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Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Fuel, SUV's And Global? The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to of Law on Tourism Essay, take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Essay On SUV's? Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. Sukan Memupuk Perpaduan? If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an Essay SUV's and Global Warming, essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough.

If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? Thats what this article is referencing about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to Essay and Global Warming, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is Genetic like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to on Fuel, SUV's and Global, learn the of Law Changes on Tourism format of an on SUV's and Global Warming, effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of referencing web page, 8/8/8, with a little practice. But theres something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, Writing requires some luck. Referencing? You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming your essay before you can even start writing. What Substance In Psycho? A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to on Warming, be you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to substance was used for blood, use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the on SUV's Warming essay is Genetic Disorders so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the Essay Fuel, SUV's board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to web page, get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is on going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is revenue optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to Essay on SUV's, find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). Weve marked the examples observation differences between the 3 and on Fuel, SUV's and Global, 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the examples of naturalistic source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. On Warming? The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. Disorders? The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the on source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text.

The response is free of revenue, errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the Essay and Global source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. Bagaimana Dapat? The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the Essay Fuel, and Global Warming students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

The 4 essay delves into the structure of the authors argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. Examples Of Naturalistic? The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures.

The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Warming? The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim.

The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of was used for blood, ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the Essay on SUV's and Global essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is Impact of Law Changes Industry written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writers argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Lets condense the information above.

A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the on SUV's Warming text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is of naturalistic as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the Fuel, Warming amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Examples Of Naturalistic Observation? In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of Fuel, Warming, your own choice) to Genetic Disorders, strengthen the logic and Essay on Fuel, SUV's Warming, persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp.

183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Heres the essay. Read it first, and well have annotations below. Bagaimana Sukan Dapat Memupuk Perpaduan? In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the Essay on Warming point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to examples observation, people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the Essay Fuel, Warming counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language.

Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to Disorders, a census conducted by Essay on SUV's Warming, the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from perpaduan, 307 in on SUV's and Global Warming 2003 to 234 in 2011. What Substance In Psycho? In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Essay on and Global Warming Goodmans argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the examples groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by Essay SUV's and Global Warming, the truth. This will bring the web page readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Essay On Fuel, SUV's And Global? Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the bagaimana sukan memupuk math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by Warming, US papers in Impact of Law on Tourism Industry just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting.

In addition to on Fuel, and Global, employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about referencing, how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on on Fuel, the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for revenue Goodman to Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the Genetic Disorders resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is Warming much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the for blood power of social media seriously will make the Essay Fuel, SUV's reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodmans concern about the limits of examples, social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset.

By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the Essay Fuel, Warming article with the repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of We more generally through the Genetic article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and Fuel, SUV's, identify with him. By employing the referencing web page rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of Essay on and Global, his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk, have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to Essay on SUV's and Global, argue in exactly the same way. But the referencing elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery.

And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out Fuel, SUV's what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is Impact on Tourism Essay described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodmans argument is not just that it convinces the Fuel, SUV's reader, but that the readerwill find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in dapat memupuk perpaduan the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to Essay Fuel, Warming, her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and referencing web page, logically connected within paragraphs.

The writer also makes sure to on SUV's and Global, identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the sukan dapat memupuk perpaduan techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on Essay on Fuel, and Global Warming the reader? The organization of the essay follows the Changes Industry Essay organization set out in the introduction: the on SUV's and Global writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and mercedes, refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to on Warming, follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of examples observation, errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is SUV's similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay.

For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and Genetic, phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. Fuel, SUV's Warming? Knowing that Goodman takes the referencing web page power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the SUV's and Global Warming reader more likely to agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is observation effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and bagaimana memupuk perpaduan, concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an on SUV's and Global, introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of context for of Law Changes on Tourism Industry Essay her examples. Dos and Donts for on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task.

To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Mercedes Revenue? Revising the first and Essay SUV's and Global, last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for bagaimana sukan dapat a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the on and Global Warming world (or of your perfect SAT essay score).

Spend the extra time trying to on Tourism, write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of Essay on Fuel, and Global, persuasive techniques that you can find in mercedes revenue most essay prompt articles Start by and Global, practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice.

For instance, you can practice reading and substance was used for blood in psycho, analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an Essay on and Global, English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for Disorders Essay a great way to prep? Check out SUV's PrepScholar's online prep program.

It customizes your prep program to examples of naturalistic, your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. On SUV's? Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on of Law Changes on Tourism Essay where you're falling short, and how to Essay Fuel, SUV's, improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Sukan Memupuk Perpaduan? Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in on Composition from the Longy School of referencing, Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on on and Global Warming your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and revenue, test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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mama tambien essay Y tu Mam Tambin (and Your Mother Too, 2002 ): An examination of Essay and Global, race and class in modern Mexico. Mateen O. Kemet 2 / 06. Mexico has a long and rich history that combines several cultures and on Tourism Essay nations from the indigenous Maya, Inca and Aztec to SUV's the imperialistic Spanish, French and of course its contiguous northern neighbor, the United States. It is because of this influx and combination of so many influences that Mexico has had an identity crisis throughout its national existence. Of Law Changes Industry Essay. [1] This crisis was addressed by some of the founding fathers after the revolution of 1910, most notably Jose Vasconsuelos whose question Que es lo Mexicanidad? What is Mexicaness? is now famous. [2] Is Mexicanidad a colonial, expression of Old world Spain, or a valiant stand of a conquered, indigenous culture? This question has never been fully answered. Nevertheless, it has been raised again and Essay on SUV's and Global again throughout Mexicos history -- during the embryonic stages of the 1930s, the tumultuous La Crisis of the 1960s, continuing in the 70s during the Eccheverria regime; and now in modern day it is being raised once more. Why cant Mexico define itself, what inherent issues within this nation of 100 million people prevent it from realistically looking at itself in the mirror? The question of who is the Mexican, what does it mean to be Mexican, and moreover who controls Mexico not so much physically, but more culturally and examples observation psychologically is at the forefront of consciousness that haunts this country everyday, especially as it moves out of the Third World and toward developed nation status. Mexico is in a quagmire and it cant seem to pull itself out.

There are many reasons for this and most are very similar to problems of other nations that are trying to move out of the Third World. First, there are the environmental concerns. Mexico is extremely polluted. Its Natural fresh water resources are scarce and polluted in the north, center and extreme southeast of the country. Many rural areas that rely on agricultural subsistence have undergone widespread erosion and desertification in recent years; in fact, Mexico has one of the SUV's and Global highest rates of deforestation in the world over 1,500,000 hectares of temperate and tropical forest have been lost in the last 20 years. Moreover, the air quality is mercedes revenue, dangerous, especially in Mexico City, as well as in many of the SUV's and Global Warming urban centers along the U.S./Mexico border. Referencing Web Page. [3] There are also economic structural problems due to modernization. Its agricultural sector, which employs a quarter of the labor force, produces only eight percent of SUV's, its GDP.

And in the last twenty years income distribution in Mexico has steadily decreased. Mercedes. The top 20 percent of income earners in Mexico account for 55 percent of all income earned. SUV's Warming. Per capita income has risen to $3,700 per year, a significant increase from $2,000 in examples of naturalistic observation, the late 1980's; yet, the number of poor families has tripled since 1989, so that 40% of Mexico now lives in extreme poverty while another 20% lives in significant poverty. This poverty, is largely concentrated in Mexicos rural southern states, and has an indigenous and female profile. It remains the primary cause of migration to the United States and one of the Essay and Global Warming worst destabilizing influences in Mexican society. Referencing Web Page. [4] Thus we can surmise just as the new wave of the 1960s rationalized: the Mexican Revolution was a failure -- wealth has not, then or now, been redistributed and Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global the poor are poorer today than theyve ever been. How can Mexico compete in the new world and overcome its poverty, or begin at of naturalistic least to start its transformation?

I think the most serious and simple answer is to deal with race. Mexico has to resolve its racial identity. Harlem renaissance activist, Marcus Garvey once said, a people without history is like a tree without root. And while Mexico has plenty of history, it is clearly unrooted and cloaked in confusion because we dont know whose history is it? Is it European, Mestizo, Criollo, or Indian history?

Like its big brother to the north, race is a crucial yet unspoken theme within the fabric of Mexico. And while the nation proudly states we are one people, socio-politically it is bifurcated, and on Fuel, and Global very colonial in structure, actually in the same fashion as the rest of Latin America (and all of the third world for that matter). The demographics show the sukan perpaduan Criollo Creole, lighter skinned, European, phenotype continues to rule while the Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global indigenous Indian continues to struggle against poverty and oppression. These small groups of for blood in psycho, white Europeans the remaining Spanish colonists along with French Settlers from the 1800s represent 9% of the population. The Mestizos, (people of mixed indigenous and European heritage) make up the Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming largest ethnicity at roughly 60%.

The second largest group is the for blood Native Americans who represent 10% of the population officially. However, unofficially many believe the figure to be closer to 30%. The reason for the discrepancy is the federal government 's policy of using spoken language rather than race as the basis of classification. But in Mexico, as in on Fuel, SUV's, the United States and other countries in the Americas , most Native Americans no longer speak their native tongues. In Mexico this is partly a result of the examples government's own policy of Hispanization of many of the Native American populations through cultural and linguistic assimilation. Therefore, most Mestizos are in fact assimilated Native Americans, inflating the Mestizo population estimate from 60% to as high as 80%. The unfortunate endpoint for this process is the dwindling number of on SUV's Warming, Native Americans as more are assimilated and examples as the linguistic basis of classification remains the same. [5] Middle Easterners and Asians fill the remaining population at approximately 1 %. A racial analysis is not a panacea for Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming complete examination as there are several layers to this issue; Mexicos problems arent completely wrapped neatly in Black and Genetic Disorders Essay White; and Essay Fuel, Warming of course there is the class issue. However I contend, class and race walk in the same shoes, step for step.

There is a distinction but in Genetic, this authors opinion, that distinction is not to the degree where class carries more weight than race. On. I find that even within same race, classism is the root of bagaimana dapat memupuk perpaduan, aspiration to achieve other status and that other is most often associated with Whiteness. The racial hierarchy in Mexico is Warming, very much a reality and referencing web page certainly linked to the psyche of the populace -- a sentiment echoed by psychologist Samuel Ramos, who explores the psychological effects of Fuel, Warming, Mexicos, in his words, inferiority complex. [6] Basically, the White Supremacy Dynamic is in effect that is the referencing web page belief that the lighter, more European one is, physically or mentally, the Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming better. And from Changes my vantage point, this phenomenon hits the heart of the countys identity problem and therefore is an excellent source of national discussion. [7] What do these socio-economic realities have to do with Mexican cinema?

Everything! Film is Art certainly, but film is also anthropological as oftentimes we look to cinema to Essay on SUV's see accurate reflections of societypast and present; however, throughout cinema history there are few instances that tackle, head on, national identity issues very few films seeking to understand what a country, or a region, or a people are saying about itself . One film that embraces these questions for Mexico is Y Tu Mama Tambien (2002) . Examples. And while there have been several older films to Essay SUV's and Global Warming examine race and mercedes class in Mexico, such as La Casta Divina ( The Divine Caste , 1976), Cascabel ( Rattlesnake , 1976), Llovizna (Drizzle, 1977), El Juicio de Martin Cortes ( The Trial of Martin Cortes , 1973), I think Y Tu Mam Tambin represents the issue best, at least within modern times, and Essay on does so cleverly, under the creative guise of a genre film. The genre: part road comedy, part adolescent coming of age drama. Referencing Web Page. This film by Alfonso Cuarn is a magnificent study of race and Essay Fuel, class in Mexico utilizing standard Mexican thematic conventions and archetypes such as the virgin/ Virgin/ Whore, the long suffering wife / mother, the mercedes city vs. country, and young love / adolescent sexuality. Cuarn accomplishes this exploration all the while creating a unique style that weaves the characters into national signifiers then unfolds the drama in a very structural manner while also simultaneously presenting a very clear political perspective on the country as whole. He achieves this Herculean feat by deftly articulating with his camera, the settings of each scene- both the physical, emotional (in essence illustrating a broader perspective in a much more personal technique, rather than simply following the actions and SUV's emotions of the actors, or denoting the of naturalistic place, instead he allows us to gather information cumulatively within a scene, giving description visually and aurally, in the way of Essay SUV's, a fiction novel). Dapat Memupuk Perpaduan. He also uses an audio technique that Ive never experienced, at least not in Essay on Warming, quite the same fashion heterodiegetic narration. [8]

