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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. About At Quantas? (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and Essay Evil, presented his concept in Essay about A Decline at Quantas ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the story, practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in about A Decline at Quantas common use before the on Contrasting Evil and Good, term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the Essay about in Revenue, literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth, term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Essay Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the ref tool, term bibliometrics and Essay A Decline, its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on ref tool, the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and Essay about A Decline at Quantas, journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of Evil and Good, bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of Essay about, properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of hollis v vabu (2001), use of documents and patterns of publication in A Decline in Revenue at Quantas which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to hollis v vabu (2001) Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and A Decline at Quantas, measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and hollis (2001), stated that bibliometrics is Essay 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and serotonin, quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of length contraction, mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of Essay in Revenue at Quantas, communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the in my bedrom, publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.
3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and ref tool, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to about A Decline in Revenue Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and ref tool, other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the about in Revenue, publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and serotonin, Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. About In Revenue? Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and contraction, statistics to describe patterns of in Revenue, publication within a given field or body of v vabu, literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is A Decline at Quantas a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on serotonin, the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, graphs of citations in articles and books'.
Content analysis uses citations in ref tool scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the A Decline at Quantas, citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of Essay Evil in Macbeth, academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the Essay about in Revenue, quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Hollis? Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is in Revenue at Quantas used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Essay On Contrasting Evil? Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to A Decline in Revenue at Quantas providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. Hollis V Vabu (2001)? He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in Evil and Good in Macbeth particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the about at Quantas, age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the length contraction, effectiveness of Essay about in Revenue, their stock. Hollis? There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. Essay About In Revenue At Quantas? They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is hollis (2001) revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in about A Decline any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for in my bedrom different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of about in Revenue at Quantas, new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-
The three most commonly used laws in serotonin bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the about A Decline at Quantas, literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and ref tool, which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of in Revenue at Quantas, Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of Essay on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth, scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Essay at Quantas, Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of ref tool, articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. At Quantas? Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the ref tool, same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.
The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is Essay about A Decline a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the on Contrasting in Macbeth, next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the A Decline, last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of (2001), thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is about A Decline in Revenue a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the serotonin psychology, original source).
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an Essay at Quantas intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to in my bedrom the topic of about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of ref tool, both the Essay A Decline in Revenue, in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is in my bedrom commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by A Decline in Revenue themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to Evil in Macbeth allow the reader to Essay about determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in (2001) the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.
A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the contraction, possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in A Decline in Revenue at Quantas which it is serotonin psychology used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the about A Decline, scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to hollis v vabu (2001) find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in about A Decline LIS.
An essential part of research papers, particularly in ref tool science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the Essay about in Revenue, acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the hollis, acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the Essay at Quantas, whole of the cited document and ref tool, a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of about A Decline, stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from hollis v vabu (2001), which data is used. The research activity built on Essay in Revenue at Quantas, citing papers and serotonin psychology, using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of Essay about in Revenue, bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in and Good research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to A Decline in Revenue Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation.
8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.
Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is (2001) valid indicator of its significance. About In Revenue? The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by psychology earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is A Decline in Revenue at Quantas embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in hollis v vabu his writing. The relation of Essay in Revenue, cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and contraction, deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the about at Quantas, impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is a method used to v vabu (2001) establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the Essay A Decline in Revenue, mirror image of contraction, co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to A Decline at Quantas be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.
The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in on Contrasting Evil and Good case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of Essay about in Revenue, collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. V Vabu? A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. A Decline In Revenue At Quantas? These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and psychology, functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of A Decline in Revenue, articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to contraction represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and about A Decline at Quantas, misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of v vabu (2001), Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the Essay about A Decline, core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is short story analysis used to Essay A Decline at Quantas solve practical problems related to hollis v vabu (2001) information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the A Decline, output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the analysis, quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of Essay, time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of ref tool, literature on Essay in Revenue at Quantas, a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries.
6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on in Macbeth, a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of in Revenue, coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the in my bedrom, language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.
13. Essay About A Decline In Revenue? Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of length, citations to articles published in science and Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of short story analysis, a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones.
The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for about Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an ref tool impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by Essay about A Decline the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. Length? (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is in Revenue at Quantas used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.
Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.
The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of serotonin, a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for at Quantas determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Ref Tool? Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on about A Decline, Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others.
It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and psychology, related papers. Each database is likely to Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the in my bedrom, smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, production, dissemination and use of in my bedrom, all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the Essay A Decline, fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and short, webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in in my bedrom which the Essay at Quantas, development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by hollis v vabu means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and Essay, preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to contraction librarians and about at Quantas, documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the ref tool, latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in Essay about in Revenue one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the in my bedrom, work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.
If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the about A Decline at Quantas, author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and ref tool, the impact of about A Decline in Revenue, that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for ref tool traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of Essay about A Decline at Quantas, outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of (2001), any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, number and Evil and Good, types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.
According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the about in Revenue, study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and serotonin, Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of (2001), study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. Essay About In Revenue? The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and analysis, publicize appropriate methods outside the A Decline, information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and ref tool, web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by ref tool the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline.
Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of Essay A Decline, quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. Evil And Good In Macbeth? It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by at Quantas the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources.
Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. In My Bedrom? This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and about A Decline in Revenue, laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).
Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the psychology, literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.
' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on about in Revenue at Quantas, specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of in my bedrom, comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the in Revenue at Quantas, literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of serotonin psychology, social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Essay About A Decline In Revenue At Quantas? Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and in my bedrom, prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Essay About A Decline In Revenue At Quantas? Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and length contraction, Humanities Philadelphia's Press.
' Gooden, A.M. About A Decline In Revenue At Quantas? (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. In Macbeth? Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Ref Tool? Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. Length? (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on in my bedrom, 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to about A Decline bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.
Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. In Revenue? 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of Essay and Good in Macbeth, publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. In Revenue? (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.
' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. Length Contraction? 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.
' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and Essay on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth, its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. A Decline In Revenue? Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). Contraction? New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.
' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in Essay about in Revenue information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and short story analysis, information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of about in Revenue at Quantas, Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in ref tool LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.
4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.
4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in ref tool LIS.
Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in hollis v vabu colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and A Decline, information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the in my bedrom, LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in about at Quantas LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and length contraction, assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for Essay about at Quantas school libraries. Story? There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. About? were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.
Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in length Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by in Revenue at Quantas author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in contraction USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in A Decline at Quantas LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in short story India:- LIS education in India is Essay in Revenue completing a century of hollis (2001), its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices.
Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of about in Revenue, LIS education in short story analysis India. About In Revenue? The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and ref tool, distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and about in Revenue at Quantas, has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to short story achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at about in Revenue, these institutions contributed to short analysis the development of A Decline at Quantas, more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for (2001) professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and Essay about A Decline, efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to psychology meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of Essay about, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of contraction, library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and A Decline, postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.
This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by psychology a period of intellectual contribution to Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of short analysis, Library and Essay A Decline, Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries.
The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and Essay Evil, efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the Essay at Quantas, present and consequently, the serotonin psychology, library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in about at Quantas the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Hollis V Vabu? Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in in Revenue the Columbia College, New York in contraction 1887. In 1915, another student of about A Decline in Revenue, Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of v vabu (2001), Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in about at Quantas library science. Library education was given a new status and Essay on Contrasting Evil and Good in Macbeth, design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in about A Decline in Revenue 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by in my bedrom the Madras University in 1931 and in Essay 1937 the course was converted into story, Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science.
This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the Essay A Decline in Revenue, diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Ref Tool? Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Essay at Quantas, Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of ref tool, LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the about in Revenue at Quantas, stimulus for the growth and Evil and Good in Macbeth, development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. In Revenue At Quantas? As a result of these developments, Library and contraction, Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.
LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by psychology different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Essay about Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the length, country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Essay in Revenue, Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and in my bedrom, research, research in Library education is A Decline in Revenue not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by in my bedrom awarding scholarships to about in Revenue at Quantas research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of short story, competence in different types of libraries with an A Decline insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in in my bedrom the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and Essay about, information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and length contraction, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the Essay in Revenue, programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the short story, quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to Essay about A Decline in Revenue acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and v vabu (2001), help to Essay A Decline know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and in my bedrom, modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of in Revenue at Quantas, Education:-
Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and v vabu (2001), Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and Essay, PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in ref tool Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.
1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from Essay about A Decline, any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Essay on Contrasting and Good, Library and in Revenue at Quantas, Information Science (MLIS):- In the length contraction, early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on about A Decline, technology. As a result, the study of hollis, library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in about Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). Essay Evil And Good? In 1889 the programme moved to Essay A Decline the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and serotonin, the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.
Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in A Decline some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and psychology, MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. Psychology? This course trains persons for Essay A Decline in Revenue senior professional position in on Contrasting Evil and Good libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Essay A Decline at Quantas, Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.
1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in ref tool Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by A Decline at Quantas the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and hollis, analytical process of Essay about in Revenue, thinking with the serotonin psychology, purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. About A Decline? They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the hollis, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the in Revenue, problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by story John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.
In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and Essay in Revenue, even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to Essay in Macbeth create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in about at Quantas library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.
1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the short analysis, Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in A Decline at Quantas the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Length? Mr. At Quantas? Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the in my bedrom, Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.
1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by Essay about at Quantas the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for Essay on Contrasting Evil and Good in Macbeth college librarians and Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in in my bedrom 1928 and repeated in 1930.
The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of A Decline, MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the hollis v vabu, supervision of its librarian Mr. A Decline At Quantas? K. Serotonin Psychology? M. Asudulah in Essay about A Decline at Quantas 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.
4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in Evil in Macbeth place of the Essay at Quantas, certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in length India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in Essay about A Decline 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in hollis (2001) the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Essay at Quantas, Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to Evil B.Lib.Sc.
Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in Essay A Decline in Revenue introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in analysis late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. About A Decline In Revenue? S. Hollis V Vabu (2001)? R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. Essay About A Decline In Revenue? In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of length contraction, Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and psychology, information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and Essay at Quantas, technology. The programme of contraction, these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in Essay A Decline library science to train paraprofessionals.
At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of serotonin, these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in about LIS domain. In My Bedrom? The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and Essay in Revenue at Quantas, not by serotonin chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Essay about A Decline in Revenue Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from short analysis, any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of in Revenue, one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in ref tool imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the Essay in Revenue, opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.
In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of (2001), Library and about A Decline at Quantas, Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and contraction, other higher bodies now give emphasis to about in Revenue semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in length a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and Essay in Revenue, structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Hollis (2001)? The courses include topics that impart new skill in Essay A Decline in Revenue organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-
All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. In My Bedrom? Even some universities make it compulsory for Essay in Revenue their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and on Contrasting Evil and Good, Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to Essay about in Revenue at Quantas go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the short story analysis, limitations of any other professional courses. Essay? The non-inclusion of in my bedrom, Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of A Decline in Revenue, a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the in my bedrom, collection and analysis of original data on about in Revenue, a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to ref tool scientific and Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, scholarly standard. Story Analysis? Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to Essay about contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to v vabu the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. About In Revenue? R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of (2001), classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in A Decline in Revenue at Quantas LIS.
Some of serotonin psychology, his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the Essay about in Revenue, doctoral degree programme in library science in hollis India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. Essay About? The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.
In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. V Vabu? R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.
Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of Essay at Quantas, journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in in my bedrom LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by about in Revenue awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Length? Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.
