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Goods and Services: Meaning and Classification of Goods and Services
Economy/ Apparel Industry term paper 18445. INDUSTRY: APPAREL RETAILERS. Retailers in the apparel industry are primarily engaged in the distribution, merchandising, and sale of of goods men's, women's, and/or children's clothing to consumers. Apparel retailers include department stores, mass merchandisers, specialty stores, national chains, discount and off-price stores, outlets, and mail-order companies. A relatively new development is the rise of electronic forms of retailing such as interactive TV and on-line shopping services. Some retailers who sell their own private labels go beyond their traditional role as distributors and move 7 pounds, become directly involved in the design and production of garments from manufacturers and contractors. SIC CODES RELATED TO THIS INDUSTRY. SIC Code Industry Name. 5136 Men's and boys' clothing.
5137 Women's and children's clothing. 5611 Men's boys' clothing stores. 5621 Women's clothing stores. 5632 Women's accessory specialty stores. Examples And Services! 5641 Children's and infants' wear stores. 5651 Family clothing stores.
5699 Misc. apparel accessory stores. Apparel sales have shown positive gains over the years which reflect a vibrant U.S. economy and increasing incomes. All apparel retailing industry sectors are heavily dependent on consumer spending. Since, consumer spending represents two-thirds of the U.S. economy these retailers become extremely vulnerable to wide economic swings. These retailers must do a good job of managing their inventory levels, personnel needs, and style/fashion trends to ensure they will not lose their consumers business during up and down periods.
That is as why many major apparel retailers such as The Gap, and Wal-Mart can have 20 percent growth over examples 20-some years. They stay focused on their businesses and move 7 pounds, are always trying to examples, do better. They constantly question everything, though even the best companies make merchandising mistakes. But the leaders in this industry know how to rectify their mistakes. Recently, the apparel industry hasn't been doing all that well.
During the 2nd Quarter of 2000, apparel sales have tapered off for several reasons. What Cortex! Increasing interest rates have slowed the U.S. economy, consumers have built up their stock of of goods most clothing items, and there has been a lack of exciting new fashions on the market. As discussed earlier, apparel retailers include department stores, mass merchandisers, specialty stores, national chains, discount and off-price stores, outlets, mail-order companies, and online sales. Department stores were once-and some still are- perceived as the apparel leaders, but these stores in reality only sell about nine percent of the what does cortex do, garments consumers buy annually. Meanwhile specialty stores like Old Navy, The Gap, and Abercrombie Fitch have about a 13 percent apparel unit share.
Mid-tier retailers like Sears, JCPenny and Kohl's have a 14 percent unit share. According to NPD, a market research company, catalog companies represent almost 10% of examples of goods apparel retail sales through direct mail. Consumers have less time to shop and thus, catalog purchasing offers a time-saving convenience for straight re-buy purchases. The internet represents approximately $6.5 million of domino's tracker uk e-commerce purchases, but only represents 0.6% of total apparel on-line sales. This segment is examples lower because of concerns regarding speed, ease-of-use, and security problems. When these problems are solved, this sector is does the prefrontal cortex do likely to mirror the catalog sales channel and may substitute for catalog sales. Lastly, discount stores, such as Wal-Mart and examples of goods and services, Kmart have 45% of the apparel market. These statistics are shown in the pie chart below: As shown in the chart above, the marx theory, women's consumer segment dominated the U.S. apparel sales market in 1999. Throughout the years, women have been constant and dominant consumers in this industry. Womens apparel sales growth was 3.7% and men's apparel growth was 4.1%. Women buy at a constant rate, whereas men's apparel sales have been growing.
Men have outpaced total market growth for the second year in examples and services, a row. Conflict Theory! Girl's and boy's apparel rose 0.5% and of goods and services, 3.8%. Women's apparel accounted for 52% of all apparel sales. The men's segment accounted for 31% of total apparel sales. COMPETING AND COMPLIMENTARY PRODUCTS. In a broad view, the hindu funeral uk, retail apparel industry competes with all the other sectors in the retail industry. These different sectors include electronic retailers, wholesales, other discount stores, shoe stores, convenience stores, and so on. Many of these different sectors also have combined together. In this industry, a company often operates in various divisions because it is more profitable that way. The charts below show the state of the Retail Industry and some of the top retailers/competitors in it. The top retailers are: Company 1999 Revenues (000) 2.)The Kroger Company $45,352,000.
3.)Sears, Roebuck and examples and services, Company $41,071,000. 4.)The Home Depot $38,434,000. Move 7 Pounds! 6.)Kmart Company $35,925,000. 7.)Target Corporation $33,702,000. 8.) J.C. Penny $32,510,000. The top retailers in each retail category are: Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000) Wal-Mart $108,721,000 $95,395,000. Kmart 35,925,000 33,674,000.
Target 26,080,000 23,014,000. Sam's Club 24,801,000 22,881,000. Examples! Meijer 9,500,000 8,000,000. Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000) Gap $11,635,398 $9,054,462. Limited 9,723,334 9,346,911. TJX 8,795,347 7,949,101. Intimate Brands 4,510,836 3,885,753. Spiegel/Eddie 3,210,225 2,935,411. Move 7 Pounds! Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000)
Sears $29,775,000 $30,429,000. JCPenney 18,964,000 19,114,000. Federated 18,217,000 15,833,000. May 13,869,000 13,048,000. Dillards 8,677,000 7,770,000. Examples Of Goods And Services! Imports and Exports: The largest suppliers of imports of apparel products to 8th Symphony, the U.S. market are China, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. These four countries accounted for nearly half of examples U.S. Bruckner's Essay! imports of all apparel products. Examples! Many U.S. retailers and catalog companies have established sales outlets in other countries to sell U.S. apparel products. Men's outerwear is one of the funeral, largest export categories. Men's and boys trousers are the most important products exported to Japan, Canada, and the European Community (EC), followed by examples of goods men's and boys' knit shirts.
Menswear and the 54th massachusetts volunteer regiment is best, women's outerwear exports recorded particularly steep increases in 1993. And Services! Children's wear and women's and children's underwear continue to make strong export gains. Japan, the EC countries, and Canada are the domino's tracker, largest customers for U.S. apparel, with steep gains in shipments the past few years. Sales of completed garments to Mexico also grew sharply. After the United States and Canada implemented a free trade agreement in 1989, the U.S. share of the Canadian apparel market grew sharply. During the same time period, however, the U.S. share of the Mexican market dropped following liberalization of Mexican import barriers.
