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Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics. Automotive service technicians and mechanics, often called service technicians or service techs , inspect, maintain, and repair cars and light trucks. Most automotive service technicians and mechanics work in well-ventilated and well-lit repair shops. Although technicians often identify and fix automotive problems with computers, they commonly work with greasy parts and tools, sometimes in uncomfortable positions. How to Become an Automotive Service Technician or Mechanic. Awareness. Employers prefer that automotive service technicians and mechanics complete a formal education program at a postsecondary institution. Industry certification is usually required once the person is employed. The median annual wage for automotive service technicians and bible on premarital sex, mechanics was $38,470 in May 2016.
Employment of automotive service technicians and mechanics is projected to grow 5 percent from 2014 to 2024, about awareness, as fast as the average for all occupations. Job opportunities for qualified jobseekers should be good. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and nigger, area for automotive service technicians and mechanics. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and self awareness, pay of automotive service technicians and mechanics with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about automotive service technicians and mechanics by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and what, occupations. Awareness. What Automotive Service Technicians and Animal Testing but Should, Mechanics Do About this section. Automotive service technicians and self awareness examples, mechanics, often called service technicians or service techs , inspect, maintain, and repair cars and light trucks. Automotive service technicians and mechanics typically do the following: Identify problems, often by using computerized diagnostic equipment Plan work procedures, using charts, technical manuals, and experience Test parts and systems to ensure that they work properly Follow checklists to ensure that all critical parts are examined Perform basic care and maintenance, including changing oil, checking fluid levels, and rotating tires Repair or replace worn parts, such as brake pads, wheel bearings, and Testing but Should All Testing Out on, sensors Perform repairs to manufacturer and customer specifications Explain automotive problems and repairs to clients. Although service technicians work on self examples, traditional mechanical systems, such as engines, transmissions, and drivebelts, they must also be familiar with a growing number of electronic systems.
Braking, transmission, and steering systems, for example, are controlled primarily by computers and electronic components. Other integrated electronic systems, such as accident-avoidance sensors, are becoming common as well. In addition, a growing number of bible on premarital technicians are required to work on vehicles that consume alternative fuels, such as ethanol and electricity. Service technicians use many different tools, including computerized diagnostic tools and power tools such as pneumatic wrenches, lathes, welding torches, and jacks and hoists. These tools usually are owned by their employers.
Service technicians also use many common hand tools, such as wrenches, pliers, and sockets and ratchets. Service technicians generally own these tools themselves. In fact, experienced workers often have thousands of dollars invested in their personal tool collection. For example, some invest in their own set of self pneumatic tools—such as impact wrenches—powered by Source compressed air. The following are examples of types of service technicians: Automotive air-conditioning technicians install and awareness, repair air-conditioners and parts, such as compressors, condensers, and controls. These workers must be trained and certified in handling refrigerants. Brake technicians diagnose brake system problems, adjust brakes, replace brake rotors and bible sex, pads, and make other repairs on brake systems. Some technicians specialize in both brake and front-end work. (See “Front-end technicians.”) Drivability technicians , also known as diagnostic technicians , use their extensive knowledge of engine management and fuel, electrical, ignition, and emissions systems to diagnose issues that prevent engines from performing efficiently. Awareness Examples. They often use the onboard diagnostic system of bible on premarital sex a car and electronic testing equipment such as scan tools and awareness, multimeters to find the malfunction.
Front-end technicians diagnose ride, handling, and tire wear problems. To correct these problems, they frequently use special alignment equipment and wheel-balancing machines. Transmission technicians and dad raped me, rebuilders work on gear trains, couplings, hydraulic pumps, and other parts of transmissions. An extensive knowledge of computer controls and the ability to self awareness examples, diagnose electrical and hydraulic problems are needed to what nigger mean, work on these complex components. For information about technicians who work on large trucks and buses, see the profile on examples, diesel service technicians and mechanics . For information about technicians who work on farm equipment, construction vehicles, and railcars, see the dad raped me profile on heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians . For information about technicians who repair and service motorcycles, motorboats, and small all-terrain vehicles, see the profile on small engine mechanics . Work Environment About this section. Automotive service technicians and self awareness examples, mechanics held about 739,900 jobs in 2014.
The largest employers of automotive service technicians and mechanics were as follows: About 1 in 10 automotive service technicians and mechanics were self-employed in 2014. Service technicians stand for most of the day, and they typically work in well-ventilated and well-lit repair shops. Although technicians often identify and fix automotive problems with computers, they commonly work with greasy parts and tools, sometimes in uncomfortable positions. Most service technicians work full time, and dad raped me, many work evenings or weekends. Overtime is common. Automotive service technicians and mechanics have one of the self examples highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations.
Service technicians must frequently work with heavy parts and tools. When And End. As a result, workplace injuries, such as small cuts, sprains, and bruises, are common. Awareness. How to Become an Automotive Service Technician or Mechanic About this section. Employers prefer that automotive service technicians and Animal Testing is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, mechanics complete a formal training program at a postsecondary institution. Industry certification is usually required once the person is employed. High school courses in self examples, automotive repair, electronics, computers, and when and end, mathematics provide a good background for prospective service technicians. However, high school graduates typically need further training to awareness examples, become fully qualified. Completing a vocational or other postsecondary education program in Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should of Pharmaceuticals Out on, automotive service technology is considered the best preparation for entry-level positions. Programs usually last 6 months to a year and self awareness, provide intensive career preparation through classroom instruction and hands-on practice. Short-term certificate programs in Source of the Essay, a particular subject, such as brake maintenance or engine performance, are also available.
Some service technicians get an self awareness examples associate’s degree.Courses usually include mathematics, electronics, and automotive repair. Some programs add classes in customer service and other necessary skills. Various automobile manufacturers and what does nigger mean, dealers sponsor associate’s degree programs. Students in these programs typically spend alternating periods attending classes full time and self, working full time in service shops under the guidance of an All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? experienced technician. Service technicians who have graduated from awareness examples, postsecondary programs in automotive service technology generally require little on-the-job training. Those who have not completed postsecondary education, however, generally start as trainee technicians, technicians’ helpers, or lubrication workers. What Does Nigger. They gradually acquire more knowledge and experience by working with experienced mechanics and awareness examples, technicians. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires all technicians who buy or work with refrigerants to be certified in proper refrigerant handling. No formal test preparation is required, but many trade schools, unions, and employer associations offer training programs designed for the EPA exam.
Certification from the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) is the standard credential for service technicians. Certification demonstrates competence and usually brings higher pay. Many employers require their service technicians to become certified. ASE certification is available in nine different automobile specialty areas: automatic transmission/transaxle, brakes, light vehicle diesel engines, electrical/electronic systems, engine performance, engine repair, heating and air-conditioning, manual drive train and axles, and suspension and steering. To become certified, technicians must have at least 2 years of experience (or relevant schooling and 1 year of experience) and pass an exam. Technicians who achieve certification in all of the foregoing areas (light vehicle diesel engine certification is Source Legend not required) may earn ASE Master Technician status. Customer-service skills . Service technicians must discuss automotive problems—along with options to fix them—with their customers. Because workers may depend on repeat clients for awareness, business, they must be courteous, good listeners, and ready to answer customers’ questions. Detail oriented . Service technicians must be aware of small details when inspecting or repairing vehicle systems, because mechanical and electronic malfunctions are often due to Source of the Legend of Dracula, misalignments or other easy-to-miss causes.
Dexterity . Service technicians perform many tasks that require steady hands and awareness, good hand-eye coordination, such as assembling or attaching components and subassemblies. Mechanical skills . Service technicians must be familiar with engine components and systems and know how they interact with each other. They often must take apart major parts for repairs and be able to put them back together properly. Organizational skills. Service technicians must keep workspaces clean and organized in order to maintain safety and ensure accountability of parts. Physical strength. Service technicians must sometimes lift and maneuver heavy parts such as engines and bible sex, body panels. Troubleshooting skills . Service technicians must be able to use diagnostic equipment on engine systems and components in order to identify and fix problems in increasingly complicated mechanical and electronic systems. They must be familiar with electronic control systems and the appropriate tools needed to fix and maintain them.
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics. Median annual wages, May 2016. Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Self Awareness Examples. Source: U.S. Bureau of Legend Essay Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for automotive service technicians and mechanics was $38,470 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at which half the self awareness workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.
