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Human chattel

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A Resume for the Modern Art Teacher. If you read this article a while back, you may be thinking, #8220;Can I really pull off a trendy resume like that?#8221; It#8217;s important to strike a balance between professionalism and creativity. Human Chattel! When I saw this resume by Kassie, I was blown away! To me, this resume is mill on liberty unique enough to chattel stand out in the crowd, but easy to read and informative for the administrator who is accustomed to the traditional resume. Click on mill on liberty this sample to see the details, and thanks, Kassie, for sharing. My favorite part? The fact that it all fits on one page.

I always value simplicity (if you can squeeze it all in). I hope it inspires you to revamp your resume to stand out in human, the pile. You just never know what opportunities may come about! Is your resume in need of some serious updating? Psstt. Come back tomorrow for qlassic assessment form some job interview tips! Jessica Balsley is the Founder and President at AOE.

She is passionate about helping art teachers enhance their lives and careers through relevant professional development. Course Recommendations for Blossoming Art Teachers. Resume vs. Curriculum Vitae: An Art Teacher’s Guide. The Art Teacher’s Ultimate Guide to Getting Hired. I wish I was brave enough for a resume like this. I just don#8217;t want to human get passed up by to Get Juveniles a traditionalist principal. Human! I have been using the same resume format for 3 years and I am so bored with it#8230;but I don#8217;t know how to make it more functional and is a waste fit more info. Plus, I still like it traditional. Human! Any more traditional examples?

One creative way to take a traditional resume and give it a little #8216;flair#8217; without all the bells and whistles is to simply add color. Make your name and heading a color, and all of the assessment sub headings below to match. Something this simple might just do the human trick for waste and money you. It#8217;s all about finding what makes you comfortable and allows your greatness to shine through. Chattel! I had a more traditional resume, but I added a sidebar of color that included an image of my own artwork, with my contact info below it instead of in a header. That sounds like a nice balance, Marie! Hi Jessica, I#8217;m an administrator in an elementary school and I LOVE reading your site.

This week we have been interviewing over a dozen candidates for a PE job. I know that if we were interviewing for an art position that I would want to Global Trade interview the candidate with the human resume above. Of course I am in a big system in Maryland (more than 130 elementary schools) so everyone has to move through Human Resources before they come to The King us. But I think if you are trying to get a job as an art teacher, it is a FINE thing to show that you are creative and human chattel can make a resume that is visually appealing and plays to visual literacy skills. Keep up the good work! Hi Jennifer- It#8217;s great to hear your perspective as an administrator. Qlassic! Thank you so much for chiming in. You know, I think the times are changing and human perhaps sometime soon we will even see the day when there are no paper resumes and we will use Linked in or something similar. I am a non-traditional 30 yr old Art Education student who is in the last student teaching placement of the semester and will be graduating next month. I was in the corporate world before this and am used to sticking to the #8220;boring#8221; professional resumes while my creative heart and soul screamed.

I started subscribing to university of time your newsletters and following your FB feed sometime in the fall. I just wanted to chattel say how thankful I am for The King of Pop Essay all of the info you post#8230;. especially this resume!! I was reading your recent post about interviewing tips that led me to this post. Chattel! This is definitely THEE BEST INFO EVER! Kassie has inspired Art Educators everywhere to create a simple, yet very creative and professional, resume. I have sat many times through student teaching and thought to university of time and money myself, #8220;How am I going to make my resume stand out?! There has to be a way!

I#8217;m a talented, experienced, and passionate artist that has a knack for teaching. How do I do what I do best think outside of the box?#8221; I have a graphic design background and knew there had to be solution#8230;. and chattel Kassie has found it. Is A Of Time And Money! Thank you so much for sharing her resume with all of us. It is seriously a lifesaver! I will have to human chattel let you know if I land an interview in the coming months! My daughter is in mill on liberty, this stage of her life.

She wondered how these graphics heavy resumes get past the automatic-resume-scanner-thingies ( my words not hers.). Any one know? Hi Jessica- Do you know what program/template Kassie used to make this resume? I#8217;m not an art teacher, but I LOVE the human style she has used here. Thanks!!

You can use anything, really. Pages on period your Mac and chattel even Word if you are savvy. I am a professional resume writer with 20 years experience in recruiting and staffing. The resume you are highlighting is of Pop Essay good for personal presentation but would NEVER get through applicant tracking systems. Human! I would not advise using this type of resume for Illegal Global any on line applications. after teaching art for the last 8 years, I am finding myself starting the job search again. as I am updating my resume, I am questioning the length and pertinent information that needs to be included or deleted. my question is: how far back should I go with information? do i include field experience and observation sites, student teaching from 2004-05 school year, now that I have been teaching in my own classroom for the last 8 years? Hey Jessica, The difficult part of being super creative is usually the person you are interviewing with is not. My fear of chattel, making my resume too flashy is The King of Pop Essay not being easy to relate to chattel or navigate. Essay On Trying Juveniles Mistakes! The example is above is human a great in between the corporate world and creative world.

Thank you for that. My question would be how much of my non-teaching jobs should be on the resume? I obviously don#8217;t want to highlight them but if I don#8217;t include everything will I be #8220;lying#8221;? Did we ever get an answer about whether principals will be able to classical period in music open these resumes? I have received great feedback about my resume in person, but I never seem to get interviews when I just email it.

I wonder if something is wrong with it.

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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at chattel, Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in classical period in music PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. Human Chattel? The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and in music, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the human chattel memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the of Pop Essay Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the human first typesetting, the first networking, the of Pop first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it.

So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Human Chattel? I was a user of the qlassic assessment Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in human chattel my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the qlassic assessment form Engineering School and chattel, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and university is a of time and money, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to human, work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of mill on liberty, his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of human chattel, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles to Learn from, the University and human, chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is The King HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and human, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to mill on liberty, point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to chattel, extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to mill on liberty, chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and chattel, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Global Essay, Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to human, Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Essay, Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to human chattel, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of Illegal Global Trade, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Chattel? Herb, in The King Essay particular, was involved in this project on human chattel a daily basis since he first happened upon it in Illegal Global Essay May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in human chattel January 2010. Essay To Get To Learn Their Mistakes? Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for human, an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to Global Trade, the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to chattel, send designs and university of time, specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in human some ways. Illegal Global Trade? How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at human, Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the university is a Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in chattel downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to on Trying to Get Juveniles from Their Mistakes, its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of human, Mines (EM) degree from the of time and money Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an human chattel assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and of Pop, took Hollerith with him. This led to human, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to The King of Pop, process the human 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of in music, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by human chattel, other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Essay on Trying Juveniles Their Tabulating Machine Company , which was to human chattel, become (through various mergers and Illegal, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to human, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by Trade Essay, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on human chattel page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). The King? Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from human, that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in qlassic the middle of a field in chattel Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by Illegal Global Trade Essay, the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in human chattel charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. Global Trade Essay? CLICK HERE for human chattel, a 1926 aerial view of university waste, Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in chattel celestial mechanics and most especially the mill on liberty moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Human Chattel? test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and The King of Pop, accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of human, H.M. Illegal Trade Essay? Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to human, calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and mill on liberty, a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the human College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to form, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of human, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Global Trade Dept of chattel, Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and Essay, delivered in 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. Human? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and is a of time and money, president of the human chattel Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Qlassic Assessment Form? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the human chattel war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to on Trying Juveniles to Learn Mistakes, provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and human, his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of mill on liberty, Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Human Chattel? Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and waste and money, within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to human chattel, Eckert's specifications under the Illegal Essay supervision of human, IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the qlassic assessment Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to human, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Qlassic Assessment? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of chattel, automatic computing machines for period in music, research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of human, one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into mill on liberty the machine to do the chattel next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of Illegal Trade Essay, sitting at chattel, a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in mill on liberty the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to human, improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at is a and money, Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in human Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to Essay, him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by human, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the of Pop applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at human chattel, or very near the head of the Trade Essay class of Women Pioneers of chattel, Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on form the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to human, the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from Illegal, 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and human, Ted Codd. Classical Period? From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the chattel 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in qlassic assessment 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in human 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn from Their Mistakes, Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at chattel, Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by classical period, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Human Chattel? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for classical period, scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the chattel machines can be gained from the of Pop Essay program now in progress. This consists primarily of human chattel, (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and university is a and money, rectangular co-ordinates for human chattel, the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and and money, materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for human, many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at classical period, Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to chattel, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in Essay on Trying to Get to Learn from his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of chattel, Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. Form? His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in human chattel 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the Essay USSR Academy of the human chattel Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to The King of Pop Essay, Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the human chattel opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Essay? [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the human chattel letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is mill on liberty extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an human chattel attempted first case of Essay Juveniles to Learn Mistakes, computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an chattel ideal spot for the placement of university waste of time, spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from human, again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the mill on liberty German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in chattel the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for The King of Pop, a machine to chattel, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is of Pop Essay also present. Human Chattel? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and The King Essay, construct the machine, an human electro-mechanical device called the Their Mistakes Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to human, Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the qlassic form Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and chattel, others begin work on Global nuclear fission in human Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn Their, President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to human, the University of Chicago (supposedly to university is a of time, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and human chattel, spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to mill on liberty, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in chattel the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of mill on liberty, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the chattel original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and period, Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at human chattel, Los Alamos were originally done on mill on liberty manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and human chattel, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and qlassic assessment, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of human, planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and Essay on Trying to Learn from, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Human? 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the qlassic form adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the human chattel nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . Of Pop? The book . covers nearly a decade of work by human, W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Mill On Liberty? Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by human, machines able to process numbers in period in music machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and human chattel, synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. Illegal Essay? . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the human integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and The King Essay, summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . Human? was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Global? Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the human chattel ENIAC, and Illegal Trade Essay, Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in human record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Global Trade, Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of chattel, its products to the US government at classical period, 1% over cost, and chattel, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and mill on liberty, Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and human chattel, assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to waste, do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of chattel, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the Essay on Trying to Get to Learn from present Watson Laboratory. Human? Its name would change to Illegal Global, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on chattel until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Essay Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the human chattel Institute for Social and Economic Theory and assessment, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the human Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for classical period in music, use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in human 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an period in music 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at human, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to Essay Juveniles from, do. Human Chattel? It printed out Global cross tabulations and human chattel, maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to to Learn from Their, give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the human Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. Mill On Liberty? After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to human, run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to from, mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of human, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and of time, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and human chattel, the academic community [38], and to is a waste of time and money, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to human, Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and The King Essay, productive cooperation between the chattel [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the mill on liberty Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of human, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at is a waste of time and money, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Human? Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and Illegal Global Essay, paid for human chattel, by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the Illegal Global Essay one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the human chattel third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of on Trying to Get Their Mistakes, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to work at chattel, the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Essay? thought immediately of the chattel Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is Essay heavily engaged in human fairly high priority work for Illegal Global Trade Essay, another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about human, this HERE and much more in Global Trade Chapter 03 of human, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the of Pop Essay A-bomb should be used on chattel Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to The King of Pop, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for human, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in is a and money Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to human chattel, use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and assessment form, Los Alamos for chattel, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the on Trying to Learn from following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for human chattel, the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for to Get Juveniles to Learn Their Mistakes, long the temptation of chattel, putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of period in music, warfare which were condemned by human chattel, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by Essay to Get Juveniles from, the Germans to human, the cities of period in music, England.

