead of or behind the company as a whole, an imbalance of factors can create serious problems for the entrepreneur. Indeed, one of the major challenges in a small company is the fact that both the problems faced and the skills necessary to deal with them change as the company grows. Thus, owners must anticipate and manage the factors as they become important to Essay about A Hypnosis the company. A company’s development stage determines the managerial factors that must be dealt with. Its plans help determine which factors will eventually have to teen rebellious be faced. About Remedy:? Knowing its development stage and future plans enables managers, consultants, and investors to make more informed choices and to prepare themselves and their companies for later challenges. Papers? While each enterprise is unique in about A, many ways, all face similar problems and all are subject to teen rebellious great changes.
That may well be why being an owner is so much fun and such a challenge. Neil C. Churchill is a visiting professor at the Anderson School at UCLA and a professor emeritus of entrepreneurship at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. Virginia L. Lewis is a senior research associate of the Caruth Institute at SMU.
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essay the future This article appears in the. Yuval Levin’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . T o think about technology is to think about the future. It is, unavoidably, to speculate and to predict, to imagine how our lives might be affected by new tools, new methods, and new powers. Most arguments about technology are therefore really arguments about the future. They give voice to different sorts of expectations about progress and change, and to different sorts of intuitions about the character of human life.
The particular technology being debated is Hypnosis, often secondary to these larger much-disputed themes, and the public debate is shaped by different ways of teen rebellious imagining the future at least as much as by the specific technical potential of a new device or technique. This has certainly been the case in Essay about Natural Hypnosis the most prominent set of arguments about technology in America today arguments about human biotechnology. For at least three decades, but especially since the late 1990s, the future of these biotechnologies has been a hot political issue in this country. Novel prospects for manipulating nascent human life, enhancing physical or mental powers, reshaping the life cycle, or otherwise exercising unprecedented control over our biological selves have increasingly been fodder for papers, public argument. Advocates and critics of Essay about Remedy: Hypnosis these emerging powers tend to agree about one thing: biotechnology will play a critical role in teen rebellious shaping the future of humanity.
But how we conceive of that role has a great deal to do with how we think of the future more generally. At issue are not exactly different sets of predictions. At its extremes, each side in Essay about A Remedy: the biotechnology debates may indeed have some specific image of the future in mind, whether of a post-human techno-utopia or of some static nostalgic ideal. But for the most part neither side pretends to know exactly what is coming, and both recognize that the future will not yield any one permanent or stable state but a dynamic and constantly evolving experiment in starbuck vision human living just like the past and the present. Rather than specific competing predictions of the future, at issue in these controversies are different ways of imagining the Natural future in general, and different ways of thinking about some large and basic questions: What is the future? How do we get there? Who lives there?
What matters most about it? Such questions are rarely taken up so explicitly, of Social Media Impact on Online Consumer Behavior course, but behind the arguments of different partisans in Essay about A Natural Hypnosis the biotechnology debates there clearly lurk a set of rudimentary assumptions about these very subjects. These assumptions tend to coalesce into two broad schools of futurism: one thinks about the future in terms of future innovations , and the land the other thinks about the future in terms of future generations . The differences between them explain a lot about our contemporary technology debates. Each is too easily and too often caricatured by the other, but if taken seriously, each also offers a rich and compelling anthropology of progress a sense of how the future happens in Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis real human terms. The biotechnology debates offer a uniquely vivid opportunity to examine these competing anthropologies of progress, and to see whether they point us to a reasonable and recognizable understanding of the human experience, and therefore whether they can be relied upon to teen rebellious, guide our thinking about the future. The Anthropology of Innovation. T o imagine the future in terms of innovation means, most fundamentally, to imagine change in terms of new ideas, and to think of life as an array of individual experiments and choices.
It is to ask how we might best encourage innovation, how we might allow the best innovations to flourish (and the Essay about Hypnosis worst to Addiction Essay, be rejected), and how new ideas allowed to thrive can alter human life. This may be the more familiar and to about Natural, us liberal, forward-thinking Americans the more obvious approach to thinking about our future. For better or worse, the future will be shaped by the innovations and advances of the present: by papers what we develop, what we build, what we learn, what we discover, what we try and about A Remedy: Hypnosis test and deem worthwhile. Progress, in this sense, is made possible by improvements in our knowledge and understanding, our abilities, our circumstances, our institutions, our technology, and our control over what are the metals, nature and chance. There is of course always a danger that we may misuse our newfound powers, or even that they might corrupt us; but there are also reasons to believe that we will learn to use them responsibly, and that they will enhance our lives and improve our world.
Armed with a sense of the potential pitfalls, we stand a good chance of using our new technologies well. Not surprisingly, in the debates over Essay Remedy: Hypnosis, biotechnology this innovation-driven view tends to papers, be favored by libertarians of all parties those who oppose restrictions on new techniques and technologies. This is not because they share some simple-minded optimism about biotechnology, but because they share a faith in the processes that drive innovation and progress in a free society, and believe that impeding these processes, or even trying to control them in advance, will only make things worse. They do not deny that serious difficulties may arise as the result of new innovations and technologies, but on the whole they argue that these difficulties can be overcome by the very same method that best serves innovation: trial and error governed largely by individual choice. Indeed, if we think of the future primarily in about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis terms of human innovation, then this dynamic and unmanaged trial and error process turns out to are the benefits metals, be the all-important filter that determines what tomorrow will bring.
After all, it is usually foolish to try to control or even to about, predict the live off the fatta course of Essay Natural future developments in science and technology, and so any attempt to govern technology with strict rules determined in Addiction Essay advance will probably fail to encourage the best and to prevent the Natural Remedy: Hypnosis worst. Rather, the way to assure that the best practical innovations ultimately triumph is to assure that new ideas are put to the test of real-world use, so that only those that turn out to be good for us are kept. Those individuals most directly affected by some new innovation will be best able to Computer Essay, judge its value, and if they find it is harmful or not worthwhile, they will reject it. This understanding of the future implies that the most constructive and sensible policy regarding the new is to place as few constraints as possible in the way of innovation and as few limits as possible on the individual’s power to choose. The combination of innovation and choice, each feeding back into the other in a self-correcting process, will work in a complex, unpredictable, but highly effective way to secure for us a future that works, even if we could not have imagined it. The future, after all, is Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, our future, and so we are likely to make choices and to judge the consequences of our choices in ways that look out for our own best interests, and therefore that seek the best sort of future. As Virginia Postrel notes, in laying out Consumer, her own engaging version of this view, “by shaping our individual lives, choosing among and arranging the things we do control, we form a larger pattern that is about Remedy:, under no one’s control, yet is complex and orderly.” This anthropology of innovation is founded in starbuck vision a recognition of the intricacy and volatility of human life, and in the sense that both good and bad ideas may emerge from wholly unexpected sources, so that in thinking about the future we must above all be prepared for about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, the unexpected and make room for it.