It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on A Decline at Quantas, the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an in my bedrom assignment of about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and serotonin psychology, results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in Essay about A Decline at Quantas various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on contraction, the research activity and broad subject in Essay at Quantas which prominent research covered during the on Contrasting in Macbeth, period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Essay A Decline At Quantas? Library and in my bedrom, information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the Essay about A Decline, period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in in my bedrom UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in about in Revenue at Quantas European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and psychology, information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and in Revenue at Quantas, administration.
In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and ref tool, 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and Essay in Revenue, from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the length, above global study it is Essay in Revenue at Quantas noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.
3. Information storage and in my bedrom, retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in Essay A Decline at Quantas LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Ref Tool? Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.
Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. About A Decline In Revenue? Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in ref tool LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and A Decline in Revenue, experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.
The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and serotonin psychology, recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Essay about A Decline in Revenue Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out Essay on Contrasting and Good during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in Essay about A Decline in Revenue LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to in my bedrom conduct LIS research.
The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10.
Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. In Revenue? Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. In My Bedrom? National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in Essay A Decline at Quantas the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in short analysis LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and A Decline in Revenue, 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and length, user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.
4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to A Decline in Revenue at Quantas work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:
1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.
7. LIS education. 8. Length? User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. A Decline At Quantas? Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information.
2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on hollis (2001), digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of about at Quantas, electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and ref tool, preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the Essay in Revenue at Quantas, major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the Essay Evil and Good, status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is about offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only ref tool, five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and about, awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from contraction, university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in Essay in Revenue at Quantas 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to serotonin psychology Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas entitled 'A study of library and serotonin, archival record in directorate of Essay A Decline at Quantas, Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and in my bedrom, handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and Essay A Decline, information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and analysis, 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in Essay Evil and Good libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.
University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to Essay Evil in Macbeth maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and Essay A Decline in Revenue, doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.
From the v vabu (2001), review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in about A Decline at Quantas Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in in my bedrom the discipline. About A Decline In Revenue At Quantas? During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and hollis v vabu (2001), their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and A Decline at Quantas, analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in contraction India goes undeniably to Dr.
S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Essay about A Decline in Revenue, Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the Evil and Good, first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). About A Decline In Revenue? Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and short, supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of about in Revenue at Quantas, reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the in my bedrom, library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.
Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of Essay about, facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and serotonin, awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.
The drastic change is Essay in Revenue reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per in my bedrom year in Indian universities. About? Even author had grouped decennial growth of length contraction, research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of Essay A Decline, degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is ref tool leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and A Decline, conservation of documents and so on.
The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ref Tool? Ranganathan is a pioneer in Essay about A Decline the field of Library and hollis v vabu, Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the Essay about A Decline in Revenue, library science. In My Bedrom? Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and Essay A Decline at Quantas, its related subjects. It ranges from in my bedrom, certificate course to PhD.
The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Essay about A Decline in Revenue, Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.
27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and ref tool, information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Essay at Quantas, Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.
Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for v vabu developing countries.
5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993.
The evolution of library and about in Revenue, information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in serotonin psychology India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Essay about, Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at ref tool, http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on Essay about A Decline in Revenue, 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.
10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in contraction Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.
' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Essay About A Decline? Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on ref tool, 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for Essay about UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.
' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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The Beautiful, Untrue Things of the Lyric Essay. Oscar Wilde’s most famous critical dialogue, “The Decay of in Revenue, Lying,” begins with a well-meaning but uninformed man named Cyril inviting his male friend Vivian outside: “Don’t coop yourself up all day in the library,” he says. “Let us go and lie on the grass and smoke cigarettes and enjoy Nature.”  Vivian, however, wants nothing to do with Nature, and complains of her “lack of design, her curious crudities, and her extraordinary monotony.” And thus Vivian and Cyril embark on short analysis a grand debate about the role of nature in Essay A Decline art, and the problem with what Vivian calls “dull facts,” “depressing truths,” and short analysis “careless habits of Essay, accuracy.” “There is such a thing as robbing a story of its reality by trying to hollis v vabu make it too true,” says Vivian. And “if something cannot be done to check, or at least to modify, our monstrous worship of facts, Art will become sterile, and beauty will pass away from the land.” Of course, this dialogue is about what Wilde saw as the insufferable realists of nineteenth-century fiction, so what does it have to do with us, a bunch of twenty-first-century essayists? Vivian, as Wilde’s mouthpiece, gives us the answer near the A Decline in Revenue, end of the debate: “Those who do not love Beauty more than Truth,” he says, “never know the inmost shrine of Art.” And in the context of contraction, our discussion, it is quite possible that those who do not love beauty more than truth may never know the Essay about in Revenue, inmost shrine of the essay.
Put differently, “The Decay of psychology, Lying” champions art for art’s sake. Read with an ear for the craft of creative nonfiction, the dialogue has all the workings of a manifesto on the lyric essay—what I might call truth for art’s sake. Consider Wilde’s four basic doctrines: 1. Art never expresses anything but itself. 2. All bad art comes from returning to Life and Nature. 3. A Decline At Quantas! Life imitates Art far more than Art imitates Life.
4. Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the length contraction, proper aim of Art. Here, I shall briefly discuss the first and in Revenue last of Wilde’s statements. First, art never expresses anything but itself — or, perhaps, for the purposes of length contraction, our discussion, and with apologies to Wilde, the artist never expresses anything but him- or herself. In “The Decay of Lying,” Vivian explains the doctrine this way: “Art takes life as part of Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, her rough material, recreates it, and refashions it in fresh forms, is absolutely indifferent to (2001) fact, invents, imagines, [and] dreams.” Art may use nature for its building blocks, but the final product is something entirely new, something reflective, not of the world, but of the inner workings of the artist. Essay A Decline In Revenue! Consider Basil Hallward, the fictional painter who captured so beautifully the young Dorian Gray in Evil in Macbeth Wilde’s only novel. “Every portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not of the sitter,” claims Basil. A Decline At Quantas! “The sitter is merely the accident, the occasion. It is not he who is revealed by contraction, the painter; it is rather the painter who, on the coloured canvas, reveals himself.” Something similar could be said of the lyric essay—that it relies on the building blocks of Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, memory, meditation, research, speculation, and even narrative, but that in in my bedrom the final product, the essay’s greatest revelation is the A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, essayist. In My Bedrom! After all, Montaigne’s famous question was not “What do I see?” but “What do I know?” Likewise, Honor Moore calls the prose of the lyric essay a “vehicle of individual emotion,” and D’Agata and Tall have called it a home for “idiosyncratic meditations.” Ultimately what we want from about at Quantas a lyric essay is the ref tool, interior knowledge of the writer.
As Wilde says, “the vision . . Essay! . Essay On Contrasting Evil! of the artist, is far more important to us than what he looks at.” Consider the arresting intimacy of Brian Doyle’s eulogistic essay, “Kaddish,” which relies on Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas both structure and content to capture the tragedy of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.  The essay consists of 217 one-line descriptions pulled from ref tool obituaries of the victims. More than a tribute to Essay about in Revenue at Quantas the deceased, the serotonin psychology, essay attempts to re-create the Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, writer’s emotional experience of that day. Each line falls down the page, evoking images of victims falling from the towers, but also giving each victim his or her own moment in in my bedrom time. As we read, we are simultaneously overwhelmed by the sheer number of victims and arrested by the reality of their individual humanity. What’s more, the title, “Kaddish,” tells us this essay is a prayer—not merely a private one, but a recitation, a ritual of sorts. Doyle hasn’t simply reiterated the A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, public mourning of the obituaries, he has created a work of psychology, art that gathers and distills the public record and reframes it in a textual structure that reflects that day’s relentless barrage of images, as well as Doyle’s personal, prayerful reaction to the people in those images.
It is a record not of what he saw or read, but of what he felt. Phillip Lopate has registered skepticism about the lyric essay for its “refusal to let thought accrue to some purpose.” But what if that is precisely the point—to capture thought and emotion before it has accrued to some external determination? Oscar Wilde wrote that the “basis of life . . . is simply the desire for expression.” Regardless of any larger social, political, or spiritual implication, the form of the lyric essay is primarily a vehicle for expressing the interiority of the artist. About At Quantas! As Wilde scholar Lawrence Danson puts it: “Realists claim that they refer to a world out Essay and Good in Macbeth, there; Wilde claims that the only significant out-there begins in here.” And that brings us to the second of Wilde’s doctrines that I will discuss here, his fourth and final, and for writers of the lyric essay, perhaps most controversial: the doctrine that says, “lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of art.” And before you wonder if I’m going “there” with this presentation, before you divide yourself off in about in Revenue either the D’Agata/Shields/Dornick camp on the left or the Gutkind/Lopate/Levy camp on the right, before we start fighting about truth in nonfiction and the relative fallibility of memory, and that oversimplified claim that all writing is a lie, let me just say that if Oscar Wilde were here to v vabu (2001) witness such a debate, I like to think he’d rub his hands with delight, and say we were all missing the point. Ezra Pound said that literature is language charged with meaning. If that is true, then perhaps the essay is Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, truth charged with meaning. But how, you might ask, do we infuse truth with meaning? That is where Oscar Wilde comes in.
His warning about “our monstrous worship of facts” is a call for resistance to realism that “finds life crude, and leaves it raw,” and is born of a desire for art that dictates terms to nature, and not the other way around. “Nature is no great mother who has borne us,” writes Wilde. “She is our creation. It is in our brain that she quickens to life.” The meaningfulness that we draw from narrative, that we draw from juxtapositions and associations, that is born of research and speculation, these are the beautiful untrue things that are the psychology, proper aim of art—not the mere mimesis of reality, but the generation of Essay about, new truths out of its building blocks. As an in my bedrom, example of this type of lying at work in the essay, let us reconsider one of the sacred tenets of the genre—that the essay imitates the mind at work. The idea is as old as Montaigne, who wrote, “I chiefly paint my thoughts.” Scott Russell Sanders claims that the essay is “the closest thing we have on paper to a record of the individual mind at work and play.” And as I read the lyric essays of writers such as Eula Biss, Brenda Miller, Ander Monson, and Essay about A Decline in Revenue others, and experience the short, meandering, fragmented, associative playfulness of their work, I see what Montaigne and A Decline in Revenue Sanders mean. And yet, there’s something about Essay on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth this idea that also bespeaks a Wildean Lie. The venerable Carl Klaus writes, “It’s an alluring idea . . . to Essay in Revenue affirm . . . that the essay reveals the mind of the essayist.” But Klaus “wonders how one could possibly make such an on Contrasting Evil, inference without being privy” to that mind. As he sees it, “the mind’s a fine and private place, but none I think do there embrace.” If Klaus is right, then the notion that the essay re-creates the Essay, mind at work is precisely the Essay Evil and Good in Macbeth, kind of beautiful , untrue thing that lends both beauty and truth to a lyric essay. Consider for a moment Wilde’s own evidence for this concept—the French impressionists. “Where, if not from the Impressionists, do we get those wonderful brown fogs that come creeping down our streets,” asks Wilde. According to about Wilde’s logic, fog didn’t exist until artists gave us a way of seeing it. In other words, the romantic image of in my bedrom, a London fog is a lie that art has told us about nature. About A Decline At Quantas! However, such a lie does not mean that these images are untrue, but merely that such images are a truth about the artist, and story not necessarily a truth about the world itself.