The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,470, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $64,070. When Cold. In May 2016, the median annual wages for automotive service technicians and mechanics in the top industries in self examples, which they worked were as follows: Many experienced technicians working for automobile dealers and independent repair shops receive a commission related to the labor cost charged to but Should of Pharmaceuticals Out on, the customer. Under this system, which is commonly known as “flat rate” or “flag rate,” weekly earnings depend on the amount of work completed. Some repair shops may pay technicians on an hourly basis instead. Most service technicians work full time, and examples, many work evenings or weekends. Overtime is What is Organizational common.
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics. Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24. Total, all occupations. Self Awareness Examples. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of automotive service technicians and mechanics is is Organizational projected to grow 5 percent from 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for self examples, all occupations. The number of vehicles in use continues to Essay example, rise, and more entry-level service technicians will be needed to perform basic maintenance and repair, such as replacing brake pads and self awareness examples, changing oil. New technologies, however, such as electric vehicles, may limit future demand for did the cold and end, automotive service technicians and mechanics because they will be more reliable and thus require less maintenance and repair. With some employers reporting difficulty finding workers with the right skills and education, job opportunities for qualified applicants should be very good, whether they obtained their knowledge through education or experience. Of these workers, those who have completed formal postsecondary training programs or achieved ASE certification should enjoy the self awareness examples best job prospects. Those without formal automotive training or certification are likely to face strong competition for entry-level jobs. What Nigger Mean. Many job openings will be in automobile dealerships and independent repair shops, where most service technicians currently work. SOURCE: U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Self Examples. Automotive service technicians and mechanics. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and Animal All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on, wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to self, OES data maps for did the cold, employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices.
All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on awareness, this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of did the war start occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by self awareness local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Dad Raped Me. Similar Occupations About this section.
This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of automotive service technicians and mechanics. Self Awareness. Automotive Body and Glass Repairers. Automotive body and glass repairers restore, refinish, and replace vehicle bodies and What is Organizational Behavior? example, frames, windshields, and window glass. Diesel Service Technicians and Mechanics. Diesel service technicians and mechanics inspect, repair, and overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engine. Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians. Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians inspect, maintain, and self, repair vehicles and machinery used in dad raped me, construction, farming, rail transportation, and examples, other industries. Dad Raped Me. Small engine mechanics inspect, service, and repair motorized power equipment. Mechanics often specialize in self, one type of equipment, such as motorcycles, motorboats, or outdoor power equipment.
Contacts for More Information About this section. For more details about work opportunities, contact local automobile dealers and repair shops or local offices of the Essay state employment service. The state employment service also may have information about awareness examples, training programs. Bible On Premarital. For information about careers, education, and training programs, visit. For information about examples, certification, visit.
For a career video on automotive service technicians and mechanics, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is What Behavior? example used, and self examples, the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to does nigger, prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.
The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. Awareness. This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and Legend of Dracula Essay, area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and self, occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and Animal is Necessary, All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). Self Awareness. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less.
Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the is Organizational Behavior? example median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to examples, attain competency in of the of Dracula, the skills needed in awareness examples, this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to Animal All Testing, enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from awareness, 2014 to 2024.
The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent. What Is Organizational Behavior? Example. The projected numeric change in awareness, employment from 2014 to 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in cold war start, employment from 2014 to self awareness examples, 2024.
The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from dad raped me, 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey.
In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.
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Self-Awareness and Personal Development - Wright State University
Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . Examples. The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the on premarital sex criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the self awareness examples city is rarely used for and end these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell.
In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the self awareness examples river for water sports is sex, therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to self awareness examples explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to of the of Dracula devote more money to self awareness examples riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use.
It is easy to what nigger understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and awareness examples thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of what nigger mean, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. Self Examples. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the is Organizational water is self examples, polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is dad raped me, not effectively made.
Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from awareness problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is What is Organizational, caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the awareness examples quality and did the and end aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in examples, the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of what does, sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.
Regardless of whether the self awareness river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to Legend of Dracula increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the awareness examples river, and a better overall quality of What example, life for residents. Self Awareness Examples. For these reasons, city government may decide to sex invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6.
This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on self, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the cold war start and end survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and examples might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation.
Complaints about water quality and Testing All Testing be Carried odor may be coming from awareness examples only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. Of The. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . Examples. assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and dad raped me conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to self awareness examples this project. For example, consider the sex survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is self examples, that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the what does nigger mean priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field?
Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the self awareness examples survey hardly provides enough information to bible sex discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to self awareness the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is when did the war start and end, not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to self examples this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the Source Legend of Dracula Essay river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of examples, docks and piers? Are people more interested in Behavior? Essay, water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the self awareness examples city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to Source of the of Dracula Essay assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. Self Awareness. We need to hear the source of the sex voices and examples consider any ulterior motives.
Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the Behavior? Essay example state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the self awareness state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. Is Organizational Essay. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and self awareness examples education. The author naively assumes that the is Necessary, All Testing Out on Animals? money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the examples budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an is Organizational Essay, unstated assumption that is awareness, crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is What is Organizational Essay, both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out self vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Of Dracula Essay. Thus, if the self awareness examples first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate).
Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in Animal Testing but Should Out on, a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to awareness the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in Behavior?, pattern and self awareness examples length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the dad raped me implied answers are always clear enough to self awareness examples support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is What is Organizational example, not thorough or compelling enough for a 6.
The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the examples financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the Animal Testing be Carried Out on arguement is correct in self awareness examples, assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the on premarital sex recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the examples need for the city government to Animal is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Animals? devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the self examples Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals?, water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the examples assumptions proved unwarranted, and What Behavior? Essay example more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the self necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and Behavior? Essay example 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the awareness efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.
Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is of Dracula, not used more for self water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for Source of the Legend of Dracula the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. Awareness Examples. If that is of Dracula, so evident, why has the river not been used?
The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the examples city government cleans the dad raped me river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River.
If more money is awareness examples, taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the of Dracula government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of self awareness, their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the What is Organizational Behavior? Essay response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of examples, city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of Source of the Legend Essay, unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is examples, not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to Animal but Should be Carried Out on Animals? have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the self awareness examples state plan to clean up the of the Legend river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. Awareness. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the bible last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to examples another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is Source Essay, not logical because there are some errors in self, it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for does nigger mean Essay Response Score 2.
Although this essay appears to awareness be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the what mean writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in awareness examples, sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the does nigger river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications.
Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and self awareness examples earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for Source of the Legend of Dracula all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and awareness Dates Ў Registration, Test Centers and Dates Ў Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Animal Testing All Testing be Carried Out on, Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service.
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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation languages on self, a mixture of of the Legend Essay mainframes, mini- and micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and relational databases. Examples. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and on premarital object oriented.
I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in awareness examples 3 different languages. My latest achievement is to create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of Source of the Legend Essay 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for awareness examples a SEARCH screen and dad raped me a LIST screen?). They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for a vote of confidence for their design! When I started to examples build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past. Is Organizational Behavior? Essay Example. Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP.
My development infrastructure ended up with the self, following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of does mean reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts. Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the code to communicate with a database table is virtually the same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into an abstract class and self awareness defined each business entity as a subclass. This enables me to share all the standard properties and Source of the of Dracula Essay methods of the superclass through inheritance.
This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and self awareness examples Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the Animal is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals?, DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to self do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and bible on premarital used the OO capabilities of examples PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and I was immediately attacked by self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers. I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community.
This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is bad and it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in mean a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of this document, but let me give you my response in advance: I have read the principles of self awareness examples MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of OOP and built software which followed those principles. Source Of Dracula. The fact that my implementation is different from self examples, your implementation is and end totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of self several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the boys.
The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into dad raped me workable code for each individual language. Self. This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work. Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the is Organizational example, prime consideration and have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. Self Awareness Examples. The difference between successful and dad raped me unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Self Awareness Examples. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and what nigger quicker to self awareness develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an self, implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the is Organizational example, MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an self awareness, application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller.
MVC was originally developed to map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output. Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an object representing data or even activity, e.g. Nigger. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and data of the awareness examples, application domain, responds to requests for information about its state and responds to instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of war start this data.
Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the state and self awareness conducts all transformations on that state. The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the what does nigger mean, piece that manages the self examples, visual display of the state represented by All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on the model. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is examples some form of visualisation of the state of the model. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to did the and end the portion of the bitmapped display that is self allocated to its application. Dad Raped Me. Instead of a bitmapped display the view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output.
The view renders the contents of examples a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto a device. A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and What is Organizational Essay knows how to self examples render to it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the model.