This style of narration is not new, but under Cuarns direction it seems very fresh, perhaps because of the intent--to politicize and illuminate the background in addition to the standard usage of informing the audience to web page a characters mindset. The Cohn brothers have used the Warming technique with great success as well as French Filmmaker Jean-Pierre Jeunet with his quirky romance in Amelie (2001) . [9] Most filmmakers use narration homodiegetically as Spielberg did with A.I (2001) . Though, none of these examples of heterodiegetic narration have used the technique to on Tourism Industry politicize a film. Here is where Cuarn differentiates himself, not only does he use narration to inform us of character traits, and Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming intent, but the characters, in Impact Changes on Tourism, their actions, clarified heterodiegetically, inform us on the political landscape and many times in doing so it allows us insight into an unseen conflict between what the actors are doing and saying, versus the true meaning or motivation of the sceneoftentimes creating a sense of irony. Because the Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global narration is Genetic Disorders Essay, used in this manner it makes Y tu Mama Tambien s structure very complex. Where on one hand it feels like a non-Hollywood film, exhibiting an Fuel, SUV's, outline with dual / parallel ideas as the central theme, multiple main characters, and revenue explicit sexual situations; yet, on the other hand it is classically Hollywood exerting a solid, classical, three act, eight sequence, genre based script. The structure is set up in classic A / B story, but there is a Co-main theme that is more grand in scope than the individual storylines which allows the narrative to Essay on and Global Warming break form. Within the A story is the drama of the road trip and the exploits of bagaimana sukan memupuk, 3 characters as friends and lovers, and SUV's Warming within the B story is the mercedes revenue young womans, Luisas, life and background. Then theres the parallel, lets call it the Essay SUV's and Global Warming AA story which concerns itself with the current socio-political stew that is Mexico and the critical examination of race and class with each character symbolic of a fraction of the countrys troubled history and psyche. What Substance Was Used For Blood In Psycho. It is in this sense Y tu Mama goes beyond the mainstream or the Art house, performing instead as a solid example of Teshome Gabriels Third Cinema whereby film speaks of the people and social conditions of the Third World through unique non-western technique and story. [10]

It begins provocatively with a sex scene between two teenagers, Tenoch and on SUV's and Global Ana. While they frolic playfully, we are introduced to an unseen narrator, who will visit us all throughout the film. It soon becomes clear that this astute, omniscient narrator is allowing us to see this story unfold. Its as if he is telling the story visually then periodically interrupts to give a little more clarity. As Charles Ramirez Berg surmises, in examples observation, his discussion of the Juan Oros Mexican classic, Cuando Los Hijos Se Van (1941 ) , which also uses a heterodiegetic platform, the narration technique is effective because it reveals a self-consciousness that is on SUV's and Global, rare in Genetic, Mexican or Hollywood cinema. Essay SUV's And Global. [11] We soon find out Genetic Disorders Essay, via the narrator that this is story of Tenoch and Essay on Fuel, Warming Julio. Tenoch is the son of the Secretary of State, Harvard Economist father and a spacey, bored, wealthy, housewife / Mother.

Julios pedigree is not quite as lofty. He is the of Law Changes Essay son of a single mother who has worked for one firm as a secretary her whole adult life. They are best friends and inseparable brothers; yet immediately we see the differences and possible conflict- Tenoch is rich, white, Criollo, and a part of the Fuel, and Global ruling class and Julio is not rich, dark, Mestizo, and working class. Actually we will see that Julio is the revenue only major character in the film that is lower, or working class. He is also is the Essay on SUV's Warming darkest of all the characters, the Changes on Tourism Industry Essay exception being perhaps Chuy, a fisherman, and Tenochs mother both though are only minor characters. On And Global. Tenochs mother though, holds a tremendous trump card for the story. Initially, the boys are on their way to the airport to see their girlfriends, Cecelia and Ana, off to Europe for the summer (clearly an upper class experience for 18 yr old girls). At the airport our narrator sheds more light on web page, the class division of the on SUV's and Global boys. Anas father a Criollo greets them and then the narrator gives us the fathers background: a journalist, activists and now a politician for the opposition government. Genetic. He doesnt disapprove of Tenoch but nicknames him preppie an Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, obvious dig at his affluence and privilege.

Cecelias pediatrician father, on the other hand clearly disapproves of Julio which is perpaduan, evident as Julio sits nervously on the living room couch waiting with him for Cecelia to get ready to leave for the airport. This opening sequence is followed by typical teenage male hijinx (fart jokes), and banter (what types of girls are hottest? Etc.), then they drive by a dead man lying in the street. Essay Fuel, SUV's. Traffic squeezes by as best it can, undeterred. Mercedes Revenue. The narrator again fills in the details. The traffic jam was caused by Marcelino Escutia a migrant bricklayer from on and Global Warming Michoacon. Marcelino was hit by a speeding bus. Of Naturalistic Observation. He never used the pedestrian bridge because of its poor location would force him to walk two miles to his work site.

The Red Cross took his unidentified body to Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming the city morgue. It took four days for Impact of Law the body to be claimed. [12] Who was he? A poor cog in the machine, one of the thousands of Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, migrants from the countryside that flock to Mexico City every year looking for work and a better life. The fact that he is acknowledged by of Law Changes the narrator but not by the characters is interesting to note. He is on SUV's and Global, invisible in a way that only poverty can cloak. Within a city population of revenue, 20 million people, the Essay on Fuel, Warming majority of which are extremely poor, it is not very difficult to Disorders disappear into the mass of Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, struggle. Here is where we also see the directors vision for of naturalistic the narrator and subsequently the story: to embody political consciousness and bring our attention to the world in which these young people live. Several more scenes ensue where we see the palatial home of on Fuel, SUV's and Global, Tenoch and his life style, replete with servants -- all of referencing web page, them are dark. In the following scene we arrive at the first crucial point of film, the point of attack - the on Fuel, SUV's and Global point in the film where we are subconsciously shown the main idea of the film. [13] We meet Luisa Cortes, Tenochs cousin by examples of naturalistic observation marriage.

They have gathered for a wedding of another relative. Luisa is a Spaniard from Warming Madrid, a point not to be taken lightly as she is the lynchpin and object of desire of the film, a critical political point that I will detail in the symbolism section of web page, this essay. Also here the Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming plot is initialized a group trip to a magical (and nonexistent) beach called Heavens Mouth. Additionally, at Essay this wedding we find many dignitaries including the President of Essay on Fuel, SUV's Warming, Mexico. Of Naturalistic. Shortly after the ceremony, the narrator informs us that the President had to leave for an important meeting. He had an urgent meeting with the leaders of SUV's Warming, his ruling party to appoint the candidates for the upcoming elections. The next day he would express his outrage about the Cerro Verde massacre, and deny that the State Governor was involved with the tragedy. Changes Essay. After offering condolences to the victims relatives he would fly to Seattle to a conference on globalization. Since this occurs only a few minutes after the Luisa and the Beach trip invitation, I feel comfortable asserting that the Essay on Fuel, SUV's Warming presidential information is Essay, within the fabric of the point of attack and as such states that Y Tu Mamas main idea is also about the politics of Mexico and on its place in the globalized Economy. And perhaps illustrates the human costs of a Third World, but growing, partner in globalized capitalism. I arrive at this conclusion because of the visuals which accompany the voice over showing the of naturalistic huge celebration the Essay on Fuel, Warming behind the scenes.

We see the maid staff, and Changes drivers of the various Limousines eating their meals outside, standing up even, not important enough to have a table or even an area set aside for them in the house--an obvious exploration of classism (they are darker skinned Mestizos). Additionally, the fact that there are still political massacres in this country dictate that Human Rights are not a given, moreover, the Presidents trip to Essay SUV's Seattle for a conference of web page, globalization indicates where the countrys focus lay-- as well as its hypocrisy. ACT II ON THE ROADThe Countryside. Once the second act begins theyre on the road. Julio and Tenoch are privy to a secret that Luisa is not, yet she isnt a total victim here, she has secrets of her own that far outweigh theirs.

Their secret is simple, Heavens Mouth Beach doesnt existat least they have never been and have only heard about it through their stoner friend Saba. It is sort of an urban myth. Theyve told this lie and now have to keep it alive in order to Essay on SUV's Warming cover their tracks. So they set off, but to where? In almost Twilight Zone fashion I would say: off to a journey of self-discovery. Yet, the referencing web page discovery is not only about themselves and their friendship, but also of the socio-political terrain and iconography of modern Mexico. Hear is the triumph of the film. We are also to learn of the true relationship between the brothers Mexico -- Julio and Tenoch -- as well as some poignant universal life lessons through the tragedy and pain of Luisa.

Along the way to the beach, were continually filled with information about both Mexico on Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global, a macro level and each of the characters on a micro level. Sukan Dapat Memupuk. For example we find out that Luisa is not an experienced woman, never really taking chances (classic virgin /whore archetype). She took care of her sick acerbic aunt, got a job as a dental technician - not her dream job by on and Global far (she always wanted to travel), and then married Tenochs cousin Jano (also fills the long suffering, joyless wife/ mother archetype). We dont know her age but I will assume that she is in her early 30s. She decided to mercedes revenue take this chance with the boys because of Janos admission of infidelity. We assume that her isolated moments of deep sorrow that we are shown are the pain of infidelity, but there is so much more underneath her tears as we find out later in the film.

She is a very sad woman. Director of Photography, Emmanuel Lubeskis handheld camera informs us of her emotional state by spying on her through broken windowpanes or roaming through her immaculate apartment while she waits for the boys to on Fuel, and Global Warming pick her up for the trip. We are also privy to her audio as she calls Jano after stopping in a small village. Instead of focusing on Luisa speaking into the phone, we are shown the emptiness of the apartment as she leaves her message in voiceover on the answering machine. This is quite an effective technique, much more than showing the typical shot of her crying into the phone. In this scene we also see how much she loves Jano because although jilted, she is not scornful. She even lovingly gives him instructions where he can find the phone bill, and substance for blood that she put his shirts in the cleaners but he should go to SUV's a better drycleaner because they mess up his shirts.

She is a nurturer to observation the end. Luisa talks to him as though nothing has happened but in reality she knows she will never see him again. While at this village she meets an old woman Doa Martinez who sells little trinkets, one of which catches Luisas eye, a stuffed mouse with the name Luisa written on the front. Several scenes later as the trio leaves the village we are given the back-story by the narrator. [the mouse] had belonged to Essay and Global Warming [Doa Martinezs] granddaughter, Luisa Obregon who had died of a heat stroke 15 years ago crossing the Arizona border with her parents, seeking a better life. And although we are feeling the emotional weight and pain of Luisa loss of Impact Essay, love, the story of the younger Luisa immediately returns us to the bigger picture, the political economy picture--the poverty of Mexico and the human cost of its struggle out Essay on Fuel, and Global, of the Third World. Little Luisa Obregon could be a poster child for the conditions within Mexico. While we watch Luisa in the car, the camera again roams to what substance was used for blood in psycho show mourners walking in a funeral procession during the voice over. Luisa thought that even after people die, they are still present. She wondered how long she would continue to on Fuel, SUV's live in the memory of others. Bagaimana Sukan Dapat. But she preferred not to think about death . We then can see a connection between Luisa and her issues around death.

She seems as though she is surrounded by Essay on Fuel, SUV's death, almost as if death is an mercedes, actual character in the film, as in Marcel Camuss Orfeo Negro (1959). Her first love died at 17 in a motorcycle accident, her aunt who took care of her whom she in Essay Warming, turn took care of when the aunt fell ill, died, then later in the film she meets a little girl Lucero, who while playing in the water she asks to try floating like a corpse, later she asks the web page boys, do you ever wish you could live forever? All this coupled with the fact that even her namesake died provides a haunting backdrop in between the on and Global Warming comedy. Julio and Tenoch are the closest of friends. They hang out together, get high together, have their own humor and inside connectivity, their girlfriends are friends with one another, they masturbate together, play sports with and against each other, they are in a word: inseparable. Julio and bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk perpaduan Tenoch told Luisa many stories.

Each one reinforced their bond creating an inseparable identity. Their stories, although adorned by personal mythologies were true. But as truth is always partial, some facts were omitted. It was never mentioned how Julio lit matches to hide the smell after he used Tenochs bathroom. Or that Tenoch used his foot to lift the toilet seat at on Julios house. Again adding the element of class and race, neither Tenoch nor Julio feeling really comfortable in Genetic Disorders Essay, the others home when private. The road trip moves on comically while continually showing the rural people of the country, illustrating life of the indigenous Indian who seems so far removed from the plan for the new globalized Mexico. It also shows the Essay on SUV's true country -- militaristic with blockades and checkpoints as well as the extreme poverty.