Exports of of goods and services U.S. Does The Prefrontal Do! clothing have been growing rapidly to Eastern Europe and China, where demand is increasing for upscale goods, status symbols, and Western looks. U.S. Examples And Services! manufacturers and retailers that are able to Bruckner's, take advantage of and services opportunities in these countries should experience a surge in their exports. The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer As! Exports of apparel to the Caribbean Basin countries have also advanced sharply in recent years, particularly to the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica. U.S. apparel manufacturers and retailers should also continue to take advantage of export opportunities in countries such as Japan, Canada, and Mexico, where trade barriers have been reduced. TRADE MAGAZINES AND NETWORKS. These trade journals and and services, sites usually include industry news, trade show/event calendar, recent articles, and searchable archive of articles, buyers guide/directory, and job listings. MAGIC International, a subsidiary of Advanstar Communications, Inc., is the uk, world's largest and most widely recognized producer of trade shows for the apparel industry. Of Goods! The major designers and funeral, producers of America often attend these trade events.
There is also a trade magazine called the Apparel Industry Magazine, which can also be accessed on the Internet. The magazine presents updated information about examples of goods technology, fashion, and business, on the apparel Industry, and their webpage also features a Virtual Apparel Trade show. The American Apparel Producer's Network (AAPN) also produces trade shows. There are many labor unions associated with the apparel retail industry, such as the Fair Labor Association, the hindu funeral uk, American Apparel Manufacturers Association, UNITE, an apparel's workers' union that represents apparel sewing employees with labor issues, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), the National Labor Committee(NLC), which is a coalition made up primarily of labor unions, and of goods and services, the National Retail Federation. These labor unions and government unions regulate fair labor practices in the apparel retail industry. Responding to fashion trends and consumer needs- The challenge for many apparel retailers is anticipating the coming trends and deciding how they will or won't fit into domino's, the company's image. In some cases, a trend might not be right for a specific retailer, and that's where it has to work to stay as trend-right as possible without losing focus. And Services! Companies in domino's uk, this industry need to learn what their customers want, and be able to give them what they want, and that is one giant step towards success. International Expansion - Another critical element for long-term success in this industry is global expansion. Companies have to examples of goods and services, be deliberate in international expansion and expand into countries where the greatest potential exists.
In doing this, not only do they make a profit, but they make a name for themselves. Now the international part of the business is becoming more important to business as a whole. International expansion is certainly going to 8th Symphony Essay, be the focus of growth for companies in of goods and services, the apparel retail industry. Increased Automation and 8th Symphony Essay, Efficiency - In response to increased competition from new market participants, retailers are exercising a variety of strategies, including downsizing and restructuring, changing their merchandise mix, adding services, and adapting the quick response system for examples controlling inventory management costs. Leveraging Apparel Brands - Many manufacturers and retail stores are beginning to leverage their products by licensing their brands for accessories such as sunglasses, watches, fragrances, wallets, and footwear. This strategy increases exposure for a well- known brand and cortex, can build consumer confidence in of goods, a specific brand. Internet - The Internet is another tremendous advantage in this Industry. Uk! With the Internet, you can get updated and almost instantaneous information on things. Of Goods! Because many retailers have some of the best e-commerce Web sites in the business, that alone can help ensure global business. 8th Symphony! Internet sales can guide retailers into just the right international and and services, domestic cities to build stores. It even allows a company to make its brand known internationally even before it has any physical presence in international markets.
The Internet also provides for funeral a great channel of feedback from examples consumers. That way, a company can better understand what will work and make changes immediately when a problem arises. Awareness of demographic shift - As the nation's largest age group, baby boomers are getting older, and the as the population growth rate remains at a record low, less than 1% this year, the industry is shifting its strategy to move 7 pounds, redirect their production and advertising toward this group. And Services! According to statistics, this is the group with the tracker, highest buying power. Thus, retailers and of goods, producers are grasping to this opportunity and Bruckner's, are spending tremendous effort in trying to please them. Of Goods! The retail apparel industry has benefited extremely as a protected industry of the United States since 1957. Protection means that the government limits foreign import of apparel through quotas and high tariffs. It is estimated in 1990 that protection of massachusetts volunteer known this industry, has cost the American consumers 21 billions dollars. In another word, consumers have to pay six times higher than what they would have to pay to protect this industry.
Without this protection, the industry would have to face extreme foreign competition as raw materials and labor cost are much lower in the third world countries such as China, and Indonesia. Domestic production of the industry would go down by 11 billions dollars without such protection. Examples Of Goods And Services! 1900--1910: THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MASS MARKET. Marx Conflict! 1900 The escalator enables stores to continuously move traffic to upper floors, and helps make multi-level department stores a standard for examples the century. 1911--1920: USING MACHINES TO GAIN EFFICIENCY.
1911 NCR produces its 1 millionth cash register. The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. the forerunner of IBM, is incorporated. 1921--1930: THE RISE OF THE CHAIN STORE. 1924 Air conditioning for comfort rather than to enhance manufacturing is first introduced at the J.L. Hudson department store in Detroit to keep women from fainting at bargain basement sales. Air conditioning later allows windowless stores and enclosed malls. 1928 Farrington Manufacturing introduces the the 54th volunteer is best as, Charga-Plate system, made by Addressograph, the forerunner of the charge card. The embossed metal tag is used to of goods, print the customer's name and address on a sales check.
1931--1940: VALUE AND PROGRESS THROUGH THE DEPRESSION. 1935 Rural Electrification Act brings electricity, and move 7 pounds, later telephones, to rural America. IBM is selling more than three billion Hollerith cards a year for its tabulating machines, which are rented, never sold. It has 90% of this market. 1941--1960: THE AGE OF COMPUTING AND DATA PROCESSING BEGINS. 1956 Southdale near Minneapolis becomes the first enclosed, two level shopping mall in America. IBM sells RAMAC, (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control), the first computer disk storage system. Eisenhower launches the interstate highway systems, speeding migration to of goods and services, the suburbs and funeral, displacing rail for of goods many goods shipments. 1961--1970: NEW FORMATS AND NEW TECHNIQUES. 1962 Discounters appear: Kmart from Kresge, Woolco from Woolworth, Target from Dayton's, and Wal-Mart Discount City from Sam Walton's Ben Franklin variety store.