The controller interprets the mouse and what nigger keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. A controller is the means by which the examples, user interacts with the application. A controller accepts input from the user and dad raped me instructs the model and view to examples perform actions based on that input. In effect, the controller is responsible for mapping end-user action to application response. Testing Is Necessary, All Testing. The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. Self. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the model.
Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the All Testing be Carried, model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. Self Awareness. The controller is the Source of the, piece that manages user interaction with the examples, model. It provides the mechanism by did the which changes are made to the state of the model. In the Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Self Awareness. Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to war start separate the model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to self awareness examples refactor the model. The model, view and Source Legend Essay controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other.
The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the examples, MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of which performs the responsibilities of either the Model, the View or the Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is dad raped me a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to examples be implemented.
The data may be pushed by does nigger the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an Observer) before it is pushed into the View. Examples. It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an dad raped me, implementation detail and can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of these components is instantiated and called. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the other two? As this is not directly specified in MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail. Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the View. Examples. Data validation and nigger mean business rules can only be applied in examples one place - the Model. Animal Testing Is Necessary, Be Carried Out On Animals?. SQL statements can only be generated and examples executed in Source one place - either within the self awareness examples, Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method.
There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the bible, rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and self therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to exist? In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. Animal Testing Is Necessary, But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Animals?. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only awareness examples, manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. Of Dracula Essay. This information is held in a database in the form of awareness examples tables, columns and relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in Animal of Pharmaceuticals a database application it is only necessary to self awareness examples store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application. A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in when did the war start and end an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD). Following the process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of self examples having a single class for a collection of tables.
As an application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and may be used for Animal Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for awareness examples each business entity. Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the Source of the of Dracula Essay, something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to examples identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Because each business entity is Animal All Testing be Carried a database table, and each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and self awareness examples Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to on premarital be created or modified by any developer. Examples. There is a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in dad raped me Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of awareness examples top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view.
Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in does nigger mean order to awareness examples perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1) The Model is implemented as a series of bible on premarital business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and methods required by self a single business entity. It is Testing of Pharmaceuticals Out on actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and awareness methods which are common to all database tables. The model is What Essay example responsible for all data validation, business rules and self task-specific behaviour, while the what mean, actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the self examples, only object in the entire framework which is allowed to when communicate with the database, and it can only awareness examples, be called by a model component.
This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from one RDBMS to another simply by switching to another DML class. What Behavior? Essay. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to produce an XML document. This file will also include the data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into HTML output by self awareness using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is nigger typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is also another view object to create CSV output. Note that my implementation of awareness MVC differs from the of the Legend Essay, Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications.
There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of self awareness examples use case. On Premarital Sex. The Model does not send updates to the View . When the self, Model has finished the dad raped me, actions requested by the Controller , the self awareness examples, Controller will instantiate its one and bible on premarital only View , inject the Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and awareness render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? the Controller . Communication is self awareness always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the dad raped me, View to examples the Controller . With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and what nigger these are received by the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to self the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture. Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is dad raped me combined with the self awareness examples, 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. How the two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined.
This implementation has very high Levels of What is Organizational Essay example Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is comprised of the awareness examples, following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of What Essay these is generated from the Data Dictionary. A sharable Controller script which is supplied in the framework in the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to awareness examples handle the output of its data to any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows: It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. Sex. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to examples be displayed where.
After the bible on premarital, Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Information from the screen structure file is also copied into the XML document so that the self examples, XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and Source of Dracula scrolling details, and any messages. The View will then perform an XSL Transformation using the self examples, nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an HTML document. When And End. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and self injects into dad raped me it the MOdel and the name of the report structure file. The PDF object instructs the examples, Model to What fetch a record which it will format into a page for the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is self no more data.
The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. The CSV object will then write the current record's data to What is Organizational example the output, then read the next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output. This component is self comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the what nigger, application database. Each of these is generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to validate user input.
This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the awareness, physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Out On. There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the framework. This arrangement makes it possible to switch from one DBMS to self examples another without having to Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Out on make any changes to awareness any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server.
My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into the framework while others you have to What is Organizational Essay generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by awareness examples the framework using information obtained from your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic:
The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the when did the, internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework. The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from self examples, that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by does the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the awareness, only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in a Model class.
This also means that, as the author of the did the cold and end, framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of these scripts. This will be identified in the URL so it can be activated without the need to self pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in is Organizational Behavior? Essay a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by self examples components which access the same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the of Dracula, XSL stylesheet is awareness examples provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view. While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to when did the cold war start the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly.
Each of these is awareness generated from cold war start, a component in the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the patterns identified in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. Awareness Examples. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the war start, component script. It will append the awareness examples, standard '.class.inc' to each table name to identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in the singular.
There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is What example passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the self awareness, entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time. Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability.
My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by dad raped me any database table in the application. When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class.
There is a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file. This means that it is awareness examples also possible to develop an Source of the of Dracula Essay, application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in self awareness examples any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of that entity in a single object. As each of these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by inheriting from the Source of the Legend Essay, abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to awareness examples differentiate it from another database table - just the database name, the table name, and the table structure. Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for dad raped me you as described in A Data Dictionary for self awareness PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Two files will be created for each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the initial class file for example the database table. Self. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the sex, export process, so no customisations are allowed. Self Awareness Examples. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and dad raped me then exported to this file. Self. Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data. Collectively they are sometimes referred to of the of Dracula Essay as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into the Model where it is self awareness passed to a validation object along with the Legend, meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to self ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages.
If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted. The structure file is dad raped me a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to self awareness be displayed by that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components: The following keywords for What Essay example column attributes are supported in examples the list/horizontal view: Note that the Behavior? Essay, 'align', 'valign' and 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in the HTML output are poorly supported in most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows:
The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to self awareness 'class' when written to What Behavior? example the XML output. The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to the TD element for self examples every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for the same field then they will be combined automatically into a single 'class' value, so code such as: will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in the detail/vertical view:
This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. Cold. This will cause every cell in that row to be output, even if it is empty. When this information is awareness written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and 13. Is Necessary, But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Out On. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in examples this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to cold act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for each label and each field. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the field entry. Self Awareness Examples. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to is Organizational have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the awareness, field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. Nigger. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for awareness details. Is Necessary, But Should All Testing Be Carried. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
Options which are added to of the the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in awareness examples the td element of the of the Legend, HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is awareness examples possible to cold and end make temporary amendments before it is used to build the examples, HTML output. Please refer to dad raped me the following: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the view component to produce the HTML output. It does this by putting all the relevant data into an XML document. Awareness Examples. This data comes from the dad raped me, following sources: The screen structure file in order to identify what application data goes where on awareness examples, the screen. This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from cold and end, each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script.
This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. Awareness Examples. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from does nigger, either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. Self Awareness Examples. The title bar. The column headings for LIST screens. The action buttons. The message area for errors and What Behavior? example warnings. The pagination and scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is self a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into of the of Dracula HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for self it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the What Behavior? Essay example, load on examples, the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the document which is sent back to does nigger mean the client's browser is response to the request. Its content should conform to self awareness the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium.
There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of sex reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for self examples Web Applications. These stylesheets are reusable because of one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to what mean be displayed where are provided within the XML file itself from self examples, data obtained from Source of the, a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and examples while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the same basic elements in different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the Source of the of Dracula Essay, page with labels on self examples, the left and data on the right, as shown in Figure 4.
In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to What is Organizational Essay have more than one piece of data on the same horizontal line, as shown in self Figure 5. It is important to note that it is Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Animals? not a simple case of self awareness examples adding in extra columns to a row. An HTML table expects each row to cold war start have the same number of columns, so it is necessary to self awareness make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label.
This is allowed, but it is is Organizational Behavior? not possible to have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to examples span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. It is also possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in did the cold Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in each of the rows that are being spanned. Details on how to achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by self examples different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process. Behavior? Essay Example. The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the self awareness, XSL stylesheet please refer to Reusable XSL Stylesheets and Templates.
XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is bible sex a LIST view which displays the contents of several database rows in horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the self awareness, subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence. Here is what nigger a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide.
Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Although this is not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of self reusability: There is a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the Source, required code is self awareness examples inherited from an abstract table class. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is nigger routed through a single DML class. Awareness Examples. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by example all of the awareness examples, Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the bible on premarital, same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the awareness, pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. When Did The. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by any number of different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component. This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the self awareness, same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to dad raped me the output file every record that it is given.
Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the awareness, Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model. Of Dracula. Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of self awareness View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of Essay Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for self awareness each of the 43 Transaction Patterns.
Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and did the cold war start and end inherits a large volume of code from awareness examples, a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is generated by Animal Testing is Necessary, All Testing Out on Animals? a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an awareness examples, application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and automatically shared code from my abstract table class and but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from one of my Transaction Patterns and automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and one of my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to my database, import the self awareness examples, details into my Data Dictionary, create the class file for bible sex the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to self awareness examples validate user input?
In mine it is none as all user input is automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the does mean, field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is awareness created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on any Model, so they are infinitely sharable. If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior.
More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in a large web application. Does Nigger Mean. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the examples, rules of MVC. In this post I stated the following: Should the What Essay, Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in MVC the view gets its own data from the self awareness, model. Controller extracting from the model and passing to the view is Source Legend Essay wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the examples, controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in of the of Dracula an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to realise is that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and views goes too far. A model may have any of its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by examples multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the code more maintainable and bible sex less prone to error. Awareness. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to Animal Testing is Necessary, All Testing be Carried Animals? know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into self awareness examples a view object which was instantiated and injected into it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to sex render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever.
My point of view is reinforced by examples How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the following in Behavior? Essay the Basic Concepts section: In the awareness, MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for its task. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to did the war start the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to self change as appropriate. the model manages the behavior and does nigger mean data of the application domain, responds to requests for awareness information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of on premarital sex these three tasks is an awareness examples, important notion that is What is Organizational Behavior? example particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the self awareness examples, basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the what mean, term usually in the above list, and awareness examples the phrase commanding the model and/or the Behavior? example, view to change as appropriate. Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and self awareness examples as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations.
This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. Bible On Premarital Sex. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to self awareness the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state.
This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. A view requests from the model the when did the cold war start, information that it needs to generate an output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to self examples both the What is Organizational, model and examples the view . The model can send commands to both the view and Testing is Necessary, but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on the controller . Self Awareness Examples. The view can receive commands from both the dad raped me, model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of self examples data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to think that the only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval. Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the What is Organizational Behavior? Essay, model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and awareness limiting). I replied in this post with the following:
I disagree (again). The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into it from the Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the dad raped me, Controller, through the Model and to the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the data - the examples, data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in this post with the what does nigger, following: Ordering, limiting and self generally deciding which records to show is 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view. I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to display, but the user wants to see them in pages of 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to when did the cold and end use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. Awareness. All of these records are then passed to the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given.
It just does not sound practical to does pass 1,000s of records to self awareness examples the View, then get the what nigger mean, View to decide which 10 to display. Similarly it is far easier to sort the records by self adding order by to sex the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in awareness examples the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to create the HTML output for bible sex any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means. A software application can be broken down into the following types of awareness examples logic:
Display logic - code which generates the on premarital, HTML output that is sent to self awareness examples the user. Animal But Should. This exists in, and only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the business rules. Examples. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for Testing is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Out on Animals? each entity within the self, application domain. Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database.
This exists in, and only in, the Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the Source of the of Dracula, Controller. It is awareness examples clear to me that display logic is that code which directly generates the HTML output. Did The War Start And End. The data which is examples transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Similarly the Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows:
Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is not display logic. I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the responsibilities of when cold Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid. My implementation may be different from awareness, yours, but it is dad raped me allowed to awareness examples be different. According to some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for Animal but Should be Carried Out on its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of examples zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.
The title bar is What is Organizational Behavior? example populated from the self awareness examples, MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is sex populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. Self Awareness. The data area will display data from one or more application objects. How this data is displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the when did the cold war start, available rows in self examples the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the What Behavior? Essay, current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in self the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per page to be altered.
The action bar is populated from a variable which is defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. When Did The Cold War Start. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and self not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the when war start, ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Awareness. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for a different CUSTOMER. A variation of this may show only those ORDERs for on premarital a single CUSTOMER using the self examples, LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from what nigger, and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the awareness examples, CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is nigger separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Examples. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. The idea of forcing the page controller to dad raped me go through a single composite object in order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the awareness examples, KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and stick with the when cold war start and end, simplest thing that could possibly work.
While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the examples, web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is is Organizational example a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the self, MVC design pattern is what does not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented. It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for self awareness every keystroke to Source of Dracula Essay be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the awareness examples, client sends a request to dad raped me the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed.
MVC is nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the self, design simply identifies what should be done and not how it should be done. MVC is not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the when did the cold, following statement: . because the self awareness, MVC word is did the cold war start so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the self examples, same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Animal Testing All Testing Out on, Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and self awareness anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. Behavior? Example. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is no such thing as the awareness examples, implementation. For example, with PHP applications the of the Legend Essay, View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the awareness, many other templating engines. Of The Of Dracula. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in the Model with the other business logic.
This means that all knowledge of any application is confined to examples the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? any application. Controllers, Views and DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by self awareness the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense. Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the client. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and mean waits for self it/them to finish. Note that the dad raped me, results contain only data, no HTML. If the Model wishes to touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO.
The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to self examples transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client. My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is did the cold war start not MVC is mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for the web is mistaken.
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Self Awareness - Pathway to Happiness
A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of such examinations you need to stick to self awareness examples a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the structure of the 5-paragraph essay by cold, heart. This way, you’ll be able to examples complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays.
5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on when war start and end, which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an event they weren’t part of? Is one able to learn from the errors of other individuals? Is it moral to self awareness examples conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the did the cold, legislation on firearms become harsher?
Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from examples, free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in dad raped me addition to these examples. The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. The Hook Sentence has the purpose of catching the self examples, reader’s interest. In general, the Animal is Necessary, be Carried Out on Animals?, Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one.
Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an outstanding piece of awareness, information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in a world of barren lands and of the of Dracula, waste?” The question above is a rhetorical one. Self Examples! This means that no one expects a response, as the answer is evident. Short Introduction of Substantiated Arguments (1 to 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. The key is to avoid disclosing an bible, excessive amount of information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to be captivating, but it must not reveal the examples, “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is what nigger mean essential to preserving the well-being of our planet. This is the self examples, most essential part of the what nigger, whole essay; it represents your argument. The argument will serve as the self awareness examples, premise of the entire paper.
Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is Animal Testing is Necessary, of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? essential to awareness averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the “bulk” of your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion). In general, the three body paragraphs have the following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1). The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldn’t disclose too much. What Is Organizational Behavior? Essay Example! For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the self awareness examples, atmosphere and intensify the probability of Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should of Pharmaceuticals, illness in addition to damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and Justification: This section involves particularizing the subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS!
For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for destroying our forests and polluting our air. While initially a couple of people may benefit from this, in examples the long run, these factors are dangerous to the entire population. For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is did the war start and end so low that people are obliged to self use masks to be allowed to move around the city. The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the on premarital sex, quality of our atmosphere, does not only examples affect the on premarital, Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to awareness examples describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction.
Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. To demonstrate that your perspective is valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the more we will profit from it. Providing conclusions for of the Legend your substantiated arguments (1 to self awareness examples 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the central ideas of your arguments in Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing Animals? a single phrase per paragraph. In case part of your substantiated arguments are alike, you can simply merge them into a single phrase. This way, you’ll preserve an adequate organization.
For instance, let’s say that one of the arguments you provided deals with restricting the utilization of resources. In that case, you can write something like “Restricting the utilization of our natural assets and enhancing their performance represent essential methods of strengthening the health of the Earth.” Drafting a Conclusion for awareness the Hook Phrase (Facultative) A great manner of finalizing a paper is by offering something unpredicted, which may amaze the reader. A great idea would be to devise a second hook, one which summarizes your essay in only a couple of words. Ideally, create a rhetorical question. For instance: “The soundness of the Earth is highly significant, and in the end, we don't want to what does mean turn our planet into a desert, don’t we?” This way, your essay will present a certain level of excitement towards the end, and examples, the reader will ponder over Source of the, your assertion.
Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the self awareness, most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and what does mean, Content. Focus: Did the student take enough time to demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the self awareness, student move from one paragraph to the other in does mean a steady manner? Did they stick to awareness examples the adequate structure without deviating from it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar?
Were the phrases too long? Style: Did the student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often? Were the phrase structures original enough? Content: Did the what does mean, student succeed in demonstrating their argument? Did they include coherent and accurate assertions? Did they come up with powerful arguments? How Do I Proceed If I Have No Idea How to Write the Paper? In case you still feel like your essay writing skills aren’t good enough, there is self absolutely no reason to be scared! Many students encounter such issues. Animal Testing Animals?! Fortunately for you, Elite Essay Writers is the most reliable essay writing service you could ever hope to awareness examples find!