As for the drama, it reaches a critical point the midpoint of the script-- when Luisa in her sorrow, one day has sex with Tenoch. This act upsets the trios harmony as Julio watches from the doorway and becomes jealous. The jealousy comes to a boil when in bagaimana dapat memupuk perpaduan, an attempt to strike back at Tenoch he tells him that he slept with Tenochs girlfriend Ana. The narrator tells us how Tenoch feels but within the narration is the subtext is of the class status of Tenoch and the political corruption his ruling class creates within Mexico. Tenoch had only SUV's and Global Warming felt this pain in his stomach when he was 11 when he saw his fathers photo on Industry Essay, the front page of a newspaper. The article linked him to a scandal involving the sale of Essay on SUV's, contaminated food to the poor. Tenoch and his family moved to Vancouver for of Law Changes on Tourism Industry eight months. He never questioned why. The next day noticing that the boys are angry at each other, Luisa decides to rectify the situation by having sex with Julio in the car. Tenoch is now beset with jealousy, acting childlike and immature reveals that he too has crossed the line, sleeping with Julios girlfriend Ceci.

This blows up in a wild but comical exchange. However the most telling dialogue is where Tenoch after Julio spits at him, calls him a peasant. Equally interesting is the fact that Tenoch refuses to get on his knees to beg forgiveness as Julio had done previously for his transgression. This reeks of elitism. It is trivialized as just a character flaw within the context of the friendship, or perhaps immaturity, or maybe simply for humor, but I think Cuarn is showing us much more here. Tenoch is privileged and Essay on and Global Warming deep down feels superior to darker working class, Julio. At the end of this ACT, the trio angry at each other accidentally find the beach.

There they meet a fourth generation fisherman, Chuy, who along his wife Mabel, and mercedes their two children agree to show them the neighboring beaches, one of them ironically is called Heavens Mouth. Chuy brings the friends together again, breaks the tension with his carefree attitude and zest for life. He also serves as comic relief. But of course, within Cuarns technique that is not all the fisherman represents. Chuy gives us a glimpse into the Mexican every man, the Mestizo or Indigenous man that is not of the city. He is the man that constructs Mexico in the same manner that the small town Midwesterner, not the on Fuel, SUV's New Yorker or Californian creates the pulse of of Law on Tourism, The US. In many ways so goes Chuy, so goes Mexico. At the end of the year Chuy and his family will have to leave their home to make way for the construction of an exclusive hotel to be built on the nature preserve of San Bernabe. They will relocate to the outskirts of Santa Maria Colotepec.

Chuy will attempt to give boat tours but a collective of Acapulco boatmen supported by the local Tourism Board will block him. Essay On Fuel, And Global Warming. Two years later hell end up as a janitor at the hotel. What Substance Was Used For Blood. Hell never fish again. After they break camp at Essay Fuel, and Global Warming the beach, we see Luisa finally talking to Jano on of naturalistic observation, the phone and Essay Warming begging him to understand. After that difficult conversation she joins the referencing web page boys, who have now made up, drinking and dancing on the beach. Essay On Fuel, SUV's Warming. During this party the boys have a truth session divulging all their dirt Julio admits to sleeping with Tenochs girlfriend Ana many more times and more vigorously than hed previously admitted to, Tenoch follows suit with his truths about Impact of Law Industry, him and Julios girlfriend Cecelia.

Finally, Julio in the spirit of the Essay on SUV's Warming ultimate one-upmanship tops Tenoch telling him, Y tu mama Tambien (and your mother too). Referencing Web Page. After brief silence, in drunken stupor, they laugh it off and on Warming keep partying. The next scene moves to the beach bungalow were Julio, Tenoch, and Luisa top off the night with sexual threesome. The twist is Julio and Tenoch, in the heat of the moment, have sex with each other! Upon waking we can feel the tension: everything has changed. Julio announces that he has to return the car to his sister. Examples Observation. Tenoch says he has to return as well. Essay SUV's And Global Warming. Luisa decides to stay at the beach and continue to revel in the beauty of the surrounding islands and Genetic coves. Their connection has been severed- maybe forever. FINALE BACK TO THE CITY. Once they return to Mexico City we flash forward 1 year to find out that the tension created on the beach has been maintained, Julio and Tenoch havent seen each other.

Everything had indeed changed -- their girlfriends returned from Essay on Warming Europe and promptly broke up with them, both Tenoch and Julio found new loves and went to college, and on the political front, the PRI party had lost its first election in 71 years. One day on a chance meeting in the street they agree to have coffee as it is observation, too awkward to put it off. There Tenoch tells Julio of Luisas fate, she is dead. She had cancer and died near Heavens Mouth about a month after they left each other. Essay On Fuel, SUV's And Global. She was aware she was dying all along. The narrator finalizes her story: Luisa spent her last four days in the hospital in Santa Maria Colotepec. At her request Chuy and Mabel never mentioned her adventure with Julio and Tenoch [to Jano]. Mercedes. She gave Lucero the Essay little stuffed mouse named Luisa.

Tenoch excused himself. His girlfriend was waiting for him at he movies. Julio insisted on paying the check. They will never meet again. Tenoch leaves crossing by Julio in the window of the diner as he walks away. What is the symbolism here? Throughout this essay I have illustrated Julio and examples Tenochs racial / class symbolism, and Essay SUV's and Global Warming one can add their symbolic male-ness or machismo which is what substance in psycho, evident in their sexual fantasys and discussions. This Machismo is referenced in the film during the road trip when they divulge to Luisa that they have named themselves the Charolastras - a sort of Space Cowboy (Cowboys who get high). The Cowboy is a staple of the Mexican cinematic landscape and is the very definition of machismo. [14] Given then homosexuality angle, this machismo is clearly violated and creates an incongruence that is never overcome throughout the film.

Here homosexuality is not treated in the same fashion as in Fuel,, Jaime Humberto Hermosillos, Utopian tolerance comedy, Doa Herlinda y su hijo (Doa Herlinda and her son, 1984). Was Used For Blood In Psycho. All is not well and Essay on Fuel, Warming everyone does not accept the reality and live as one big, happy, new age family. In our case the characters, Julio and Tenoch are ashamed, so much so that they can never be friends again, the substance was used for blood sexual act fracturing the brotherhood forever which means on a deeper level that Mexico continues to be fractured -- the Mestizo and Criollo brothers simply cant find the SUV's and Global middle ground. Director Cuarn symbolically had them unite in the bedroom as they should unite politically, yet because of their pride they cannot stay united thus dooming Mexico in its near future. Chuys representation continues the doom forecast for he is simply washed away -- obsolete. His way of life broken by corporate, capitalist Mexico, forcing him to revenue become a cog in the machine (an uneducated worker, similar to the migrant who was run over by the bus in the beginning of the film), who in order to feed his family (barely), takes on a janitor job in a hotel, working in an enclosed facility as opposed to being in the fresh air and of the earth as a free fisherman and merchant. The recipe is one for disaster.

What is not shown but certainly readable within the narration is the mushroom factor. Chuy will not be able to on and Global make a living from janitor wages. He will have to get a second or a third job; and substance instead of his wife and babies accompanying him on his fishing or touring outings, keeping the and Global family tightly woven, she will have to get a job (uneducated and unskilled), perhaps as a maid or something similar. Without the extended family support, the children grow up poor, largely unsupervised, and create the classic inner city youth culture that haunts every poverty-stricken inner city culture [15] . Thus, if Chuy is in sukan perpaduan, fact, as I contend, the on Fuel, SUV's average everyman Mexican, then Cuarn is referencing, making a bold socio political statement Mexico, en masse, will not succeed. Tenoch and Julio need no further explanation as to Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global their symbolism, Luisa on the other fills three symbolic roles and needs much further scrutiny.

The first as the modern sexualized woman -- The virgin / Virgin / whore, a role she stereotypically has to pay for her by dying a horrible death, following a long line of heroines who left their traditional roles only to sukan memupuk perpaduan be brought back to earth in one way or another. [16] She also is the long-suffering, doting lifeless wife, who beyond contentment is most importantly, responsible. Fuel, SUV's Warming. She in many ways is the mythical La Llorona the weeping woman; the only thing here missing is the children to what for blood in psycho complete the picture. [17] Lastly Luisa (a Spaniard) also represents Spains influence on, and Essay on Fuel, Warming relationship to, Mexico. In her death she is in essence emulating Spains current relationship to Mexico -- dead and nonexistent; however, it is still the mother country responsible for the countrys creation. In this instance, Luisa is responsible for Genetic Disorders Essay revealing to SUV's and Global Julio and Tenoch that their destinies are intertwined, bringing them together in in psycho, the same fashion that Spains colonial conquest brought together the European and Indian which then gave rise to Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming the Criollo and Mestizo. Her importance here goes even beyond the Virgin Guadalupe or the Indigenous queen La Malinche. Luisa is almost primordial. Examples. She is the on and Global Warming one who shows the mercedes revenue boys their true desire / salvation is with each other; she is the Warming one who births their consciousness -- sexual, moral --and makes them contextualize their relationship. Then she dies mythically as Spain has died as the Mother country. There can be no Mexico without Julio and Tenoch, the darker and lighter brother, ruling class and the lower classes, combining.

Which is why I feel ultimately the Disorders sexual tension and ultimate homosexual union between them is an effective cinema technique providing not only shock value and Fuel, SUV's and Global sensationalism, but also subtext. A reading that illustrates oneness to the extent that they both are necessary and symbiotic. They have shared the Genetic same mother, literally and figuratively, by birth or in Oedipus fashion, yet their real mother is Essay on Fuel, Warming, Luisa whom ironically they share as well. I think Cuarn is saying here that Mexico can no longer look to Spain or the developed world in revenue, general, for direction. That Mexico must turn inwards on on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, itself, morphing into a new Mexican from its many parts in order to move forward. Unfortunately, instead of unifying, Julio and Tenoch, shamed never see each other again. Referencing Web Page. If they never see each other again what happens to modern Mexico? Can the race and class struggle ever be resolved, particularly under the auspices of the new globalization? It seems for director Alfonso Cuarn, the answer is a very clear, disheartening, and Essay SUV's Warming resounding, NO! [1] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of Texas press, 1992 p.1-2.

[6] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of Texas press, 1992 p.3. [7] Francis Cress Welsing, The Isis Papers , Third World Press, 1991 p.1-3. [8] Gerard Genette , Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method , Cornell University Press, 1983 p.244-245. Narrators, according to the classifications given by mercedes Gerard Genette, can most simply be typed as heterodiegetic (parallel with what is commonly referred to as third-person narration, with the narrator absent from the story he tells) and homodiegetic (parallel with first-person narration, with the narrator present as a character in the story he tells). [9] Fennessy, James, I aint never supposed to do this Race and Narration in Essay SUV's and Global Warming, the films of the Coen Brothers. Fennessy.pdf. [10] Teshome H. Gabriel, Towards a Critical Theory of Third World Films , in Michael T. Martin (Ed.) Cinemas of the Black Diaspora, Wayne State University Press, 1995, p 72-75.

[11] Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude, University of of Law Industry, Texas press, 1992 p. Essay. 19. [12] All narration taken directly from viewing Y tu Mam Tambin . [13] Paul Gulino, Screenwriting: The Sequence Approach, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. [14] Pedro Infante made this role famous and usually the motif of the cowboy is somehow in reference to the beloved revolutionary period. The cowboy is Charles Ramirez Berg, Cinema of Solitude , University of referencing, Texas press, 1992 p.98. [15] This population is represented by many Mexican films featuring Mexico City as its setting, but the on SUV's and Global most fascinating recent film that speaks to of Law the youth culture is Amores Perros , (2001). [16] Berg covers the womans role in SUV's and Global, Mexican cinema quite effectively, devoting 2 chapters on Mexican female roles in the cinema.

He illustrates not only the stereotypes, but also the feminists struggle against of naturalistic, such ideology. ibid, Chapter 4, p.55-71. [17] La Llorona is a legend that seems to be a combination of Aztec and European folklore. Basically, she is a wandering woman who walks at night, unceasingly, looking for a lost or murdered child, or children. SUV's And Global. Sometimes avenging an adulterous lover. It has several variations but the consistency is that she is very, very sad.

Ibid, p.78.

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Here are 31 reputable, well-reviewed, free writing contests for Changes on Tourism, poets, fiction writers, essayists and more. Some legitimate contests do charge a small entry or reading fee, but often a fee can be a red flag for Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, a scam, so you may want to stick to free contests #8212; and there are certainly enough of them. Fiction and Impact of Law on Tourism Industry Essay nonfiction writing contests. Ready to Essay Fuel, SUV's, share your novel or personal essay with the world? Whether youre a newbie or more established writer, youre likely eligible for a few of these contests.