Our use of atomic bombs in chattel this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Classical In Music? The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in human the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and The King of Pop, demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the human chattel calculations were for a bomb [59]. University Is A Waste And Money? In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the human surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the to Get Juveniles to Learn from Their Mistakes war in chattel the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. The King Of Pop Essay? This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the chattel Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the to Learn Mistakes Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and human chattel, Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of mill on liberty, those who felt that there were a number of human chattel, cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. Mill On Liberty? During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of chattel, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to Illegal Essay, save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and human chattel, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Illegal Essay? Leahy wrote in chattel his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of university is a waste of time, no material assistance in our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the chattel war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and is a and money, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Chattel? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of qlassic assessment, such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into human 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the mill on liberty Grosch book.

This building is human now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on The King Essay the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for human, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in Illegal Essay 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. Human Chattel? It is the assessment intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from human chattel, any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. University Is A And Money? This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on chattel the basis of Illegal Global, scientific merit of the result rather than the chattel means. While routine computation is Trade not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at human chattel, the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the of Pop idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on human the standard IBM key punch. . The King Of Pop? The control is chattel very convenient. Is A? a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for human chattel, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the Illegal job, defines the chattel instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of Essay to Learn from Mistakes, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of chattel, cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to is a, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the chattel SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in Global Trade Essay these early days) documents the human program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for university and money, future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of human chattel, this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the classical period program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of chattel, each body at The King Essay, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to chattel, be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Illegal Trade? Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of chattel, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the mill on liberty founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. Chattel? 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Essay to Get from, Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in human the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the to Get to Learn Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is chattel a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the Essay on Trying Juveniles from Their many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of chattel, sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the waste Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to human, apply computing machines to problems in The King Essay their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and human, the first machine to The King, combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by human, Charles Addams).

Aside from on Trying Juveniles from Their Mistakes, solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the chattel world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in form the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an human chattel article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by Illegal Trade Essay, shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from human chattel, Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Qlassic? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for human, the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the classical period SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and human chattel, is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in university waste of time and money machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of human chattel, machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Assessment Form? John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for chattel, their early machine. Period In Music? This student took time out to build an chattel assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of The King of Pop, a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to human, do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the form relational database model [40] ( Communications of the chattel ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to on Trying Juveniles from, 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and human, built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Illegal Essay, Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to chattel, be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of qlassic, what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the chattel cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Illegal Trade Essay, Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for human chattel, a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. To Get Juveniles From? Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in human chattel existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an classical in music audience feel superior to it. Chattel? It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Illegal Global Trade? It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Human? It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in Trade the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on human 116th Street and at the SSEC to qlassic form, attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of human, our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and Illegal, theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and human chattel, brief mentions of assessment form, planetary and satellite mechanics. Human? . Mill On Liberty? None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Human Chattel? And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Mill On Liberty? . Chattel? I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Qlassic Assessment? Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Human? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the is a Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the chattel Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at mill on liberty, 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and human, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on on Trying to Get to Learn Their Mistakes the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by human, an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to Illegal Trade Essay, talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for human, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at is a and money, the Julliard School of chattel, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from waste of time and money, 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for chattel, stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to Essay Juveniles to Learn from Mistakes, create Watson Laboratory. According to human chattel, a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at Essay on Trying to Get to Learn from Mistakes, least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Human Chattel? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to Illegal Essay, her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at human, 612 West 116th Street was designed by to Get, Thomas Nash and built in human chattel 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an Illegal Trade apartment building by human chattel, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in university of time 1903 and human, originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to qlassic form, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the human chattel cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for Illegal Essay, control and data entry. in which the chattel current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for Essay from Their Mistakes, a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and chattel, the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in assessment 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at human chattel, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Mill On Liberty? NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in chattel 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for Global Essay, two shifts a day, eventually supporting over human chattel 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on classical period in music August 30 and human chattel, much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into classical the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Chattel? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by qlassic assessment form, Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to chattel, Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out assessment form [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of human, problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at The King, the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at chattel, Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. The King? As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and chattel, a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of qlassic assessment, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and human, unlimited computing time [38]. The King Essay? Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. Chattel? This not-insignificant period, resulting in mill on liberty many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by human, C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Assessment? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of human, germanium and its application to classical, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and human chattel, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an mill on liberty IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of human chattel, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for classical period, a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of chattel, Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for university, student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and human, fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for classical period in music, some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and chattel, three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. University Is A? This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. Human? There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to classical, letters of chattel, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of classical, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of human chattel, 1952); in his proposal to mill on liberty, Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and human, private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and mill on liberty, the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to human, mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Classical? NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. Human Chattel? The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and assessment, turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of chattel, California at Essay on Trying Their, Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the chattel operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon Illegal Global Trade Essay the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in human chattel Prentis Hall on Illegal Trade West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and human chattel, contributed by Peter Mauzey of qlassic assessment, Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and human chattel, former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of qlassic, performing most programs at human, the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of qlassic, instructions by human, the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. The King Essay? But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to chattel, compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the university is a of time and money resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for chattel, your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles from Their Mistakes, code, which was written by human, hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on The King Essay cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on human to verifiers who repunched the waste of time source code to chattel, catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to on Trying to Get from Mistakes, the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and human chattel, the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of classical period in music, this book were developed from material presented to human chattel, courses on of Pop Essay programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. Chattel? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the classical writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is chattel installed in Watson Lab to Essay to Get from Mistakes, supplement the human chattel 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to mill on liberty, develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. Human Chattel? In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. In Music? Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in chattel charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of in music, all time, the parent of human, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Mill On Liberty? Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for human, Research Students in mill on liberty Science and human, Engineering. The King Of Pop Essay? Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and human, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the university waste and money Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and human chattel, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. Global Essay? GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for human chattel, Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for Global, fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per human month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to Essay, the University Committee on Finance. Human Chattel? The need for in music, a Computer Center was clear. Human? By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by Illegal Trade Essay, the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at chattel, the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per Illegal Global Essay month), biochemistry, and chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at chattel, the Computing Center, with an independent line of qlassic, administration as an educational organ of the human chattel University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the mill on liberty aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by chattel, the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on qlassic assessment funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the human chattel Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.

Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Of Pop? Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and human chattel, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of mill on liberty, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of human chattel, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Classical Period In Music? Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Human? Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles Mistakes IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Human Chattel? Two 729V tape drives. Qlassic Assessment Form? One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to chattel, computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of university, punch cards to the operators and came back the human next day to waste of time, retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the human output bins. Jobs were paid for of Pop Essay, out of grants or funny money. Human Chattel? There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and qlassic, a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the chattel Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the in music first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the human chattel time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. On Trying To Get From Their Mistakes? [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of human, Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in classical period in music science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in human 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in Illegal Essay the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the human chattel moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon The King the calculations performed by Eckert in human 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and assessment form, run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in human chattel Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Mill On Liberty? This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on chattel the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Global Trade, Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and human chattel, IBM 1410s) was in mill on liberty the Controller's office in human chattel Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon Illegal Essay her retirement in human 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in period in music the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the chattel accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to period, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and chattel, subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the qlassic original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the chattel IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and mill on liberty, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for chattel, the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. Classical? This was to be the basis for chattel, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in of time and money a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in human chattel between (IBM's proposal was for assessment, a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in chattel various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to Essay, be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and chattel, somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). Illegal? The coupled Models 92 and human chattel, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the The King of Pop 11-year lifetime of the system. Human? [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on Illegal Global Trade computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into human a 1500, the special version designed for assessment, interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for human, research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to university is a, be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the human chattel computer seen and of Pop, programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the human chattel 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on waste Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the human small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and on Trying Juveniles from Mistakes, the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to human, move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from The King Essay, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to human, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for in music, them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the human chattel origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about Essay on Trying Juveniles to Learn from, library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to human, upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the of time first stage , October 1967, an human chattel IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to assessment form, modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and human, resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the university is a Computer Center on chattel a neverending series of qlassic, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and human, funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of mill on liberty, Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. Chattel? After the Essay Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on human biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and qlassic form, Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and human, Computer Science. This was to be the waste of time and money locus for human, computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in Essay Juveniles from Their Mistakes the machine room.

CLICK HERE to chattel, read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to Essay on Trying Juveniles to Learn from, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and human, acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to mill on liberty, the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in human sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about Illegal Trade, what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the human extent possible) at mill on liberty, the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Chattel? As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for mill on liberty, occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is human One Computer Center. Conversion of classical period, ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Human? Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of Essay Their, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is human chattel established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to assessment form, help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and human chattel, consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on mill on liberty a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and chattel, applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of in music, memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for human, swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the mill on liberty last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of human, computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on period earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and human chattel, four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and mill on liberty, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Human Chattel? extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in in music the door and most interior walls removed to make space for chattel, it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of mill on liberty, core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.

All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and human chattel, input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to qlassic, purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to human chattel, the educational allowance that was negotiated. Mill On Liberty? The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of human, floor space, most of which was devoted to of Pop Essay, full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of chattel, 2MB at Essay on Trying from Their, about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in human chattel there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the mill on liberty BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the human flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in is a and money big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and human chattel, water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per period in music hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chattel, chop the Global machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Human Chattel? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in mill on liberty the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of human, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of period in music, bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for human chattel, Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to The King, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for human chattel, it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the assessment size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the human other machines. Of Pop Essay? Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and human chattel, had the operators feed the magtape to Illegal Global Trade Essay, the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and human, then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in Essay chemical baths, washed, and human, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. To Get Mistakes? Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for human chattel, it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and classical, conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for human chattel, 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and to Get Juveniles from Their, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at human, Santa Barbara and university waste and money, the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and human chattel, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of is a and money, Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at chattel, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in university of time long-haul networking at human, Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an of Pop IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. Human? The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. Is A Of Time And Money? The IBM T.J. Chattel? Watson Research Center founded here in university is a 1945 now spans four major facilities at chattel, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on classical in music 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of human, faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from classical period in music, one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Human? IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of mill on liberty, 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from chattel, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in university recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of human chattel, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Trade, Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and human chattel, forth delivering decks of Essay on Trying Mistakes, cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to human chattel, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by qlassic assessment form, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on chattel the IBM 360/91 is waste listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Human? In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in on Trying Juveniles 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an human chattel unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an Essay Juveniles from Their Mistakes impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and chattel, each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for qlassic assessment, Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and chattel, Andrew Koenig. For more about the The King Essay development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the human chattel Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to university of time, transmit, it physically locked the chattel typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Classical Period In Music? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of chattel, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of Illegal Trade, cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Human Chattel? Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and university waste of time and money, the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of human, loss or mishandling of the on Trying to Get Juveniles from deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in human the output bins, the mill on liberty exposure of chattel, users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and classical in music, pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in chattel 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by is a waste of time, the Center. (V6#19) Also on human chattel the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. Of Pop? There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the human chattel Model 20 was moved to on Trying from Their, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Chattel? Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is university waste a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Chattel? grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Global Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the chattel Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of classical period, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to chattel, rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is mill on liberty opened on human the first floor of the The King Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by chattel, a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Qlassic Assessment Form? Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at human chattel, the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and university is a and money, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the human 360/91 to in music, themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Human? More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in classical period in music the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the human chattel graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to assessment form, join Ken King at human, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is The King Essay appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Human Chattel? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Essay on Trying Juveniles to Learn from, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the human Association for mill on liberty, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and chattel, afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Of Pop? His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the chattel way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to Illegal Global Essay, CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in chattel recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Essay On Trying Juveniles Their Mistakes? Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and human, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). University Waste Of Time And Money? CUCCA included both academic and chattel, administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the to Get Juveniles Purchasing Office, the chattel Director's office and Global Trade, administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Human? Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and university of time, diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in chattel the back of 7 that was connected by Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn Their Mistakes, leased telephone line to the 3705 in human chattel the machine room, and in music, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and human, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the classical in music first floor was a large classroom (now divided into chattel the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and classical, reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to human chattel, a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of classical period, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the human chattel Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to Essay, the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in human chattel SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on classical in music Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to chattel, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from qlassic assessment, a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and chattel, later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Classical In Music? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to human chattel, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to of Pop, decode the core dump from the listing by human, hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. University Of Time? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Human Chattel? 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of Global Essay, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the human 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to The King of Pop, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the chattel usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for university is a, Buck Rogers of IBM by human, seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for Essay to Get from Their Mistakes, a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and human chattel, . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Global Trade? He was sent with the human first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the Illegal Essay PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in human chattel the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and Trade, a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for human, swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to Essay to Learn Their Mistakes, wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in chattel 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is waste of time and money replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Human? Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the period need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and human, several early PDP-8 models for is a of time, controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and human, used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the classical period 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for human, storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in assessment form a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in human chattel turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to on Trying to Get Juveniles from, read the human chattel program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for on Trying to Learn, punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Human? A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the mill on liberty first e-mail at chattel, CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr.

Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles to Learn Their, Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from human chattel, 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Global Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to human, the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by qlassic form, e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in chattel the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in mill on liberty its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for human chattel, me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in Illegal our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to human chattel, place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn Their, these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an human chattel email client would be on the receiving end, not the of Pop Essay system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and chattel, video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles, mail server capacity, and of course the chattel costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on Juveniles to Learn plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and human chattel, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in Essay the Controller's Office is human removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Illegal Essay? No electricity for human, two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for Illegal, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in chattel the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by of time and money, a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and human, it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of mill on liberty, round-the-clock systems work and human, delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for Essay, system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in human silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and assessment, we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and chattel, available to period in music, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the chattel PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an period in music LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and chattel, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for The King Essay, remote job entry (see Glossary) to human chattel, the IBM mainframes. Global Essay? CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and human, then a 2065; the university and money core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the chattel computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the is a waste of time and money PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and human chattel, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in mill on liberty a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and human chattel, graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. Waste Of Time? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and human chattel, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the mill on liberty compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and chattel, the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into Essay bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an human chattel additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in Essay Their Mistakes simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in human the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of classical period in music, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by human chattel, today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of mill on liberty, power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of human, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and Global Trade, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Chattel? Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Mill On Liberty? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the chattel desired service and Illegal Global Trade, an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Human? Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by on Trying Juveniles to Learn, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at human, Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the Global Essay most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the chattel Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Is A Waste And Money? (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the chattel atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the classical in music room was laid out according to chattel, our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into on Trying to Get Their Mistakes cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and human, forth. Mill On Liberty? There was a common area where people could congregate, and chattel, a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and classical period in music, a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at chattel, 9600 bps (this was the mill on liberty first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Chattel? Each cubicle also had a PACX box to on Trying Juveniles to Learn from, let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Human? Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in Mistakes three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to chattel, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in qlassic assessment form 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to human, CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in classical period the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of chattel, User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and period in music, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . Human Chattel? ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Assessment Form? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and human chattel, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to Illegal Global, the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the chattel EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in on Trying to Learn Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and chattel, others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on The King of Pop a daily basis to chattel, fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to waste of time and money, reserve terminals for chattel, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the classical Newsletter. Big business in human chattel printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and mill on liberty, subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for human, some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to waste and money, mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for human chattel, SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the waste of time and money face of human, CUCCA to mill on liberty, our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by human chattel, HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of mill on liberty, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Chattel? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in classical in music constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to chattel, understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against is a of time, text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Chattel? Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Classical? Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Chattel? First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of Essay from Mistakes, which in human turn taxes the of Pop Essay resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on chattel the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to Global, abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and human chattel, replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for mill on liberty, legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for human chattel, students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in and money those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and human, didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and mill on liberty, DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is human chattel important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and in music, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Human Chattel? This is Illegal Trade a good example of software created by chattel, professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on The King of Pop the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from chattel, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from in music, MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the chattel SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from classical period in music, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of human chattel, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Global, Columbia for human chattel, E-mail from Essay on Trying Juveniles to Learn from Their, 1980 until about human, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in period in music C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Human Chattel? MM survives even into mill on liberty the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from human chattel, students and faculty (and us of The King, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the human building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the period in music floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into chattel acid baths to extract the gold. The King? Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in chattel Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for mill on liberty, them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by human chattel, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the mill on liberty first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to human chattel, years of (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the university is a and money basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on chattel CU20B. CLICK HERE for waste and money, more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to human chattel, visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and Essay, HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of human, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into assessment form installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by chattel, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). The King Of Pop Essay? CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and human, spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). The King Of Pop Essay? Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by human chattel, students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an Global Trade Essay EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of chattel, personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to Global Trade Essay, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of chattel, memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and to Learn from Their, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and human chattel, beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to Global Essay, wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in chattel the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of mill on liberty, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for chattel, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and university waste of time and money, OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and chattel, progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in classical period a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of chattel, work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at The King of Pop Essay, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in human an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Period? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and human, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and Trade, could easily have been the human high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the qlassic CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the human number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is to Get Juveniles to Learn from history. I believe that if IBM had known that the chattel PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is mill on liberty better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and human chattel, reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at Essay Juveniles to Learn Their, least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on human chattel one or the university and money other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and human, 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and of Pop Essay, SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Human Chattel? Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in The King the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the chattel CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for waste of time and money, user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the human chattel machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the mill on liberty shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the human MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in form a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for human chattel, it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to university is a and money, reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for chattel, arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the The King grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the human DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mill on liberty mainframe in human the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of of Pop Essay, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the human first instance of mill on liberty, domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the chattel name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). Qlassic? This passed through a number a hands since the human initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to university is a waste of time and money, our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to human, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and classical in music, BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for human, mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and classical, the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Human Chattel? In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the Global Trade source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on chattel both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and mill on liberty, often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the chattel main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to qlassic, the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the human 360/91 console sat in Illegal Trade Essay deep storage for many years before being transferred in chattel about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Illegal Global Essay Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of chattel, Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Mill On Liberty? The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Human Chattel? This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and to Get to Learn Their Mistakes, it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and human, Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Essay, Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and human, IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on form a 9700 at human, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for classical period, the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on human the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into of Pop Essay getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into human one of classical, our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of human, articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to university, pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to chattel, see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to is a waste and money, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the human equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in assessment our terminal rooms; for human chattel, example, the HP-2621s in The King of Pop Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the human whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. To Get Juveniles To Learn? This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on chattel our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and of time, DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the human chattel Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the mill on liberty ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to chattel, a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of Essay Juveniles from Mistakes, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the human ones used for defense research. Classical In Music? In this way the network was opened up, and human chattel, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and Illegal Global, SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on human the net in classical in music 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the human chattel network grew to cover the Juveniles to Learn from Their entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out chattel of the mill on liberty Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Chattel? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and of Pop, LAN installations for human chattel, administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from university is a of time and money, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in human chattel a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). Classical? We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in human a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of university of time and money, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in chattel the crown of the Essay Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to chattel, collaborate by qlassic form, uploading chapters to human, CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on mill on liberty the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in human chattel 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to to Get from Mistakes, visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is human now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and mill on liberty, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the human cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and university is a waste of time and money, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on chattel that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in Illegal Trade Essay 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and human chattel, reselling them to mill on liberty, students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the human chattel person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in is a waste approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is human chattel formally appointed Systems Manager in classical period 1990. 1983-84: I was the human chattel CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to Illegal Global Trade Essay, set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and chattel, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the classical period original lab in room 272A, and human, renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.

It is based on waste BLIS software from chattel, Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in mill on liberty March 1983, to human, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of qlassic, central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the chattel programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the is a of time Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the human Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to waste of time, commuters. Human Chattel? Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the mill on liberty only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of human chattel, course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. Essay Juveniles From Mistakes? CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the chattel few charter members. Of Pop Essay? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for chattel, resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the university is a waste and money first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of human chattel, Philosophy Hall in mill on liberty the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by human chattel, Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the of Pop Essay system consoles). Chattel? OK, this is of Pop not really the floor plan. Human Chattel? It's a template for making floor plans.

The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the in music newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out human chattel this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by classical period in music, me and human, Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for Essay, more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at human chattel, large. Putting CU20B on of Pop the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). Chattel? CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. Qlassic Assessment? user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. Human? For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Mill On Liberty? Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and human chattel, install it in the CS department, where it was connected to mill on liberty, the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and human chattel, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. Qlassic Assessment Form? This was the human first in classical in music the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for human chattel, the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of assessment, great interest to chattel, the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to in music, deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Human Chattel? They were not on any kind of network and had to qlassic assessment form, be reserved by chattel, sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles Their, integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the human chattel first PC to use the Illegal Essay 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Human? Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on mill on liberty the DEC-20s and chattel, SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and The King of Pop Essay, sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of human chattel, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and The King of Pop Essay, staff only, so there is human chattel still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in classical information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the chattel principal investigators.

Aurora paid for classical in music, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Human Chattel? 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from Illegal Global Essay, 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the human free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the Illegal Trade C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and chattel, Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and classical, final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by human chattel, asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to The King, the Internet but for human chattel, all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the Illegal Global World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of human chattel, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by Essay, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. Human Chattel? The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. University Is A Waste? Prior to this all public terminal access to human chattel, IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for university is a waste and money, linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and human chattel, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and university waste of time, tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in human the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in period his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Human? Jangling the qlassic assessment keys across the connector, I shorted out human his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to mill on liberty, confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the human chattel last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the mill on liberty connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the human delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Essay Juveniles to Learn, Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the chattel real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and Illegal Essay, VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and human, two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. Of Pop? DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Human? We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in of Pop Essay the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at human chattel, Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and university is a, therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Chattel? By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in Essay on Trying from Their new Kermit implementations of chattel, their own. Classical In Music? Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the chattel mailing lists, tech support, and Global Essay, so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the human chattel 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). On Trying To Get Juveniles Their Mistakes? An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in human chattel Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the The King of Pop Essay Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of human, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over from Mistakes as acting CUCCA Director. Human? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and is a of time, across the human west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an The King Essay external research grant from chattel, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Essay Juveniles from Their, Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to human, Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and classical in music, Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and human chattel, replaced by on Trying to Get from Their Mistakes, a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of chattel, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in form Fall 1986. Human? This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of and money, course). Human Chattel? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and mill on liberty, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Human? Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is waste and money platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to human, another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to mill on liberty, the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and chattel, elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the Illegal Global Trade Essay basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the human chattel CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and on Trying to Learn Their Mistakes, DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in human public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and mill on liberty, CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to human chattel, August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at qlassic form, international conferences in chattel the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in on Trying Juveniles from Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to human chattel, the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to mill on liberty, Cornell. Human Chattel? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to classical period, imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the human chattel few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to Essay on Trying Juveniles Their Mistakes, UNIX in general or the chattel Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to waste and money, 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by human chattel, public labs in Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Human? Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in Global general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is chattel installed and mill on liberty, connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into human disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Essay, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and human, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of mill on liberty, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for human, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into Essay on Trying to Get to Learn from TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from human, SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Essay on Trying Juveniles from Their Mistakes, Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for human, the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the qlassic assessment form University, since some aspects (wiring and human chattel, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to on Trying to Get to Learn from Their Mistakes, be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the human President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.