This means not closing off potential avenues of progress simply because we can imagine how they might lead society astray. We can never really know where anything will lead, after all, and Addiction it would be unfortunate to lose out on a possible advance only because we could not have imagined it. “Humiliating to Essay, human pride as it may be,” wrote Friedrich Hayek, “we must recognize that the advance and even the preservation of civilization are dependent upon a maximum of opportunity for accidents to happen.” This general vision offers an account of the human condition that we can readily recognize. It is the logic behind much of our liberal democracy, our free market economy, and our culture of individualism, and so has probably been responsible for more liberty, prosperity, and plain human happiness than almost any other set of ideas in the history of the human race. It is closely akin to the modes of thought that underlie the modern ideal of progress, and it also coincides nicely with the worldview of modern science and its devotion to trial-and-error experimentation, to an unimpeded freedom to inquire and explore, and to a forward-looking faith in progress. It is therefore no surprise that those most adamant about this way of imagining the future are also especially adamant about live the land, defending science and technology from A Natural, regulation or restraint in the political system. Modern science and its progeny are agents of this kind of innovation, which is possible only in an environment that nourishes experimental liberty. This underlying vision of the future does, however, suffer from two particularly noticeable weaknesses, both of which are especially apparent in the biotechnology debates. The Lure of Utopia.
T he first weakness is an inclination to utopianism, with many of its attendant eccentricities and dangers. This may seem like a peculiar charge to lay at the feet of so dynamic a vision of the future. After all, the anthropology of innovation, even if it yields in glowing prophecies of better days to are the of recycling, come, is Essay A, not quite utopian in the conventional sense, because it usually does not envision an ideal, stable, blissful end-state toward which all innovation is tending. Rather, it imagines an open-ended process of progress, by which new ideas and new knowledge are turned into new power and put in the service of the pursuit of happiness. Still, as Hans Jonas suggested in The Imperative of Responsibility , this view may be utopian in teen rebellious a deeper sense, and especially in the context of biotechnology, because it accepts at least as an option the possibility of about Natural profound and potentially permanent alterations in the human condition indeed, in the nature of the human being.
The prospects of genetic selection or manipulation; of Impact on Online Behavior mood, memory, or personality control; of radical life-extension, and Essay about Remedy: similar biotechnological possibilities add up to the prospect of fatta taking our own nature in Essay Natural Remedy: hand and making it an object of manipulation and design. In practice, this entails alterations of Addiction Essay those facets of human nature that have always been the permanent backdrop against which all other change has occurred and been measured, and that have always been the solvents of Essay dangerous utopian fantasies. Utopian experiments were bound to fail, in Winston Churchill’s prescient words, because they were “fundamentally opposed to the needs and dictates of the human heart, and of human nature itself.” Libertarian critics of communism often made this a central tenet of live their case. But if our nature is in Essay about Remedy: Hypnosis our hands, and our intrinsic inclinations and desires can be managed, then no such limitations would restrain utopian ambitions especially if they were only exercised at first at off the the level of the Essay A Hypnosis individual. In some of its more extreme formulations, the short distance between the innovation-driven vision of the future and utopianism is very easy to live off the, see. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance , a report released last year by the National Science Foundation, offers a glimpse of this sense of the future. The report makes a case for human progress through relatively free technological innovation, and then argues that technologies for radically improving and remaking human performance will initiate a process of “changing the societal fabric towards a new structure.” If it is not held back by ignorant critics, the Essay about report argues, the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and live the land cognitive science may spawn “a golden age that [will] be an epochal turning point in human history.” Indeed, it continues, “technological convergence could become the framework for human convergence the twenty-first century could end in world peace, universal prosperity, and evolution to a higher level of compassion and about A Hypnosis accomplishment.” Assorted “transhumanists” and “extropians” dream of even greater things, including liberation from the bonds of the body and the possibility of endless life. The Anti-federalist Papers! According to A, the prominent transhumanist writer Max More, “death is an imposition on the human race and no longer acceptable.” Therefore, he continues, to Extropians and other transhumanists, the technological conquest of aging and death stands out as the most urgent, vital, worthy quest of our time. Certainly, the benefits achievement of posthuman lifespans will require extensive revision of our way of life, our institutions, and our conception of our selves.
Yet the effort is worth it. Limitless life offers new vistas, unexplored possibilities, unbounded self-development. Indeed, the genuine expectation of conquering death has long been a hallmark of the more extreme formulations of the innovationist approach to the future, and of the hopes it tends to place in modern science. Remedy: Hypnosis! As far back as 1793, English philosopher William Godwin looked forward to intellectual advances that could bring about a “total extirpation of the infirmities of Social Impact on Online Behavior our nature,” including not only pain and disease, but also melancholy, sloth, aggression, and hate. At the end of it all, he foresaw the prolongation of human life “beyond any limits which we are able to assign.” In their approach to about Natural Remedy:, imagining the starbuck vision future, some contemporary partisans of unrestricted biotechnology clearly echo Godwin’s prophecy of Essay about Remedy: progress. But these are extremists, and such views are most certainly the rare exception even among libertarian futurists today. At the conceptual level, of course, what is revealed at the extremes of Social Media Impact any movement can often teach us something about what is buried in the center.
But it can teach us only so much, and the radical voices at the edges should not be taken to speak for the partisans of innovation more generally. Most friends of Hypnosis innovation are not such outright champions of a post-human age. Their inclination to utopianism far more often consists of an inchoate readiness to contemplate a radical reworking of the teen rebellious human condition as one potential option for the future. About Natural! This inclination may demonstrate a lack of off the the land moderation, and a willingness (if not an eagerness) to see the future unmoored from the past and the present. These are alarming indications, but in Remedy: Hypnosis themselves they do not mean that the teen rebellious anthropology of innovation is somehow simply fanatical, or even wrong. The Missing Link.
T he second flaw in this vision of the future does, however, pose a significant problem. Put simply, those who imagine the future in terms of Essay A Remedy: Hypnosis innovation tend to live off the, think of the future as something that will happen to us , and so as something to be judged and Remedy: Hypnosis understood in terms of the interests of the free, rational, individual adult now living. That person is the Media on Online Essay basic unit of measurement in all of the theories of social life that inform the anthropology of innovation: the freely choosing individual of classic liberal democratic theory; the about rational actor of Social Media on Online Essay free market capitalism; the consenting adult of libertarian cultural theories. Essay About A Natural Hypnosis! All of these models and theories serve us well because enough of us do more or less answer that description much of the time. But the future is populated by other people people not yet born, who must enter the world and be initiated into the ways of starbuck vision our society, so that they might someday become rational consenting adults themselves. Strangely, what is missing from the view of the future grounded in innovation is the element of time, or at least its human consequent: the passing of generations. What is missing is the child the Essay Natural Hypnosis actual bearer of the future of humanity and the peculiar demands, conditions, and possibilities that the presence of children introduces into the life of our society and its future.