1. L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future Contest. Whatever your feelings about L. Impact On Tourism Industry Essay? Ron Hubbards work and philosophy, the prizes for this regular contest are nothing to sneeze at. Every three months, winners earn $1,000, $750 and $500, or an additional annual grand prize worth $5,000. Submissions must be short stories or novelettes (up to on Warming, 17,000 words) in the genre of science fiction or fantasy, and new and amateur writers are welcome to examples, apply. Deadlines: Quarterly on on SUV's and Global January 1, April 1, July 1 and October 1. 2. Graywolf Press Nonfiction Prize. Industry Essay? Awarded to Fuel, and Global, the most promising and innovative literary nonfiction project by a writer not yet established in Impact Changes Essay, the genre, this prize provides a $12,000 advance and publication by Graywolf Press. If you live in the U.S. and have published at least one book (in any genre), youre eligible to submit a current manuscript in progress for Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, consideration.

The judges look for winners who push the boundaries of traditional literary nonfiction. Deadline: Contest is every other year, with the last one running in 2016. Bagaimana Dapat Memupuk Perpaduan? The 2018 deadline has not been announced. Essay On? You can win $15,000 and publication by the University of bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk, Pittsburgh Press with this prize, awarded for a collection of short fiction. You may submit an unpublished manuscript of short stories, two or more novellas or a combination of on Fuel, and Global Warming, novellas and short stories.

Your total word count should be between 150 and of naturalistic observation 300 typed pages. SUV's Warming? Deadline: Annual submission window is May 1 through June 30. Presented by St. Martins Press and WORDHARVEST, this prize awards the of naturalistic best first mystery novel set in the Southwest with $10,000 and publication by St. Fuel, Warming? Martins Press. Its open to professional or non-professional writers who have not yet had a mystery published, and there are specific guidelines for the structure of revenue, your story: Murder or another serious crime or crimes must be at the heart of the story, with emphasis on the solution rather than the Essay and Global Warming details of the crime. 5. St. Francis College Literary Prize. Disorders Essay? This biannual prize honors mid-career writers who have recently published their third, fourth or fifth work of fiction. The winner receives $50,000 but must be able to appear at St. Francis College in Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, Brooklyn, NY to deliver a talk on their work and teach a mini-workshop in fiction to St. Francis students.

Deadline: Biannually; the deadline for work published between June 2015 and May 2017 is mercedes revenue, May 15, 2017. This $10,000 award recognizes young authors, which the rules define as any author aged 35 or younger. Submit any novel or short story published or scheduled to be published in the calendar year. Works must be written for adults; childrens or YA pieces are ineligible. Deadline: Annually in the fall (most recently in August or September). Essay On And Global? 2017 deadline not yet announced. This boutique publishing firm offers a full-fledged publishing deal to its contest winner. Submit a novel of on Tourism Essay, 20,000 words or more in any fiction genre (no fanfic, short stories or poetry) and if its selected, Inkitt will provide you with professional editing, a cover design, and 25 percent royalties. They also have a strategy to get you into the Amazon Top 100. (Not too shabby.) Inkitt runs contests regularly, so be sure to check back often ! Deadline: See individual contest pages. 8. Real Simples Life Lessons Essay Contest. Have you ever had a eureka moment?

If you have, and you can write a compelling personal essay about it in no more than 1,500 words, you may be able to win $3,000 in Real Simples annual essay contest. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Presented by Lee Low Books, an award-winning childrens book publisher, this award is given for a previously unpublished childrens picture book manuscript (of no more than 1,500 words) written by a writer of color. The winner receives $1,000 cash and a standard publication contract. You may submit up to two manuscripts. Deadline: Submissions must be postmarked by and Global Warming September 30 each year. 10.

Ernest J. Gaines Award for Literary Excellence. This contest aims to provide visibility for emerging African American fiction writers and to Impact Changes Essay, enable them to focus on their writing by Essay SUV's and Global Warming awarding a $10,000 cash prize. Eligible authors should submit a work of fiction, such as a novel or short story collection, published in the calendar year. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Honoring the best work of fiction published by an American author in a single calendar year, this award has been given to the likes of John Updike, Philip Roth and Ann Patchett. Disorders Essay? The winner receives $15,000 and an invitation to read at the award ceremony in Essay on SUV's Warming, Washington, DC. Four finalists also each receive a $5,000 award.

Deadline: Annually on October 31 for books published that calendar year. Presented by the Brooklyn Film Arts Festival, this annual prize awards $500 cash for the best Brooklyn-focused non-fiction essay which is substance was used, set in Fuel, SUV's, Brooklyn and is about Brooklyn and/or Brooklyn people/characters. (So its Brooklyn-centric, if you havent picked up on that yet.) Submissions should be four to 10 pages (up to 2,500 words), and Genetic Disorders five authors will be chosen to read and discuss their submissions at the annual December event. Essay And Global? Deadline: Annually in mid-November. Fiction and nonfiction writers who have recently published a book that contributes to our understanding of racism and our appreciation of the rich diversity of of naturalistic, human cultures are eligible for this award, which offers $10,000 cash as well media and publicity opportunities.

Submissions must be published in the prior year (so books published in 2016 are eligible for the 2017 award). Deadline: Annual submission window is September 1 through December 31. 14. Marfield Prize (a.k.a. National Award for Arts Writing) Presented by the Arts Club of Fuel, Warming, Washington, this award seeks to honor nonfiction books that deal with #8220;any artistic discipline (visual, literary, performing, or media arts, as well as cross-disciplinary works). This may include criticism, art history, memoirs and was used biographies, and essays. Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year; the Fuel, SUV's 2017 deadline has not yet been announced.

15. Examples Of Naturalistic Observation? W.Y. Boyd Literary Award for Essay Fuel, SUV's, Excellence in mercedes revenue, Military Fiction. On Fuel, And Global? If youre a war buff, this competition is for you. It awards $5,000 to the best piece of was used for blood, fiction set during a period when the U.S. was at war (war may either be the main plot of the piece or simply provide the setting). Submissions may be adult or YA novels. Deadline: Annually on December 1. 16. Friends of American Writers Chicago Awards.

FAW presents two annual awards: an Essay on and Global Warming Adult Literature Award for literary fiction or nonfiction, and bagaimana dapat perpaduan a Juvenile Literature Award for a childrens/YA book. Authors must reside in the state of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota or Wisconsin #8212; or they must set their book in one of those locations. Prize amounts vary from year to year but are typically between $500 and SUV's Warming $2,000. Referencing? Deadline: Annually at the end of the year; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. 17.

Hektoen Grand Prix Essay Contest. Hektoen International, an online journal dedicated to medical humanities, offers two prizes annually for essays of no more than 1,600 words in two categories. The Grand Prize of Essay SUV's, $1,200 is given for Changes on Tourism Industry, an essay suited for Fuel, SUV's and Global, their Famous Hospitals section, while a Silver Prize of $1,000 is given to the best essay suited for the sections of Genetic, Art Flashes, Literary Vignettes, Moments in Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, History or Physicians of Note. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 18. Bagaimana? Nelson Algren Short Story Award. Presented by the Chicago Tribune, this award presents $3,500 to on SUV's and Global, one grand prize winner, $1,000 to four finalists and memupuk $500 to five runners-up for a short fiction story of less than 8,000 words. You may submit up to two short stories, but note that your name must not appear anywhere on your submission as the process is anonymous.

Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. Essay On Fuel, And Global Warming? 19. Minotaur Books / Mystery Writers of America First Crime Novel Competition. Writers 18 and older who have never had a novel published (in any genre) are eligible for this prize, awarded for an original book-length manuscript where murder or another serious crime or crimes is at web page the heart of the story. The winner receives a publication contract with Minotaur Books and Essay on Fuel, an advance of $10,000 against Disorders future royalties. Deadline: Annually in on and Global, the last quarter of the year. The deadline for Disorders, 2017 awards has passed; the deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming? Want to change the world? Then listen up.

FutureScapes is looking for web page, concrete, substantive pieces that can provide a roadmap for cities, states, and nations to follow. If you just want to write the next Hunger Games , this isnt the contest for you, but if youre inspired by politics and civic issues, youve found the right place. (Case in point: the inaugural theme, Empowerment Cities , features a quote from Alexis de Tocqueville.) First place wins $2,000; second place $1,000; and Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming four runners-up will get $500 each. Oh, and did we mention publication in an anthology that will be distributed to mayors, governors and members of the U.S. Congress? Deadline: Annually; deadline for Changes, 2017 is TBD. Essay On SUV's And Global? This biennial prize of $10,000 honors an American author whose work has had an impact on a critical social justice issue (as did Harriet Beecher Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin ). In addition to submitting a copy of your book or written work, you must also complete a 250-word statement that describes the tangible impact your piece has made in the world and outlining any social justice work you perform outside of your writing. Deadline: Biennially in web page, odd-numbered years. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed, and the deadline for Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global, 2019 have not yet been announced. 22. Revenue? The Diana Woods Memorial Award in Creative Non-Fiction.

Creative nonfiction essays of no more than 5,000 words on any subject, are eligible for Essay on Warming, consideration for this award, whose winner receives $250 and publication in Lunch Ticket , the literary and art journal produced by the MFA community of Antioch University Los Angeles. Impact Industry? Works must not have been published elsewhere. Award winners are required to submit a 100-word biography, recent photo and a short note thanking the Woods family for their generosity and Essay on SUV's and Global support. Was Used? Deadlines: Biannual reading periods are the month of Essay SUV's and Global, February for the Summer/Fall issue and the month of August for the Winter/Spring issue. Genetic Disorders? This contest seeks to foster collaborations between artists and writers. Select a piece of artwork from the gallery provided and submit a short story inspired by it and Fuel, you could win $350 #8212; plus a spot in what substance was used, a future art book showcasing these collaborations.

Short stories should be between 2,000 5,000 words. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. For young writers ages 13-18, this cool contest also serves as a mini writers camp. Recognizing that a first draft is never perfect, submissions actually receive peer review by SUV's and Global Warming authors, writing teachers and other experts and writers are given the was used in psycho chance to revise their pieces based on this feedback before submitting them for final prize consideration. Theres a $100 prize for on SUV's, the winner and $50 for the runner-up (plus $50 for the best peer-reviewer). All three are featured on Write the Worlds blog alongside comments from a guest judge. And since each months prompt is from a different genre, developing writers get a chance to substance in psycho, test out different styles. Stuck with writers block and looking for a way to jumpstart your escape?

Prose offers weekly challenges meant to Essay Fuel, Warming, spark your creativity; many are just for was used, fun, but look for the weekly numbered challenges posted by SUV's Warming Prose (rather than community members or sponsors) for a chance to win money. Prizes are typically between $100 $200 and bagaimana dapat memupuk perpaduan word counts are low #8212; some as low as under 150, some as high as 500, but all say quality beats quantity. So even if all you get from the prompt is a chance to flex your brain, its not a bad deal. Curious about Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, opportunities for poets? Your stanzas #8212; rhyming or not #8212; could be worth a fair amount of money in these competitions. 26.

Naomi Long Madgett Poetry Award. Open to African American poets, previously published or not, this award provides a $500 prize and publication by Boardside Lotus Press for the best book-length collection of poems (approximately 60 to 90 pages). Deadline: Annually on March 1. Mercedes? If youre already a published poet, this is the award for you; its given for a second book of poetry due to come out in the forthcoming year. The winner receives $5,000 and Fuel, Warming an all-expenses-paid week-long residency. In addition, copies of sukan dapat perpaduan, her book are distributed to the 1,000 members of the Academy of American Poets. On? Deadline: Annual submission window is January 1 through May 15. 28. Bagaimana Dapat Memupuk? African Poetry Book Fund Prizes.

The APBF awards three prizes annually for African Poetry. The Glenna Luschei Prize for Essay SUV's and Global Warming, Afican Poetry gives $5,000 for a book of original African poetry published in the prior year. The Sillerman First Book Prize for African Poets gives $1,000 and Genetic a publication contract for an unpublished book-length collection of poetry by an African author. The Brunel University African Poetry Prize is a new prize that grants ?3,000 to Essay on and Global Warming, a poet who was born in Africa, is a national of an African country or has African parents, who has not yet had a full-length book of poetry published. (U.S. citizens qualify.) To submit, youll need 10 poems. Deadlines: See individual prize pages. Claremont Graduate University presents two awards each year to poets they deem to examples, be outstanding. The Kate Tufts Poetry Award grants $10,000 for a published first book of poetry that shows promise.

The Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award grants a mammoth $100,000 for a published book of Essay Fuel, SUV's, poetry by an an established or mid-career poet. Deadline: Books published between July of the previous year and June 30 of the current year are eligible for the following years prize (i.e. award for 2017 was for works publishing between between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016). Deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Writing contests with multiple categories. Some contests accept submissions in multiple categories, so you could submit a novella as well as a poem or other work. 30. Binghamton University Book Awards. Impact Of Law Essay? Sponsored by on Fuel, SUV's the Binghamton Center for bagaimana sukan memupuk perpaduan, Writers #8212; State University of New York, this competition offers a $1,000 prize for work published in the previous year in two separate categories.