Sears opens its first data center. IBM introduces Wholesale IMPACT (Inventory Program and Control Techniques), an automated replenishment system (and the forerunner of INFOREM) that uses statistics and a smoothing algorithm rather than a min/max system. Move 7 Pounds! 1990 - PRESENT: MAJOR INVENTIONS AND LABOR ISSUES. 1993 Invention of the examples of goods, Internet. The retail industry went online!
1996 - More than 300 fashion industry representatives -- including retailers, manufacturers, designers, workers, labor, consumer advocates, and celebrity endorsers -- participate in a Forum to discuss the challenges embodied in eradicating sweatshops and the importance of domino's tracker uk working together to examples and services, identify and implement solutions. 1997 Creation of the Workplace Code of Conduct, and Principles of Monitoring by the Apparel Industry Partnership to ensure the the 54th as, elimination of and services sweatshops and certify that products are produced in what the prefrontal, compliance with the Fair Labor Association Standards. 1998 Invention of the security tags to attach on garment, a major prevention of theft. 1998 Walmart Sweatshops in Honduras - Labor Issues. 1998 Liz Claiborne sweatshop production in El Salvador makes the news. 1999 The Department of Labor announces the examples, recovery of $247,000 in back wages for 8th Symphony 138 workers of a Los Angeles area garment shop, Emeraldtex, Inc. The DOL investigation, which covered a 2-year period, was conducted by the rapid response unit established in the Fall of 1998. The shop assembles garments exclusively for Jowett Garment Factory, Inc. which provides clothes for a variety of retailers including Eddie Bauer, The North Face, Reebok, Jones New York and The Gap. Emeraldtex, Inc, also fined $20,000 for willful violations, signed a consent judgment stipulating future compliance.
Faster Fast Food. Morning Edition, July 10, 2000. May I Take Your Order? IBM Drives New Technology for and services the Drive Through Window. Business Wire. November 6, 2000. www.office.com. FYI: Glimpse Into the Future. Star Tribune. May 15, 2000.
Charging Fast Food. June 10, 1999. Bruckner's Essay! www.cardweb.com/cardtrak/news/1999/june. A Push to Agree on a Drive-Through Future. By Amy Zuckerman. February 20, 2000. Examples Of Goods! www.ettm.com/news/future_agree.html. An Efficiency Drive: Fast Food Lanes are Getting Even Faster.
Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2000. Irvine, Cali-Based Taco Bell Ranks Fifth in Drive-Through Ratings. Orange County Register, January 19, 1999. Merchant News: McDonald's Tests Mobil's Speedpass To Speed Up Customer Waiting Times. ATM and does the prefrontal do, Debit News, October 26, 2000. Word Count: 2418. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to be a tendency towards understanding openness in terms of access to, and gathering of and services information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on the implementation of hindu funeral e#150;government (Commission of the European Communities, 2002) within the of goods and services, European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003). Aspects of Essay openness regarding how the public should become more able to and services, #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to massachusetts volunteer is best, be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.
Commercial information providers have another relationship to examples, the quality and sustainability of information. They always have to consider whether the marx, presentation of information is going to sell their product, and examples of goods and services, if it is going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the product in which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of move 7 pounds view it does not matter if the quality of information in low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to of goods and services, design systems facilitating openness by the fact that a large number of people are willing to uk, produce information for examples of goods, free through participation, being both producers and consumers of information. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of users, or the users may be organised in a large number of small groups where the members have closer ties. Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in the physical world, and may provide information on a more personal level.
Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve . From the point of view of the vendor the different ways of organising a community are of less concern if there is a large number of users who produce and use information on a regular basis, and as long as the work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. When talking about marx, openness, commercial vendors tend to use the term as part of their strategic thinking to introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in of goods, terms of empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is somewhere in the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the learners are given access to one understanding of specific information, to an approach where the learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by whether they are able to build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers  who now become potential contributors in a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of tracker information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for feedback. To summarise some of these approaches to examples and services, openness: From an conflict theory, official and public service point of view information providers want openness biased towards information access. One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of content . From a commercial point of view information providers also want to facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. These actors are more likely to examples of goods, develop an funeral, understanding of the #147;quality of of goods and services information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in massachusetts regiment known, communication.
The complexity of openness in of goods and services, communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to a number of social issues that may influence the availability, use and the potential impact of information in society. Therefore, when trying to make classifications of communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of Bruckner's 8th Symphony enabling groups of various sizes and individuals to participate actively in the production of information in of goods and services, numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to be considered. Open vs. closed content.
Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and its #147;capacities for symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of reception#148;. Move 7 Pounds. In the table below, content scope, temporal, and examples, spatial attributes are compared, and demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in Bruckner's 8th Symphony, traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to of goods and services, grasp the processes related to how this content came into being, or how it is used. Another perspective on openness is does the prefrontal do provided by Benkler  who defines three different layers of communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on our abilities to act as users instead of mere consumers of information. The table below is an extension of the model presented by Lessig . Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the examples used by Lessig.
At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of his own choice (the logical level), and he is free to examples, chose what to present (the content level). One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay, most people, not being able to visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to say, or not being among the relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and of goods, articulating the needs of society with the state#148; . However, communication will always be limited by both physical and social/psychological constraints, and for domino's tracker uk, practical purpose we will only be able to examples of goods and services, talk about what does the prefrontal cortex do, this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. That is because the access to the physical level is restricted by the owner of the of goods, infrastructure needed to give a performance. In the telephone system (3) a user will have to pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the content is mediated at does cortex the logical level. But the system is examples of goods and services open on the 54th massachusetts volunteer is best known as, the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the system does not discriminate between different users on the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an and services, example of a technology that do not imply any restrictions to the content, and where the physical level is fully accessible, at lest for most practical purposes. The only restrictions to what the users are able to express is found on the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.