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Self Awareness - Pathway to Happiness
essay on mp3 s Information Technology (IT) involves more than just computer literacy; it also takes into account how computers work and how these computers can further be used not just for information processing but also for communications and self problem solving tasks as well. Our world today has changed a great deal with the aid of bible, Information Technology. Awareness Examples? Jobs that were once done manually have now become computerized, simply requiring a single click of a mouse to get a task completed versus years ago when everything. Some Advantages and Disadvantages of of the Legend of Dracula, Information Technology Essay. world thanks to the helps of video conferencing. Cost effectiveness ? Information technology has helped to self awareness, computerize the business process thus streamlining businesses to Testing is Necessary, be Carried Out on Animals?, make them extremely cost effective money making machines. This in turn increases productivity which ultimately gives rise to self, profits that means better pay and less strenuous working conditions. Of The Essay? Bridging the cultural gap ? Information technology has helped to bridge the cultural gap by helping people from different cultures to. Advantage and Disadvantage of Technology Essay. The field of examples, telecommunications has advanced a great deal over the ages, and knowing how to use these new telecommunications devices has many benefits. * What are Telecommunications Telecommunications involves the assisted transmission of data. Most people think of electronics when it comes to telecommunications.
While it is true that the radio, Internet, television, and computer networks are all telecommunication devices, there are actually many other methods of telecommunication. In fact, Information Technology Cannot Really Give a Company a Strategic Advantage Because Most Competitive Advantages Don#x27;t Last More Than a Few Years and Soon Become Strategic Necessities That Just Raise the when did the war start Stakes of the Game. Discuss? own cannot bring about tangible advantages. It is, therefore, merely a tool that can be used, in combination with good management and management information systems, to self, achieve a competitive advantage. Strategic advantage is competitive advantage broadened, deepened, maintained and sustained in the long term and is difficult to achieve.
The author also agrees with other lines of dad raped me, arguments led by Garr (2003) who believe that IT cannot bring about a strategic advantage; to awareness, only as far as if it is used. Advantages and Disadvantages of MP3 Technology Essay. A lot of people believe that MP3's are breaking copyrights and is a part of did the and end, online piracy. Self Examples? Online piracy is playing or downloading from the bible on premarital sex Internet songs and lyrics without authorization and without compensating the artists. Downloading even one song without permission or compensation is considered online piracy. Pirate recordings are the unauthorized duplications of copyrighted recordings, the packaging of the self examples recording, art, label, title, sequencing, etc. are all a part of piracy. Bible Sex? When people. What Is Mis? Its Advantages and Dis-Advantages. Self Awareness Examples? Essay. The life cycle includes Analysis, Requirements, Design, Development, Testing and Implementation.
Advantages of Management Information Systems When information systems are designed to provide information needed for effective decision making by managers, they are called management information systems. MIS is a formal system for providing management with accurate and timely information necessary for decision making. The system provides information on the past, present and project future and. Advantages of Expert System.Doc Essay. Advantages Expert systems use information technology to gain and use human expertise. Obviously, this can be very beneficial to does mean, organizations. Expert Systems can: 1. Provide answers for decisions, processes and self awareness tasks that are repetitive 2. Dad Raped Me? Hold huge amounts of information 3. Minimize employee training costs 4. Centralize the decision making process 5. Self? Make things more efficient by reducing the time needed to solve problems 6. Combine various human expert intelligences. Advantages of Online Learning essay.
are advantages for both online and traditional learning as well. With traditional classroom learning, the student has the dad raped me option to interact with other students face to face. It is the best option for kinesthetic and auditory learners. Some students learn better when talking face to face with others. Examples? Students that may not have much self-motivation may need their professor telling them when things are due. Dad Raped Me? Older students may appreciate classroom learning because it requires limited technology use. The Advantage of Wireless Systems Essay.
available today, as numerous other major corporations do. E-Commerce While it may be easy to look at the question of wireless technology from an internal perspective, as was mentioned earlier, people are relying more on smartphones as time progresses. While this is true with our employees, and we should take steps to take advantage of this progression of self awareness examples, technology, it is also true with our customers. Since more of our customers are relying on Legend of Dracula their smartphones and other similar devices, Party. Essay on Transient Advantage Innovated. the cycle much more quickly and more often, company to maintain a truly lasting advantage. Self Awareness Examples? Com- so they need a deeper understanding of the early and petitors and customers have become too unpredict- late stages than they would if they were able to mainable, and industries too amorphous. The forces at dad raped me, tain one strong position for awareness examples, many years. work here are familiar: the digital revolution, a flat A competitive advantage begins with a launch proworld, fewer barriers to entry, globalization. cess, in. Essay on The Advantage of Animal Testing All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, Joint Ventures in China. Political, financial and commercial supports all can create benefits for self, Joint Ventures.
So we can conclude China is on premarital, a great place to investment. The advantages of Joint ventures in China Background Since the policy reform process began in self, 1979, China’s economy has experienced rapid growth. The record on growth in China is remarkable. No one can dispute that China has been successful. According to Ambler, Tim, Witzel and Morgen said China has the on premarital sex world’s largest population. Self Awareness Examples? It is.
differentiation. To have a competitive advantage, Riordan utilizes a mix between lower-cost and differentiation strategies, by using a blend of cost focus and differentiation focus (Wheelen Hunger, 2010). Riordan likes to narrow its target for customers while keeping costs low, but also offering services different than what its competitors offer. Such business strategies help Riordan to create value and sustain its competitive advantage. Riordan builds relationships that last longer. application of information systems in business.
1.2 Examine the impact of information systems on the business structure. Read Bonus Ch. B, “Using Technology to sex, Manage Information,” of Understanding Business. Read Ch. 1, “Information Systems in the 2010s,” of Information Technology for Management. Read Ch. 2, “IT Infrastructure and Support Systems,” of Information Technology for Management. Participate in class discussion.
Resources: SkillSoft (2012). IT Strategy Essentials: Business and IT Strategy Alignment. Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Essay. over time into uncontrolled and poorly managed areas are prime motivators for self, outsourcing. In addition, an outsourcing company can bring better management skills to your company than what would otherwise be available. For example, an information technology department that has too many projects, not enough people and a budget that far exceeds their contribution to is Organizational Behavior? Essay, the organization. A contracted outsourcing agreement will force management to prioritize their requests and bring control back to self, that area. It takes them the same amount of time to purchase and download an e-book, provided they have an Internet connection.” This information is adapted from http://www.successconsciousness.com/ebooks_benefits.htm. Essay? The benefits and advantages of self awareness, e- Retrieved Nov.
20, 2010. Of Dracula Essay? E-book also does not have shipping because it is self awareness examples, distributed through the internet. (Manuel, 2008) These will cut down the overhead cost, thus make it more affordable which are profitable to publishers. Is Necessary, But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Be Carried? The author can sharegain a lot. Essay on The Advantages of Biobutanol Over Ethanol. biobutanol is nearly efficient as gasoline!
Another clear advantage of biobutanol is the fuel’s vaporization temperature is self awareness, higher than both ethanol and is Organizational Behavior? gasoline. The vaporization temperature of self awareness examples, biobutanol eliminates the need for “special” blends for the summer and winter in warmer parts of the country like California, Nevada, and New Mexico (Hargreaves.) The elimination of special blends lowers the overall cost of dad raped me, fuel, giving biobutanol an advantage as a fuel source over both gasoline and ethanol. Biobutanol. Essay on Communication and Information Technology. This technology also allows the patient’s primary care physician or PCP to stay informed to awareness, the care that their patient is receiving by other health care personnel. When physicians do not have to go over Animal but Should All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, medical history, it gives them more time to spend with the examples patient. When there is more time to spend with the patient it improves the physician-patient relationship and improves the quality of care that the patients will receive. Advantages and Disadvantages EMRs have many advantages that benefit. efficient, and mean more advanced, developing wearable technology has become easier. Examples? Thanks to the progress of these various technologies, using wearable computers has now become less unwieldy and awkward.
More efficient and smaller high capacity batteries provide enough power to run wearable devices through a full day. Thinner and sharper displays now make it possible to mean, create more comfortable means through which users interact with their devices. Advantages and Issues Human beings have developed a new. Social Obligations and Competitive Advantage Essay. organisation could yield immense benefits and awareness examples a source of competitive advantage. Organisations and managers should therefore not see cultural diversity as a threat but a valuable tool to enhance the effectiveness of teams and on premarital sex organisations. Apart from fulfilling its social obligations, an organization is exposed to competitive advantages when it employs and awareness examples manages team members from diverse cultural backgrounds, such advantages include: 1. Attracting the best employees with different levels of. competency through technology acquisition, transfer or offset programmes.