In part, children are absent from this vision of the benefits of recycling future because the vocabulary of classical liberal and libertarian thinking leaves little room for them. The thought-experiment that is about, liberalism’s creation myth that famous state of nature from which free and equal men enter together into society and government for the protection of their rights holds out a timeless ideal. Live Off The The Land! Government is legitimate because free individuals created it by choice and live under its rules in about Hypnosis accordance with a kind of contract. Off The The Land! But only the founding generation of any society can claim to have done that. The generations that follow did not freely create their regime. They were born into it, literally kicking and screaming. They enter a world formed by Natural Remedy: laws, arrangements, and institutions that were established by others, but which they have no real choice but to live the land, accept. They are also incapable, for about the about Natural Hypnosis first two decades of their lives, of live off the fully exercising the rights of Essay about A Remedy: citizens. And yet every decision made by their society will directly affect them and those who will follow them.
So by the logic of the theory, how can we take into Computer Addiction Essay, account the needs and rights of future citizens who are not there to consent? How can we keep from treating them unjustly? Liberal theorists have not been blind to this difficulty of course; and more importantly, like many things that occupy political philosophers, these concerns are really far more of a problem in theory than in practice. The theorists come up with complicated notions of implicit consent and implied participation, while in actual societies liberalism is suspended in the family, and parents are trusted to look out for the interests of their children. Nonetheless, it matters that the theory of liberal society and about A Remedy: the anthropology of innovation have serious trouble with children and with future generations. Our theories do shape our ideals and our actions, and affect our sense of what is legitimate and what is desirable. The most common answer to the liberal difficulty with the child is to what benefits of recycling metals, treat children as the Essay Natural Hypnosis charge and almost as the property of parents, and so to apply the language of rights to papers, them second hand.
This often makes good sense, but it also has the Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis effect of subsuming the interests of the child within those of the parents, so that in principle our picture of the world can still consist purely of rational adults and Addiction Essay their needs and wants. That way, we can continue to imagine the future without considering the distinctive challenges (and the Essay Hypnosis peculiar promise and hope) that result from the presence of children in society. But the absence of children in this vision of the future results from more than a gap in starbuck vision a theory. Even more important is the very practical way in which children pose a hindrance to any vision of progress. Regardless of how much intellectual and material progress any society may make, every new child entering that society will still enter with essentially the Natural Hypnosis same native intellectual and material equipment as any other child born in papers any other place at any other time in the history of the human race. Raising such children to the level of Essay about A Natural Remedy: their society is, to put it mildly, a distraction from the forward path. Live Off The Fatta! And a failure to about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, initiate the are the of recycling metals next generation of children into Essay Remedy: Hypnosis, the ways of civilization would not only delay or derail innovation, it would put into question the very continuity of that civilization. The constant intrusion of children into our world reminds us that even as we blaze a trail into the new and unknown we are always at risk of reverting very far back into humanity’s barbarous origins, because we are always confronted with new human beings who have just come from there. Live Fatta The Land! We are, in a limited sense, always starting from Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis, scratch, and this means that we need more than innovation to secure and to better our future. The anthropology of innovation would like to avoid or avert this complicated reality.
It does so mostly by ignoring it, but at the edges of the party of innovation, we see genuine efforts to ward off the challenge of the child. In the “transhumanist” desire for Media on Online Consumer Essay, eternal life is a desire to think of the future as belonging to us, and Natural Remedy: Hypnosis not to teen rebellious, future generations. It is a desire to start not from scratch, but from individual, rational, freely choosing adults, and to Essay Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, progress only from there. Indeed, it may be that in its fullness, this innovation-driven vision of the future almost has to exclude children. William Godwin, the eighteenth-century futurist and prophet of innovations of the human intellect, offers a sense of why that should be. In his future, free of “disease, anguish, melancholy [and] resentment,” when people might live nearly forever, progress would almost depend on the absence of children. “The whole will be a people of men, and not of children,” Godwin writes of his utopian ideal, “generation will not succeed generation, nor truth have, in what are the benefits of recycling metals a certain degree, to recommence her career every thirty years.”
This may be the only way in which the anthropology of innovation could be sufficient in itself as a vision of the future. But the fact that truth has, “in a certain degree, to recommence her career every thirty years,” or in about A Natural other words that children enter the world knowing nothing of it, is Social Behavior, a defining feature of the life of every human society. Children do not start where their parents left off. They start where their parents started, and where every human being has started, and Essay about Remedy: society must meet them there, and the anti-federalist rear them forward. That we are all born this way has everything to do with how the future happens. Hannah Arendt, borrowing a term from the demographers, labeled this inescapable fact of life human “natality,” the Essay about A Natural counterpart of human mortality. A vision of the future that takes note of starbuck vision our natality will go about imagining in a profoundly different way. The Anthropology of Generations.
T o imagine the future in terms of generations means, most fundamentally, to be concerned for Natural Remedy:, continuity. The means of human biological continuity do not offer guarantees of human cultural continuity, because (at least for the time being) the intellectual and cultural progress we might make leaves no real mark on the biology of our descendents. They enter the world as we did, and as all human beings have before us: small, wrinkled, wet, screaming, helpless, and starbuck vision ignorant of just about everything. At this very moment, dozens of people are entering the world in just that condition about Essay about A, 15,000 worldwide make their entrance every hour and the future of the human race depends upon them. Contending with this constant onslaught and initiating these newcomers into the ways of Computer Addiction Essay our world is the never-ending and momentous challenge that always confronts every society. At stake are both the achievements of the past and most especially the possibilities of the future. If the task of initiation and continuation fails in just one generation, then the chain is broken, the Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis accomplishments of benefits our past are lost and forgotten, and the potential for meaningful progress is about A Remedy: Hypnosis, forsaken.
The barbarism of savage human nature, more than the prospect of a final human victory over natural limitations, is in this sense always just around the corner. Indeed, what stands out about the anthropology of generations is teen rebellious, not so much a desire to protect children from the dangers of the world a desire shared by nearly everyone but rather the related determination to protect the world from the dangerous consequences of Essay about A Hypnosis failing to instruct the up-and-coming generation. As Hannah Arendt points out in Media Behavior her classic essay on this subject, “The Crisis in Education,” the task of education initiates a new child into Natural Hypnosis, an old world, and so is responsible for two things: for the child’s initiation and for the world’s continuation. It is at once responsible for every individual and for the whole society over time. These two missions are not the same. The child must be protected from the world even as he benefits from its advantages and opportunities. And the world must be protected from the off the child from the prospect of savagery even as it benefits from about Natural Remedy:, exposure to the freshness, vitality, and hope of the young.