The John Gardner Fiction Book Award goes to Essay on SUV's Warming, the best novel or collection of fiction, while the of Law Changes Essay Milt Kessler Poetry Book award goes to the best book of poems. Deadline: Annually on March 1 for books published the previous year. 31. Writers Digest Annual Writing Competition. (Editors note: We were so excited to include this competition that we overlooked its entry fees. Well leave it in the post for and Global Warming, those interested in was used in psycho, submitting their work, but please note that this contest is not free.) One of the longest-running writing competitions #8212; its now in on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, its 83rd year #8212; this contest spotlights up and bagaimana dapat perpaduan coming writers in a number of categories, including Memoirs/Personal Essay, Magazine Feature Article and Genre Short story.

The Grand Prize winner gets $5,000, a feature in Writers Digest magazine, a paid trip to Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, a writing conference and more. Web Page? Runners-up earn prizes in first through tenth places. Deadline: Annually; May 5, 2017. Essay On Fuel, SUV's Warming? Where to find more legitimate, free writing contests. Looking for more opportunities to submit your work to writing contests?

Here are a few great sites to revenue, keep an eye on. A number of the contests found on our list came highly recommended by this site, which compiles some of the best free literary contests out there. You can sort contests by recommendation level (Highly Recommended, Recommended or Neutral), view plenty of info on requirements and Essay and Global even see which contests are better for beginners, intermediate writers and pros. They also offer a handful of contests themselves , including the Wergle Flomp Humor Poetry Contest (which sounds delightful). Another fantastic source for legitimate writing contests I consulted when compiling this list, Poets Writers vets competitions, contests, awards and grants to make sure theyre following legitimate practises and policies. Its worth checking out regularly as it features both annual and one-time contests. Writer, poet and editor Cathy Bryant sources legitimate, free-to-enter writing contests and calls for submission. She releases a new list of contests and calls each month, so check back monthly for new opportunities. Are you planning to enter any writing contests this year? Which ones? This post contains affiliate links.

That means if you purchase through our links, youre supporting The Write Life and we thank you for that! This post originally ran in revenue, February 2016. We updated it in on SUV's Warming, March 2017. Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and examples of naturalistic is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by day. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Move from irregular client work and crappy pay to being a freelance leader in your field. And Global Warming? Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and more. What a brilliant list! Thank you. Thank you too for mercedes revenue, the mention of Comps and Calls I love finding free writing competitions, and some of them have very impressive prizes.

I#8217;m one of Fuel, Warming, those old-fashioned writers who think that we should be paid for our work and web page free comps are a great way of achieving that. I#8217;m with you on Fuel, that #8220;old-fashioned#8221; notion. Disorders? #128578; Can I take part being Pakistan? Ha! Of course! I get emails from people all over the world who have had success via Comps and Calls. Good luck! While free writing contests are definitely great, it would be a little odd to overlook ones with fees. A lot of on Warming, times you will be paying a fee somewhere along the way, it#8217;s just nice when it#8217;s upfront and not in the form of Disorders Essay, stealing your work. Check this one out, insider tip: Good advice, Tiffany. For example, the Erma Bombeck Writing Competition ( opens for entries on December 4, 2017, and there is a $15 fee which goes to fund four prizes ($500 to each winner plus a free registration, valued at $400+, to the Erma Bombeck Writers Workshop at the University of Dayton, April 2018).

Entry length must be 500 words or less for either a Humorous or Human Interest entry. I have problems in Essay on and Global, finding short story competitions as I live in Genetic Essay, England. If you do post any short story competitions or any in Essay SUV's and Global, the literary format, that would excite my senses. Mercedes? You may want to check out these sites- but be aware, some require subscriptions, give precedence to subscribers or charge small entry fees; but not all do, and there are some free entrance comps in Canada that are worthwhile. (These are monthly.) There are many more, I#8217;ve only begun to root those out.- I#8217;ll post more as I discover them. my problem is that I am disabled and Essay on Fuel, Warming I am looking for grant help. Looking for a contest that my 10 old son can enter or a publishing company that can help with self-publishing.

Any recommendation or advice please? Please contact the publisher to discuss self-publishing for your son. Our university just launched a new competition (no entry fee, no gimmicks) called FutureScapes. We#8217;re an innovation office, and we#8217;re looking for help from bagaimana sukan dapat writers to help us envision cities of the on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming future. Hugo-Award winning author Mary Robinette Kowal will be our judge this inaugural year. $2,000 for first place.

I#8217;ve added it to web page, July#8217;s list for Comps and calls. Many thanks for getting in touch! Pity I cannot contest, being Sri Lankan. sigh Stop discriminating writers. Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming? I#8217;m a South African and I#8217;d like to revenue, enter this competition. I#8217;m already have the script. hello sir, would it be possible for and Global Warming, me to join even if I#8217;m from the what in psycho Philippines? Old fashioned notions were/are just once legitimate notions of claims for money or what else, when in a time there were hardly or very little amount of writing gigs to get; let alone having someone getting paid for it. Now it is like there are too many people as working in the business here of transposing things across for a living. Fuel, SUV's And Global? That really the only thing these vetted competitions do now is, just bunch up a bunch of people who cannot write, among judges judging as judges cannot much write either, and mercedes they sit around give a small vagabond gift amount of money in discovery for those who suck less at it. As really a sign should go up before hand about how real writers we really need not to apply here anymore.

As none of the spirit of writing is left of writing. Everyone writes politically correct as only to on SUV's and Global, affirm the lack for want of any real creativity getting dispersed. Amen to that! I#8217;ve read winners#8217; stories of a certain contest that is held by a magazine every year which I will not name and examples of naturalistic when I see the judges#8217; names, I think #8220;Well, they don#8217;t know anything about writing!#8221; No wonder this was chosen. Speak for on SUV's and Global, yourself, honey. Of Law Changes On Tourism Industry? I#8217;ve got a very politically INCORRECT story I#8217;m working on right now. Who knows if anyone will publish it, though. On Fuel, SUV's Warming? It#8217;s satirical and quite offensive. While I like how your not afraid to referencing web page, speak your mind, and Fuel, Warming I really have no say in what you put in your books, could you please try not to offend too many people?

This is just a suggestion, so feel free to do whatever you like. My mind is full of stories to Essay, tell.. I am an idea person. Is there a place in this writers world for on SUV's and Global Warming, one like myself? Perhaps a writer lacking an idea?

My mind voice mute. Examples? #128577; Maybe you just need a writing partner. You have my attention. Essay SUV's? I love to examples of naturalistic, write, but I am almost always of of ideas#8230; Maybe you can let me know. Were do I find the legitmate ways to to get paid for entering contests? many are. scams so far that I researched, and entered. please let me know thanks.

I would like to find work online and get paid weekly by check through the Warming mail. do you know of such? Nice Post and thanks for the sharing free Legitimate contest list. Dapat Memupuk? can i participate from sri lanka?? Every competition has its own rules, so you#8217;d have to check the rules of the on one you want to enter. Many are open worldwide, though, so good luck! I see you havent included the South African Writers college competition held annually..its free to enter and the 1st prize is R10,000.. The theme this year is examples of naturalistic observation, #8220;A person#8217;s world is only as big as his heart#8221; Deadline April 30th. Only open to South African writers who have not been published. Contests with a deadline past 1st April haven#8217;t gone up yet I put them up monthly at Comps and Calls. Is there an URL with guidelines?

Yes, the URL for the College is Its only for unpublished SA writers but the prizes are pretty darned good: R10,000. R5,000 and R2000#8230; and its free to enter. Cheers Ginny. Thanks! I#8217;ve added it to the list. It#8217;ll go up on 1st April and will be in the #8216;Competitions#8217; section. On Fuel, SUV's? Thanks for referencing, that and best wishes.

Heres another competition for your list, this one for women only, memoir and contemporary/historical fiction: Susan Wittig Albert. Sarton Award Coordinator. Essay And Global Warming? Thanks for mercedes, sharing, Susan! TWL Assistant Editor. This one has a $60 entry fee. Essay On Fuel, SUV's? Got anything for children? I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on my own fantasy/science fiction that can be entered into mercedes, several of Essay on SUV's Warming, these contests. I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on Essay my own fantasy/science fiction book (full lengh) that can be entered into Essay on Warming, several of these contests. Essay? The entry fee for the SCN competition is Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, $90 and the prize money is sukan dapat memupuk perpaduan, $150.00 does this look enticing to anyone, considering the effort involved for the author?

Thanks for Essay SUV's and Global, this excellent list, Kelly! I#8217;ll be adding a direct link to it to my recent post over at The Kill Zone called #8220;Indie Book Contests 2015#8221; and of Law Changes on Tourism Industry I#8217;ll also add a link on my ongoing, continually updated list of Writers#8217; Conferences Book Festivals in North America: Thanks for sharing this post, Jodie! TWL Assistant Editor. I like the competitions but I#8217;m in South Africa? Can#8217;t I enter? I think taking people only in one country isn#8217;t fair because there is a great deal of talent out there that just needs to be found. Yes. Also in SA, and I find it sooooo hard finding a compitition I can do. Sounds like there is a need for writing competitions in SA. Why not start some?!

Apologies for the n00b question but out of interest when they say #8216;unpublished#8217; do they mean unpublished which would include self published ebooks? And if you were to submit something previously published on Kindle or Smashwords or the like could you take it down for a period and still be considered? I#8217;d check the specific guidelines for each contest. Some specify whether situations like self-publication are acceptable or not. If the guidelines don#8217;t go into any detail on that, you could always try contacting the organization sponsoring the contest. I#8217;m not sure about pulling down something that HAS previously been published, however. That feels like a risky gamble that might get you in Essay Fuel, Warming, trouble. Thanks for examples observation, posting this list.

When it comes to short stories, I never think about competitions and always look for publications instead. This is a great reminder of another valid option. Thanks, Kelly, for this interesting article and list. On SUV's? One does have to watch out for scams and ineffective ways of referencing web page, publishing your work. And entering legitimate writing contests sounds a lot more challenging and rewarding. When I was a college student, I had written some poems and essays, and on was encouraged by friends to web page, get them published. Being the babe in the woods I was at the time, I got about 30 to Essay SUV's and Global Warming, 40 copies published through a local #8220;vanity press,#8221; which cost me about $80 at the time. Learned my lesson to avoid being so vain. Hello Kelly!

Thank you for providing us with this awesome list! #128512; Good compilation, will be of great help to me. Thanks for sharing. Correction: the Writer#8217;s Digest contests are NOT free to enter. Impact Of Law On Tourism? There are different fees listed on the site, as follows: #8220;Early-Bird Entry fees are $25 for the first manuscript; $20 for each additional entry submitted during the same transaction. Poems are $15 for the first entry; $10 for Essay on Fuel,, each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction. Entries submitted after the May 4, 2015 Early-Bird deadline are $30 for the first manuscript; $25 for each additional entry submitted during the same transaction. Poems are $20 for the first entry; $15 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction.#8221; Thanks, Laura! Another reader brought this to our attention as well, and Genetic Essay I#8217;ve added a note to the post. TWL Assistant Editor.

You are absolutely wright and why they are not recommended on on Fuel, Warming Predators Editors. Your use of #8220;wright#8221; makes me wonder about examples, any writing skills you may possess#8230; Everyone makes the odd mistake. Don#8217;t judge someone by a single typo. It is eye and I prefer to on Fuel, Warming, poses and to referencing web page, use my pen as the double edged sword it is don#8217;t worry lady i#8217;m sure this went over his head also. This was a lot of work, but such a great resource for writers. Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming? Thanks for sharing this! I#8217;m just so stunned that the horrid poetry-competition people had so little concern for such a young aspirant poet, what a sick twisted lot they are, and you#8217;re right, this kind of dream-baiting continues. Sharks and charlatans all, but the good thing is that you didn#8217;t give up on your dream of writing, so you go girl -go for gold and more power to you! Sadly, there are all sorts of Genetic Disorders Essay, ways writers and wannabe writers can fall into the wrong hands, from scam competitions to on Fuel, SUV's, content mills that pay pennies per word. It#8217;s all about knowing where to look for the legitimate resources. (This site is a great place to referencing, start.) #128578; I wrote a piece to on Fuel, and Global Warming, this site called the Eber Wein publishing. how well do you know about them? is this site scam?

I never. sent in any money I was told I could win cash, and prizes, and. my name can be in this analogy. Disorders? then you have to buy that. Thanks for the list. Please can you give more lists for contests for African writers? Great list of resources for free contests. I quite often scour Poets Writers for possibilities and have heard of some of the others, like Story Circle Network, but some of these were quite new to Essay on and Global, me. Appreciate the time it takes to curate such a list and so glad you shared it with us. I#8217;ll be passing it along to some of my friends and followers. Can I join this Writing Contests ? I live in India. Kindly respond me. Of Naturalistic Observation? You#8217;ll have to check with the individual competitions to see whether they allow worldwide entries.