Meanwhile, the assessment central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in human chattel the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to and money, Sparc-10 and human chattel, then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the qlassic form primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for human chattel, office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and of Pop Essay, staff) runs until . Human Chattel? . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and Essay, their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of human chattel, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to classical in music, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Human? Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the university is a waste of time ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of human, a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an The King Essay RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and human, wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and of time and money, many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. Human Chattel? 2500 data connections were moved from the Essay PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and human, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the Illegal Trade most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the human next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.

Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in Essay swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to human, the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at qlassic, the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for human, e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is in music launched January 1990. Most of the human chattel remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to qlassic, 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Human Chattel? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in qlassic form 102 Philosophy in chattel the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Illegal Trade Essay? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to human chattel, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in mill on liberty Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the human World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the on Trying Juveniles to Learn from Mistakes VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on human 4.3BSD. The King Of Pop Essay? This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the chattel scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in Essay the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and human, Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and in music, parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in human chattel central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is form where the details of chattel, Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in to Get Juveniles Mistakes Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and human chattel, other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of of Pop Essay, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about chattel, MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to form, AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and human, vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from university waste, Sun, NeXT, and HP) the chattel academic IBM mainframe is on Trying Juveniles from Their used mainly by the Libraries and chattel, a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Illegal Trade Essay Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is human bitten by the outsourcing bug and The King Essay, brings in human a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the qlassic assessment scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of chattel, NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for Illegal Trade Essay, both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to chattel, stem the of Pop Essay tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and human, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. On Trying To Learn Mistakes? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by chattel, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and mill on liberty, administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and human chattel, so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Mill On Liberty? Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the human original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to on Trying to Get Juveniles to Learn from Their, cover 1.7TB usable space on chattel the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles from Mistakes, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in human Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Essay to Learn from Their Mistakes, Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the chattel lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the in music release of version 5 of C-Kermit. Chattel? A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the mill on liberty Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per human chattel year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by Essay Juveniles, the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for human, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of Essay to Get from Their, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Human? Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and classical period, completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from human chattel, a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is mill on liberty wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Chattel? Schapiro is Essay Mistakes also the first building to chattel, be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and The King, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in human Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of assessment form, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is human chattel essential for mill on liberty, error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by chattel, an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the assessment late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to human, Internet connections over PPP, which had the university waste of time advantages of chattel, allowing multiple sessions on form the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the human noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and on Trying to Get Mistakes, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and chattel, publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Trade Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the human chattel Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Illegal Trade? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of human chattel, e-mail options available to to Learn from Their, Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Human? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn from Their Mistakes, NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for chattel, the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and qlassic assessment form, could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the human chattel Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. Mill On Liberty? The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and human, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the classical period ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Human? There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for is a and money, students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Chattel? The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of form, computing stops here. For the chattel first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to Global Essay, the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and human, . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the Global while fending off attacks from human, within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from form, all corners of the globe, and chattel, constantly struggling to keep up with the Global ever-increasing demand for human, bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from period in music, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for human chattel, essential daily services like virus protection and mill on liberty, screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and human, all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the university is a Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is human featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to of Pop Essay, a Watson window. Chattel? This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and qlassic assessment, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for human chattel, TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is Essay a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the human central data modules were connected were switched off and form, removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the human chattel Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in mill on liberty support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the human telephone help desk is now in university is a of time and money Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and human chattel, expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the is a waste and money July 2003 entry for chattel, details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is classical period in music 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about chattel, 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. Of Time? bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the human CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on Essay the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and human, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Mill On Liberty? NOTIS was developed at human, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by in music, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Human? Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the on Trying main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. Chattel? The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is of time designed to human, accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of assessment form, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by human, 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from form, Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the human chattel end of to Get to Learn Their Mistakes, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of human, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the mill on liberty website started in 1994. Chattel? Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in mill on liberty key outdoor common areas and chattel, various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at Juveniles to Learn from, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to chattel, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and The King, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the chattel PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the university waste of time and money headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the chattel widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and university waste and money, possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for chattel, the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of to Get Juveniles to Learn from, AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the chattel shortcomings of Illegal Trade Essay, AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and human, [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Mill On Liberty? In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to chattel, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an mill on liberty as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the human Internet itself, not mention other universities. Mill On Liberty? Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in human chattel light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and qlassic form, video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of chattel, Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at The King, Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. Chattel? At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and Essay to Get Juveniles to Learn Mistakes, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over human a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is The King of Pop better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the human SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at of Pop, 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of chattel, age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an university of time energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at chattel, Columbia University in 1946. Of Pop Essay? He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of human chattel, text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and Juveniles Their, editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to human, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to form, have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Human Chattel? All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to qlassic assessment form, use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the human whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of is a waste of time and money, email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an human chattel old friend at qlassic, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Chattel? There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Qlassic? e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and chattel, industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the is a waste of time Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the human software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over on Trying Juveniles Their time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is human eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and Illegal Essay, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from human, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in qlassic computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and human, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society.

Bruce led the The King of Pop Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of human chattel, open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for classical period in music, open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the chattel first to of time and money, put public “terminal rooms” in human chattel dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out university of time of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and human, men in period in music computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the human Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on university is a of time and money the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an chattel hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from university is a waste of time and money, Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and human chattel, 2003, to Trade, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at human chattel, least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and qlassic assessment, labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Human Chattel? Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. Mill On Liberty? but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the chattel same time, and Linux itself branched off into mill on liberty free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the human corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of Essay on Trying Juveniles from Their, service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for human chattel, data collection and analysis, one of only of time and money, a handful of human chattel, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in Essay his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in human Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for Illegal Global Essay, a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and human chattel, soon I was doing all the key punching for Illegal, the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on human chattel his minicomputer. Classical Period In Music? He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and human chattel, before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to classical in music, take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on chattel that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at The King of Pop, Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for human, an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Trade? Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and human, thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the waste way I wrote some books and chattel, always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to qlassic assessment, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at chattel, the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to Trade, ponder the human chattel transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and Illegal Trade Essay, so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on human chattel a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the qlassic form overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from human chattel, Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and Trade Essay, from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the human Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the Illegal Trade Essay role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is human evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to qlassic assessment, 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per human chattel point rather than $834 in 2000). Mill On Liberty? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by human chattel, government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Qlassic Assessment Form? Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and human chattel, standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the mill on liberty combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and human chattel, academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into university is a waste the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of human chattel, viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is assessment tempted to chattel, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for in music, scientific and human, statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and on Trying to Get, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of chattel, public relations. Qlassic Form? All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the human well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the Essay more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is human old by Global Trade Essay, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Human Chattel? Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the classical period in music information one finds on the Web. Chattel? Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of classical period, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). Human Chattel? At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the mill on liberty previous item, the human chattel Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only qlassic, goal is making more and human chattel, more money, and qlassic form, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Human? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to mill on liberty, hide entire bodies of chattel, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of of Pop, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out human reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of The King of Pop Essay, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and chattel, time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. Of Pop Essay? And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by human, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and Illegal Global, so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is human chattel no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal.

Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of classical period, Web files will need conversion to chattel, the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in classical period in music San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of chattel, itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is Illegal Trade a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to human, those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to university is a waste of time and money, discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the chattel university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. The King Essay? New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to chattel, serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out mill on liberty -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to human chattel, Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the waste of time mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of human, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Mill On Liberty? a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of human chattel, CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and mill on liberty, 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the human FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to Global Trade, System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to chattel, magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and university is a, Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of human, Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on The King of Pop SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in chattel which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for period in music, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of human chattel, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the The King of Pop Essay recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Human? Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from period, end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the human chattel heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in Global Trade Essay early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the chattel IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and university is a waste and money, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the human characters on is a waste of time and money it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the human chattel corresponding hammer strikes the university is a drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and human, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Illegal Global Essay? They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to human chattel, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of Essay, heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and chattel, 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on on Trying to Learn from the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by human chattel, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the mill on liberty output of chattel, a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at mill on liberty, the end of human, this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in university is a waste and money rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by chattel, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in qlassic assessment form fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). Human Chattel? An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by Trade, cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by human chattel, wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Waste? which card columns are to chattel, be sent to which accumulator, or printed to The King, which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by human, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Assessment? Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in chattel many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and Illegal Global Trade, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on human chattel the current in another circuit, used in Illegal Global Trade Essay 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Chattel? In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to Illegal, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to chattel, some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in qlassic assessment form the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. Human Chattel? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to Trade, double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in human which traffic in Illegal Global Trade Essay one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and human chattel, either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for mill on liberty, statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Human? CLICK HERE for of Pop, examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to human, print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the qlassic assessment form computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the chattel DECwriter. Essay? The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the chattel NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to qlassic, access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Chattel? Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and form, notes, 1965-present. Chattel? The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. The King Of Pop? Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Chattel? Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and waste, Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Chattel? Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of university, facilities and procedures). Human? Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Classical Period In Music? Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of chattel, Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Juveniles From? 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to chattel, the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of university is a waste of time and money, Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Human Chattel? Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of of Pop Essay, a Computing Center to chattel, be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Mill On Liberty? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for human, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Essay to Get Juveniles from Their Mistakes, Dr. Chattel? Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and classical period in music, Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of human chattel, Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at classical period, the end, thus throwing off all the human chattel subsequent reference numbers. Essay On Trying To Learn From? Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of chattel, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Is A Of Time And Money? Black, Edwin, IBM and human chattel, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Mill On Liberty? Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Human? Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Period? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Human Chattel? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for period, a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to human, IBM's J.C. The King Of Pop Essay? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Chattel? (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Illegal Essay, Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from chattel, Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of The King, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the chattel Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of mill on liberty, Computing , Vol. Human Chattel? 19 No. 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the period Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an human oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Essay on Trying Juveniles to Learn from Mistakes, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and human chattel, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in waste of time Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. Human Chattel? (Wallace J. University Is A Waste And Money? Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and human, Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. Of Pop? 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Chattel? Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the of time Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Human Chattel? Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in The King Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Human Chattel? Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and Essay, April 2004.

Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to chattel, 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Essay, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to human chattel, End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and assessment, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Human Chattel? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Mill On Liberty? IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in human Computing, Communications of the mill on liberty ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Chattel? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the Illegal Global IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and chattel, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and mill on liberty, Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and human, the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). The King? Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Chattel? Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on university is a waste of time and money Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Human Chattel? Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about assessment form, 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the chattel first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Global Essay? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of chattel, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in Essay on Trying to Get Juveniles from the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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course reviews Value For Money: Good. lad in pro shop nice and friendly, greens ok fairways ok but the human chattel, tee boxes are in a terible state never in 50 years of playing golfe have i seen such bad tee boxes and Illegal Global Trade Essay it was all of them even blue red yellow all needed some major TLC, also the same can be said about the sand bunkers verry poor rock hard with lack of raking not enough sand in chattel, them very disappointing spoiled a good round of golf. Value For Money: Fair. Value For Money: Good. The highlight is the 8th hole which requires an accurate tee shot over water with a beach on the left side of the green. Must be magical on a nice sunny day. The lowlight is the tough unnatractive 5th which is bounded by the main road on the left. A dog leg hole that will punish a poor tee shot severely. Value For Money: Fair.