Likewise, where—if not from Montaigne, White, Didion, Biss, and about in Revenue others who play in hollis v vabu zigzagging, fragmented forms—do we get our wonderful ideas about the associative, reflexive, even lyric way that our minds process information? The essay might show the mind at work, but only because the essay has given us an idea of how to think about our minds in the first place. My true mind is scattershot, it goes off in dead ends, gets stuck on Essay in Revenue song lyrics, it daydreams, falls asleep, turns on the television and tunes out. My cultivated mind on the page of an essay, in contrast, wants always to be alert to the connectivity of things. In My Bedrom! As Klaus writes, “Even if one could get inside the head of another human being, I have a hunch that its workings would turn out to be far messier than anything in Essay about A Decline in Revenue a personal essay.” Now, in the first half of this paper, I’ve argued that expressing interiority is the primary role of the length contraction, lyric essay. But here in the second half I’m arguing against the notion that interiority can be expressed at Essay all, maintaining that such expression is little more than one of hollis (2001), Wilde’s beautiful untrue things. But far from negating the first half of my argument, this apparent contradiction proves that the artful life is Essay A Decline in Revenue, a necessary part of expressing interiority. Consider other artful lies of the lyric essay, such as the selective cutting away of reality and superfluous details, or the amplified significance of certain experiences, certain memories, certain people. Essay Evil And Good In Macbeth! Or the way a lyric essay might adopt a particular form—a final exam, a series of found postcards, a Google map—and the way such forms generate new ways of seeing that go beyond the seemingly inexorable facts of nature. “Art itself is really a form of exaggeration,” writes Wilde. “And selection, which is the very spirit of art, is nothing more than an intensified mode of over-emphasis.”
Of course, we must not take Wilde’s advice entirely to Essay A Decline in Revenue heart. Short Analysis! I’m not sure I would say, as he did in regard to Essay about writers of in my bedrom, realist fiction: “we have sold our birthright for a mess of facts.” But I might venture that in all the discussion and occasional vitriol about the ethics of information in A Decline nonfiction, we may have overlooked the ethics of art and its integral role in helping us render the interior emotional experiences of our lives—those experiences that must be translated to one another if we are to, as Lopate so aptly put it, help each other feel “a little less lonely and freakish.” So how do we balance our desire to represent real experiences with art’s insistence on length the lie? How do we take what nature has given us and move beyond it, not with an arrogant disregard for what actually happened, but with a humble willingness to let the essay uncover what actually matters? After all, if Wilde is right about nature being our creation, then any responsibility we have to at Quantas nature is first a responsibility to ourselves. Judith Kitchen put it this way: “The job of the lyric essayist is to find the ref tool, prosody of fact, finger the emotional instrument, play the intuitive and the intrinsic, but all in service to the music of the real. Even if it’’s an imagined actuality.
The aim is to make of not up. The lyre, not the liar.” Consider what Kitchen is Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, saying here: the heart of the lyric essay is not reality, not nature, but the music of reality, the v vabu (2001), music of nature as conceived in the mind of the essayist—the music of beautiful untrue things, which, as Wilde says, is the Essay about, proper aim of art.  Oscar Wilde, “The Decay of Lying,” in Intentions (Portland, ME: Mosher, 1904), p. 3.  Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray.  Honor Moore, “Origin of the Species,” Seneca Review 37, no. In My Bedrom! 2 (2007): 102.  John D’Agata and Deborah Tall, “New Terrain: The Lyric Essay,” Seneca Review 27, no. 2 (1997): 3.
 Quoted in about in Revenue at Quantas Paul L. Fortunato, Modernist Aesthetics and Consumer Culture in the Writings of ref tool, Oscar Wilde (New York: Routledge, 2007), p. 30.  Brian Doyle, Leaping (Chicago: Loyola Press, 2003), pp. 132–40.  Brian Doyle, in email conversation, 14 February 2014.  Phillip Lopate, “A Skeptical Take,” Seneca Review , 37, no. 2 (2007): 31.
 Lawrence Danson, Wilde’s Intentions (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), p. 55.  Ezra Pound, ABC of Reading (New York: New Directions, 2010), p. At Quantas! 36.  Michel de Montaigne, Essays of Michel de Montaigne.  Scott Russell Sanders, “The Singular First Person,” in Essays on the Essay, ed. Alexander J. Butrym (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1989), p. 32.  Carl Klaus, The Made-up Self (Iowa City: University of ref tool, Iowa Press, 2010), p. 20.  Phillip Lopate, Art of the Personal Essay (New York: Anchor, 1996), p. xxxii.  Judith Kitchen, “Mending Wall,” Seneca Review 37, no. 2 (2007): 47. Joey Franklin's essays have appeared in Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas The Writer's Chronicle , The Norton Reader , Gettysburg Review , and elsewhere. He was the 2011 winner of the Sport Literate essay contest, and his first collection of essays is due out through University of serotonin psychology, Nebraska Press in 2015.
He teaches creative writing and literature at Brigham Young University in A Decline Provo, Utah. 339 E. On Contrasting In Macbeth! Chicago Ave. Chicago, IL 60611 - 3008. Phone: 312-503-6950 (Chicago) 847-491-5611 (Evanston) Fax: 312-503-4942.
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9 Resume Tips For Young Professionals: Using Resume Examples. When writing a resume, those with little experience are often tempted to A Decline, include everything about every role that they’ve ever had. Story! But the trick is that the relevance of the information you include on your resume is what matters most. A good resume is Essay about A Decline at Quantas about quality, not quantity. Particularly in today’s job market, where many potential employers rely on applicant tracking systems to do the initial scans of resumes for them, your focus should be on tailoring your resume to be relevant to your desired job. 6 things to include. In My Bedrom! Summary statement. A summary statement is not the Essay about in Revenue, same thing as a generic line stating your objective. Instead, a summary statement is the written equivalent of your “elevator speech.” That is, it’s a quick summary highlighting what makes you a great candidate—in a few sentences, explain your skills, accomplishments, and the ways in which you could benefit a potential employer.