An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to describe movement in any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. can serve as examples of domino's tracker uk (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of specific hardware. Examples Of Goods And Services. However, given that in large parts of the world such recording devices are relatively cheap and move 7 pounds, easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from using recording devices. The most severe limitations to the use of digital recording technologies are found on the logical level where DRM systems applied in software and of goods, the implications of copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the move 7 pounds, Internet (5) is an example where the physical layer is completely controlled by governments and examples of goods and services, commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by copyright laws, Benkler  uses Los Angeles Times v. The 54th Volunteer Known. Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an example. However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by collective efforts.
Because of this openness Internet technology has been transferable to numerous infrastructures, making the communication facilitated by these technologies difficult to examples and services, control by introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from a number of reasons. Trusted computing , referring to the embedding of end#150;to#150;end validation of the origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is one of funeral several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to produce, back up, copy, and distribute content in ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is introduced on the logical level is the examples, use of special applications like Flash to present content on the Web. Instead of the prefrontal do making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by of goods, one Flash applications usually close references to different content on a server.
Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the best example where only the content layer is closed, as long as when they are used to record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. However, I am using PVRs as an funeral uk, example to be able to introduce the examples, possibility of technical restrictions taking full control over move 7 pounds, the presentation of media content, in extreme cases even over of goods, perception. A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from a channel when an advertisement is being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of a recorded program from fast forwarding the recorded program in order to skip past advertisements#148; . . individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to both the content and the logical level we are experiencing an instance of domino's surveillance (7).
Writing this sitting in examples, Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to speak freely or make performances of their own choice. Aspects of what cortex do surveillance introduce several questions about power relations, not only between the producers and consumers of information, which will be discussed later, but also to an increasing degree those who the communication is about. An example is services like gawker.com/stalker (at http://gawker.com/stalker/ that re#150;mediates parts of gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the public. But the potential in #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the main reasons why Google fund the building of examples and services free WiFi systems, making them capable of Bruckner's 8th Symphony providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in different technologies may cause an erosion of of goods and services of privacy with the marx conflict theory, result that individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to examples and services, intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and marx conflict, Jacobs, 2006). Being accustomed to a general idea that privacy is not available, people may become less able to examples, recognize new, potential threats against privacy. Even if such threats are identified the marx conflict theory, precedence of of goods already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.
Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of information from vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. Move 7 Pounds. All three levels are restricted: the consumers do not own the wires into their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the of goods and services, content is limited by copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and information consumers to a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. By introducing technical solutions to does cortex, make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and examples, firewalls, new technologies reproduce the move 7 pounds, traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to examples of goods and services, describe how the volunteer regiment, different layers of a communication technology influence the production, distribution and use of information is important to an understanding of openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the examples, #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of information on different levels. A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an approach taken by Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and the #147;consumer#148; of information: Is the 8th Symphony, transmitted information owned by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer? Is the examples, transmission and use of the information controlled by as, an information service providing centre or an of goods, individual information service consumer?
Answering who delivers the does cortex do, information, and of goods and services, who controls access to and use of information is represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to what does the prefrontal cortex do, note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to and services, be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only one of these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the the 54th massachusetts as, terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the typology of communication patterns is of goods and services that it is hindu funeral defined independently of the technical design of the media, the examples, form of presentation, and the content of information. But where Benkler is inspired by the topology of computer networks the communication patterns are derived from conflict social power relations.
Focus is on the flow of information between different actors ignoring the different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). Of Goods. When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the invention of the Web; their four communication patterns only take into account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. This is hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the hindu funeral, future development of broadcasting and telecommunication systems. However the model does not take into consideration new aspects of digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. Of Goods And Services. These perspectives call for an extension of both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the does the prefrontal cortex, ability to control the infrastructure (corresponding to Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the users#146; ability to decide when and examples and services, how the what cortex do, content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of examples of goods and services #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. Domino's Uk. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.
One can even describe this organisation, or lack of such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by and services, a hierarchical chain of marx conflict theory command. Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. . The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to some basic rules and given situations in their local environment . When taking the examples and services, collective into consideration the model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to the users. The flow of hindu information runs in examples of goods and services, one direction only, from the centre to tracker uk, a number of autonomous users. All users are treated in examples of goods and services, the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the information simultaneously. The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the fly#148; at the moment of distribution. Most media based on transmission are characterized by access to large amounts of stored information. Only a tiny fragment of hindu this information is examples distributed to users at a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.
Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to receive the information provided at a given moment in time. Communication based on tracker uk, transmission may therefore be referred to as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the examples of goods and services, communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. Still, the content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to manipulate through interaction. Cortex. Nevertheless, the pattern is heavily restricted, as long as the examples and services, information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to users. However, the use of hindu video recorders is an example of and services how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to massachusetts volunteer known, control the distribution of information.
The most telling examples of transmission today are found in streaming media solutions on the Internet where the ability of users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is produced by individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the information by of goods, collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the information centre, or the user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is hindu funeral produced by users the of goods, division of 8th Symphony power seems to be reversed from examples and services #147;transmission#148; and #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the information centre has exclusive control over Bruckner's, what users are able to register by providing interfaces where information is produced. An example is the examples, use of polls where the owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. It is also important to regiment is best known, remember that the information centre in most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.
In registration patterns the initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of storage and may use this control to re#150;arrange and and services, re#150;mediate the information and use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. as examples of registration by request. Funeral Uk. Examples of registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Services offering storage of photos where the users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to be present in relationships between the makers of software, that is publicly available, and users. Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to use software made by others. These users are limited to examples and services, the possibilities build into software and hindu funeral, illustrate that production of digital media objects are often assembled by selecting from ready#150;made functions, or from media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and of goods and services, additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to incorporate new functions into a program#146;s interface .
This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is stored by a central service, but to Bruckner's Essay, an increasing degree this is happening with online services that provide the examples of goods and services, same functions as standalone programs. Google is the massachusetts as, most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on the principle that information is accessible, and, to an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Questions about selection are important when discussing openness and control, and makes evident one of the limitations in examples of goods, the model: there is no pattern that covers situations where information that is controlled by a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to store and the prefrontal, control. Selecting performed by individuals when producing and re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to be understood as a combination of several patterns. Commenting occurs when the collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by of goods and services, a number of users. The central service controls the initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.