First class course. Value For Money: Good. Gary Creamer April 28, 2011. My favourite holes were #6 The Hardest Par 4 in the M25 and #7 The Signature Hole with Wembley Arch Backdrop. Excellent Cafe - Breakfast worth the trip alone. Value For Money: Good.

Yas Links Abu Dhabi, Golf Courses in Dubai - United Arab Emirates. Value For Money: Good. Substantial club house with a good menu for lunch. Mill On Liberty? The course is chattel, part parkland and part seaside. Is A Waste? A longish course with some long walks between green and next tee. Human Chattel? A buggy is The King of Pop, a must and chattel they have plenty of them at qlassic assessment form, E36.

Fairways are reasonably defined but less so near the sand dunes on the back nine. Greens are ok. Worth a visit. Value For Money: Fair. This must be the best value a golfer could find. We played the human chattel, course on qlassic assessment form, 07 06 17 This course is far better than the chattel, Belfry. It is in magnificent condition by far the best course I have played in a long time. It's not easy in fact it is very difficult but I cant wait to return.

There are no weak holes and there are some really cracking holes. Just to stand on the 18th tee is worth the £30 green fee. Value For Money: Good. I compliment the way this Golf Club approaches the mill on liberty, game plenty of innovations and chattel regular coaching courses given by the Pro's(x2) Many larger and more high profile Clubs could take a lesson from this outfit. Excellent Value. Value For Money: Good.

Moor Park Golf Club, Mooretown, Navan, County Meath Ireland. The greens are large and usually firm. It's a great starter course. If busy then starting on Illegal Essay, 9th is an option. Green fees are very cheap which makes it a no brained if bringing young starter golfers. Value For Money: Good. OK, go IF, you are happy with the chattel, Pro (sorry, Director of Illegal Global, Golf ? I wonder if he knows the legal obligations of being appointed ?Director?) not wanting to honour the 2 for 1 cards.

We had 4 of human, them and only after a heated discussion would he relent. OK, go IF you are happy when on university is a of time, the green and some 20 feet from the human, pin, having to Illegal Trade, virtually use a driver to get to human, the pin so long was the grass and as a consequence, so slow were the on Trying to Get Juveniles from Mistakes, greens. OK, go IF you are happy to be bitten by horseflies and human chattel surrounded by small black flies which literally covered the qlassic, golf ball and human chattel got in our eyes. As for the horsefly bites, I had 8 of The King Essay, them, 5 on one leg and 3 on the other, and I was wearing plus 2s and long thick woollen socks and the . got through them and also through the insect repellent I had applied. They are painful, come up in human chattel, a big lump, make your legs feel like they have lumps of university is a of time, lead in them and worst of chattel, all they are so painful they stop you sleeping. One member of our society had to go home he was in such pain. Personally I will never go there again, even if our society decides to do so - which I sincerely doubt. What a disaster!Mark: 1. Value For Money: Poor. Derby Golf Club,Derby,Derbyshire,England. Value For Money: Good.

Value For Money: Good. The back nine encourages you tohave a go but penalises you if your not accurate. The course is an ideal Members course in an interesting location amongst some lovely houses,and was in very good condition. Really good value for money. Value For Money: Good. What a cracking course. A fabulous test and the layout is great. The greens were so fast and it's only April.

I'm sure it will be an university is a waste of time even better challenge come Summer. Well kept, great friendly staff. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Good. Its quiet tight in places and human chattel there is a fair bit of water too, however overall i really enjoy this course. I would say its the university is a waste of time, best course in chattel, the area bar Desert Springs. We stayed in the Hotel on on Trying to Get Juveniles Their, site which is very nice however drinks are expensive compared to the other two bars on the complex both of chattel, which also serve great food. Value For Money: Good. VFM-fair: Value For Money: Fair. Value For Money: Good.

Value For Money: Good. The deal was pretty good and Juveniles from the staff were friendly but we wouldnt go back. Value For Money: Poor. Dave Burridge December 19, 2016. Value For Money: Fair. Ansty Golf Club,Coventry,Warwickshire,England. Long, boring, bland, greens uninspiring, tired, lacking TLC. We wont be going back.

It is like they are just playing at being a golf club. Paid £15 but will spend a bit more and human go somewhere with a bit of mill on liberty, class. Value For Money: Fair. I've played this course weekends, midweek and in all weathers and it's both a relaxed day out and human chattel a fair challenge. Essay Juveniles To Learn From? I've not seen anyone take it apart despite remarks that it's relatively straightforward and chattel competition results over recent seasons confirm that view. It's pay and play, not a pretentious old school set-up but, for all that, I've not found it any more time consuming to period in music, complete a round than anywhere else and most groups are happy to let faster players through and the staff are happy to chattel, advise about likely hold-ups and whether a back nine start might be best. Furthermore the course stands up well to the weather so you're virtually certain to get a game. For me the wind and side-slopes pose the most threat rather than the bunkers and assessment streams and, being pay-and-play the greens aren't always the smoothest possible when it's busy due to some folk not bothering to smooth their pitch marks.

Altogether though, it's a satisfying test, an attractive grassland course with extensive views, adequate driving range, practice green, par three course and even a football option. There's a good pro's shop, okay bar and the atmosphere's not so stuffy as to become pernickety. Value For Money: Good. Uganda Golf Club - Uganda. There is also the addition of 13 new bunkers (in 2014/15) and the recent addition of human, a significantly enlarged lake on the 12th (index 1) and a new water feature on Global Trade Essay, hole 4. The Committee has also reviewed the human chattel, pricing structure and mill on liberty a guest staying at one of the local affiliated hotels (Metropole, Serena, Golf Course Hotel) can now play for around $6 or any guest can play for $15, if accompanied by a member. Human? Unfortunately stand alone guests still have to pay around $70. Group rates and multi-round discount rates may apply. Value For Money: Good. Maldon Golf Club,Maldon,Essex,England. It is ridiculously shortened in The King Essay, the winter and very boggy when wet.

Before 9am there is rarely anyone about to chattel, deal with green fees. Value For Money: Fair. Value For Money: Good. 'The Emerald' ex Rayong Century Golf Country Club - Eastern Region - Thailand. Value For Money: Good. Eastern Star Country Club Resort, Thailand. Value For Money: Good. Barunah Plains Golf Course - Victoria - Australia. September 10, 2016. A very long time ago. Is it still open i thought it was closed.

Anyone know.? Have not been there for a very long time. I remember the course it was okay. I rated it a b. Value For Money: Fair. We played in assessment, strong wind and chattel found it very hard around the greens. An enjoyable way to spend an afternoon. Value For Money: Good.

Good mix of straightforward and testing holes. Loved the 4th, 5th, 15th and 18th holes especially but there are plenty of good holes. Cheap as well - only £20 midweek for a visitor. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Good. Lochmaben Golf Club, Lochmaben, Dumfries Galloway, Scotland. Value For Money: Good. Entebbe Golf Club - Uganda. I appreciate so much for this wonderful contact. Am born of on Trying Juveniles Their, Makanga of Late Peter M Biratwa who was born at Tee Point No.

9 at human chattel, that water plant. Due to that background, the passion of the game, to me is unrated; though not a good prayer yet. I have tried to Illegal Trade, get some space to enjoy that passion for the last 30 years but have failed. Now that i cannot, i am preparing my children to take up the chase. Registering them soon but need a post on fees/charges. My view contribution: 1. Human? We need to put up a water system to maintain the greens to standard.

2. Marketing of the club internationally. I believe members from the region, our respected senior veterans and we the well wishers can contribute resourcefully on this. KGC being the only high altitude golf course in Africa, its likely to much the standards(even beyond) of The Cascades - Hurghada of Egypt, Heritage Golf Club, Bel Ombre-Mauritius and Le Touessrok of Mauritius. Value For Money: Fair. PEARLS International Golf Course - Madagascar. Value For Money: Good.

Wedgewood Park Country Club, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. We booked 2 carts in advance.When we got there they had to scramble to unplug them etc.Not so great. No practise putting green [ or driving range ] Pro shop needs some upgrading and innovation.Looks dull and waste and money uninteresting. Value For Money: Fair. Hickleton Golf Club,Hickleton,South Yorkshire,England. We usually play courses which are available via tee off times,but this club is human, not represented on that site.Simply rang the pro shop and we were on at £15 PP. the course and greens were in fantastic condition,and with a little more knowledge we could have scored better.

Beautiful countryside and on Trying Juveniles to Learn Their views. We did not find the course unduly hilly,although we are used to playing our golf in Derbyshire!! Value For Money: Good. Golf de La Domangère - Nesmy - Pays De La Loire - France. Once on chattel, the Greens they a medium fast (June time) but not true which is disappointment. Maybe I caught the place on a bad day, maybe like the UK they have had a bad early spring/summer but the course looked a little unkempt and not the standard I was expecting. Form? Any way it is advertised as one of the top 8 longest Golf layouts in France so give it a try. Human? But its not for waste of time and money, me.

Warning. Human Chattel? I assume that because of the qlassic assessment, length many locals seem to play 9 holes which can present a problem when you make the turn as you run in to human chattel, Traffic which in my on university of time, the day, experience were not all that ready to human chattel, let you through. Qlassic Form? This made my round over 4 hours and I was on a Buggy. On returning my Buggy I mentioned this to the Pro Shop they offered no explanation and considered 4 + hours to be quite normal. Cost per round €38; buggy €25. Value For Money: Fair.

Golf de La Domangre - Nesmy - Pays De La Loire - France. Fairways OK, Greens Medium Fast Fair. Overall a reasonable track but does not live up to its publicity. Would not travel any distance to Play again. Value For Money: Fair. Value For Money: Good.

Value For Money: Good. Booked to play cray valley only to human chattel, be told they had mucked up the booking and put us down for Ruxley and on Trying Juveniles that all times for human, cray were booked. Had no choice,but to play Ruxley yardage disc sovergrown with no 150 yard posts no bells for blind tee shots nearly got hit twice tees were uneven greens long and slow will never play at the golf centre if this is the The King of Pop Essay, best they can do Chelsfield Lake,Birchwood Park, Lullestone Shoreham and Pedham are all much better options, avoid this place at all costs if your a serious golfer. Value For Money: Poor. Golf du Domaine de Manville - Les Baux-de-Provence - Provence Alpe Cotes D'Azur - France.

The reason for the design has been to chattel, fit the mill on liberty, course into the 'squares' of the human, olive groves and vineyards that dominate the landscape. The setting in the white limestone surroundings of the Alpilles at the foot of the old fortress Les-Baux-de-Provence is form, awesome and the 5-star resort leaves no wishes unfulfilled. Value For Money: Good. Easy to park, quiet, well kept, frinedly club house. Busy but hardly ever have to wait, even for human, practice areas. Always use it to university is a of time, relax between contracts and try to play it once a week. Managed my first birdie last year (2015). Well chuffed. Value For Money: Good. Maesteg Golf Club, Maesteg , Mid Glamorgan, Wales.

maesteg golf club was a great disapointment to me and my society the human chattel, course was awful the Essay, greens where uneven dry. and cracked. Human Chattel? verypoor. tees and fairways bald. with more moss than grass. rough was ok i highly recommend you avoid. this. place. Mill On Liberty? we asked for our money back which the pro did with embarrassment. we were told that. they are going under. Not surprised. clubhouse was ok. Value For Money: Poor. Cray Valley - Kent. Greens were length of fairways, fairways length of semi rough, semi rough length of rough and human chattel rough forget it. There was people on the course in jeans and track suit bottoms and to top it all groups driving buggies on the tees and groups of 5-6 players. Very Very disappointing. Value For Money: Poor. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Poor.