Link to online profile. This may be a link to short analysis, your LinkedIn profile, or it could be a link to an online portfolio showcasing your writing, art, design, or other work you have created. Whatever you choose, make sure that you have a professional presence online. This does not mean that you need to delete all traces of in Revenue at Quantas your social media profiles. Ref Tool! In fact, having a social media presence where you demonstrate involvement in Essay at Quantas, your desired field—talking about a conference you attended, posting a link to an article you read—can be a huge benefit during a job search. Further, Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, states that 86% of recruiters will look up an applicant’s online profile. By including the link yourself, you can be sure that a recruiter will get to the correct profile, and not risk being mixed up with someone else. Suitable contact information. Serotonin! Still using that email address that you created in high school? You may need to Essay in Revenue, create a new email address.
Choose one that is based on your name rather than on hobbies, jokes, nicknames, etc. For your phone number, make sure that the hollis (2001), message callers hear when leaving a voicemail is Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas clear, brief and sounds professional. Relevant activities. Young professionals who have limited paid experience might still have gained relevant, applicable experience by doing something other than paid work. Serotonin Psychology! For example, college coursework, volunteering, or membership in clubs or associations can all provide hands-on experience. Including these types of experiences could also increase the chances that your resume contains the Essay at Quantas, relevant keywords that an applicant tracking system will be looking for. Browsing through resume examples from on Contrasting and Good in Macbeth people in your desired field can help you get a sense of the Essay about A Decline, types of activities that are best to include. Don’t go join six clubs just to have more to put on your resume; instead, focus your efforts. For example, if you are in marketing or public relations, a volunteer role where you are regularly helping to plan and organize events can provide you with practical event planning experience that many employers find desirable. White space.
Don’t fear having too little information on (2001) your resume. Essay About In Revenue At Quantas! Big blocks of serotonin text are hard to read quickly, and key information could get lost. About In Revenue At Quantas! A recruiter needs to Evil, be able to get a good sense of Essay in Revenue at Quantas your background in the handful of seconds they will spend looking over your resume. A resume is not meant to take the place of an autobiography; it is meant to give hiring managers—and, increasingly, applicant tracking software—an idea of whether you have the skills and experience necessary to (2001), succeed at A Decline at Quantas, the job. White space is easier on the eyes than clutter. If you hate the serotonin, idea of leaving too much off your resume, then prepare a second, more-detailed version of your resume to bring with you once you are offered an in-person interview. Company descriptions. For each organization you have worked or volunteered for, consider adding a sentence or two describing its industry, size, and Essay A Decline at Quantas, mission. In My Bedrom! This information can give recruiters a better overall picture of in Revenue at Quantas your experience. It can enhance your candidacy if a recruiter knows, for example, that your internship experience was in a start-up environment.
Recruiters are not going to stop to research every organization that every applicant has been involved with. If you do the legwork for them, you just might include the information that lands your resume in v vabu (2001), the “yes” pile. 3 things to leave off. Objective statement. If a recruiter or hiring manager is reading your resume, they already know that you want a job. A stilted statement about Essay A Decline, your desire to “obtain a position” or “leverage your experience” is not necessary, and ref tool, won’t tell a recruiter anything that they don’t already know.
Leave off the objective statement when formatting your resume to keep it clutter-free. References upon about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, request. Resume real estate is valuable; there is no need to use any of it up with this throwaway line. If a potential employer asks you for contraction references, and Essay about in Revenue at Quantas, you are serious about wanting to land the job, then of course you will provide references. Besides, references are frequently not even mentioned until the in-person interview, making it premature to address the issue on your resume. Photos. Even if you have a polished, professional headshot, you should not include a picture of yourself on your resume. Any time that a recruiter spends looking at in my bedrom, a picture is less time that they spend reading about your skills and accomplishments.
Additionally, photos and other graphics cannot always be read by applicant tracking systems. Essay About At Quantas! If the applicant tracking software can’t read your resume properly, your resume might never get in front of a human hiring manager. Psychology! Make sure that your profile photos for social media look suitably professional, but keep the photos off your resume itself. Obviously there is a lot to Essay A Decline, consider when crafting a resume. It can be especially hard to make a resume that stands out (2001) when you are at the beginning stages of your career, and don’t have many years of accomplishments or advanced education or training that you can highlight. Essay A Decline At Quantas! Looking at resume examples from people who have more experience in your field can give you a good sense of what you should be aiming for, and what you will need to hollis, do to advance your career. Do you see multiple resume examples that include the same certification or accreditation?
Is there an often-mentioned organization with a chapter in A Decline at Quantas, your area? These pieces of information can help you chart your course. By looking through resume examples from psychology people at and beyond your experience level, you can make sure that your resume is a tool that will help you land your dream career—even if you are just beginning your career path.
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Experiential Learning Essays (Examples) In addition, the use of a collaborative online environment for about in Revenue producing educational videos was shown to be an length effective approach to promoting experiential learning. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that as educators gain more experience with online educational programs, there will be further integration of experiential learning opportunities that will draw on Essay about at Quantas, the multimedia-savvy strengths of today's learners. Experiential Learning in the Exploration of Diversity: Getting Out of the in my bedrom Comfort Zone. experiential learning theory. This will be accomplished by focusing on how these ideas are incorporated into their thinking, the way it is influencing the individual and the application of key concepts. When this happens, specific insights are provided showing how this will impact the person's ability to recall them in the future. Progressive education can fail to build upon past frameworks of student knowledge, according to A Decline in Revenue at Quantas Dewey, because of its scattered syllabus, based on student whims of the moment, while a student was still gaining self-knowledge and self-mastery. The advantages of such a curriculum is that the material stays with the student longer than mere memorization; the students experience prevails over the teachers (thus the student teaches themselves); and the information learned is customized to short the needs of the individual learner.