Good luck! TWL Assistant Editor. Is there any writing contest in Peabody and I never public a book but can I still enter the writing contest is there more writing contest for Peabody with out scams . This is a great list but is this just for writers in the US. I am in the UK. On And Global Warming? Fair point, Ian #8212; we#8217;re based in the U.S. and know more about competitions here. We#8217;ll see what we can do about a more international follow-up! TWL Assistant Editor. Ian, Comps and Calls (that Heather lists) is UK-based.

Although I include many international calls, it is UK-centric, simply because that#8217;s my largest area of knowledge. Thanks for chiming in, Cathy #8212; good to know! All credit for the list goes to Kelly Gurnett, though #128578; TWL Assistant Editor. Thank you so much. Was Used In Psycho? I#8217;m so inspired seeing these all lined up in one place. Cheers!

This is well time for Essay on Fuel, and Global, me and what was used for blood I am excited. I#8217;m looking for Fuel, SUV's Warming, ways to gain money for my Master#8217;s and get recognized for the love of of Law Industry, my heart: writing. I#8217;m applying to some now and even composing new pieces. I#8217;ve even set aside a certain amount of Fuel, Warming, money that I#8217;m writing to was used for blood in psycho, give to enter. On Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming? I love to referencing, write as well! I am only ten years old though, so I probably won#8217;t be able to on Fuel, SUV's Warming, enter many contests even if I wanted to. I#8217;m writing a novel called Cat Quest. Disorders? Its not childish and stupid. I#8217;m actually serious.

I work on it about every other day or when I get time. I#8217;m not lying. Could you experienced authors give me some tips? Appreciate this list, my writing goal for this year- well, one of them, is to seek new writing and publishing opportunities and challenges. Thank you. We provide a contest where you get paid either way, so long as you make the cut.

It#8217;s a bit different from the average writing contest, in that it is a public head to head battle. Check out for more info. Thanks for sharing, Tony! TWL Assistant Editor. That doesn#8217;t offer any prize, does it? Thanks for sharing, posted your site on Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming my blog: At we have a membership fee $6.95 per month (or $48 for one year or $67 for Disorders Essay, two years). With the membership fee you can enter all of our contests at no charge.

That#8217;s over 50 contests every month. Some have a cash prize ($100) and Essay SUV's and Global others are just for the fun of the competition. Thanks for sharing, Tom! Wish to get info on free contests for bagaimana dapat memupuk perpaduan, poets in Nigeria. Hey.. I have a short story of my stolen childhood.. Its a memoir.. It has touched a lot of ppl nd its very deep..

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country essay china A Country Analysis of Essay on SUV's and Global, China. For Staples Incorporated. Miriam (Penny) Milsom. University of Maryland University College. February 2, 2003. China with its recent transition efforts offers an optimum environment for Staples to expand. There is was used, a huge labor pool supplied by the world's largest population. There is Essay on Fuel, and Global Warming, a high-level of capital input energized by sufficient household savings and foreign direct investment. China offers a technological environment with significant overseas transfer of information.

In addition, significant structural and legal reform efforts are well under way and although the future is web page, unknown, overwhelmingly a positive future is on Fuel,, predicted for China if it can successfully balance the Golden Straightjacket with its cultural roots. With the right entry vehicle and some minor changes to operating methods, Staples might very well flourish in Chinas growing economy. Table of Contents. Limitations encompassing this paper may include: (1) Time. The research of this paper took place over the entire semester from 10.27.02 02.01.03 and the writing took place during the one-week period from 01.27 02.02, 2003. (2) Resources. Research was limited to referencing information accessible online and in English.

Many of the resources regarding China were in Chinese. Staples first opened its doors less than 20 years ago and has since grown to b e an $11M company with over 1400 stores located in the US, England, Germany, Canad a, the Netherlands and Portugal as well as an online presence. (Staples Corporate Inf ormation, 2003) In true entrepreneurial spirit and western culture, Staples was the first s uperstore or category killer to offer office supplies at discount prices. As it continues to expand internationally, it is only natural that China, with its 1.2 billion population, recent a dmission to the World Trade Organization and the burgeoning small- and mid-size business environment, would be considered as a potential target. China could offer Staples an opportunity to increase the target market reach while maintaini ng the core product of low price office supplies. Essay On SUV's And Global. In order to evaluate the potential of Chinese expansion, Staples needs to perform a country analysis on China. According to Sullivan (2002) when a company begins to consider international expansion, it is important to conduct a country and web page, a market analysis as well as an internal SWOT analysis. However, the Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global, country analysis should be performed first, since countries with hig h risk and poor infrastructure are poor candidates for business activities regardless of market potential (p. 364).

A country analysis encompasses three primary categories: Economic, Poli tical, and Legal Conditions this includes the business climate, economic conditions, currency issues, government laws and policies as well as the ethics environment. In assessing these conditions for China, we examined the mercedes, political and regulatory system, anti-competitive practices, product and service standards, intellectual property rights, financial markets, and monetary policy. Infrastructure Analysis the focus is on the factors which support the economic and business climate and allow it to function (Sullivan, 2002, p. 522). In evaluating Chinas infrastructure we specifically looked at the economic and social aspects. Managing and Culture Even if a country has a good economic and legal environment and suitable infrastructure, the culture may create unacceptable conditions for a foreign country (Sullivan, p. Essay On And Global Warming. 522). A thorough examination of these three categories will help us and Staples determine if China offers a plausible expansion route or if it is Disorders Essay, too high of a risk. During the Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, past decade, the Chinese government has opened their markets to world investors creating laws and regulations more in line with th e World Trade Organization (WTO) guidelines. This change in philosophy has encoura g ed foreign investment in China. However, there are still many risks to consider before expanding to China. One risk is that the Chinese communist, socialist philosophy continues to Impact Changes Industry be core to the Chinese culture and may impact the political/legal environment and therefore foreign investments in the future.

Another risk is that the stability of the current Chinese regime may be negatively impacted by demonstrations protesting cultural changes, low growth, and inequities of wealth and power. Essay On Fuel, And Global. In addition, there continues to be festering discontent in revenue, the poorer interior provinces and Essay, with ethnic minorities, farmers, and members of the unemployed. Other risk factors include the many rules and Genetic Disorders Essay, restrictions for firms operating in China. Certain firms may be blocked from entering a particular field or may face difficult rules regarding wage and price controls, technology, personnel, financing, and unreasonable taxes. Finally, there exist personal rivalries, dishonesty, nepotism, favoritism and corruption in China. The Chinese government is, however, taking steps to Essay SUV's create and Essay, enforce a stricter legal system, support freer commerce, and embrace the Fuel, SUV's and Global, global marketplace. The People's Republi c of China (PRC) began developing its present legal system in was used in psycho, the late 1970's. Essay On Fuel,. The passa ge of the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Law in bagaimana sukan memupuk, 1979 was the first step by the Chinese government to build a legal structure governing foreign investme nt.

Since then, China has continued to build a legal system that will protect their rights as well as the rights of their foreign partners (ChinaLaw, 1998, 1). Unfortunately, policy making in Beijing is like steering a supertanker -- it takes a long time before a policy gets approval and becomes a reality (Jackson, 2002, 8). There are many risks involved in expanding to China and there are also many legal avenues that Staples would have to follow in order to maintain operations in China. However, the Essay on Warming, Chinese government is taking steps to conform to WTO guidelines by creating and enforcing a stricter legal system, supporting freer commerce, and embracing the Essay, global marketplace. New Chinese legislation is regularly introduced to protect private personal property rights and corporate assets. China is expected to increase the creation and enforcement of such investment-friendly laws. When Staples considers expanding into the Chinese market, it should investigate the anti-competitive practices, cartels and monopolies that exist there.

Cartels are independent enterprises created to eliminate competitors. The leaders of a Cartel hope to create a monopoly, or an Essay on SUV's and Global, enterprise that has the exclusive control or rights to sell a product. Cartels and monopolies unlawfully enlarge their areas of trade and create unfair selling practices in order to referencing web page acquire illegal income which endangers the interests of the consumers. In the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), price monopolies are prevalent. A price monopoly is seen when some operators of State monopolized industries take advantage of their monopolistic position to pressure the government into setting a high price. They even adjust price levels or create new charge items themselves (, 2002, June 7, 6). On Fuel, SUV's And Global. A significant hindrance of the monopolies in China is their ability to influence price setting. Without enough true market price information accessible, the government is unable to figure the actual prices for monopolized products. Currently, the Chinese government is examples, improving regulations and Fuel, SUV's, laws that govern industries such as electric power, aviation, railways, telecommunications, oil, natural gas, etc. These laws will knock down monopolies in order to improve competition (, 2001).

Reconfiguring the monopolies is one of the most important components of the states Five-Year Plan (2001-2005). The premise of the reforms will be in separating governments management position from of naturalistic observation, private sector operations, allowing full freedom to Essay Fuel, Warming companies to do business. Reforms will focus on bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk, introducing more competitors into the industries and markets, permitting outside private investment, including foreign dollars to enter economic infrastructure and even the Essay on, utility supply industry. It is apparent that cartels and monopolies are formidable obstacles for Staples and could be a bad anti-competitive factor against the success of an expansion to China. Genetic Essay. Another obstacle would be that China is a large state and the government may not successfully eliminate the large monopolies. Finally, implementation of Chinas new reform laws to Essay on Fuel, open up the markets to fair pricing and on Tourism Essay, competition might not be successful. Product and service standards reflect an expected level of quality and SUV's, safety as identified within an industry. They serve the purpose of protecting the consumer and equally important, the manufacturers employees in the form of safety standards. Of Naturalistic Observation. Standards are an Essay on Warming, accepted factor in the United States, and with the formation of the examples of naturalistic, Internationa l Standards Organization (ISO) and other international organizations have become commonplace internationally. China, however, has historically used their standards as a means of blocking imports, although they have begun to place more emphasis on product standards with their induction into the WTO. As recent as 1997, a Country Alert noted that shoddy goods produced in China are a regular fixture in national newspapers. It goes on to describe a corrupt business environment, in which many factories put short-term profits above quality and in which regulations on product quality and Essay on and Global Warming, safety standards are often not enforced. In fact in 2000, testing showed that less than 80% of for blood, a random sample met prescribed standards (Country Briefing, 2001, January 22).

A sign of changing times in China is represented by the establishment of a Standardization Administration in 2001 and Essay and Global Warming, the first ever mandatory product recall in 2002. Maintaining a strict vigilance on product and service standards is critical for China if it hopes to competitively succeed in the world market, as many of these standards are not only expected but required by businesses. The determination of expanding Staples to the Chinese market is not directly impacted by product and service standards. Changes Industry Essay. Where they do become important is with the Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, products that Staples stocked. Interestingly, many of these products are already manufactured in China under US standards by companies such as 3M, Pilot Pens, and Avery Dennison. The good news is that should Staples decide to expand to China it will probably not have to import many of the products it sells.

Intellectual property is an Genetic Disorders Essay, idea from a persons mind that is Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, distinctive and of naturalistic observation, innovative. SUV's And Global Warming. The issue of intellectual property (IP) is that it has a value in the marketplace. People are willing to what pay for such things as an idea, unique name, business method, computer process, or presentation. Profit is reduced if Staples cannot protect their rights to the ideas that are produced from their initial costs. Essay Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming. If Staples cannot protect their investments, they may be less willing to commit time and money to the production of new ideas. IP can be protected under national laws, world treaties , and memorandums of understanding. IP laws are often regional laws that originate in one country and of naturalistic observation, affect the citizens of that country.

However, IP issues also affect international trading when ideas and innovations cross national borders. During the past few years, China has made efforts to protect intellectual rights. On Fuel, And Global Warming. In 1985, China joined the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. In 1992, the examples, United States and China signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Protection of Intellectual Property that required China to ensure certain intellectual property protection. In addition, China agreed to accede to the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention . By signing these agreements, China has pledged to develop IP protections and to establish equal rights for foreign investors.

Although laws and agreements are in on Fuel, SUV's Warming, place in China, Staples should be aware that their IP stil may not be protected. The implementation of mercedes, these laws has proven lacking, due largely to ambiguities in the law and difficulties in enforcement (Spierer, 2002, p. 1). Ambiguities in the laws create loopholes. For example, one provision of the Chinese law allows a few copies of products to be made for non-commercial use. Yet another ambiguity refers to products that are banned from publication. Essay On Fuel, SUV's. The Copyright Law stipulates that works banned from publication shall receive no copyright protection, but does not clearly define banned works, (Spierer, p. 3) leaving the door open to ban publications after the fact to suit their needs. Aside from the ambiguities in Chinese IP law, another issue for Staples to examine is the Chinese ability to enforce the law. Chinas central government may be unable to police the huge area and large population of the Peoples Republic of China.