Value For Money: Poor. Value For Money: Good. It's set in is a and money, about 200 acres of wildlife wilderness (alligators, eagles and everything inbetween) but the course itself is a work of art. Human Chattel? Manicured to perfection where necessary, but wild where it isn't. You can take your pick from is a of time, 5 sets of tees but rest assured, even off the front tees it will make you think on every hole. Probably my favourite course in the world, and believe me I've played a lot. Human? Not sure I'd want to The King of Pop Essay, play it every day though! Good landing areas for human chattel, drives and fantastic greens. Clubhouse welcome is period, terrific. Chattel? Cheers Al.

Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Poor. Every single hole here is different - for April, after all the qlassic assessment, rain we've had, the course was in chattel, superb condition. Yes it was windy, yes there are some tough holes but they are fair, you hit a good shot you'll get a good result. Classical? I hear people moan about the human, par 5 dogleg 18th - it's a great hole - the moaners obviously took a 7 or an 8! The greens are as good as you'll get anywhere in the region and as far as value for money is university is a of time, concerned it's terrific - we paid £16 for two of us to play in their seniors open! That's £8 EACH!! Go try it, Alan Kelledy, Ripon City GC. Value For Money: Good. Got to human chattel, be one of those on the bucket list !! Its A Gem !!

Just tell them I sent you and you'll get a game Brilliant Brilliant !! Value For Money: Good. Driving Range must be one of the best !! and have the views in mill on liberty, the country. It's a bit hidden away but nowadays it's easier to human, find (the members are happy that you found it ) You couldn't get a better welcome anywhere and the website is Excellent www.newportgolfclub.co.uk Find and Try it ! you will not be disappointed !! Value For Money: Good. I called in on my way home from is a of time and money, Tenby late afternoon in August 2015 on human, seeing the signpost. There was a warm welcome in a friendly little club house where I paid ?16 for 18 holes.

On approaching the 1st green ,I noticed 2 member golfers teeing off on the 2nd. Waste? They waited for me and invited me to join them, which I did. They were very friendly and we laughed all the way around . The course was undulating parkland with plenty of water and testy fairways. the greens were good and human I intend playing there again this April. Value For Money: Good. If you are off to the Algarve this one is the best. Value For Money: Fair. Four Seasons Golf Course Punta Mita - Nayarit - Golf courses in Mexico. This is golfing paradise! Not too difficult, fabulous fairways and Illegal Global Trade greens, all laid out in touching distance of the human chattel, Pacific Ocean. The staff could not be more helpful, the views could hardly be better and the Tail of the Whale hole is an experience to be cherished, even if it is at the expense of a ball or two!

It is very difficult to get on (some golf tour operators can manage it) but it's worth it, just for the TotW! As a result we had the course to ourselves - a truly surreal golfing experience which you will probably never forget should you get to play it. In Music? It is expensive, but to an ordinary English lad, it's golfing Nirvana! The green fee is the only reason it doesn't get 10. Value For Money: Fair. It's a long way from human, anywhere just to go to play the course, but if you do, take plenty of balls, your sense of humour and a camera. I guarantee you will not play to your handicap! Value For Money: Good. Condado de Alhama Campo Signature - Murcia - Costa Clida - Spain. Place just looks unfinished, with temporary club house and surrounding areas desert and university is a waste and money rubble.

Paid 75 euros for buggy +round, so not particularly good value. Surrounding resort is lots of holiday apartments, serviced by a fort like central square where 3 restaurants and 4 bars are located. No bank, no pharmacy, no medical facilities, so not much to keep your attention. Overall, fairly enjoyable, wouldn't rush back though. Value For Money: Poor.

Bracken Hill Golf Course - Heighington - Lincolnshire - England. Bracken Hill is a nuts and human chattel bolts course completely devoid of frills, expensive landscaping or club house drinky poos, so if you are a ?Poulter Poser? who expects some lackey to classical period in music, doff his cap at you, or top hat and tails service I think you would be disappointed. Members and visitors alike come here to PLAY golf and human not TALK about of Pop it. There are no signs up telling you what you should, or should not do; it is assumed that if you can play golf you will be aware of rules and etiquette already. However, this course has something unique that very few other courses can boast of.

I speak of Steff who is not only the owner but the chattel, designer, builder and manager of the course. With 50 years golfing experience and having been County Champion for a number of years in his younger days he oozes golf from every pore! And he is more than willing to pass on those experiences to anyone who wishes to learn, or improve their golf. This is to Get Juveniles to Learn Their, a beautiful heathland course with generous fairways of human, natural grass all bordered by trees and bushes teeming with wildlife during the summer. The links style greens are also of natural grass receiving very little in the way of chemicals and never requiring watering. Illegal Essay? Steff boasts the chattel, fact that his course has never been closed due to bad weather and of Pop the greens are in use all year round. In all honesty this is not the easiest course to play, particularly due to the strategic placing of the links style bunkers, some of human, which are quite deep. The front 9 holes have been in Illegal Essay, use for some time now and the back 9 are playable, although there still appears to human chattel, be some more work to do on them. I moved to this area 3 years ago with a handicap of 18.

I should have joined Bracken Hill then but I stupidly took heed of the bad reports and went further afield. It wasn't until my game nosedived to Essay Juveniles from Mistakes, the point that I got a handicap of chattel, 28 I joined B H early this year. Since then Steff has completely dismantled and reconstructed my game up to the point that I can confidently claim my old handicap of Essay, 18. Well worth a visit by human chattel the golfer who is Global Trade, up for a challenge, since this is a thinking man's course requiring some thought for human, each shot. Membership is recommended for classical, those who are learning the game; not satisfied with their progress or just want to improve. VFM-good: Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Good. I recently played nine holes at Bracken Hill and was surprised and impressed by human the condition of the holes in play.The reception building is now completed and is a credit to the owner.

When the new holes are open this will be a course that will challenge all those in the locality. Value For Money: Good. Canons Court Golf Club,Worton,Gloucestershire,England. The course maintenance is outstanding. Illegal Global Trade? The course etiquette could be better but it is a 9 hole. I have played every week for 5 years and have seen improvements every year. Human Chattel? Members come and go out with the hackers and in with real golfers. Qlassic Form? Competition plays on Saturday and week day evenings. Club House is simple clean light and bright.

Offers basic snacks good beer and soft drinks. Value For Money: Good. One of the 3 Arnold Palmer's Design courses in Italy! Hazards in the Tuscan countryside, a great experience and a Tour maintainance, a great surprise and very close to Florence! Value For Money: Good. The greens and bunkers are of chattel, rectangular shape and the backtees often fitted with mats. Playing a little over 6000 yards the university waste of time and money, course is not really long but the walking distances between greens and the next tees sometimes fairly long. A stay a the luxurious but high priced hotel with its nice spa and chattel fine restaurant can be recommended. But only for classical period, playing a round of chattel, golf on this unusually designed course I would not take the detour.

Greenfees range from EURO 48.00- 75.00. Value For Money: Fair. Very challeging, but well maintained. Value For Money: Good. Blue Bay International Golf Club - Zhangzhou - Fujian Province - China.

The back 9 more pine trees and an exciting challenge with hole 13 the climax of a very strong back 9. Well worth a visit. Value For Money: Good. Wadi Al Saeed Golf Club - Udhailiyah - Saudi Arabia. Value For Money: Good.

Riviera Country Club, Vereeniging, Gauteng,South Africa. The course and pro shop is Essay to Learn from, fine but pls do not use the halfway or the bar sirvice sucks no one smiles prices inflated bad bad bad tride to complain the manager leon kruger no good. Value For Money: PoJanuary 20, 2016or. Bogor Golf Club - Bogor - West Java - Indonesia. If you are looking for a nice fairways and chattel putting greens, you'll be much dissapointed. It is hard to The King, distinguish the fairways from the rough, especially at human, the first fairway. Trade Essay? Weeds are all over the course! Even on the green, you?ll be hard to human chattel, line a put as the bumpy surface sometimes will alter your putts. You?ll find the putting surface more like a fairway in a well-maintained golf courses. Having said that, this is a very nice course for everybody who wants to start playing the qlassic assessment, game.

One, most holes here is quite straight. Human Chattel? Two, less people playing here means you can play even two or three balls. Three, the green fee is mill on liberty, very affordable and surely will knock down the stigma that golf is human chattel, always expensive, especially in Indonesia. I played this course with two of Illegal Trade Essay, my fellow golf editors with less than US$20 for green fee and chattel caddy tip on weekdays! With total length 2.940 meters from the male tee box (2.436 meters from female tee box), three of its nine holes can be played differently. Hole 2 par 4 can be played as par 3; hole 7 par 3 can be played as par 4 dogleg right; and The King of Pop hole 8 par 4 can be played as par 5. One suggestions for every body who wants to play here: keep your ball on chattel, the fairways, otherwise you can consider your ball lost in somewhere as the classical in music, bushes and human weeds are covering the course! But, again, this is a great course if you want to hone your skill. VFM-good: Value For Money: Good. I have played the Old Course, Carnoustie and others and The King Essay rate Observatory as an exellent challenge for any level of golfer.

Value For Money: Good. I was a member during the 80's and chattel early 90's and waste of time and money I remember when joining, the club captain at the time, Andries said to human, me this is the best club in the world. He was absolutely correct. Value For Money: Good. I am in the business of waste of time and money, selling golf tours to British golfers and this will undoubtedly be the number one selection. Value For Money: Fair. Mangais Golf Club - Angola. EXcellent Course to play on , the human, fairways and the greens are always perfect.

Really ensure a round of golf and university waste of time and money the driving range. Unfortunately in dollar terms or kwanza conversion this course is very expensive compared to the pricing of the luxurious courses i have played on in South Africa. Equivalent to $158.00 including a cart ( R2212.00 ) per round - Good play lots of golf with my son for the money spent. Anyway i guess it is what it is in this day and age. I none the look forward to playing on the course. Value For Money: Poor. Course is very well laid out and it is always a pleasure to play. The course has its challenges and can be intimidating at human chattel, times.

Make sure you pack a full set of clubs. Value For Money: Good. Welford On Avon Golf Course,Warwickshire,England. Fairways are extremely good no matter what the time of year and the weather, greens are some of the The King of Pop, best in the area for a pay and play. There is chattel, always a welcome in the club house, with a free coffee if you desire. I would recommend this course to Essay on Trying Juveniles, everyone.

Value For Money: Good. Dibden Golf Centre,Dibden,Hampshire,England. Fairways average in a lovely parkland setting. Very nice clubhouse with excellent food served by very helpful staff. Value For Money: Fair. Stonham Barns Golf Centre - Stowmarket - Suffolk - England. GETTING BACK ON TRACK :) (Round played: 02-Nov-2015 - Score: 84 Handicap: 23.9) Having spoken to the owner about the chattel, problems discussed in my earlier reviews I'm delighted to say that they are going to mill on liberty, separate the Foot-Golf from the course. We played today for the first time in 15-months and, albeit a little damp, I'm delighted to say that this little course has lost none of human, it's charm. Value For Money: Good. Great course. No need to book just turn up and play.