The child is protected in the arms of a family that is in turn strengthened and reinforced by Addiction a culture friendly to its cause. And the world is protected through the transmission of culture and civilization. The very term “culture” already hints at this project. From the Latin colere , meaning to tend or to care for (to “ cult ivate”), culture draws upon an agricultural metaphor that points to the need for the appropriate conditions for growth. The work of the culture is the work of cultivating human souls, providing them with nourishment and with protection as they grow. The culture provides the background preconditions without which a society could not contend with the challenge of natality. This is one main reason why conservatives to whom the Essay about anthropology of generations most appeals care so much about the Social Media on Online Consumer culture and its mores. It is also why some vague and seemingly abstract concerns like human dignity and human nature matter so much to Essay A Hypnosis, conservatives engaged in the biotechnology debates. What! Such ideas cannot help but shape the way the next generation understands its place and its purpose, and some potential innovations in biotechnology cannot help but affect these ideas. A Natural! This is why it is critical to Social Behavior, think about Essay about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, today’s innovations with the fatta the land future in mind, and to consider their implications for A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, future generations who would enter a world that takes these innovations for granted. Indeed, this sort of thought-experiment is key to much of the approach of those drawn to the anti-federalist papers, the anthropology of generations.
When thinking about a world profoundly influenced by some new technology or innovation, they do not ask only “what would it be like to live in that world?” They ask also “what would it be like to enter that world, knowing only Essay that world, growing up in that world, being shaped by that world?” They judge each innovation not only by how it might enhance or degrade their own life, but also by how it might improve or diminish the ability of are the benefits our society to raise and to tend to the next generation, and by its effect on the inheritance we could leave for A, the future. They therefore sometimes judge innovations very differently than those who think of the future primarily in terms of the Addiction Essay interests of the present. In fact, this generational approach to the future implies that innovation is not as significant as it may sometimes seem, because the most crucial project of every community remains mostly the same over about, time. Because the challenge of initiation and continuation is absolutely critical to the survival of live the land every society, the most important thing that any society is likely to be doing at any given moment is Essay about A Hypnosis, educating and rearing the next generation. This is the most important thing human beings did in benefits of recycling the past, the most important thing we now do in the present, and the most important thing the human race will need to do in the future. About! It is obviously not the only thing we do, but it is the essential prerequisite to anything else we might want to on Online, do, emphatically including innovation and progress. The necessary tools for this critical ongoing mission families, communities, institutions, and Essay about cultures that encourage transmission and initiation are therefore permanently necessary, and are generally more important than almost anything else we might imagine when we think about the future. These need to Addiction, be defended and encouraged, because it is very difficult to conceive of a future without them. Other important projects we engage in, as individuals and as societies, can be judged in part in about Hypnosis terms of their effects on this imperative goal of perpetuation and transmission.
This way of thinking often has a powerfully edifying influence: we feel compelled to live well so that we provide a model of a life well lived for those who follow. But even when it cannot claim this benefit, this way of thinking keeps us alert to the genuine needs of the future. If some approaches to progress undercut the prerequisites for further progress, they must be understood and judged as such. This might occur when certain potential innovations stand to meaningfully undermine our ability to pass along to future generations the ideals, the virtues, the knowledge, the traditions, the living spirit of our society that is, when innovation stands to alter something so profound about the human experience that the inheritance of the future would be significantly diminished as a result of off the fatta its loss. These are the sorts of dangers that conservatives in the biotechnology debates are eager to repel. This eagerness and this worldview, however, are open to two very serious drawbacks, which conservatives are not always sufficiently ready to admit or resist. The first is an exaggeration of the threats to Essay A, childhood and to Media on Online Behavior, future generations, and Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis an excessively protective stance that threatens to turn politics into a branch of pediatrics. The impulse to protect children from Essay, exposure to the larger world threatens to suffocate them (and us) if it is not tied to an effort to about Remedy: Hypnosis, also initiate and expose them to that world. It is easy to go overboard in childproofing our culture, and it is easy to underestimate the ability of children to contend with and to starbuck vision, process cultural influences.
Some threats to A, transmission and to childhood are very real and some biotechnologies, which reach children at Social Media Impact on Online Essay a primal biological level, may pose such threats but we should not go too far in estimating the vulnerability of the about A Natural Remedy: next generation. The second drawback is a tendency to confuse the project of transmission with that of preservation. This is the conservative version of the utopian impulse. It begins from a tendency to idealize the past, and falls into a self-caricaturing blind nostalgia, and into simpleminded “when I was a kid” modes of starbuck vision argument. About Natural Remedy:! These can be found at the edges of the party of transmission, just as the post-humanists lurk at the edges of the party of innovation. Addiction! These conservative extremists are no less misguided than their libertarian counterparts, and Essay Remedy: Hypnosis no less guilty of missing the point. The lesson of the anthropology of generations is not so much that the past should be preserved, or even that change should somehow be governed in its every detail. That is not only Computer Addiction Essay impossible but thoroughly undesirable. Rather, the point is to recognize that a set of several very basic things centered especially on the rearing and education of the young must be allowed to happen in the future.
These can be aided and improved by many human innovations, and left mostly untouched by others. But they might also be significantly undermined or made impossible by certain sorts of about innovations, and these must be avoided when they can be. Trial and error alone cannot always be trusted to discern the difference, because the costs of error are too great. But how, then, can we discern the difference? How do we tell genuinely dangerous prospects apart from merely startling novelties?
The costs of erring too far on the side of caution can be very high, especially when innovations in medicine may be at stake. Social On Online Consumer Essay! What does the anthropology of generations suggest that we should truly be concerned about in the fast-approaching age of biotechnology? Two examples will begin to gesture toward an about Hypnosis, answer. Closing off the Future. P erhaps the most significant consequence of human biotechnology for the project of transmission and perpetuation is the potential, for the first time in human history, to directly manipulate the raw material of the next generation: to alter and control the Media Consumer Essay biology of our descendents in advance.
As the scientific journal Nature noted in an editorial following the cloning of Dolly the Essay Natural Remedy: sheep: “The growing power of molecular genetics confronts us with future prospects of being able to change the nature of our species.” The most fundamental fact of human natality has always been that human nature emerges from the womb in Social Impact on Online Consumer Behavior essentially the same general form in every generation; or, as conservatives like to put it, that human nature has no history. Essay About A Hypnosis! The implications of this insight can hardly be overstated. It sits at the core of the conservative understanding of human life and society. It is the reason that those social and political arrangements that have passed the test of time are worth preserving because the “test of time” is really just a nearly constant repetition (in changing circumstances) of the challenge of Social Consumer Essay promoting human virtues and Essay about satisfying human wants in the face of some permanent facts about Social Media on Online Behavior Essay, human beings. About A Remedy: Hypnosis! It is the reason that new ideas too must be tested against the hard realities of human nature, and, for this reason, it is also the Computer principal solvent of Essay Hypnosis utopian fantasy and totalitarian ambition.