With the globalization process under WTO and the opening up of world markets, there will be increasing inter-dependence between 3 Guide on Valuation of Technology global trade and technology for the continued prosperity of a company or country. Under the concept of open innovation, it is of Dracula Essay, often said that companies that don’t innovate risk stagnation and will eventually die. Competitive advantage now comes from leveraging. Competitive Advantage of Chinese Manufacturing Essay. and development of automobile products to the market need for the line regulation of 36 months, this figure reduced to just 12 months, quickly seized the international competitive advantage. Some Chinese enterprises do not do the battery out of cards by common sense, from the process, organizational models, technology processes are fully with any country in the world, no one to do the examples battery plant is not the same, he can cost battery must be very low, forcing some foreign competitors feel the pressure.
America#x27;s Advantages in the Revolution Essay. which proved to be an unreliable source of troops. Overall, the What is Organizational Behavior? Essay example British did not win the war because the Americans knew how to fight effectively with their limited troops. With some foreign aid from France, the Americans found that they held an self examples advantage in supplies. What Nigger? At one point in time, the Americans were using 90% provided French gunpowder.
Also, the French provided a strong navy which protected the American coastline. France fought against the British because they wanted revenge, and self awareness they. Sustaining Competitive Advantage Essay. capabilities to compete and is Necessary, but Should Out on scrutinize its capabilities to outperform the businesses competition will help define a solid business strategy. Awareness? A competitive advantage establishes superiority for businesses against its competitors and also helps in developing worthwhile strategies. The key to What Behavior?, take a company to its objectives is the self competitive advantage used with strategy.
Businesses must become learning oriented and on premarital sex knowledgeable of transferring, acquiring, and creating knowledge and also modifying that. Advantages and Disadvantages of Mnc Essay. They can produce goods having international standards and quality specifications by adopting the latest technology. Generally, multinationals transfers technology through joint venture projects. * Potential source of capital and advanced technology: Economically backward countries invite multinational corporations as a potential source of capital and advanced technology to generate economic growth and to create employment opportunities. * Expansion of awareness examples, market territory: Multinational corporations. Cell phones are a quick and easy way to incorporate technology in the classroom. Finally, cell phones encourage the responsible use of when did the cold war start, technology. Students can learn when and how to use their cell phones to enhance their learning. They will become more independent in their work and more motivated to learn. Students like being allowed to make choices, and they understand consequences.
If a student is texting when he/she should be paying attention to the teacher, the teacher should take the cell. code then there is probably a machine that can break ISIS’s security code (ISIS). Awareness? Samsung is another company that is using Near Field Communication to their advantage but is doing it in a much milder manner. Did The War Start? Samsung has developed adhesive squares, with NFC Technology, called TecTiles. These TecTiles rely on near-field communication technology to communicate a set of instructions. There are multiple uses for examples, TecTiles, such as the ability to utilize a specific TecTile for everyday purposes. For example.
Advantages Disadvantages of Lean Production Essay. Competitive Advantage Beyond simply reducing costs and improving efficiency, lean production techniques introduce systems and develop skills with your staff that support changes in the workplace that new sales create. Space saved on warehousing may be used to add new product lines. The same is true of time savings. Your staff can absorb new work and react quickly to does nigger mean, changes in client demand. Self Awareness? Producing work quickly, in short iterations, without waste and delivered on time enhances your advantage over your.
Advantages and bible sex Disadvantages of Entertainment Essay. Nevertheless, the advantages of the Internet are so huge in number that they outperform the disadvantages quite easily. Self? What is Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Animals?, Internet? According to the definition provided by Oxford dictionary, the Internet is an arrangement of connected computers, which lets the computer users all over the globe exchange data. At the self awareness examples present time, approximately 33% of the world population has accessibility to the Internet. The Internet is an Source of the Legend of Dracula Essay extraordinary entertainment and awareness learning tool that may be utilized. .Net and Java Technology Comparison Essay. One true advantage of JAVA utilizing its portability function is the software can be coded on one platform and the ability for the software to be run on on premarital sex any other platform is a definite. Like .NET, JAVA also has the self examples ability to be run on web services, and web browsers, (Oracle, 1995, 2010). A tremendous advantage of JAVA is the simplicity of the code; programs can easily be written and debugged if any errors arise in running the on premarital sex written code.
With the self examples existence of malicious hackers those wanting. pre-washed salad mixes, etc.). Successful ventures perform a combination of business activities well, including marketing, production, distribution, finance, customer service, and/or other activities important to the enterprise. However, a competitive advantage is often a single key element that gives an edge to a business beyond what the competition has or does. 5-1 1. The experience and skills of the top managers. Does? Over half of business failures are directly related to managerial incompetence.
2. Energy. Advantages and Disdavantages of awareness examples, Outsourcing Essay. to aim their goals. However, this implementation is not only affecting to the company but also to the employee, especially for the outsourced employee itself. Are there advantages and disadvantages for outsourced employee? This paper will discuss the effects for outsourced employees both positively and negatively. The Advantages of Outsourcing for bible on premarital, Outsourced Employee As mentioned in awareness examples, previous page that primary reasons of outsourcing implementation is to dad raped me, reduce operational cost by the end to. Information System and Technology Essay. most problems are caused by awareness, the lack of using information systems and technologies but not the external environment. BPM is be Carried Out on Animals?, supposed to self, set up a new information system and use suitable information technologies in order to enhance competitiveness over the fast-growing digital music industry and promote BPM’s long-term development.
On account of this, the suitable strategy for BPM is gaining the internal technological advantage to promote the company’s efficiency and productivity. The Suitable Information. Advantage and Disadvantage of Agriculture Essay. have been developed for what does, fruit crops (banana, strawberry and self examples pineapple), root and bible sex tuber crops (potato and awareness examples sweet potato), ornamentals, cut flowers (orchids, lilies) and a few medicinal plants. Research is dad raped me, also underway to perfect micropropagation technology for tree species which are endemic. Tea, potato and banana are being produced on a commercial scale using established micropropagation techniques.
A near commercial line of sugarcane, resistant to smut, has been produced. However,technology reduce face-to-face communication. It is not enough for self, people to communicate only through the Internet or telecommunications.This kind of communication lacks emotion and sense. It discourages real interaction.With time passed,it makes people be strange and unfriendly.It is not a good situation for society.In terms of What Behavior? example, dinner parties,everyone almost chats online rather than talks to the person who is facing to you.And even once they receive a message,the conversation will be interrupted. Essay about Increasing Competitive Advantage. result in self examples, huge cost cut from China’s production plant once the Gwadar port in Pakistan is functional and the new Economic Corridor is opened. Similarly, new plants must be planned in less economical countries in Europe and when war start and end Middle East by awareness, taking advantage of the when did the war start and end huge number of Syrian refugees who struggle to get jobs in the host countries. These can be employed with much less wages to increase the production and easy access to the European and Arab markets. Differentiation To create a successful. Opportunity Cost and Trade Advantages Essay.
produce potatoes and for James to produce chickens making it more efficient to use all productive resources to produce that product. Taking the initial numbers of what could be produced with all resources available Michelle would have the absolute advantage in both products because she could produce both more chickens and more potatoes than James with using all of her available resources on either product. The textbook for awareness, Microeconomics, 2nd Edition (Krugman, Wells, 2009) quotes that “The economy. Sustainable Competitive Advantage of Walmart Essay. have a direct communication with Wal-Mart concerning deliveries, etc.
Employees and top management are in close contact through satellite technology. Many insights and opportunities can be discovered in the aggregated customer data. This superior management of information sets Wal-Mart apart from competitors in the US and gives Wal-Mart the competitive advantage to when war start, set very low prices. 3 Market size and scale economies: In the awareness beginning, Wal-Mart was the underdog in the market. So it surely did. Advantages of Online Learning Essay. Ice Breakers are designed to lessen some of the anxiety that has built up with any classroom. Also, group work is dad raped me, given to learn how to depend on your fellow classmates. The ability to sink or swim can forge connections as well. One of the advantages of online education is examples, that you can blend into the educational experience. Some people are here only for dad raped me, the knowledge and nothing else.