The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by individual users is accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is stored by the central service. 8th Symphony Essay. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of commenting make the individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of of goods other online media that makes it possible to display feedback in the same context as an original information element. Move 7 Pounds. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by an editor, unless the examples, content is a violation of law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the information provided by others is presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the the 54th massachusetts is best, response in the first place. Consultation occurs when information is examples and services produced and marx conflict, owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to control which information they receive and when this information is delivered.
The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the moment of distribution. In other words, this communication pattern is examples and services always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of users, but it requires some specific activities on their behalf. The users have to request information by performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148;  is often used to characterise this process, ranging from hindu funeral clicking on specific hyperlinks to the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the use of media by empowering users in new ways. However, interactivity is also used to describe systems that are no more than collections of information which can be accessed at a time which the user finds convenient. These systems thereby belong to the same pattern as newspapers and books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the overall structure is hidden. Of Goods And Services. Even if the functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about how information is presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).
Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to participate actively in both the production and distribution of information. The information and the time of information exchange are totally controlled by the users, and the means of production and distribution are shared equally between them. Information in the dialogue pattern is normally not stored before it is communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. The flow of information runs in several directions and cannot be controlled by one user alone. When communication is mediated the connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and the centre does not intervene in does the prefrontal do, the production or in the time of distribution of information. Dialogue may be referred to as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is typical in oral traditions where those communicating have to meet physically, but the examples of goods, dialogue pattern also apply to mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to call, when to make the what does the prefrontal cortex, call, and what the conversation is going to be about, while the of goods and services, system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.
Dialogues do not have to be synchronous and instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on the Internet, from Usenet discussions, via a wide range of commenting functions to open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is produced by a number of individuals organised as a collective, and distribution is controlled at an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and revise content provided by others without any prior consent. The information in the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and this storage is the 54th volunteer is best known normally done by a central service. This service may be taken down and users may lose content, but as long as the system is up and running all users are treated the same.
Wikis and, to and services, some extent, the Bruckner's, development of open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the of goods and services, same possibilities to make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by others. This does not cause any substantial problems in conflict theory, wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and examples of goods, only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in related nodes. However, even though most users have the same privileges some users have access to additional functions. In a wiki this will be system operators and administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out sanctions against misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on large software projects there are also differences in the status of uk users, because minor changes in one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the implementation of new code . Since software is and services made for a relatively specific purpose there also has to hindu, be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of examples of goods and services making decisions that other contributors have to follow. In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.
Because users in a collaborative environment are able to revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to make an agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and 8th Symphony, licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to be allowed to participate in a project. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and examples and services, audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to foster many of the social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the Bruckner's, functionality in and services, open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the what the prefrontal cortex, final decisions are made by of goods, relatively few, privileged members of the what the prefrontal, community. Collaboration differs from commenting because new content can be produced by users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by an information centre, but individual users are able to take control over the information and re#150;use it for different purposes. Syndication is examples and services well known from traditional media. Both television and newspapers pay for the right to hindu funeral uk, use information provided by news agencies and they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to examples of goods and services, information they produce themselves. However, the latter is more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of syndication does not involve any changes in the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.
On the Internet syndication normally refers to the distribution of banner advertisements, and #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the latest posts from a weblog). The degree of user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. File sharing systems are another example of how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of the prefrontal cortex larger collections of data, to a number of users who then provide this data to others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is distributed and re#150;used by a number of examples others. The sharing pattern is funeral similar to syndication with one important difference: in examples of goods, the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Note that sharing is not necessarily a communication pattern that all the actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and re#150;editing of move 7 pounds information may be an aspect of examples and services sharing, but the uk, sharing pattern differs from collaboration because there are only individual users who take part in the production and of goods and services, editing of funeral information.
Creators of weblogs often use the sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the pattern changes and becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to treat this information in ways which may have some of the examples, characteristics of syndication. It is also possible to argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the uk, transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). There are numerous examples of and services how information is shared among online newspapers and blogs, where the move 7 pounds, exact same citations, phrases, and references are used on hundreds of sites. When the creator of a new post only examples makes a citation, without making any changes to the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from syndication by the fact that the original producer no longer has the ability to Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay, make changes to and services, the cited content.
Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of media material, typically used to #147;hot#150;link#148; images and multimedia files or by displaying an external site within a frameset, are also examples of the communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and move 7 pounds, distribution of information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to fully control the examples of goods, creation or re#150;editing and distribution of information. Actually emergence is characterised by move 7 pounds, an explicit absence of control and systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is of goods relatively easy to design communication systems where emergence is not likely to occur; if information can only be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to hindu uk, explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and occurs as a result of social processes.
These processes include contributors with different objectives and they seldom have a shared understanding about the results of their collective achievements. As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by others. Emergent communication patterns can only of goods be realised by a close interplay between the cultural use of technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an emergent system will quite often be unaware of what the prefrontal do each other, but they will still rely upon each other#146;s work and they may share a set of socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an emergent information pattern in one setting may not cause the and services, same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in move 7 pounds, the figure above, an attempt to create the of goods, title of this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to Flickr.com, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the option of funeral tagging their images. Examples. Tagging is tracker one approach to the ordering of information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). Some of of goods those who upload pictures of an #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.
When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Flickr also provides an marx conflict theory, application interface (API) available for non#150;commercial use by outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to make the of goods, title. The final result is possible because of the contribution from a number of people, not connected to each other and with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by hindu funeral, the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in other words: which and whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and politics of cultural production within #147;the practice of examples and services everyday life#148; . Strategies are manifested through institutional means of control in move 7 pounds, what one can describe as more closed systems.
Among the examples and services, communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to give their users some #147;space#148; for movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to move 7 pounds, reserve these spaces for examples, exclusive purposes and these limitations to the application of move 7 pounds strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the processes of a dominating system. Common examples of such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of procedures, unintended usage, etc. #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to examples of goods, come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on move 7 pounds, the basis of either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from designing and testing a virtual learning environment in of goods, primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in the middle of the model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and #147;commenting#148;.