The Marxist dream of a “new man” free of the starbuck vision old attachments and desires ran head-on into the permanence of the old man’s nature, and A was forced to succumb like so many wicked fantasies before it. Human aims and innovations have always had to comport themselves with human nature, and starbuck vision this has generally worked as an effective moderator of otherwise reckless projects. But what if human nature could instead be made to comport with human aims and innovations? What if rather than reshaping the world to Essay about Natural Hypnosis, suit man’s nature, technology was turned to reshaping that nature to reshaping man himself? The reeducation camps of twentieth-century totalitarianisms were ineffective (not to mention horrendously inhumane) attempts to do just that.
Could biotechnology offer a more effective and more compassionate means? The answer is maybe, and it depends. It seems unlikely that biotechnology will ever simply allow us to control or to program the psyche of the unborn. Teen Rebellious! But through a combination of some foreseeable advances in genetics, neuroscience, embryo research, and Natural Remedy: assisted reproduction, along with techniques of screening, selection, and crude manipulation, we could at Social Media least come to select our descendents based upon Essay a probability of their possessing characteristics (including some of personality and mind) we find desirable. Technologies developed to screen out disease very easily become available to screen out on Online Consumer Essay, other traits, and the capacity for manipulation and engineering will likely grow more plausible with time. As we learn more about the underlying causes of aggression, or melancholy, or cognitive ability, or even artistic or musical skill, among countless other traits, we will be better able to screen for these traits in both the genotype and the early phenotype of embryos, fetuses, and children, and perhaps someday be able to design and engineer them in as well. This new power would carry with it some grave consequences and some heavy burdens of responsibility.
We would be responsible for the character of the next generation (and perhaps all future generations) in a way we never could have been before, and at the same time, by plying our influence at about A Natural the level of biology rather than moral education, we might grossly restrict the liberty of our descendents. It is very likely true, as the innovationists would remind us, that parents would only choose what they understand to live fatta the land, be best for their children. Essay About A Natural Hypnosis! Parents always have. But this point misses the nature and scale of this new technological power. Our sense of what is good and bad for our children is built upon a moral vision of starbuck vision human life that was grounded in the old ways: in Essay A Hypnosis response to human nature, and in the expectation of the permanence of that nature. Teen Rebellious! And our ability to act on that sense has always been restrained by the stubbornness of the about Remedy: traits children somehow already possess. In a world of positive control, both of Media on Online Essay these constraints would be profoundly altered. The edifying limits on Essay about Hypnosis, the parent’s power and off the fatta the land with them the very newness of the child would be diminished. That newness would diminish because the Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis next generation, and what benefits metals those that come after, would be less and less surprising to us, and more and more a product of our plans and purposes.
As Hannah Arendt put it, in the context of education: Our hope always hangs on the new which every generation brings; but precisely because we can base our hope only on this, we destroy everything if we so try to Natural, control the new that we, the old, can dictate how it will look. Exactly for the sake of Impact on Online Consumer Behavior Essay what is new and revolutionary in every child, education must be conservative; it must preserve this newness and introduce it as a new thing into an old world. Rather than new people in an old world, the generations designed by our biotechnology would increasingly be familiar people made to suit our preferences in a new and unfamiliar sort of world, a world unhinged from the limits that defined the past, and so unlikely to bring forth the surprises that define the future: a world living always in this present. The innovationist ideal becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. We would also find ourselves stuck with the consequences of present ideas and fads, imprinted permanently in the biology of our descendents.
In almost every age, someone has proposed some clever and terrible scheme for how children should be reared and raised. The West’s first great philosopher suggested that children should be separated from mothers and fathers, and raised in common by Essay about A Natural Remedy: what amounts to a bureau of parenting, and Social Behavior Essay the world has since seen no shortage of similarly bright ideas. Misguided educational fads have done real damage now and then, but they have generally not gone very far, because some traditional practices grounded in natural attachments seem to accord best with the character of parents and children. Such practices have resisted every effort at Essay about A radical reform. But direct interventions in starbuck vision children’s bodies and minds, and particularly genetic interventions or selections that may extend to further generations beyond, would make permanent the preferences of the A Hypnosis present, and the anti-federalist would subject future generations to our whims. It has been very good for us that the raw material of Essay about Hypnosis humanity remains raw in every generation. By imagining the future in terms of generations we can also see how the imposition of parental preferences, even advantageous ones, could constrain a child’s sense of personal liberty and potential. Imagining the future child rationally analyzing neutral facts, Reason magazine’s Ronald Bailey has written that “the designer babies of the future will have more knowledge and therefore will have a far greater scope for free choice than we do today.” But freedom is not just another word for nothing left to live, know. One’s sense of independence would certainly be hampered by about A Remedy: the knowledge that one’s intellectual faculties or biological features were made to order or chosen off the live off the fatta the land shelf. Think of what it would be like to enter the world as a person with physical or mental traits selected in advance, and to grow and get to know oneself as such a person. Think of about A Hypnosis what it would mean to know that your parents chose you or designed you to possess certain qualities, to affect certain traits, to be some particular way.
Not only the knowledge of which traits you were chosen to have, but even simply the knowledge that you are as you are because your parents expected something in off the particular out of Essay about Natural Remedy: Hypnosis you, would be certain to constrain your sense of possibility and independence. It is far from clear if such a child would indeed “have more knowledge” about his or her humanity, or would feel a greater sense of freedom than the countless generations who have spent their lives discovering and revealing their potential. In purely biological terms, the trait-selected child would still have an unknown potential, because we are not likely to develop anything approaching absolute control of the biology of our descendents. But in Social on Online Consumer terms of the human experience of life, that child, unlike any of us, would live always shadowed by the presence of parental will expressed in his or her own biology. The issue is not some genetic determinism, but rather the concern that the knowledge of having been designed by another for a particular purpose of being, in a fundamental material sense, what someone else decided he or she should be would diminish a child’s sense of freedom and possibility. We know what can happen when children are pushed too hard to live out parental expectations and wishes. Natural! If that push exerted itself in the child’s very biology, its effect (even if only off the fatta implicit and emotional) would be despotic in the extreme. And what of that child’s own children and grandchildren? This diminution of freedom would intensify as its effects reverberated through the generations. C.S. Lewis understood this consequence of our increasing power over man in A Remedy: Hypnosis 1944, even if he did not foresee the precise technological means of achieving it.
In The Abolition of Man , Lewis wrote: A picture is sometimes painted of a progressive emancipation from tradition and a progressive control of natural processes resulting in a continual increase of human power. In reality, of course, if any one age really attains, by eugenics and starbuck vision scientific education, the Essay A Remedy: power to make its descendents what it pleases, all men who live after it are the patients of that power. They are weaker, not stronger: for Media, though we may have put wonderful machines in their hands we have pre-ordained how they are to use them. The real picture is that of one dominant age let us suppose the hundredth century A.D. which resists all previous ages most successfully and dominates all subsequent ages most irresistibly, and thus is the Essay about A Remedy: real master of the human species.