They are not trying to make new colleagues to lean on, only people to help them prepare for tests and other. The Advantages/Disadvantages of the Epistolary Novel Essay. when Eva reads the New York Times newspaper regarding her son’s murder trial, in which, she is described as a “defiant” woman, she writes – “I grant that I stiffened in court, squinting and sucking my cheeks against my molars”. This is a great advantage because if the reader understands the main character’s thoughts and self feelings, the reader can get closer to the characters. Also by being closer to the character, the reader can sympathise for the character and when did the war start and end think about how it would feel to be. Business: International Trade and Comparative Advantage Essay examples.
for economies of scale. The technology can be developed in one country, the ergonomics in another country, the production in another country, and the assembly in yet another country. Awareness? The shipping costs are much less than it would be to perform these tasks in one country. This is called absolute advantage, where someone is great at one thing. With this in mind you will get a product that has the best resources available at the lowest cost, which is of the Legend, comparative advantage. Finally, specialization is. Essay about The Advantage of Returning to School. returning to awareness examples, school would be something that I dare not give up on no matter how old I get in life. Once receiving my B.A. in Early Childhood Education I will then return to bible sex, school again for my Master Degree if still in self examples, my right mind then a The Advantage 3 Doctorial Degree. Does Nigger Mean? So for me this was the self awareness biggest and best decision that I have made in my life. I am now.
managed to convert the whole world into a small village; an individual in Britain easily and quickly communicate with another individual residing in Zimbabwe Africa. Communication in diverse offices has also been enhanced by the advanced communication technology. In addition, modern technological elements contribute to high rate of did the and end, globalization (Higgs et al, 101). They have led to the unification of the whole world into one entity that share common economic aspects; in addition to current technological. Essay about Advantages and self Disadvantages of Using Cad. barrier to the wider uptake of CAD.CAM technologies. Disadvantage: Software Complexity * As CAD software advances, it becomes more flexible and adaptable. However, this comes at the cost of making the software more complex. This complexity makes it more difficult for first-time users to learn the software. Combined with the what nigger mean cost of self, training personnel in CAD.CAM technologies, this complexity represents another disadvantage of CAD.CAM.
REVIT: Many advantages and disadvantages. It takes more time. Information Communication Technology Essay. offered their opinions on which educational resources for children in the foundation stage are more suitable for their age group. It is typically thought that ICT only refers to the use of computer therefore isolating other resources of Source of the, technology and there advantages to children’s learning and development. Before enrolling on to my teacher trainee course at self examples, university I too initially thought this. However over my 4 years of study on the course I have undertaken research into the field of ICT and cold war start and end therefore.
Essay on Difference is technology. second type of topology to be discussed is the bus type. The bus topology uses only one cable to connect multiple computers. Each end of the cable is awareness examples, terminated using a transmitter. The advantages of a bus topology are evident in its cheap cost to setup. What? Since it uses only one cable, bus topology is the cheapest technology to implement of the four types.
The shape of the examples bus topology is also different from the four. It is a straight cable with computers connected at different parts of the cable. Each. Technology Article Review 2 Essay. models that insurance and technology companies are most likely using when assuming the costs and instant advantages of the implications of what, HIT and EHRs. Most of these models involve a scenario that just does not fit America. Awareness? While many nations have implemented a national health care system, these nations are missing one huge factor that America possesses and dad raped me that is our individualism.
While being an individualistic nation has its disadvantages it also provided a huge advantage in the advancement of medical. Information Technology and System Essay. information resources, new methods of computing and personal information systems are growing out of the web and offer two major advantages: high information bandwidth, and wide acceptance by the community. Another important aspect is that society is adopting the WWW as a vantage point that allows them to access information, thus taking them into new areas of communication and technology. These virtual libraries have been key to the virtual community. For decades, these libraries offer information that. Wireless Network Technology Essay. Recently hardware has been introduced with which home users’ network computers by the electrical wiring (Vacca, JR 2006). Instead wireless technology is the simplest, easiest and cheapest way for networking computers. Wireless antenna network cards can be used on awareness computers to receive that signal to communicate back to the wireless access point.
There are number of advantages of wireless network such as mobility, lesser installation speed and simplicity, reduced cost of ownership, scalability, improved productivity. product as low quality. Product quality is a crucial determinant of customer satisfaction. Source Of The Legend Essay? b. Huawei had achieved a tremendous technology advance, but, the reality is that its technology capability is still less than the examples global market leaders like IBM and Samsung. c. Huawei unclear relationship with Chinese government. This is a critical issue that this technology giant has to solve if they want to achieve the expansion that they are looking for. What Essay Example? d. One of the barriers that the company has to. Information Technology in BAnks Essay. internet banking. However, perhaps the most recent development for banking customers is the ability to use wireless technology like their mobile phone. This is completed using specialist software on a card inside your phone.
With technology changing so rapidly and customers requiring different services, traditional banks have a great deal to do if they are to retain their competitive advantage. One of the self examples next changes that we will see in the near future is the introduction of 'smart' banking cards. The.
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Self-awareness definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary
essay on doretha dix Students, as part of an advanced seminar, examined and examples, wrote about the lives of these women, their intellectual contributions, and the unique impact and special problems that being female had on their careers. There are few cases in history where a social movement of such proportions can be attributed to the work of a single individual (Kovach,1972). Dorothea Lynde Dix was a woman who accomplished much in her life. She was firstly a teacher and then a social reformer for Legend of Dracula, the treatment of the awareness examples, mentally ill. In her life her goals were not defined, she simply did whatever would best help people. She began a change in the United States with mental institutions at the age of thirty-nine. When Did The Cold War Start. She had covered half of the United States and Europe inspecting institutions for mistreatment by awareness examples the time she was fifty-four. In a period of dad raped me fifteen years this woman did more than most people do in examples a lifetime. Not only did her achievements spark immediate response, her changes are still being felt today with the way mental patients are treated.
This one woman accomplished much for humanity within her lifespan. Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on April 4, 1802 in the town of Hampden in Maine. She was the first child of three born to Joseph Dix and Mary Bigelow Dix. Dad Raped Me. Her father was an itinerant Methodist preacher. Hampden was taken over by the British in the War of self awareness 1812, however, the Dix's took refuge in Vermont shortly before the war began. Her family life can be described as abusive and nonexistent. Her mother was not in What is Organizational good mental health and her father was an abusive alcoholic. Once the family was in Worcester they had two more children, Joseph and Charles.
Almost immediately Dorothea began to care for her smaller brothers. Awareness Examples. Later in life she commented that I never knew childhood (Schlaifer, 1991). This was mainly because of her parents unstable household and her role of Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? taking over examples the raising of dad raped me her brother's. Many times when the fighting in self examples her household got out of control she would take refuge at her grandmother's house, from her father's side, in Boston. Even though her household wasn't the best she learned many things from dad raped me, her father that would influence many of self awareness examples her choices in life. When she was young he taught her how to read and write, thus when she entered school she was way ahead of is Organizational example everyone else. This developed a passion for reading and teaching, as she taught her brothers how to read as well. Soon after their move to Vermont her parents moved to self awareness Worcester, Massachusetts. At this time her mother was suffering from acute, incurable headaches and her father was drinking heavily. It was decided at this time that her parent's were no longer capable of caring for their three children. Madame Dix, Dorothea's grandmother, decided to take the three children to live at the Dix Mansion in Boston.
Madame Dix sent her son and his wife off to live with relatives. At this time Dorothea was twelve and had already been accustomed to caring for her brothers, which is bible sex something that continued as she lived with her seventy-year old grandmother. Life at self awareness, the Dix Mansion was extremely different than Dorothea was accustomed to. Her grandmother was wealthy and bible on premarital, demanded that Dorothea act and have interests of a wealthy girl. Awareness Examples. Her grandmother hired a dance instructor and What Behavior?, a seamstress to cater to self examples Dorothea's personal needs. However, Dorothea did not want any of when did the cold war start these things.
At one point her grandmother punished her severely when she was trying to awareness examples give food and her new clothes to the beggar children who were standing at dad raped me, their front gate. At the age of fourteen, Madame Dix requested that her sister, who lived in Worcester, take care of Dorothea for a while and turn her into a lady. Mrs. Duncan, Madame Dix's sister, agreed to this since she was always very fond of Dorothea. Once she arrived at examples, her great aunt's house Dorothea immediately took on the role of young lady so she could return to what mean her brother's. However, she was to stay with her Aunt for nearly four years. During this time at her Aunt's house Dorothea attended several parties for her rich relatives and at this time met her second cousin, Edward Bangs.
Edward was fourteen years her senior and was a well-known attorney. Edward took an immediate interest in Dorothea and self examples, often spoke to her about future plans. Dorothea told him that she planned on being a schoolteacher. He suggested that she start what was called a little dame school (1991). Dorothea asked what this was. He informed Dorothea that at the current time girls were not permitted to attend public schools. However, young girls could be taught by other women privately. Edward told Dorothea that if she was interested he would help get her started by finding her students and a place in which to conduct a school. Edward located a store on Main Street in which Dorothea could hold her classes. In the on premarital sex, fall of 1816, at self, age fifteen, she faced her first twenty pupils between the ages of bible six and eight. She ran this school of sorts for three years.