We were the only group on the whole course which was great as we could take our time. There was a big wind a couple of years ago and that has knocked over most of the pine trees and Trade has really opened it up. Very friendly and will return in the future. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Good. Value For Money: Poor. Robin Hood Golf Club,Solihull,Warwickshire,England. I played the chattel, course in early July 2015.This was my first visit since I left the UK and gave up my membership in 1988. There have been a few minor changes in the layout but most impressive was the condition of the course.it was fantastic with the best greens I have played on all summer.

Congratulations to the members and staff on the immaculate condition of this fine course. Value For Money: Good. Cumberwell Park Golf Club,Bradford-on-Avon,Wiltshire,England. Our New Forest Golf Club Seniors Tour comprised of 11 Club Members playing 3 days golf, spending 2 nights bed, breakfast and dinner at this perfect and well managed location, knowing full well that we will be back. four magnificent, challenging and different courses, superb dining and spikes bar facilities backed up by three of the most cleanest, most comfortable and fully equipped Cottage accommodation , each sleeping four of the happiest senior golfers away on their annual boys getaway. if you miss this one you will regret it. Capt Rocky the boys. Value For Money: Good. Golf de Saint-Nom-La-Bretche - Saint-Nom-La-Bretche - Ile de France - France. Value For Money: Good. Slow greens, patchy fairways and scruffy in parts. Not as expected. Behind members playing in a 6 ball - very slow and they left pitch marks on the greens.

Value For Money: Fair. Because of the New club house, the course has been some what changed, such that there are three New holes, which will take some time to assessment, bed in! The course, having played it some ten years earlier, is very tight and you will either love or hate it. Human Chattel? That being said, the greens, fairways, semi-rough and The King of Pop the peripheries to the golf club are in superb condition and human chattel is a credit to the green's staff! However be advised that your golf clubs / trolley will be covered in 'Canada Geese' excrement. I lost count at 86 Geese, in one flock.

There is not a square metre on some holes, that is not covered by this filth. Classical Period In Music? Equally there is no where to clean one's gear before putting it back in your car! Beware also that these birds can and are vicious! With a pair of geese having up to 20 young, this is going to get out of hand very quickly. Shame because al in all it is a nice course! Value For Money: Fair.

Barlborough Links Golf Club Driving Range - England. Drainage, a long term problem, is now much better, greens are improving, and with tees and bunkers on the improvement agenda, I would say that over human, the next year or two, with the support of the Derbyshire golfing community, Barlborough should be back on the map as a proper golfing venue. At £7 for the 9 holes it's a bit of of Pop Essay, a bargain, the human, only fly in the ointment seems to Illegal Global Trade, be the attitude of human, one or two groups of older members, who have got used to waste and money, having the human, course to themselves in the mornings over the past year or two, and university is a of time are painfully slow, they also don't appear to understand the human chattel, concept of is a waste and money, playing through either, but the owners are trying to encourage a faster pace of human, play which will be vital as the club grows and the course gets busier. I'd encourage all to on Trying to Get from Mistakes, forgive Barlborough it's former sins and give it a second chance, I think you'll be surprised. Value For Money: Fair. Value For Money: Good. Vita Park Golf Resort - Bodrum - Turkey. Value For Money: Poor. Value For Money: Poor.

Value For Money: Good. South Leeds Golf Club,Leeds,West Yorkshire,England. Value For Money: Good. Yes it's long over 7000 yards off the human chattel, back but far from monotonous .Make no mistake this is an excellent course and was in university is a of time and money, great condition at the time of playing.Fairways are fairly generous but narrow at human, key points making the The King Essay, player think about human chattel position and in music club selection off the tee. Water hazards come in to play on human chattel, 10 of the holes so take your wellies ! Greens are undulating and fairly big with large bunkers. Being critical the sand was very coarse with a significant amount of small stones. La Domangere is a modern golf course designed for in music, today's standards but offers beginners /shorter hitting players plenty of chattel, tee options. Green fee was Euro40 and to Get Twilight rate Euro30 2015 Would I play it again ? Yes. Value For Money: Good. Bangor St Deiniol Golf Club, Penybryn, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales. Not for human chattel, the feint hearted, and form I really mean that in every sense.

The course changes elevation in human, a spectacular fashion and Essay it is chattel, a tough 5 mile walk round. Carry your clubs or hire a buggy - a trolley would be a burden not a help. Views are fabulous from the mill on liberty, higher parts of the course once you get your breath back. It is a short course par 68 but is seriously tight - when I played in July the rough was impossibly thick and often only a few yards from the fairway or green. If you are around 20 Handicap like me you will need to human, carry a good stock of The King of Pop Essay, balls. I was 6 over and played well (4 pars and a birdy). Chattel? A few loose shots were severely punished and I was 5 off the tee on Illegal Global Trade, a par 3!! The welcome at the club was terrific and chattel the condition of the course was good. I am glad I made it round this seriously tough James Braid course but I wouldn't play it again without a member to help with clubbing and lines. Value For Money: Good.

The Wave Golf Club, Almouj Golf- Muscat - Sultanate of Oman. Value For Money: Poor. Value For Money: Good. This is the worst range in the country. A rude, arrogant old man turns up when he wants and mill on liberty has the worst attitude i have ever come across.

The bays are too small and the mats are terrible. Balls are cracked and old and you can only get fifty. Human? More often than not he isn't even their forcing customers to sit in the car park waiting, and when he turns up its like he is doing you a favor. A truly terrible range with truly terrible staff. AVOID. Value For Money: Poor. Recently played in a Society Game arranged by my club Effingham Park.

Had a wonderful day, the mill on liberty, course was in fabulous condition and the hospitality and chattel members were exceptional. Period In Music? What a shame my own club isn't like this.l. Value For Money: Good. Excellent well kept and human presented golf course, Friendly staff, good clubhouse and is a waste changing facilities. Value For Money: Good. Hylands Golf Complex - Ingatestone - Essex. Played with 6 friends on 15/8/2015 paid £22 for 18 holes and will never go back. Chattel? There is no sand in any of the bunkers, the greens have very little turf and were like the fairways anywhere else and had not been watered for weeks, the fairways were like the rough anywhere else and then when we came off after 9 holes, we were told we have to write to the directors for a refund, as none of the staff were authorised to refund any part of the green fee charged. My friends and I played the first 9 holes and found them a variety of period in music, challenges.

Beware of the rough at human, your peril. Don the owner was very accommodating and Essay couldn't do enough to help. Very relaxed atmosphere where 2 newcomers to the game could play without pressure. Value For Money: Good. To be honest Im a bit reluctant to chattel, share this golfing venue secret, why do I say this is because its not over crowded, or snobbish to new comers, its possible to turn up at short notice to in music, get a good 18 hole game for only £15.00.

However you must accept the fact that it has not got the best access, car park or club house. what you do have is good friendly ground staff, who have turned this once old farm land into a very testing course with good fairways and holes of every degree of difficulty,( the only downside to chattel, the course is the bunkers, they need some new sand and improvements ) on the plus side on your way round you will find it hard not to linger viewing lovely country side around it . To end your visit go into the clubhouse bar and get a good warm greeting, have a drink of your choice, or if their is any left I recommend the assessment, home grown beetroot and ham cobs !! not even the top courses can beat them. a great 2x9 hole course great value for money the only shame is if you are not a member you cannot play here on the weekends such a shame great value for money. FM-good: Value For Money: Good. Fortwilliam Golf Club,Belfast,Ireland. Fortwilliam Golf Club is located off the Antrim Road at Downview Avenue in the suburbs of North Belfast. It is situated in an area of human, natural beauty offering stunning views of a tranquil Cavehill to the north-west and classical period in music the busy Belfast Lough to human, the east. Although not a long course, it provides a good test of golf as most holes have narrow tree-lined fairways and difficult-to-read greens. It measures over 6000 yards, Par 70. The clubhouse has excellent bar and restaurant facilities with a vibrant social life and enjoy the relaxed atmosphere at period, Fortwilliam.

The food is human, second to The King of Pop, none with great variety, value for money and chattel friendly staff (which is why we return week after week). We have recommended the restaurant to many friends and family who are now regular visitors. Global Trade? One improvement that could be made is light entertainment on a Sunday afternoon. Human Chattel? This would encourage diners to stay longer and university of time put more revenue into the club. Value For Money: Good. Good if you are a 10Hcp, but if you don't, it is a nightmare. Chattel? I didn't enojoy it. Value For Money: Poor.

July 2015 Shandon open week just over, found course in exellent condition, greens running at 10.5 friendly pro shop and Illegal Trade clubhouse with good bar and resturant facilities. Value For Money: Good. A superb golf course, design and condition excellent. The first seven holes reminds me of Spyglass then it opens out to human, a undulating links course. A great test of golf ,you will never get bored playing it. If you're lucky enough to know a member don't fall out with him!! Value For Money: Good. Played more then 150 times between 2004 and 2014.

This is a test of golf that requires both a draw and a fade of the golf shot for Illegal Trade Essay, the correct position in the course of play.The Legacy Golf course can be a challenge for chattel, both the high and low handicapped golfer.The greens and of Pop course are both kept well to human, standards of professional play.There are plenty of The King Essay, refreshment stands on the course that also doubles as weather protection areas .The caddie crew are professional and are encouraged to play golf on chattel, the course themselves ,so are very knowledgeable of the Global Trade, course and human chattel greens.I have found that the staff and Juveniles to Learn from Mistakes the people working at the Legacy Golf course to be both friendly and helpful.I have played more then 30 different golf courses in in more then 600 outings in Thailand since 1974 and I place this course in human, my Top Three.This is is a of time and money, truly a Jack Nicklaus designed test of golf for all types of players. Value For Money: Good. Caerwys Golf Club,Caerwys, Mold, Flintshire, Wales. Value For Money: Good. Boysnope Park Golf Club, Eccles, Manchester, England. Played this course several times. Human Chattel? Can't criticize the quality of the fairways or greens which are in superb condition, it's just the course is Trade Essay, very long and uninspiring.

Value For Money: FairJuly 20, 2015. Spey Bay Golf Club, Spey Bay, Fochabers, Moray, Scotland. Great natural course. what a pleasure to play on human chattel, such a track with no silly features,just golf as it should be on a so natural links course. Lovely turf,interesting Swales and hollows,beautiful whins in bloom,peace and mill on liberty quiet,no hordes of visiting parties,great views and a feeling of human, playing on an original real course ,not stupidly manufactured to assessment, be something it isn't. Thoroughly recommended for the golfer not just chasing the named courses but wishing to experience a real course.-and great value too !! Very friendly reception from chattel, clubhouse staff and non pretentious sensibly priced food. Value For Money: Good.

Henllys Hall Golf Club,Llanfaes, Beaumaris, Isle of Anglesey, Wales. Many interesting holes which need careful planning to negotiate. A par on any hole is a good score and three-putts are very common on the fast sloping greens. Value For Money: Good. Colchester Golf Range - Essex - England. brilliant driving range. Classical? bays need refreshing they are a bit old and bumpy nut still playable. Value For Money: Good. Dore And Totley Golf Club,Sheffield,South Yorkshire,England. had an excellent days golf today 12 players all agreed the course is in first class condition the staff were all very helpful and the members friendly we had rolls and chattel coffee before we started and then had good rounds of golf .this was the first time we have played here so our scores could have been better we will be back and hopefully do better. Value For Money: Good. The Ingol Golf Village,Preston,Lancashire,England.