It is no surprise that the present-centered anthropology of innovation, which seeks to ignore the critical task of transmitting our cultural inheritance to the future, has also taken it upon itself to stop the endlessly reiterating procession of generations, and to take in hand the biology of our descendents, turning the future into an unlimited extension of the present. If the future must be populated by other people, say the innovationists, let them at least not start from biological scratch. And yet, by unmooring human nature from its permanent foundations foundations that have been the Computer sources of our social, cultural, and political institutions this project would indeed start future generations from scratch in a more profound and decisive way. This is one way in which biotechnology directed to the human person has the potential to dramatically disrupt the all-important process of transmission, and one reason why those informed by the anthropology of generations worry about it. Engineering human biological change is, in these terms, a very different matter from engineering animals and about A Natural plants to better serve our needs. It changes “us” to better serve us. Social Media On Online! And once it has done so, we are cut off from the roots of all other movements for about A Remedy:, change and benefits improvement. Essay A Natural! The modern age and the scientific revolution have sought, with great success, to better fit the world to man. But by altering man himself, we now seek to better suit mankind to. what? Only to the short-term wishes of the present.
Imagining the future in terms of generations helps us see how terribly shortsighted such a project is likely to be, and how disruptive of the critical mission of bringing up future generations it is almost certain to be. Human Dignity and the Culture. T he mission of managing the junction of the generations relies, as we have seen, not only on the work of individual parents or teachers, but also on some shared sense of the character and significance of a full and dignified human life, and on a culture that supports and builds that sense. The way we understand ourselves obviously shapes the way we introduce ourselves to the next generation, both the lessons we give and starbuck vision the examples we offer. In the about A biotech debates, this is why conservatives defend large and often fairly vague ideas of human dignity, human limits, and human excellence.
For many conservatives, the argument about biotechnology is an argument about the future of our idea of humanity. That idea shapes human ideals and Computer Addiction Essay aspirations, in this generation and in future ones; it is the substance of what we stand to teach the future. In subtle but absolutely critical ways, the biotechnology revolution is likely to impinge on this self-image of about A humanity, and in doing so to affect the assumptions and intuitions of future generations entering a world reshaped. By changing the way they regard their humanity, it will affect the way they live it out and pass it on. Our ability to reorder and transform some prime ingredients of the human experience our desires, our bodily selves, the relation of our actions and our happiness requires us to think in a new way about the meaning of our innovations for the future. Changes in the relations between parents and children, between effort and performance, between body and soul, could hardly help but influence humanity’s understanding of itself and on Online Consumer Essay so our very sense of what a human life entails. About Hypnosis! The question is whether these changes will diminish or enhance the teen rebellious lives lived under their influence. We should not pretend to have a simple answer to Essay about Hypnosis, that question. But here again, it is crucial to see things through the eyes of a new generation entering the world we are constructing, and growing up knowing no other. To grow up in a world where personality and behavior are subject to carefully targeted scientific control, where physical performance and mental acuity are routinely enhanced by drugs, where procreation is a laboratory procedure, where the Computer Addiction Essay human animal is primarily understood as a chemical machine to be manipulated by a rational controller, is to develop in a very different place than that which has built up our idea of human life and human aspiration until now.
It is to mature, and to build the Essay about A Remedy: Hypnosis capacity to teen rebellious, reason and intuit, in about A Hypnosis an unfamiliar universe of concepts, where the basics of human being, acting, and feeling in the world stand profoundly altered. No one can know exactly what these changes will mean. But we also cannot simply expect that a rational, humane, or noble choice will mean the same thing to a person who has grown up in such a place, with such a sense of self, as it now does to us. Diminished concepts of human activity, human relations, and human dignity might affect the present generation only mildly, indeed perhaps only theoretically. But the effects on our ability to introduce ourselves to future generations who would grow up knowing no other way would be far more significant. This worry is painfully vague and notoriously difficult to translate into the language of liberal-democratic politics, but it is no less real for being so. Starbuck Vision! It lays at Essay A Remedy: Hypnosis the bottom of a great deal of the general disquiet regarding the age of biotechnology. Rendering it into recognizable social and teen rebellious political arguments is a key challenge for any future conservative bioethics. The language of human dignity begins to point in this direction, and Essay Hypnosis conservatives in the coming years will need to work to make that language more concrete and to understand its implications. Imagining the Future. T hese general reflections do not by Media Impact Consumer Essay any means simply add up to arguments for stopping the progress of biotechnology, and the concerns they raise do not simply outweigh the great promise of many biotechnologies.
But they do add up to an argument for thinking about the future in terms of those who will actually live there in terms of future generations. Thinking in these terms reminds us of the Essay about Natural Remedy: heavy burden of responsibility we bear, as a generation confronting the biotechnology revolution at its outset. Our new and teen rebellious growing power to affect the future of humanity requires a new reflection on ethical principles. As Hans Jonas understood, our unprecedented ability to affect the nature and the character of future generations means that responsibility must be the Essay about Natural Remedy: center of starbuck vision this new ethical approach, in a way that it has never had to be before. This responsibility demands that we think hard about the future, that we think of it in Remedy: Hypnosis the proper terms, and that we now and then temper our hope with caution. As always, our ability to off the, affect the future is far greater than our ability to know the future. But we do not need to know what is Essay about A, coming or even to know what we want the future to bring in order to papers, know what we should hope to avoid. As Jonas put it three decades ago, “what we must avoid at all costs is determined by what we must preserve at all costs.” Of course, it is also not always easy to know what we must preserve what is crucially in need of Natural Hypnosis defense and what, on the other hand, could be profitably traded for an improvement in our health, power, or wealth (or those of future generations). Off The! But one thing we surely must preserve, one thing we will certainly need regardless of what the future holds, is the capacity to rear and to educate future generations. The quest for improvement and innovation is a force for about Natural, great good, but it must not destroy the preconditions for its own efforts the live off the preconditions for the future. To think of the future requires imagination; and to think of generations entering the world of the future requires a tremendous feat of imagination.
In a strange way, it is precisely the most eager futurists in our contemporary politics who seem to about Hypnosis, lack the what are the of recycling capacity for such feats of imagination, who see only themselves in the future, and fail to take account of the need to bring up those who will travel there, and those who will be born along the way. Essay About Natural Remedy:! Responsible futurism requires that we imagine a world without us in it, and that we care about it. If the only way we can bring ourselves to care about the future is to Impact Consumer Essay, make sure that we live forever, then we have little hope of doing the future much good. The needs of A Remedy: future generations, just like those of past and present ones, extend beyond health, and wealth, and comfort. Computer Essay! If they are to live well, and to Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, raise those who follow them to papers, live well, they must aspire to greater things. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are the minimal standards for decent living, not the highest ends of man.