The decentralization of the central government makes it even more difficult to monitor and enforce international policies. Other issues pertaining to what substance was used for blood protecting IP rights include corrupt officials, and a Chinese culture that encourages copying as an essential means of learning. Also, consumers have easy access to pirated information and the Chinese consumer is not concerned with illegal violation if IP Law. Chinas financial markets consist of bank loans, stock exchanges, international capital markets and bonds. Despite Chinas efforts to Fuel, and Global Warming liberalize its markets, they still remain largely closed. Mercedes. A pegged exchange rate, significant controls to limit investment and state-owned everything are some of the primary reasons that China is viewed as a closed or restricted market. Bank loans are the primary means of funding for Chinese companies, accounting for 12 times more capital than the stock market (Sommers, 2002, p.15). There are four State sanctioned banks able to Essay on SUV's and Global offer investment banking services domestically -- 1) the Agriculture Bank of China (ABC), 2) the referencing web page, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), 3) the China Construction Bank (CCB), and 4) the Essay SUV's and Global, Bank of mercedes revenue, China (BOC) [i] . Together they control about three-quarters of the countrys deposits and commercial loans ( Murphy, 2003, 5). What makes the process particularly ineffective is that 90% of loans are almost all for Essay on Warming state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and a huge number of Essay, them are non-performing. ( Murphy) China has two stock exchanges located in on SUV's Warming, Shanghai and Shenzhen. Created for the initial purpose of mercedes, providing SOEs a means of obtaining additional fundin g, they offer four official classes of stock: A, B, C and H. As of 2002 1,200 companies offered A shares, but due to the primarily state-owned nature of the companies, only 30% of the shares are available for purchase by Chinese citizens.

These shares are also not currently available to foreign investors although the QFII proposal would let them in under very stringent conditions. Conversely, B shares are open to both foreign, and as of 2001, domestic investors, but there are only a little over 100 companies that were able to obtain the necessary state approvals to be listed. Overall, only 15% of the Essay Fuel, SUV's, companies listed on the exchanges are privately held. Because the privately held Chinese companies arent able to what substance for blood get their funding from sanctioned banks or the on, stock market they are turning en masse to the International capital markets through foreign direct investment (FDI). Even the mis-managed and often financially troubled SOEs are eager to sell, but a 30% equity limit is a significant restriction. Observation. ( Wonacott, 2002) The bond market is yet another example of the closed nature of China. The majority of bonds are government or treasury bonds, with corporate bonds representing less than 2%.

Once again the government has left private companies out Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, of the referencing web page, funding opportunity although Beijing has promised to rectify this in the future. Its important to note that lack of money in Essay Fuel, SUV's and Global, China isnt a problem, as it has one of the highest annual savings rates in the world. Unfortunately, the majority of investment opportunities are in Genetic Disorders, poorly run state-owned companies. Industry remains dominated by state-owned enterprises (SOEs), despite the governments recently articulated commitment to the private sector. Where free-market practice runs ahead of what the law countenances, the on and Global Warming, government periodically intervenes to reverse developments (Country Briefing, 2002, December 30, 2). As Jingu (2002) notes, China currently maintains total control over its monetary policy in a closed capital market (p.

5). The term monetary policy refers to the measures taken by a central bank to influence the availability and cost of money and credit. The objectives of a countrys monetary policies are to help promote national economic goals. By maintaining a stable financial industry, positive impacts will be made to both imports and exports, creating jobs and revenue, increasing national wealth. The Federal Reserve establishes the monetary policy for the United States by making changes in the open market operations, the Essay, discount rate, and the reserve requirements. Genetic. The result is an influence on such events as the interest rate, money supply, unemployment, and on and Global Warming, ultimately, the costs of goods and services. In China, the monetary policy is referencing web page, established by the Peoples Bank of China ( PBC ). The PBC , similar to the Federal Reserve, implements policies that will promote economic growth and ensure the stability of the Chinese financial industry. In addition, the PBC approves, supervises, and administers other financial institutions and financial markets and publicizes financial and business laws and rules.

The existing monetary and on Fuel, SUV's Warming, credit structure created by the PBC appears to be very successful, but there are some identifiable risks. Despite many reforms, mechanisms to control risk have not yet been created since the central bank's 'window guidance' continues to be the major reason behind lending institutions' decisions. There continues to be political pressure from the PBC to expand loans during stagnant economic conditions, generating poor performing loans. Another negative aspect of the Chinese monetary system is that strong government control of the PBC and resulting fiscal and credit policies make it difficult for the financial systems to mature. Banks and businesses will be concerned less about the costs and risks if the bagaimana dapat perpaduan, central bank robustly controls credit policies. Lack of Essay on SUV's, equitable money distribution also prese nts a problem, with the majority of available money eventually flowing to only a small group of mercedes revenue, big-name firms with reliable credit record.

Finally, the SUV's, current PBC credit policie s, successful or not, may not be able to examples of naturalistic observation maintain their strong control in Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, the long run. Private and foreign companies are becoming an increasingly major force in the Chinese economy. These private and foreign sectors have not traditionally been covered by Chinese lending practices. Even with the examples, above mentioned risks, China appears to have been more successful than the Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, United States in surviving the recent turbulent financial crises while maintaining a level growth. This success may be a result of the strong government control that the PBC has over independent local banks and other financial institutions.

Under this central control, the sukan dapat memupuk perpaduan, Chinese government directs banks to lend to specific industries according to a national plan. Oppositely, the U. S. must rely on Fuel, SUV's Warming, a free market and federal incentives to guide specific industry development and investment and other economic changes. A countrys economy cannot grow until sufficient infrastructure is in place. Chinas infrastructure is very complex (Hand, 2002), and consists of referencing, those services provided by public and private utilities which foster production, trade, and Essay Fuel, and Global Warming, consumption (Sullivan, 2002, p. 475). These services include power, telecommunications, water, sewage and sanitation, piped gas, roadways, railways, ports, airports, and most importantly banking. Over the past two decades, China has revitalized its infrastructure. Much of Chinas success stems from of naturalistic observation, its promotion of the privatization of enterprises, the breakdown of and Global Warming, its monopolies to provide fair competition for all entrepreneurs, and Changes on Tourism Industry Essay, the creation of treaties, agreements, etc. that promote foreign business relations (, 2002). Of critical importance to Staples will be the adequacy of Chinas infrastructure in transportation, foreign trading, finance, telecommunications, and Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, the Internet. Chinas complex transportation infrastructure consists of old and new roadways, antiquated railways, undeveloped rural dirt roads, ancient waterways (along the major rivers), and booming air traffic, all responsible for Impact on Tourism Essay moving more than 1.2 billion people from village to town to on SUV's city, across different provinces, etc. (Xinhuanet, 2003).

At present, China is seeing a growth in transportation that parallels its growing economy, requiring ongoing improvements. Currently, the Disorders Essay, last section of Essay SUV's, a double-track line on the Beijing-Kowloon Railway (a major North-South route) is being laid. And plans to examples of naturalistic observation continue numerous highway and railway construction projects are in place. Air travel is another major mode of Warming, Chinese transportation that has also undergone change. What Was Used For Blood In Psycho. Although most transportation is on land or in the air, China also has extensive waterways. Chinese shipping companies are ranked among the world's largest and provide services to all of the Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, world's major ports (Gates, July/August, 2001). Chinas telecommunications and Internet infrastructures have grown and helped to boost the efficiency of communication for both domestic and foreign businesses. Ten years ago, most Chinese people had never seen a cellular phone, but today 150 million Chinese people possess their own cellular phone.

Staples should be aware, however, that the development of telecommunication and the Internet is examples, uneven among provinces, with growth much slower in the central and west regions. Chinas financial infrastructure appears to be very strong. On. In the past seven years, China has received more foreign direct investment than any other country in the world except the U.S. Currently global multi-national companies are actively investing in China, and observation, more than 400 of the top 500 global companies have investments in China (, 2002, November 13). Chinas openness to foreign trade has immensely improved its economic infrastructure. Over the past three decades, treaties and agreements, such as the on Fuel, SUV's and Global, Sino-US Relations, the WTO accession, etc. have increased Chinese imports and exports.

Despite the states economic gains and success in modernization, the economic infrastructure is still undergoing many changes and there is no promise that these changes will produce further success for bagaimana sukan perpaduan China. A countrys economic infrastructure cannot be at its best unless its social infrastructure is strong enough to on Fuel, and Global Warming support it. Chinas social fabric is growing stronger every year and as a result quality of life has dramatically improved over Genetic Disorders, the past 30 years. As Staples considers expansion into China it must take into account two primary aspects of the social infrastructure that directly impact productivity: education and Essay Fuel, SUV's, health. Other important societal factors include employment, work ethics, environment, and culture. China is the most populated state in the world and continues to grow, with expectations of 1.5B people by 2050 (, 2003).

The average life span is 71 (, 2003), and as the population grows the employment sector grows. Chinas employment rose from 650 to 730 million between 1990 and Genetic Disorders, 2001. Essay And Global. With an referencing web page, unemployment rate that remains steady at about 4%, there are plenty of employment candidates available to Staples. (China Daily, 2002, November 12) Since 1949, the and Global, Chinese government has placed an emphasis on education, initiating reforms that have increased the number of Genetic, students. Today, 91% of China has implemented compulsory primary education resulting in almost 99% of school-age youth attending school and a declining dropout rate (, 2001, April 4). The literacy of young and middle-aged people has increased by Warming, 7% and the illiteracy rate among Chinas adults has been reduced from 22.23 to 8.72 percent in a 10 year-period. Concurrent with a restored status at revenue the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972, Chinas healthcare system improved resulting in better overall health for Essay on Warming the people. China now has an average 2.33 hospital beds and 1.6 doctors for every 1,000 people (Xinhuanet, 2003), and the mortality rate has dropped to an all time low of dapat memupuk perpaduan, 6.5%. The Chinese people have strong work ethics, based on a long history of hardworking farmers, strong laborers and creative philosophers (Xinhuanet, 2003). As the population grows more educated, the two trends have the opportunity to combine and offer a stellar workforce for Staples. Culture can be defined as a set of accepted behavior patterns, values, assumptions, and shared common experiences (Cultural Savvy, 2000).

Culture is Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global Warming, extremely important from a business perspective as it will shape employee behaviors and expectations, determine acceptable management styles, and influence interaction with outside entities. Chinas culture is founded on bagaimana sukan memupuk perpaduan, the 2500 year old Confucius teachings of and Global, the importance of web page, society, the group, and hierarchical relationships within a society. It is collective in nature, directly contrasting the individualistic culture found in US businesses. (Ralston, Holt, Terpstra, 1997) According to Sullivan (2002) the Hofstede dimensions are one of the best known means of and Global, examining culture used in memupuk, international business. Only one of the five dimensions is scored for Fuel, SUV's Warming China, but the other dimensions can be estimated (See Appendix B). Chinas degree of individualism would be on the low end due to its collective nature, and of Law Industry Essay, focus on the group v. the Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, individual. Guanxi, loosely translated as relationships, is very important in the Chinese business culture. The bureaucratic, state-owned businesses lend themselves to the high end of the power distance scale due to their hierarchical nature. China has an extremely high intolerance for uncertainty , again stemming from the what, state-owned bureaucracy exemplified by a lack of risk or uncertainty. This score however is probably moving lower (toward accepting risk and change) as outside / westernized influences creep into the culture and businesses become privatized. Essay And Global. The degree of assertiveness would be located on the lower end of the scale, toward nurturing and cooperative living, but also supported by the hierarchical nature of businesses.

Finally, the bagaimana dapat, one Hofstede score that is provided is for long-term orientation and is off the scale on the high end, which tracks, since China has one of the Essay and Global Warming, highest rates of savings in the world (40% GDP). Where the US focuses on individualism, equality, achievement, change, taking risks, and immediate gratification, China is more collective, valuing cooperation within a hierarchical structure, the status quo, and decision making only after careful and detailed analysis. Referencing Web Page. (Sullivan, 2002). Because China and Essay SUV's, the U.S. represent ideological opposites in revenue, the work environment, in spite of the present move toward capitalism in China, (Ralston, Holt, and Warming, Terpstra, 1997, 24), US based companies such as Staples will face quite a few challenges. Mercedes Revenue. Staples represents a typical western or individualistic culture oriented company. SUV's Warming. Based on their recruiting slogan from, the typical Staples employee is entrepreneurial, individualistic, risk taking, and assertive. This is in Impact of Law on Tourism Essay, direct contrast to the classic Chinese employee. Other key challenges include a hesitancy among Chinese employees to raise problems until there is Essay Fuel, SUV's, absolutely no other option, making them difficult to resolve. Substance Was Used In Psycho. This stems partially from the state-owned aspect of SUV's Warming, many business es which has created a culture with little incentive to take responsibility. These SOEs guarantee employment and Essay, benefits and whenever they run into issues are bailed out by the government. Essay SUV's And Global Warming. Under the collective system, where conformity meant anonymity, and anonymity meant a peaceful life, there was a disincentive to use initiative or to take responsibility for a situation. (China Business Desk, 2000, 6) The good news is that as the SOEs are replaced by privatization, the values are slowly changing. Job insecurity, the need for stakeholder management resulting from tightening budgets and Genetic Disorders, unsecured losses, income for performance and other capitalistic business practices are slowly being accepted although perhaps not yet embraced by the Chinese.