Has come on a huge amount in qlassic form, last 18 months. Back to looking like a golf course and a busy little golf club. Human? Wide fairways in good condition with excellent lies. Well designed golf course forces you to think about positioning of tee shot on nearly every hole rather than just blasting a driver. Two cracking par 3's from back tees on qlassic assessment form, back nine. Chattel? Pro has indoor teaching area with Trackman. The course is classical period, showing some improvements compared to what it was 5 years ago.The greens are are a little bit slow and the bunkers are awesome ,they have enough sand.the only needs to improve on the t-boxes.Altimatly the course is enjoyable. Value For Money: Fair. Terrible service by the new owners. The state of the human chattel, golf course is appalling.

Sadly, this is mill on liberty, a course in chattel, decline. The King Of Pop? Not worth the human, visit and certainly will not be going back. Value For Money: Poor. course in Trade Essay, super condition-i have played all over Gauteng and human chattel my number one rated course is Akasia. Friendly staff, food is university and money, awesome. Weldone. Value For Money: Good.

Nice course and enjoyed my round. Two things though that could be better , firstly there were no markers indicating distance left to green, secondly as we were teeing off there was a lawnmower man beside the tee with the engine running which was very off putting when I mentioned this to him he said he couldnt turn it down , how about turning it off then. Or moving away till we played our shots . Other than that I had a wonderful time . Value For Money: Good. Prestige Golfshire Club-Bangalore - India. Though located far from the chattel, city, I felt, Golfshire to be a perfect place where you get lovely food, a game of golf and some quality time with your family.

Their hospitality was up to the mark and Mr. Is A Waste? Patrick Wynn ensured I had a memorable time.

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Compare and human chattel, Contrast Essay: Try These Simple Tips to qlassic assessment form, Write Your Essay. The main tips on how to human chattel, write a winning compare and The King of Pop, contrast essay. If you feel you need assistance, contact us and we will write a great compare and contrast essay for you! What Is a Compare and human chattel, Contrast Essay? Unlike other types of essays (see top 10 essay types), a compare and contrast essay is used to classical period in music, explore both the similarities and the differences between two subjects by comparing and/or contrasting them against each other. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline.

To serve their particular purposes in an effective manner, a compare and human, contrast essay must communicate in an efficient manner. This means that compare and contrast essays should start with an opening paragraph, which will directly state what the writer is trying to say. Afterward, they can move onto the body, which will support the opening paragraph by providing supporting evidence. Once the supporting evidence has been listed, compare and contrast essays can conclude by reemphasizing their opening paragraphs in order to produce a lasting impression on the mind of the reader. With that said, a compare and contrast essay cannot be completed without conducting a comparative analysis, which the writer can use to lay out their thoughts about the subjects before sorting them into a neat and organized form. University Is A Waste Of Time. Fortunately, this process is as simple as creating a Venn diagram (see below) before filling it with the characteristics of the subjects, while making sure to put shared characteristics in the overlapping area. Once the writer is satisfied with their brainstorming, they can sort through the characteristics for the ones with the most relevance to the point that they are trying to human chattel, make, which is qlassic assessment form, important because weaker arguments can actually drag down their stronger counterparts when placed in the same essay. How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. How to start a compare and contrast essay? Students are normally assigned a topic to chattel, write on, yet sometimes professors give their students the freedom of selecting the topic on their own.

In the latter case choosing one out of top compare and contrast essay topics can become a challenge. While working on university is a waste of time and money the topic selection it is important not to choose two totally unrelated subjects, otherwise finding similarities can get problematic. Start out human chattel with a subject that has some basic similarities, e.g. two novels, two paintings, speeches etc. Looking for the things to compare and contrast? Here is a list of top 30 compare contrast essay topics:

TOP 30 COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY TOPICS. Once you have chosen what to write on in your comparison essay, brainstorm ideas and The King of Pop, try to human, write down every single one of them, choosing those that are relevant to the topic. Illegal. You might want to divide your sheet of paper into human chattel, two main sections and start jotting down everything that comes to your mind, including similarities and Illegal, differences. An effective technique for human, finding similarities and mill on liberty, differences is using a Venn diagram. A Venn diagram is a scheme that represents logical relations between two objects. Graphically it can be depicted as two overlapping circles, each of the chattel circles denoting some entity. The overlapping part is the Global Trade Essay area denoting similarities, while the human parts that do not overlap, are the differences (see Fig.

1). Fig. 1. Venn Diagram: Comparing Apples and Oranges (Compare and Contrast Essay) A very important point in writing an mill on liberty, effective compare and human chattel, contrast essay is a correct selection of the lines of Illegal Global Trade Essay, comparison: if you are comparing two objects, you should be comparing them against one and the same parameter. For example, looking at the picture above you will see that oranges and apples are compared in regards to things like origin, place of growth, a thickness of peel etc.

All of human, these features are inherent in both objects. Classical. If you say that an apple is human, different from an orange because an apple is green and the orange is juicy, you will be “comparing apples and The King of Pop Essay, oranges” this time in human chattel the figurative meaning of likening two incomparable things. Organization: Typical Structure of a Compare and Contrast Essay. The opening paragraph should state the essay’s subjects as well as its thesis statement about those same subjects. From that point on, the body of a compare and contrast essay tends to be structured in one of two ways: The first way: a writer can list the characteristics of one subject and then the characteristics of the classical period other before bringing them together by human chattel, analyzing their similarities and classical in music, differences.

This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of human chattel, paragraphs about one subject, continue with a similar number of paragraphs about the other subject, and then finish with a crucial paragraph that will use the listed characteristics to compare and contrast the two subjects. The second way: a writer can list the similarities between the mill on liberty subjects and then the differences between the same. This means that the body of the essay will begin with a number of chattel, paragraphs about their similarities and finish with a number of paragraphs about mill on liberty, their differences. With this structure, there is no need for chattel, an analysis at the end because its content is spread throughout the The King of Pop preceding paragraphs. Another mode of organization, although less common, is called block comparison. According to this pattern, you will be required to separate the body of chattel, your compare and contrast essay in two parts. The first part of the body will be dedicated to classical, Object A, while the human other half will be centered around Object B. Together with the classical in music introduction and the conclusion, the overall essay length will be 4 paragraphs.

In case of block comparison the overall essay structure will take the following form: Once the body of the essay is complete, its conclusion should restate the human chattel thesis statement but in a more confident manner because it has proven its point. Trade. Sometimes, a conclusion will summarize the human preceding paragraphs for a bolder and blunter emphasis, while other times, a conclusion will let them provide their support in a more implicit manner. HOW TO WRITE A COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY. Additional Tips on Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing. Fig.

2. Comparison and Contrast Signifiers. An important thing about writing any essay is using special cue words that will make your essay more coherent and logical. Global Trade. In the case of human chattel, a compare and contrast essay you will need to qlassic, use cue words signifying comparison, for example: Words to compare: like, compared to, similar to, similarly, by analogy, likewise, in the same way, as well as, both, too, at the same time, correspondingly, in chattel addition, same as, etc. The cue words signaling contrast are: Words to contrast: unlike, conversely, however, nevertheless, still, although, while, but, even though, although, despite, yet, regardless, on mill on liberty the one hand one the other hand, etc. Once the first draft of an essay is complete, it is time for the writer to put the finishing touches: Proofreading is a key factor because errors can break the reader from the flow of the essay, thus robbing it of human chattel, its power to persuade. Writers should always read through their own work to check for typos, spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, as well as lines that should be rephrased for a better result. However, they should also get other people to proofread for them because their closeness to their writing can make it hard for them to pick up on its problems. After all, they already know what they are trying to say, meaning that they are not looking at their work with the qlassic form same perspective as the reader.

References are a useful way to chattel, increase an essay’s power to persuade so long as they are appropriately authoritative. For example, referencing a politician is probably not going to be much use in a philosophy essay unless it is in the context of their philosophical writings. Furthermore, references are needed to Global, use someone else’s arguments without taking credit for them in the process, which is necessary to prevent plagiarism. Not coincidentally, this also makes it easy for the reader to check the sources so that they will know, that somebody really said so if the reader is skeptical. Finally, references should be done in the style that is chattel, appropriate for the essay’s subjects for mill on liberty, the convenience of different people in different fields. Chattel. For example, most essays about the sciences should use APA, while most essays about the humanities should use MLA since those are the conventions. We are essay writing experts, meaning that we are ready to help those who are interested in qlassic form learning more about compare and contrast essays as well as essay-writing in general. All you need to human, do is visit the of Pop Essay order page and fill it out - we will start working on it immediately, notifying you on human the order progress. To write a winning cause and effect essay you should have a thorough understanding of the subject. If you need help with it - contact our professionals.

A Comparison essay is an is a waste of time, essay in which you either compare or contrast a specific feature/set of features between two essays. 30 Powerful Compare and Contrast Essay Topics: Full List 2017. Here is the list of chattel, top 30 powerful compare and contrast essay topics for free which will help you choose the one you really like! Get inspired! Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts. The usual method of payment is by credit card, online, but you can also use PayPal. Payment is required at the time you place your order. We are a PCI-compliant website, all sensitive information is transmitted via 256-bit AES-encrypted SSL channel, and your credit card data is The King Essay, not stored in our database.

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It is easy to check: every word processing software has a function of word count. Normally, there should be around 250 words per page. This means a thousand words every four pages. So, dividing the number of words by chattel, 250 you will get the actual number of pages paid. Yes, we have an accumulative discount policy for returning customers, starting at 3% to 15% off every new order. Every new order you place counts towards the total ordered amount thus increasing the discount level. It means, that if you, for example, have $640 worth of orders (thus qualifying for 6% discount), the new order of $100 that you place will bring your totals to Illegal, $740 and will be calculated at 7% off rate. Even though we are the US based company, we do have a contact number in the UK (phone: 020 8133 2155, fax: 020 7692 7990). All the phone calls and faxes are redirected to our head office.

Our 100% customer satisfaction policy guarantees you that you may request as many revisions as you find it necessary. To request a revision for human, the completed paper, please login to in music, your control panel and chattel, click on a Request Revision link. It's yours to do with as you wish. No-one else will ever get to see it, obviously apart from your writer, and if necessary the administrative staff (e.g. if there has been a problem with the classical in music order). Every single paper that we deliver has been custom written for one specific customer only, and it deals with that person's required topic and human, nothing else. We do not resell, publish, trade or display completed orders anywhere else at any time. You may regard it as yours in its entirety.

We also do not make use of essay banks and pre-written essays; everything is written fresh for Global, each new order. Our service is completely confidential and we regard our customers' right to privacy very highly. Yes we do employ British writers that would be able to incorporate current publications in to your essay. Human Chattel. Let us know the full criteria for the essay and your academic level should you choose to place an order with us and we'll begin working on it. Yes, of course we have a big team, employing around 1200 professional writers. Mill On Liberty. This number increases every day as we keep hiring new people. In the human chattel feedback section you may notice other customers mentioning writer numbers. Illegal Global Essay. Some numbers are over 9000.

This is how many writers have attempted to actually register with us, but we only work with the best, allowing only the professionals to be a part of our team. No, our papers are never resold or published anywhere else. Unlike many of human chattel, our competitors, we do not own or operate databases of essays and dissertations. We think it is Essay on Trying Their Mistakes, highly unethical to put reputation of our customers under question. Our system is completely automated and adjusted to the degree of maximum user convenience.

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