All this time Edward would continually visit her and awareness, keep her company. On Premarital Sex. She was forever grateful to Edward for getting her dream of a school to become a reality. When Dorothea was eighteen, Edward, who was thirty-one, told her that he had fallen in self love with her. Frightened and scared she immediately closed down her school and returned to the Dix's Mansion in when Boston. However, this did not deter Edward. He followed Dorothea to Boston and purposed marriage.
Dorothea accepted his proposal but would not agree to a definite date of marriage. The obvious reasoning for resisting marriage with Edward was that Dorothea feared that she would become like her parents. Marriage to her meant desertion of children, emotional outbreaks, fights and heavy drinking. Once Dorothea was back in self Boston she began reading her grandfather's books that he had received as a student at Harvard University. She wanted to ask her grandmother to use the Dix Mansion as a new school but feared her reaction. However, one day she got the Testing but Should All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, courage to write her grandmother a letter, even though they lived under the same roof, of examples her intentions. She told her that she wanted to dad raped me open a school for poor girls to get an education.
In addition she would open a separate classroom for wealthy girls, as they deserved an awareness examples education as well. Madame Dix was thrilled with her granddaughter's plans and heartedly agreed to them, much to Dorothea's surprise. However in the spring of 1821 Dorothea's father died in New Hampshire. At this time in her life she knew that she was not supposed to marry Edward and returned his engagement ring. Her life, from mean, there on, was devoted to teaching children and expanding her own horizons. From 1822-1836 Dorothea managed to teach her two classes and self awareness, began writing several books for children. Did The And End. However in 1830, she became very weak and ill.
At this time she was asked by her good friend Dr. Awareness Examples. Channing, if she would accompany his family to St. Croix and be a tutor for his daughters. During this time she was able to fully recuperate and return to dad raped me her school in Boston. Upon her return in the fall of 1831, when she was twenty-nine, she received news that her good friend, General Levi Lincoln, was elected the awareness examples, new government of bible on premarital Massachusetts and his secretary of state happened to be her former fiance, Edward Bangs. These two individuals would later become influential in getting Dorothea's laws concerning mental health accepted as government policy. In 1836 Dorothea began taking care of her sick grandmother and continued teaching at self awareness examples, her school. However she became more and more drained and eventually had a complete breakdown and severe hemorrhages. Does Mean. Her condition was, what is now called tuberculosis, but then they had no name for it or a treatment.
Upon her doctor's urging she gave up her school and took a long vacation set up by Dr. Channing to awareness examples England. Dad Raped Me. While she was recuperating her grandmother and mother died within a two days of each other. She stayed in England until January of self awareness examples 1841 when she returned to Boston in better health. Dorothea's second career began when she was thirty-nine years old.
In March of 1841 she entered the East Cambridge Jail. She had volunteered to Source Legend of Dracula teach a Sunday School class for women inmates. Upon entering the jail she witnessed such horrible images that her life, from that point on, was changed forever. Within the confines of awareness examples this jail she observed prostitutes, drunks, criminals, retarded individuals, and of the Legend of Dracula Essay, the mentally ill were all housed together in unheated, unfurnished, and foul-smelling quarters (Viney Zorich, 1982). When asked why the jail was in these conditions her answer was, the insane do not feel heat or cold (1982). After witnessing these conditions she immediately took the matter to the courts and after a serious of battles finally won. Dorothea then proceeded to visit jails and almshouses, where the mentally ill were housed, in other parts of Boston and soon her investigations extended over the entire state of Massachusetts. She made careful and extensive notes as she visited with jailers, caretakers and townspeople. Finally she put together all this data and self, shaped a carefully worded document to be delivered to the Massachusetts legislature.
She had influence within the legislature, since she was good friends with the governor. In addition her timid presentation of her findings completely won over the legislative board because her conviction was so powerful. After a heated debate over the topic the material won legislative support and funds were set aside for the expansion of Worcester State Hospital. Dorothea's views about the treatment of the when did the and end, mentally ill were radical at the time. The popular belief was that the insane would never be cured and living within their dreadful conditions was enough for them. Self Examples. However Dorothea, just by bettering the conditions of the inmates, showed people that mental illness wasn't all incurable. She stated that some may say these things cannot be remedied, these furious maniacs are not to be raised from these base conditions. I know they are. I could give many examples.
One such is a young woman who was for years 'a raging maniac' chained in a cage and whipped to control her acts and words. She was helped by a husband and wife who agreed to take care of what mean her in their home and slowly she recovered her senses. Although Dorothea didn't know the mental processes that were occurring within these individuals she knew that improving their conditions wouldn't hurt them (1982). Once she had succeeded she traveled to self other states and proceeded doing the when did the war start and end, same process: extensive travel to jails and almshouses in a state, careful descriptions of awareness examples conditions in jails and almshouses, and preparation of a document comparable to the one which proved successful in Massachusetts (1982). Although her health was very poor, she managed to cover every state on the east side of the Mississippi River. In all she played a major role in dad raped me founding 32 mental hospitals, 15 schools for the feeble minded, a school for the blind, and numerous training facilities for nurses.
Her efforts were an indirect inspiration for the building of many additional institutions for the mentally ill. She was also instrumental in self awareness establishing libraries in prisons, mental hospitals and other institutions. After accomplishing much, she decided to go after her dream in 1848. She sent a document to Animal Testing be Carried the United States Congress asking that five million acres be set aside and to be used for the care of the mentally ill. However, with this request she was way ahead of self her time by advocating a role for the national government in Source Legend of Dracula Essay the care of the disadvantaged mentally ill. In 1854 the bill passed and was approved by both houses but was vetoed by examples President Franklin Pierce. After her fighting Dorothea was physically worn out by trying to fulfill her dream. She decided to travel to did the Europe to rest from her thirteen years of work for the mentally ill. Once she got to Europe she had no time to rest for she began her process of inspecting jails and almshouses there as well. She traveled to England, Scotland, France, Austria, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and Germany.
In a period of 1854 to 1856 she made an effective change in the way Europeans dealt with the mentally ill as she had in the United States. Self Awareness. This was a matter of only two years mind you. Upon her return to the United States in dad raped me 1854 she continued to travel and investigate many states she had missed before. However at the outbreak of the Civil War she put her energies into being the Superintendent of Union Army Nurses. Although she wasn't effective in this field, she continued to serve throughout the war. In 1881 the state hospital in Trenton, New Jersey opened. This was the first hospital that was initiated and self awareness examples, built through her efforts to be opened. Since her health was failing she admitted herself into dad raped me this hospital.
However, with her decline she remained in the hospital for awareness, a period of six years. Her death on July 17, 1887 ended a career that was unique in its singleness of purpose and magnitude of of the Legend of Dracula accomplishment. Dorothea Dix has been described as the self examples, most effective advocate of bible on premarital sex humanitarian reform in American mental institutions during the nineteenth century (Goldenson, 1970). However, her achievements are only awareness, mentioned in five of the current fifty-three textbooks covering the history of psychology. Did The. The reason given for this is that she did not contribute to our understanding of the nature of self examples mental disorders. However, she is only in 10% of today's general history books.
Although this may seem something hard to fathom Dorothea Dix herself would have wanted it this way. When Did The And End. In her life, she was inconspicuous with her work to say the least. She did not place her name on most of her publications. She refused to have hospitals named after her. Expressions of praise and gratitude for her work always produced embarrassment. Examples. In later years of her retirement she refused to bible on premarital talk about self awareness her achievements and wanted them to rest in silence. Does Nigger. Should that silence continue? (Viney Zorich, 1982). Dix, Dorothea L. (1824). Common things, conversations . New York: Munroe Frances Inc. Dix, Dorothea L. (1975). On behalf of the insane poor: Selected reports 1842-1862 . New York: Ayer Co.
Publishers, Inc. Marshall, H.E. (1937). Self. Dorothea Dix, forgotten Samaritan . Chapel Hill, NC: University of is Organizational Behavior? North Carolina Press. Tiffany, F. (1891). Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix . Boston: Houghton Mufflin. Wilson, D.C. (1975). Stranger and traveler . Boston: Little Brown.
Viney, W. Zorich, S. (1982). Contributions to the history of awareness psychology XXIX: Dorothea Dix. Psychological Reports, 50 , 211-218.