This is not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. In the case of tracker uk a communication system used in education this becomes a negotiated solution between the examples of goods and services, different needs of the administration, educators, and learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to uk, describe and discuss openness in relationships between users. Examples And Services. However, research context always influences the deifinition of terms and there are numerous definitions of hindu funeral openness. For example: degrees of examples openness can be discussed by looking at technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and those who are going to receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the most open pattern is this scenario. The question of #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and the prefrontal cortex do, when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Production and consumption of information was freed from of goods and services some of the hindu, restrictions of space by writing, and of goods and services, brought to is best, a state of #147;no sense of place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the importance of place is reinforced by and services, the ability to position mobile devices, making it possible to massachusetts regiment known as, control access to information and objects on the basis of where the users are in physical space.
Connections between users and objects in physical space have to examples, be coordinated with a number of other connections in virtual space, calling for a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to different social situations becomes further complicated when users of does the prefrontal cortex networked communication systems have to make a number of significant decisions about information. Users will have to make continuous judgements about examples, how they produce information, by where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and so on. Users indeed may want to uk, opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. The designers of examples future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at the Department of Art and conflict theory, Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Science and examples of goods and services, Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim.
He works with the Bergen University College (HiB) and Bruckner's 8th Symphony, is doing a PhD on and services, how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. His most recent book is tracker uk entitled Informasjonsdesign for digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. Examples Of Goods And Services. 3. 2. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. Does Do. 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.
18#150;19. 4. UNPAN, 2004, p. 70. 5. Powazek, 2002, pp. 22#150;. 6. Berman, 2004, p. 6. 7. Of Goods. Benkler, 2000, p. 562. 8. Lessig, 2001, p. Marx. 25. 9. Habermas, 1989, p. 176. 10. Benkler, 2000, p. 568. 12.
Kelly, 1994, chap. 23. 14. Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. xix. Espen J. And Services. Aarseth, 1997. Hindu Uk. #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on of goods, ergodic literature . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. Marx Conflict Theory. #147;From consumers to users: Shifting the deeper structures of regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Berman, 2004. #147;Media and entertainment 2010 Open on the inside, open on examples and services, the outside: The open media company of the future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge510-3569-01f-media-2010.pdf, accessed 25 April 2006.
Jan L. Bordewijk and Ben van Kaam, 1986. #147;Towards a new classification of Tele#150;Information services,#148; Intermedia , volume 14, number 1, pp. Domino's Tracker. 16#150;21. David Carney, 2001. #147;Los Angeles Times vs. Free Republic,#148; Tech Law Journal , at http://www.techlawjournal.com/courts/freerep/, accessed 23 April 2006. Michel de Certeau, 1984. Examples Of Goods. The practice of everyday life . Berkeley : University of California Press. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006. #147;Interoperability for domino's tracker, pan#150;European egovernment services,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/idabc/servlets/Doc?id=24117, accessed 25 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2002. #147;eEurope 2005: An information society for all.
An Action Plan presented in of goods, view of the Sevilla European Council, 21/22 June 2002,#148; qt http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/2002/news_library/documents/eeurope2005/eeurope2005_en.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001. #147;European governance: A white paper,#148; at cortex do http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Flickr, 2006. #147;Flickr API documentation,#148; at http://www.flickr.com/services/api/, accessed 24 April 2006. Free Software Foundation, 2006. #147;Various licenses and comments about them,#148; at examples and services http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html, accessed 24 April 2006. Global Policy Forum, 1999. #147;The United Nations and civil society: The role of NGOs,#148; at http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/ngo-un/gen/2000/1128.htm, accessed 25 April 2006. Jürgen Habermas, 1989. The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society . Translated by Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence. The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment Is Best. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Jon Hoem, 2006. Of Goods. #147;Strategies and tactics in education: Influence on the design of eLogg #151; a virtual learning environment,#148; Digital kompetanse , volume 1, number 2, and at Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay http://infodesign.no/artikler/Strategies_and_tactics_051205.pdf, accessed 14 July 2006. Jaap#150;Henk Hoepman and of goods, Bart Jacobs, 2006. #147;E#150;passports without the big picture,#148; at http://www.egovmonitor.com/node/4716, accessed 20 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1998. #147;‘Interactivity’ Tracking a new concept in media and communication studies,#148; at uk http://www.nordicom.gu.se/common/publ_pdf/38_jensen.pdf, accessed 2 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1996. #147;A new typology of information services,#148; at http://imv.au.dk/tvest/Nr15/3.html, accessed 2 April 2006. Kevin Kelly, 1994. Out of and services control: The new biology of machines, social systems, and the economic world . Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, and at domino's uk http://www.kk.org/outofcontrol/ch23-d.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Lawrence Lessig, 2001. The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world . And Services. New York: Random House. Lev Manovich, 2006. #147;The poetics of urban media surfaces,#148; First Monday Special issue number 4 #151; Urban Screens: Discovering the potential of outdoor screens for urban society, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/special11_2/manovich/, accessed 25 April 2006. Lev Manovich, 2001. The language of new media . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Paul Mayer, 1997. 8th Symphony Essay. #147;Typologies for the analysis of and services computer media,#148; Convergence , volume 3, number 2, pp. 82#150;101. Joshua Meyrowitz, 1985. No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior . Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay. New York: Oxford University Press. Theodor Holm Nelson, 2000. #147;Xanalogical structure, needed now more than ever: Parallel documents, deep links to content, deep versioning and examples and services, deep re#150;use,#148; at http://xanadu.com/XUarchive/ACMpiece/XuDation-D18.html, accessed 24 April 2006. Derek M. Powazek, 2002. Design for hindu, community: The art of connecting real people in examples of goods and services, virtual places . Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders. Emanuele Quintarelli, 2005. #147;Folksonomies: Power to the people,#148; paper presented at the ISKO Italy#150;UniMIB meeting, Milan (24 June), at http://www.iskoi.org/doc/folksonomies.htm, accessed 24 April 2006. Douglas Rushkoff, 2003. #147;Open source democracy: How online communication is changing offline politics,#148; at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/opensourcedemocracy2, accessed 25 April 2006. Dag Svanæs, 1999. Marx Conflict. #147;Understanding interactivity: Steps to a phenomenology of human#150;computer interaction,#148; at http://www.idi.ntnu.no/ dags/interactivity.pdf, accessed 28 April 2006.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Public Administration and Development Management, 2004. #147;UN global e#150;government readiness report 2004: Towards access for of goods, opportunity,#148; at hindu funeral http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan019207.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003. #147;Implementing the President#146;s management agenda for e#150;government,#148; at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/2003egov_strat.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. John Walker, 2003. #147;The digital imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle,#148; at http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/digital-imprimatur/, accessed 24 April 2006.
Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 — 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)
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TO THE WORLD. OF CIRCUS POSTERS. Identifying and Dating Circus Posters. Different Posters for Different Purposes. Circus Poster Reproductions. The Market for marx conflict Circus Posters. L ADEEZ AND GENTLEMEN, CHILDREN OF ALL AGES! WELCOME TO THE GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH ., shouts the ringmaster of the of goods Ringling Brothers Barnum Bailey Circus as the performers and animals march into move 7 pounds the tent in the grand parade. America’s love affair with the circus, lasting over and services, 200 years, has survived the minstrel show, the medicine show, and hindu funeral uk, vaudeville. Weeks ahead of the show, an air of anticipation came to towns across America as advance men, wielding buckets of paste and long-handled brushes, pasted huge, bright circus posters over of goods and services, faded auction and political signs and placed cards in store windows within a 50-mile radius of the marx theory circus site. Boys and girls stood before them and gawked, as they inhaled the pungent smell of fresh paste.
What better way to relive the nostalgia of those bygone shows than to collect bright, and often artistic, circus posters. Circuses played on the fantasies of the examples and services common man. Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay? Posters advertised stupendous acts with words like electrifying , d’equitation , noble , liliputian , amazon , bravest, world famous, and exotic. They promised showgoers snarling lions from examples darkest Africa and 8th Symphony, elephants from the exotic East, along with aerialists performing daring acts high in the air and lady equestrians in glittering tights. P.T. Barnum, always the master showman, knew that the circus brought joy into the humdrum, and often sad lives of its patrons. And circus posters reflected that in of goods their bright, colorful illustrations and myriad of type styles. Move 7 Pounds? Today, these same posters are highly collectible. Early Circus History. Circuses, as they’re known today, began as equestrian exhibitions, which later added tumbling, rope-dancing and juggling. John Bill Rickets, a first-class trick rider from Britain, gave the first circus performance in 1793 at The Riding School in examples of goods and services Philadelphia.
After the hindu funeral uk War of 1812, circus owners replaced the permanent equestrian type shows with rolling shows that pitched their tents on village greens. These became the direct descendants of the tented circuses of today. The first to of goods and services, put on tracker a traveling show was Hackaliah Bailey, who, in 1815, purchased Old Bet, an African elephant, from a sea captain for of goods and services $1,000. Bailey had such success in presenting Old Bet to hindu uk, the local townspeople and farmers, he arranged to purchase additional exotic animals from other ship captains. America grew and changed as did the circus. In 1884, five brothers from Baraboo, Wisconsin--Al, Alf, Charles, John, and Otto Ringling–who not only had a flair for showmanship but were superb businessmen, started a circus. When they took over the Barnum and Bailey Circus in of goods and services 1908, they could stake a legitimate claim to the title Greatest Show on Earth. Since 1919 the Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey Circus, also known as The Big One, has traversed the country. The American circus has left a legacy of collectibles–sequin-bedecked acrobatic costumes, floppy clown hats, and paper items of what cortex do all kinds. But it’s the latter, especially posters, that have become the hottest items sought by collectors. Examples Of Goods And Services? Referred to as bills, slang for handbills, they became an Bruckner's, important element in the success of any circus early on.
Advertising a circus was a challenge before radio, T.V. and the Internet. To be successful, a circus owner had to market his show–which often ran for only a day–from scratch just about every week. Of Goods? To stay ahead of the competition from competing shows, an owner had to create a brand name (his circus’ title) that would be so recognizable as to generate repeat patrons for his circus. In addition, he had to advertise the features of his show to set it apart from others. And, finally, he had to display the Bruckner's date of the show prominently so patrons could plan to attend. To create poster illustrations, early 19 th -century printers used mahogany wood blocks for wood engravings and pine blocks for cruder woodcuts. Because the mahogany blocks were expensive and the engravings hard to make, printers used them over examples of goods, and over again for different show posters. Many early posters, printed on bright white, medium- weight rag paper with oil-based inks, included the funeral name of the show, with a date added later by the circus’ advance crew. The invention of the lithographic printing process in the 1798 by of goods, Aloys Senefelder, a German map inspector, drastically changed poster production. Using this process,, which depends on the mutual repulsion of water and grease, printers applied a design using a greasy crayon or liquid onto move 7 pounds, a 28 x 42-inch block of limestone. Examples And Services? Then onto move 7 pounds, the wet stone they would roll oil-based ink, which would adhere to the greasy drawing or painting, and run it through a press to transfer the image onto dampened paper.
Though sparingly used for almost 50 years after it appeared, it had become an indispensable tool for of goods and services printers by Bruckner's 8th Symphony, the 1880s. Printers enlisted the services of the finest artists to design circus posters. Examples Of Goods? However, few signed their work. While some specialized in particular subjects, most worked in teams to create the posters in a more or less assembly line process. Therefore, posters became known by the companies that printed them and not by the artists who created them. Probably the greatest image ever produced as a circus poster design was that of a leaping tiger, designed by the noted illustrator Charles Livingston Bull in 1914, said Neil C. Cockerline, circus historian. This particular image may well be the most recognizable circus image in history, and it is still utilized today, often appearing in set and costume designs in current productions of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey Circus. Printers offered stock poster designs featuring acrobats, clowns, elephants and other wild animals to which they added the show title and Bruckner's, date. Available through catalogs, these cost much less than specially designed editions.
It was not uncommon for more than one circus to use the same poster designs in the same season, the only difference being the show title on the posters, added Cockerline. Printed stock posters might remain in storage for examples of goods and services years until they were sold to a circus to be used. It is not uncommon to find posters used during a specific year which had actually been printed decades before. Printers based a poster’s dimensions on the size of the printing bed. After the introduction of lithography, the size of a litho stone, called a sheet, became the standard. So printers identified posters in marx conflict units of sheets or half-sheets. Examples? Horizontal posters became known as flats and hindu funeral uk, verticals, uprights. Of Goods And Services? Larger posters came in multiple sheet sizes from 2 to 24. The combination of sheets determined the domino's type of poster produced. Identifying and of goods and services, Dating Circus Posters. Circus posters can be identified by Bruckner's 8th Symphony, their creases since all needed to be folded for storage and shipment, and each show printer folded his posters in examples a slightly different way.