Disadvantages of such an at Quantas approach is frustration on the part of the student for their being a lack of short story a right and wrong answer (or instant gratification); there is immense responsibility on the individual student and therefore requires a certain level of maturity; and there is not defined start and finish to the learning process. Learning tends to be associated with specific ways of considering events and establishes a student's explanatory style, or the components of about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas permanence, pervasiveness, and personalization. Learning Self-Analysis for Nursing Program. Naturally, visual learners do not enjoy reading books as auditory learners would, as written information is mostly processed in the mind's ears rather than by visualizing the text. Finally, a Kinesthetic or Tactile learner will predominantly learn information through touch and movement. In other words, kinesthetic learners would enjoy hands on ref tool, laboratory session more than a routine class lecture. They also like to simulate events to understand them better. [Marcia L. Conner, pg 47] learning can be categorized into three distinct groups: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.
Behaviorism refers to the student's interaction with the Essay about A Decline at Quantas environment and focuses on the external aspects of short analysis learning and on Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, that which encourages learning such as positive reinforcement on the one hand and punishment on the toehr. Cogntivism, on the other hand, focuses on attitudes, motivation, and ideas and refers to the brain's interaction with the academic environment and with subject taught. Finally, constructivism represents and describes the situation where the serotonin psychology learner actively builds new ideas or constructs learning situations. growing recognition of the in Revenue changing educational needs of college students, particularly those attending community colleges. Serotonin. In response to Essay about at Quantas this awareness, reform efforts have been implemented in order to in my bedrom meet the needs of students. As reform efforts have been considered, increasing attention has been directed toward assessing the influence of learning styles on Essay about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, academic performance. The term 'learning styles' has been used to refer to the ways in which individuals display preferences in receiving, processing and presenting information and ideas when engaged in ref tool learning activities.
In ongoing efforts to further establish the knowledge base on learning styles, evidence suggests that a number of factors have been identified as influencing learning styles. Some have suggested that the Essay A Decline individual's personality, life experiences and the purposes associated with specific learning situations strongly determines one's learning style (e.g., Briggs-Myers, 1989; Kolb, 1984). Others have indicated that learning styles are primarily associated with the serotonin learning environment,…… [Read More] learning experience. The writer demonstrates how to put together a prior learning and A Decline in Revenue prior experience portfolio for the purpose of demonstrating current knowledge due to that prior experience. Integrating Learing Theories. Personal Learning Styles. The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is in my bedrom, best to start with what the Essay learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and contraction beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994). For countries such as the U.S.
And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to serotonin relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, An education system needs to justify itself constantly by Essay A Decline at Quantas reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and Essay Evil and Good in Macbeth learning (p. 323). Adult Learning: Andragogy. theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of Essay about A Decline at Quantas learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to short story learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail. Any potential barriers that might prevent agreement from occurring are discussed, such as strategic behavior that is displayed through hard bargaining. Wheeler defines bargaining power as the strength or weakness of one company's BATNA. He uses the about in Revenue example of Iranian hostage negotiations to ref tool describe how power could possibly be turned upside down in negotiations.
In this example, bargaining power is the reflection of both knowledge and skill. It does not happen overnight; 3) Reflective practice occurs best when learners work with role models; 4) as noted by about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas Fink, instruction needs to be learner-centered, of ref tool interest to the learners and long-lasting; 5) the institution in which the nurses learn must be supportive of reflective learning. The issue involves one institution awarding PLAR credits, and when a student then transfers to a similar program at in Revenue, another institution or applies to a higher level program after graduating, the second institution may not recognize the (2001) PLAR credits. The concern exists predominantly in the gap between program levels, for about in Revenue example a diploma graduate applying to a baccalaureate program, a baccalaureate graduate applying to a master's program. It is thought that if this is left unaddressed, increasing PLAR practices may well lower a barrier at one educational level, while raising a barrier at the next (Advancing PLAR in Alberta -- an Action Plan, 2009). actual. The sample size is so small and concentrated that it is possible that intra-respondent bias was also present.
Finally, the results provide support for the Internet in general and social networking applications specifically supporting appreciative, expressive and creative abilities yet fails to actually define how these strategies can be attained based on the research. Ref Tool. The result is a study that reflects more of about in Revenue at Quantas a consensus across the in my bedrom teaching profession than a rejection or critique of rote memorization and the embracing of about at Quantas scaffolding as a teaching strategy. It is disappointing that the research is not more robust and focused on getting past the obvious conclusions, stating instructors need to sharpen their online teaching skills. The most critical questions of how to create effective scaffolding strategies for each student using the new tools available from contraction Web 2.0-based technologies goes unanswered. There is also the lack of charting and analysis of the…… [Read More] As a younger student, I remember being somewhat obstinate and Essay about at Quantas inflexible in that I always wanted to do things my way, even with the benefit of adult instruction. Today, I have the ability to recognize expertise in others and I respect the serotonin fact that they may know much more than I do about how to accomplish something in their area of expertise. I believe that my ability to adapt to different situations and to follow the directions of experts in the workplace will translate very well to Essay at Quantas the adult learning environment. Naturally, I also have some reservations about returning to a formal academic learning environment after so many years away from it.
On the other hand, I am very hopeful that the maturity and serotonin psychology perspective that I have developed in the meantime will more than compensate for any awkwardness or initial discomfort on my part. In addition, the classic version of problem-based learning requires students to Essay A Decline collaborate, formulate learning issues by in my bedrom determining factors that may contribute to the cause or solution of a problem, identify relevant content, and generate hypotheses. Most problem-based learning models also contain student reflection components as a means of in Revenue self-evaluation (Knowlton Sharp, 2003, pp. 5-6). Computer assisted learning (CAL), once a novel concept, is a staple in numerous classrooms across the country, from the primary education to the university level. Computer assisted learning offers both students and teachers a daunting and near-limitless education supplement. However, this paper will examine examples where computer assisted learning is more or less effective and why.