They are critical, but we cannot rest satisfied with them. We need larger aims, and the future will too. Imagining the future through the lens of innovation leads us to believe that the most important challenge we will face in the future is steadily improving the material conditions of human life by steadily improving upon about Remedy: human understanding and power. Meeting that challenge requires individual freedom to teen rebellious, innovate, and this must not be constrained for the sake of vague concerns about unpredictable consequences. But imagining the future through the lens of generations leads us to about A Natural Hypnosis, believe that the most important challenge we will face in the future is also the most important challenge we face today and have always faced in the past: the challenge of bringing up those who are new to the world. That challenge requires some basic prerequisites that must not be innovated out of existence. The difficulty is that both lenses show us something true about the future, and both also put us at risk of mistaking the present for starbuck vision, the future either by Essay about Remedy: failing to imagine progress, or by failing to imagine a world without ourselves in it. We are left to decide how to balance the starbuck vision lessons of these two competing anthropologies, for our sake and for the sake of the future. Our ongoing debates over biotechnology are an effort to seek just that balance, far more than they are really arguments about Essay A Remedy: Hypnosis, particular technologies. Of the two competing visions, the anthropology of generations offers us a fuller and more recognizable account of the truth of the human condition.
But it surely is not simply right, and if we are to secure the preconditions for progress, we must remember that we do this because progress is the anti-federalist, good for us and important, and not because we simply wish to preserve the world we have known. We must be careful, in tending our intuitions and hopes, to weed out simple reactionism, and to avoid the misguided desire for a wholesale recovery of the past. The past was not as good as we think we remember it was. Instead, what we risk losing, and what we might want to recover, is something more like the past’s way of thinking about the future. One of the most monumental innovations of the modern age in science and society alike has been a way of thinking about the future that ignores, and so leaves little room for, the future generations who will have to live with the consequences of our actions. This is one innovation we will have to Essay about A Remedy:, resist in order to make truly responsible progress possible. The recovery of an older way of imagining the future need not be reactionary.
It is not about the anti-federalist papers, pining for the past as much as it is about admiring the future made for us by those who came before, and seeking to build one no less admirable for those who will come after. Keeping in mind the burdens and Essay about A Natural blessings of natality and the peculiar responsibility that the present always has for the future offers the Impact only way for us to make moral sense of the new possibilities opened up by the age of biotechnology. About A Remedy:! If we can do it well, we will be better able not only to preserve our moral tradition and to confer to our children an benefits, implicit sense of about Hypnosis human dignity and human excellence, but also to preserve the preconditions for liberal and libertarian virtues and freedoms. Live Fatta The Land! We will be better able to fill the tall order that still echoes in our memories in the voices of our nation’s founders: to Essay about Natural Remedy:, secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity. Yuval Levin is a senior editor of Computer Essay The New Atlantis and author of Tyranny of Reason: The Origins and Consequences of the Social Scientific Outlook (2000). He is also a member of the Natural Remedy: staff of the President's Council on Bioethics. The Anti-federalist! All views expressed here are his own.
Yuval Levin, Imagining the Future, The New Atlantis , Number 4, Winter 2004, pp. 48-65.
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President Obama's farewell speech - live updates. Last Updated Jan 10, 2017 9:57 PM EST. CBS News’ Emily Schultheis, Jillian Hughes and Charlie Brooks contributed to this live blog. 9:55 p.m. ET Mr. Obama concluded by quoting the Essay about Remedy:, slogan for his first campaign, “Yes We Can.”
“I am asking you to hold fast to papers, that faith written into our founding documents, that idea whispered by A Remedy:, slaves and abolitionists, that spirit sung by immigrants and starbuck vision homesteaders and those who marched for justice, that creed reaffirmed by Essay A Hypnosis, those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon, a creed at Consumer Behavior Essay the core of every American whose story is not yet written,” he said. “Yes we can. Yes we did. Yes we can.” 9:52 p.m. Essay About Natural Remedy: Hypnosis. ET Thanking his staff and the legions of volunteers who helped his 2008 and 2012 campaigns, Mr. Obama said: “You did change the world.” “To all of you out there every organizer who moved to an unfamiliar town and kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on starbuck vision, doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change you are the best supporters and organizers anybody could hope for, and A I will be forever grateful,” he said. Starbuck Vision. “Because you did change the world.
You did.” 9:50 p.m. ET Mr. Obama next thanked Vice President Joe Biden, saying he has become like a “brother” to him. Biden, “the scrappy kid from Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: you were the first decision I made as a nominee, and Essay about Natural it was the best,” he said. “Not just because you have been a great Vice President, but because in Social Impact on Online Essay, the bargain, I gained a brother.” 9:47 p.m.
ET Wiping back tears, Mr. Obama thanked his wife and two daughters. “For the past twenty-five years, you have been not only Essay about A Natural my wife and mother of my children, you have been my best friend,” he said to Michelle Obama, sitting in the audience. “You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and teen rebellious with grit and with style and with humor. You made the White House a place that belongs to everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model.”
To his daughters, Sasha and Malia, Mr. Obama said he has watched them become “amazing young women.” “Malia and Sasha, under the strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis thoughtful and teen rebellious full of passion,” he said. About A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis. “You wore the burden of what benefits of recycling years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in Essay Natural Remedy:, my life, I’m most proud to starbuck vision, be your dad.” 9:43 p.m. ET Mr.
Obama said the most important title in about A Remedy: Hypnosis, a democracy is what are the benefits metals, that of a “citizen” -- and laid a blueprint for how people can continue to be involved in safeguarding American democracy. “If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on the internet, try talking with one of them in real life,” he said. “If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by about A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and run for office yourself. Starbuck Vision. Show up. Dive in. Persevere.” He acknowledged there are ups and downs for those involved in politics and the business of democracy. “Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process will disappoint you,” he said. Essay About A Remedy:. “But for those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in Impact Consumer Behavior, America and in Americans will be confirmed.
Mine sure has been.” 9:38 p.m. About A Natural Remedy:. ET Americans cannot and should not take democracy for Addiction granted, Mr. A Remedy: Hypnosis. Obama said. “Our democracy is off the fatta the land, threatened whenever we take it for about Hypnosis granted,” he said. “All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into the task of starbuck vision rebuilding our democratic institutions.” Among the issues he raised were expanding voting rights, increasing transparency in government and reversing electoral gerrymandering that’s contributed to increasing polarization in about Remedy: Hypnosis, Congress. 9:36 p.m. ET Mr.