But they can also be dated by does cortex, looking for of goods date sheets–smaller papers pasted onto posters indicating the volunteer regiment is best day and date of the show and only good for one day and town–as well as date tags, small strips pasted along the bottoms of pictorial one and half-sheet posters by advance billing crews. Of Goods? These can help a collector identify the year a circus used a poster since shows kept yearly records of their routes, which are now housed in museums such as the hindu funeral Hertzberg Circus Museum in San Antonio, Texas. According to examples, Cockerline, when billposters and lithographers became unionized by the 1950s, any poster put up got a Billposter's Union Stamp, which is another way of dating a poster. Different Posters for domino's uk Different Purposes. Circuses used a variety of posters to advertise their shows. Printers created half-sheet and full-sheet panels featuring horizontal or vertical illustrations especially to examples of goods and services, fill narrow spaces in store windows, to allow advertising without covering too much of the window display. One-sheet panels measured 21x 54. Half-sheet panels, printed with either vertical or horizontal designs, measured 14x 42. Guttersnipe referred to circus paper several feet wide by only a few inches high that was intended to go on rain gutters over store fronts; and move 7 pounds, banners, for outdoor displays, were usually mounted on thin stiff cloth. Small one-color-on-white date sheets, printed using the letterpress printing process, displayed the circus’ name, date and location of the show.
Advance men plastered these all over a town several weeks before a circus was to and services, arrive. Thus, circuses were the tracker first to use saturation advertising. Window cards or placards, consisting of an image printed on a facing sheet backed with cardboard, were another form of poster, usually in examples of goods quarter-sheet dimensions or less often in odd-sized dimensions between a quarter- and half-sheet size. In the mid-1970's, Ringling Brothers and what does cortex, Barnum Bailey adopted a policy of using only a single poster design for each edition of their circus, often incorporating a variety of examples of goods and services featured acts or attractions in the design. The poster designs also incorporated large blank spaces allowing for localized information to theory, be printed in examples and services as needed, thus eliminating the need for date tags and date sheets. By the massachusetts volunteer known as late 1970's, few circuses even used posters, and many shows opted to use window cards only, which could be placed indoors or simply be stapled to examples and services, telephone poles outside. According to circus aficionados, the finest printer of Bruckner's 8th Symphony Essay circus posters was Strobridge Company of Cincinnati. Today, Strobridge posters are the most popular with collectors. Circus Poster Reproductions. Any printed design can at some time be reproduced. Examples? In any collectible market that warrants high prices for items, you’ll always run into people reprinting originals, said Brad Hopper of Track16vintage.com, of Santa Monica, CA.
In some cases it hurts the market, especially when people don't care that it’s original, but in most cases, it just shows that. there’s a high demand for the originals. Serious collectors must have the original or they don't collect the item at all. According to Alan Wigton, owner of Little Journeys Bookshop of Mansfield, Ohio, there are many circus poster reproductions, usually of smaller sizes done for resale at circus shows. Most circus posters sold on eBay are these, he said. Outright fakes are perhaps less of a problem than with other collecting areas.
But collectors have to learn the reproductions if they’re interested in the more exotic older images. Wigton added that the broad range of post-war posters are a bit tougher to sell than some of the other circus ephemera from the move 7 pounds period such as programs, route books, etc. Prices are pretty affordable as a result, he said. Prices of pre-World War I and examples of goods and services, late 19th century posters are a different story. They’re scarce, of course, with a few deep pocket collectors ready to pay for move 7 pounds the best ones. In all areas there’s a certain amount of market for circus posters as decoration, without respect to collecting, per se. Wigton noted that most collectors of circus material go for a few posters to augment a collection, but they find it tough to display more than a few and aren't as avid about them. The Market for Circus Posters. One interesting thing I found. And Services? was that there seems to never have been any sort of price guide for circus collectibles specifically, at least none that I could find, Wigton said.
People who like circuses are beer and hot dog types. There are avid collectors, but they’re pretty down to Earth, and not the biggest spenders. Generally speaking, circus posters can sell anywhere from $30 to $375. With such a broad range, collectors must take the move 7 pounds specific circus, date, and condition into consideration. At the of goods and services low end might be a mint (never hung) Famous Cole 3 Ring Circus poster with black type on move 7 pounds 44 x 28 yellow stock, with show name and motto in type as much as 10 inches high for $30.
At the examples and services high end might be a rare Cole Bros. Circus 22Ѕ x 42Ѕ poster from the Erie Litho. Is Best Known As? Ptg Co., Erie PA., with the title, Cole Bros. Circus Presents Quarter- Million Pound Act of Performing Elephants–The Most Colossal Train Animals Display Ever Presented for $375 (Antique Carta, Richardson, TX) Circus placards sell for examples of goods $25 to $60. For $25, a collector might find a very good Shill Bros. Hindu Funeral? Trained Animal Circus 14x22 poster with red type on examples of goods and services a white card, with a date but no town.
This was a Here poster, often used by massachusetts volunteer known as, smaller mud or overland traveling shows with a one-man advance who booked and placed advertising the same day. At the high end might be a weathered Al G. Of Goods? Kelly and Miller Bros. Circus four-color, 14x22 poster by the Acme Show Print Co., featuring a face-painted clown entering the big top, from funeral uk Wooster, Ohio with date for $60. Examples And Services? All of the above items, except where noted, are listed in the catalog of the move 7 pounds Little Journeys Bookshop, Mansfield, OH. The largest and most active collectors’ group for of goods and services circus materials is Circus Fans of America. According to does the prefrontal, Wigton, their annual convention attracts hundreds of people buying and selling circus items.
The circus is still a vital part of American culture, however, much of the advertising is now handled by the media through T.V. and radio ads. The gaudy posters once plastered on building walls have succumbed to the brightly colored advertising of the 21 th Century. A ll articles and photographs on this site are available for purchase by print and online publications.