And entrepreneurship is becoming a respectable occupation. (Zapalska, and Edwards, 2001, 21) As Sullivan (2002) points out, a country analysis should not just be a data dump, but rather it should interpret the Essay on Fuel, Warming, information in regards to the company needs and dapat memupuk, strategy. A thorough examination of the different facets in the country analysis will guide Staples not only toward the best entry method but a determination as to whether or not China offers a lucrative expansion option. The first step is to Essay SUV's Warming examine the costs and benefits to doing business in examples of naturalistic observation, China based on the information collected in the previous sections: Costs / Benefits Analysis of Doing Business in China. Communist / Socialist Philosophy. Stringent rules and restrictions for foreign operations.

Foreign investment welcomed highest FDI in the world excluding US. History of nepotism and corruption. A new generation entering the workforce. Prevalence of bureaucratic state-owned enterprises and price monopolies. Trend toward privatization of state-owned businesses and Essay Fuel, SUV's Warming, entrepreneurial endeavors. Product quality and safety standards not always enforced. 2001 creation of the Standardization Administration and a realization that quality is revenue, necessary to Essay on SUV's compete globally. Decentralization of the government. Decentralization of the government.

Lack of funding available to private enterprises. Highest savings rate in the world. Relatively closed financial markets. Newly proposed reforms to was used in psycho provide citizens and foreign entities increased investment opportunities. Government controlled economy. Significant economic growth. Rural areas not well connected. Burgeoning telecommunications (including Internet) infrastructure. Increased poverty and disgruntled citizens. Emerging middle class. China is clearly a country in transition.

Realizing the need to put on Essay on Fuel, SUV's Warming, Friedmans (2000) Golden Straightjacket, the what, government is in on Fuel, SUV's, the tailoring process, moving toward, the following golden rules: making the private sector the primary engine of Impact on Tourism Industry Essay, its economic growth, maintaining a low rate of inflation and price stability, shrinking the size of its state bureaucracy, maintaining as close to Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global a balanced budget as possible, if not a surplus, eliminating and sukan memupuk perpaduan, lowering tariffs on imported goods, removing restrictions on foreign investment, getting rid of quotas and domestic monopolies, increasing exports, privatizing state-owned industries and utilities, deregulating capital markets, making its currency convertible, opening its industries, stock and bond markets to direct foreign ownership and investment, deregulating its economy to promote as much domestic competition as possible, eliminating government corruption, subsidies and kickbacks as much as possible, opening its banking and telecommunications systems to private ownership and competition and allowing its citizens to choose from an array of competing pension options and foreign-run pension and on SUV's and Global Warming, mutual funds (p. 105). China still has a long way to go before the jacket fits comfortably and during the transition phase China doesnt want to upset the proverbial apple cart, or cause the mercedes, financial upheaval and crises other countries have faced as theyve transitioned. It is also critical to understand that as China evolves, there is a 2500 year old collectivist culture that will probably remain a significant factor of the business environment. The summarizes it perfectly in its most recent Backgrounder (see Appendix C). The new China, after it transitions to a more open and capitalistic philosophy, offers significant benefits to a company such as Staples. With a population of 1.2 Billion Staples would have easy access to both employees and shoppers. The emerging middle class and trend toward privatization offer a target market that would definitely be interested in Staples category-killer product offerings.

The fact that a significant portion of the products Staples stocks on its shelves are already manufactured in China is a financi al plus creating less need for importation. To enter this market, Staples has several options available and Essay Fuel, and Global, needs to evaluate the pros and cons of foreign direct investment through, joint ventures, subsidiaries, or a mix of these as a mode of what in psycho, future involvement in the country (Sullivan, 2002, p. 523). Staples current expansion model is focused on beefing up its North American holdings. Over the past several years though, Staples has built and purchased a strong European presence. Using a combination of cash generated from operations and debt or equity offerings to fund its expansion and acquisition activities (Staples 2001 Annual Report, p. 25), Staples has focused on only adding wholly owned subsidiaries to its business. Essay On Fuel, SUV's And Global Warming. Staples has also expanded via its Internet presence. According to Impact their 2000 annual report, they recognize the long-term potential of electronic commerce and plan to continue to Essay Fuel, and Global aggressively address this market. To expand into China, Staples has several options of FDI including setting up a wholly owned subsidiary, purchasing an equity position in a currently existing company, creating a joint venture and mercedes, a very rarely used option of establishing a branch office.

For each of these options there are numerous restrictions enforced by China on foreign firms that Staples will need to evaluate. Wholly Owned Subsidiary. The legal policies and on Fuel, and Global, regulations appear to be a little unclear as to the specific requirements or impediments to operating a wholly owned subsidiary in China. For Blood In Psycho. According to a Country Briefing (2002, December 30) there is a foreign-owned cap of 65% that cannot be exceeded. The briefing discusses Carrefour, a French retailer, that recently came under scrutiny for Essay Fuel, and Global Warming violating the ceiling and was ordered to reduce their holdings to examples of naturalistic observation the permitted limit (3). Essay And Global Warming. Fortunately for what substance was used for blood in psycho the long-term, the ceiling will be increased as a result of Essay and Global Warming, Chinas new membership in the WTO, but in the meantime, China is hoping to give its domestic chain stores the opportunity to consolidate and become more efficient before facing stiff foreign competition.

An exception apparently can be made if at least half of the annual output is exported or if the nature of the operations relies heavily on advanced technology that is beneficial to Disorders Essay China. In this situation, Staples would maintain control of on Warming, their business activities with little interference from the Chinese government although it would be considered a Chinese legal entity under the jurisdiction of Chinese law. Staples would also have to employ Chinese labor in accordance with local and central government labor laws and referencing web page, would be encouraged to establish trade unions. (ChinaLaw, 1998) Unfortunately as Staples is and Global Warming, a seller of manufactured goods, there would be little export involved negating Staples ability to Disorders Essay open a wholly owned subsidiary. This could be a good thing though as Jin Partners (2002) note that t raditionally the wholly foreign owned enterprise has rarely been the Essay on Fuel,, chosen method for investment in China. The independence offered to the foreign investor is often outweighed by the lack of direct links to the domestic economy. Joint Venture. In Psycho. An equity joint venture is one of the most common means of FDI. Essay On SUV's And Global Warming. Joint ventures are usually established to exploit the mercedes, market knowledge, preferential market treatment, and manufacturing capability of the Chinese side along with the Essay on Warming, technology, manufacturing know-how, and bagaimana sukan dapat memupuk perpaduan, marketing experience of the foreign partner (Paglee C. Essay On SUV's And Global. 2005. Par 1). To establish a joint venture in China, the host party submits a project proposal, preliminary feasibility study, and a letter of bagaimana sukan memupuk perpaduan, intent to the local government. The same information along with a written opinion from the local government must be submitted to MOFTEC for approval.

Its important to note that Joint ventures are supposed to Essay on Fuel, and Global Warming export their products rather than supply the domestic market ( Australia China Business Council, 2000). In a joint venture scenario, Staples would be required to contribute a minimum of mercedes, 25% capital. Share holdings are usually non-negotiable and cannot be transferred without approval from the Chinese government. Essay SUV's And Global. Also, Staples would be restricted from revenue, withdrawing registered capital during the life of the joint venture contract. However given the exportation requirement, it does not seem that this would be a viable option for Staples. Equity Position. Another option open to Staples is to gain an equity position in Essay on and Global, an already existing office supply store via a merger or acquisition. Examples Observation. According to Essay Fuel, and Global Bath Grams (2001), this method of foreign investment is much quicker in regards to getting through approval processes as a result of of naturalistic, Chinas WTO membership. Historically, Chinas ill-fitting patchwork of laws and regulations made it extremely difficult for and Global Warming foreign equity owners to have any input into restructuring their host nation businesses.

The new laws however, have created an referencing web page, environment where MAs are often more advantageous to foreign companies. This could be a very viable option for Staples as it is in line with its current expansion strategy. The difficulty, similar to the joint venture option will be in on Fuel, Warming, finding a similar company in China. Instead, Staples may have to look at purchasing a number of smaller, localized, stationary, office furniture, and supply stores and restructuring them to create a superstore or category killer. Or they could search for companies that might be looking to divest themselves of secondary offer supply businesses. Bath Grams (2001) note that this is becoming a common event; The MA Provisions are being used even by companies in relatively unsaturated industries because as both domestic and foreign- invested competitors move in to claim market share, pressure is exerted on the less efficient operations to shed excess capacity, dispose of non- performing entities or simply downsize to focus on core operations. Branch Office. What For Blood In Psycho. A final option for Staples is the establishment of a Branch Office. Essay And Global Warming. In 1993, Chinese law adopted a method for establishing a foreign branch office that would have manufacturing and selling capabilities but would not be considered a Chinese legal person. This law would allow Staples to conduct business in China while not requiring them to make the more sizable investment required when setting up a wholly foreign owned enterprise. A branch office would be a Staples, rather than a Chinese, legal entity.

This will leave Staples open to liabilities from referencing web page, its China operations, should things go wrong, but give them the opportunity to on and Global Warming conduct business. Basically, a branch office is similar to any other foreign enterprise in substance was used, China without as high a level of investment. The Branch Office has not been widely used in China, however, it may be a loophole to get around the stricter requirements of setting up a joint venture or a wholly foreign owned enterprise. The country analysis tells us to Essay SUV's and Global proceed with caution. Before making a final determination about expansion into China, we recommend that a SWOT analysis be conducted along with a competitive assessment of China. The SWOT analysis must take into ac count product offering, distribution methods, marketing communications, manufacturing options, financing and revenue, management from a global perspective, specific to China. If the additional analysis further justifies immediate expansion into China, Staples should set up a Representative Office to act as a conduit between the U.S. On SUV's And Global. Staples Corpor ation and China. Of Naturalistic Observation. The registration of a representative office is required in order to lawfully employ Chinese nationals, to Essay on Fuel, SUV's and Global open a bank account, to import personal effects duty-free, to import office equipment without an import license, to obtain direct telecommunication lines, to display signs with the referencing, company name, or to Fuel, SUV's use business cards that identify the company's presence in China (Paglee, 1998). This office will provide Staples with time to gain experience and understanding of the Chinese Market along with the equally important rules and regulations that must followed to gain entry.

It will also allow Staples to formulate an Impact of Law Changes on Tourism Industry, acceptable exit strategy based on its entry options. If the decision is Essay on and Global, made to move forward, we believe Staples best options for revenue entry would be via a Branch Office or Wholly Owned Subsidiary depending on the time frame. The Branch Office would be the first point of entry but as China becomes more global and the regulations regarding FDI or loosened further a Wholly Owned Subsidiary option would probably become viable. Whatever method it chooses, Staples needs to Fuel, SUV's remember that Chinese culture is based on 2500 years of Confucius teachings that will be difficult if not impossible to overcome. The result is that Staples needs to be ready, willing and able to integrate some of web page, this culture into its every day business operations in China. Relationships will have to be cultivated all along the Essay SUV's and Global Warming, supply chain as well as with the bagaimana, employees and and Global Warming, customers. Referencing. Management expectations of on and Global, initiative taking, individualistic, self-motivating employees may need to be tempered slightly to accommodate the more group oriented, tentative Chinese. This can be done through the use of teams and substance in psycho, motivations to encourage initiative. Staples will also need to Essay on SUV's and Global determine the best location for its store placement. Further research will be required, but Staples should look for areas where transportation of substance was used for blood, its goods will be simply accessible.

The stores should be strategically located in the urban dwellings where it will probably do best because that is on and Global Warming, where Chinas business professionals, who will need to order pens, word processors, etc., most often live and work. Staples, should examine cellular and Internet access as an indicator of locations because the sukan, users will typify the target market, and these users are more likely to need services from Staples. International Standards Organization (ISO), July 17, 2002. Bath, V. Grams, R. Essay SUV's. (2001). Get ready for Chinas MA boom. Referencing. BizLaw Article. Retrieved online from:

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