Obama said democracy is most challenged when people “give in to the anti-federalist, fear,” urging the country to avoid “a weakening of the values that make us who we are.” “That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on a firmer legal footing,” he said. “That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis, close Gitmo, and reform our laws governing surveillance to what benefits of recycling metals, protect privacy and civil liberties.” “That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans,” he continued, to Essay Remedy:, applause. Are The Benefits Metals. “That’s why we cannot withdraw from Essay about A Natural Hypnosis, big global fights to expand democracy, and human rights, and women’s rights, and LGBT rights no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem. That’s part of defending America. Off The The Land. For the fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism and chauvinism are of Remedy: Hypnosis a piece with the fight against papers, authoritarianism and nationalist aggression.” 9:33 p.m . ET Next, Mr. Obama turned to the issue of terrorism -- both at home and abroad. “Because of the Essay about, extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years,” he said. “And although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever.
We’ve taken out tens of thousands of terrorists including Osama bin Laden. “The global coalition we’re leading against teen rebellious, ISIL has taken out their leaders, and taken away about Essay A Remedy:, half their territory,” he continued. “ISIL will be destroyed, and the anti-federalist no one who threatens America will ever be safe.” 9:31 p.m. ET Nodding to the issue of A Remedy: climate change -- on which Mr. Trump is Social Impact Consumer Essay, a self-described skeptic -- Mr. Obama said it is essential that the U.S. continue its progress. “In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and Essay about Remedy: led the world to an agreement that has the promise to teen rebellious, save this planet,” he said. “But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to debate the existence of climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary.” Pretending the problem doesn’t exist “not only betrays future generations, it betrays the essential spirit of this country,” Mr.
Obama continued. 9:28 p.m. ET Mr. Obama urged people to find ways to Essay Natural Hypnosis, keep from “talking past each other.” “Isn’t that part of what so often makes politics so dispiriting?” he asked. “How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the same thing? “It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating,” he continued. Teen Rebellious. “Because as my mom used to tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you.” 9:26 p.m. ET Another threat to American democracy, Mr. Obama said, is people’s collective retreat into their own “bubbles.” “The rise of Essay Remedy: Hypnosis naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of starbuck vision our media into a channel for about A Remedy: every taste all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable,” he said. “And increasingly, we become so secure in our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there.”
9:23 p.m. ET Mr. Obama also spoke about the racial tensions still plaguing the country, which have been put on display in recent months with clashes between the police and the African American community. “After my election, there was talk of the anti-federalist a post-racial America,” he said. “Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic. For race remains a potent and often divisive force in our society.” While progress has been made, he continued, “we’re not where we need to be.” “All of us have more work to do,” Mr. Obama said. Essay About Remedy: Hypnosis. “After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the off the the land, wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves.” 9:21 p.m. ET As congressional Republicans debate their options for Essay A Natural Remedy: Hypnosis repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, Mr. Obama noted the progress that’s been made on health care -- and challenged Republicans to come up with something better.
“Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in fifty years,” he said. “And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our health care system that covers as many people at less cost I will publicly support it.” 9:19 p.m. Teen Rebellious. ET Mr. Obama framed his remarks as a look at the “state of about A Remedy: Hypnosis our democracy,” outlining the challenges the the anti-federalist, country will face going forward. “A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of terrorism these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but they’re testing our democracy as well,” he said. “And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and create good jobs, and protect our homeland.” 9:14 p.m. ET Acknowledging the tradition of Hypnosis a peaceful transition of power, Mr. Obama said he had assured President-elect Donald Trump that there would be a smooth transition. “In ten days, the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected president to the next,” he said, to boos from the audience. “I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me.”
9:13 p.m. ET In a nod to his legacy, Mr. Obama said the U.S. is “a better, stronger place” than it was when he took office. “If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of job creation in our historyif I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the mastermind of 9/11if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the right to Addiction Essay, health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens you might have said our sights were set a little too high,” he said. “But that’s what we did. That’s what you did.” 9:09 p.m.
ET Mr. Essay About Hypnosis. Obama acknowledged democracy is live off the fatta the land, not always easy, and said progress is sometimes “uneven.” “Yes, our progress has been uneven,” he said. Essay Natural. “The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of teen rebellious our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some.” 9:04 p.m ET Mr. Obama was met with loud, sustained cheers when he took the stage.
After telling the Essay about A Natural Hypnosis, crowd to quiet down -- “we’re on live TV here, I’ve got to move,” he said -- Mr. Obama quipped: “You can tell that I’m a lame duck because nobody’s following instructions.” 9:02 p.m. ET President Obama takes the stage at starbuck vision McCormack Place in Chicago. “Hello Chicago,” he said. “It’s good to Essay Remedy: Hypnosis, be home.” 6:35 p.m. ET When he takes the stage tonight, President Obama will talk about how his youth in Chicago helped show him the off the fatta the land, way to effect real change in the United States, according to speech excerpts released by the White House. “I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, still trying to figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life,” he will say. “It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. Essay. It was on teen rebellious, these streets where I witnessed the power of Natural faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and off the loss.
“This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it,” Mr. Essay A Remedy:. Obama will continue. “After eight years as your President, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the live fatta, beating heart of our American idea our bold experiment in self-government.” 1 p.m. Essay About A Natural. ET Beginning with George Washington in 1796, it is a time-honored tradition for the President of the United States to give a farewell address. President Obama will continue that tradition on Tuesday when he speaks in Chicago at McCormack Place at Computer 9 p.m. About A Natural. ET.
CBSN coverage of Obama’s farewell speech begins at 7 p.m. ET. According to Mr. Obama’s chief of Computer Essay staff, Dennis McDonough, he chose Chicago because “this is a place where working on the South Side of Essay Natural Remedy: Chicago and the neighborhoods in teen rebellious, the shadows of the abandoned steel mills, as a community organizer with people who had been knocked out of jobs that theretofore had been real paths to the middle class, that he recognized that he had a gift for organizing.” His message to Americans, McDonough told CBS News’ Charlie Rose, is to keep fighting for what you believe in. “He had a gift for Natural Remedy: getting people working together towards the same goal. And I think that’s what you’ll hear a lot about from the president tomorrow, the importance of sticking together, working together, standing up for what you believe in, and then fighting like hell for teen rebellious it.” In his eight years in office, President Obama left his mark on many different aspects of American life.
Vice President Joe Biden and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, who was Mr. About Remedy:. Obama’s first White House chief of staff, are among the Media Impact on Online Consumer Behavior Essay, Democratic officials who plan to attend. Mr. About Natural Remedy:. Obama’s address also has some heavyweight musical talent in the lineup -- Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder will be be performing with Voice of Chicago, according to a tweet. You can watch the speech at 9 p.m. on CBSN and CBS, among other broadcast and teen rebellious cable news channels. Bannon: McConnell told Trump to back off Drain the Essay A Remedy: Hypnosis, Swamp talk. Steve Bannon tells 60 Minutes that Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told Trump to back off his Drain the Swamp talk -- and says the GOP establishment is trying to nullify Trump's win.
A look at what Melania Trump has done since her husband became president.