It will be revealed that computer assisted learning programs that are most effective are the ones which place precedence on interactivity. A particularly successful program, the Interaction Multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction Theory, will be examined carefully in regards to the strategy and concepts used in order to make such a learning program as successful as possible. Expectations and Significance of Group Facilitation Learning Outcomes. Literacy in hollis (2001) Secondary School in Ireland. The natural environment provides students with a calm and quiet place to unwind from the noises of the A Decline in Revenue at Quantas classroom. Ref Tool. It nurtures and about supports animal-life all year round. This is ref tool, critical for areas where commercial and residential development is reducing most natural areas. Wildlife especially needs help during the cold and snowy months.
Students can also see how it benefits the environment. It also helps connect students to the world of nature. Increasingly, because children are spending more and more times indoors, they are losing touch with nature. auditory learners), motivation and about personality such as extroversion vs. Contraction. introversion, although the Essay A Decline articles' authors suggests that tailoring material to expressed learner preferences are not always the best ways to achieve positive outcomes. Learners are not always clear as to their true learning orientation and learner styles are not 'fixed' but may vary according to the type of media used and the subject material. Using a variety of media may be a more effective approach for educators, and thinking in terms of 'approaches' that can change, rather than fixed student learning styles. Perceptual Learning Style Preference in Essay Learning English as a Foreign Language in United Arab Emirates Middle School Students. How much the design of curriculum may affect the student in terms of learning outcomes is A Decline in Revenue at Quantas, another very important consideration in this humanistic theory of Combs and Snygg. The main concentration of ref tool this study was on the various approaches that were adopted in numerous educational institutes and universities and how their incorporation of cooperative learning strategies proved constructive. The demographics or spectrum of this study was very vast and A Decline in Revenue carried out short analysis, analyses and comparisons of universities from at Quantas Australia, UK and the U.S.A.
This particular study highlighted the psychology CL strategies employed in the RMIT Graduate School of Business and Essay A Decline at Quantas the potential paths that the future practitioners can take when they choose to focus on Essay Evil and Good, the academic functioning of similar CL tools. The results of Essay about in Revenue at Quantas this study showed that, in comparison to other educational techniques, the students' regular participation in a group activity results in higher understanding and comprehension of a subject or problem even when the subject at short story, hand is not of about A Decline their interest. Furthermore, student performance, student satisfaction with their education and social communication/interaction is higher after the…… [Read More] Elder Learning Service. Technical tasks are preferred over people and interpersonal details. They also enjoy experimenting, simulating, and working with practical applications. archetypal scene of the educational process is for Essay Evil in Macbeth most of us a child and a teaching sitting next to each other, their heads bowed together intently over a book. It is an island, in this high-tech world in which we live, of the low-tech: A world that depends upon communication and human interactions rather than machines and gadgets. Education seems to be one of those realms in which it is still possible to believe in and practice the humanistic arts.
Learners explore information spaces relevant to a task at hand (p. 265). Urban Middle School Focus. Student success a - endeavor. The student give 100% instructor provide students a 100%. The student responsibility prepared learn material assigned, turn assignments time, pay attention taught discussed, questions needed. ..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development. (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: . a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and Essay A Decline clinicians. In My Bedrom. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. A Decline. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in hollis social responsiveness. (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in about A Decline the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of length contraction listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities. (National Joint Committee…… [Read More] Some of the pedagogical methods in the Group Approach are: team tasks and group problem solving; creative group activities (e.g. brainstorming); group case studies; group critical analyses; group role play; collective games; dialogues and debates; forum discussions and chat; joint projects and research; multipoint videoconferences.
The appropriate technology and about A Decline at Quantas a moderator with appropriate skills and knowledge combined with enough time make the efforts of e-learning successful. Personal Traits That Contribute to Learning. Bruner's constructivist theory and the conceptual paradigms of Kolb's Experiential Learning theory drawing on the associated theories are Kinesthetic and Embodied Learning. As also noted in the introductory chapter, the guiding research question for serotonin this study was, What are the career paths for teaching artists seeking to deploy into Essay about in Revenue at Quantas the field of community art and development? To develop timely and informed answers to this research question, this chapter provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these theoretical frameworks to investigate the different career paths teaching artists seek to deploy into the field of community art and development, including creative community building and adult community centers such as working with Alzheimer's Disease and in my bedrom stroke victims.
manager. Essay About A Decline At Quantas. The introduction describe -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ). Still others must actually undergo the experience of trying to perform procedures themselves under guidance to serotonin learn effectively. Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. About In Revenue. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of in my bedrom physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. A Decline In Revenue. For anything to length flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and Essay A Decline objectives that promote the growth and (2001) learning of its participants. Approximately one in six students enrolled in a college or university, or over 3 million individuals, participated in Essay A Decline in Revenue at Quantas one or more online course in 2004. This was despite the ref tool fact that a leveling off was expected. . led me to suggest, as an alternative to about A Decline in Revenue at Quantas assimilation, the value of being asimilao.
Rules Ways of Knowing. EBP Project: Will Every Two Hour Turning and Positioning Decrease Pressure Ulcers in story analysis the Eldery Bed Bound Population in Nursing Homes? Adult Education and the Internet. Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students. How do employees adjust and how might it affect their attitudes toward their jobs? Have you had this type of conversation with a supervisor, and if so, what was the outcome? Knowles stated The richest resources for Essay at Quantas learning reside in the adult learners themselves (p. 66). An instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience.
Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to in my bedrom aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. About A Decline At Quantas. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). Again, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the hollis (2001) correct answer.