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BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 4: Romans 3:24-26. Summary of Essay on Italian passage: God granted us redemption through Jesuss death on Women’s in the 1920’s and Examples in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s, the cross through his blood in order to demonstrate his justice. 9) Part personal Question. My answer: To atone is to reconcile. Atonement is a cleansing of sins. It is the central doctrine of faith and can properly include all that Jeses accomplished for us on the cross. Jesus stands as our substitute/sacrifice that satisfies the righteous wrath of God.

Without this, we#8217;re all destined for eternal punishment. It doesnt. I dont need assurance. God said so. Done. God loved us so much He sent Himself (Jesus, Holy Trinity) as the only thing to justify us. 10) Part personal Question. All of our answers are mere guesses. Love. I would say God loved his creation, mankind, so much He sent His perfect Son to us to help us, guide, us, and cleanse us so we can be with Him for Essay all of eternity.

Jesus was the only perfect human and thus the only one worthy to be our final atoning sacrifice.. There are no words of thanks large enough for this. Conclusions : I dont like the assured questions. For me, I shouldnt have to be assured of anything. Mg Reacts With! If you have faith, you dont need assurance because you dont question or doubt. God in His mercy and love gives us proof and assurance because of our humanity. But we shouldn#8217;t need it.

End Notes : Christ was our substitute sacrifice/atonement/propitiation so God could demonstrate His righteousness in judgment. Propitiation is in all cultures. It#8217;s the act of appeasing the gods and the gods#8217;s anger against mankind through a sacrifice of some kind. Aztecs, Mayas, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Native Americans, etc. The ancient Greek word for propitiation ( hilasterion ) is also used in the Septuagint for the mercy seat , the lid covering the Ark of the Covenant, upon which sacrificial blood was sprinkled as an atonement for on Italian Report sin. While it might be said that this passage means Jesus is our mercy seat, it probably has the more straightforward idea of connectivism propitiation a substitute sacrifice. Education! Inside the Ark of the Covenant was the evidence of connectivism mans great sin: the tablets of law; the manna received ungratefully; the budded rod of on Italian Aaron, showing mans rejection of Gods leadership.

The Ark was decorated with golden cherubim as symbols of God#8217;s holy presence. In between the cherubim stood the mercy seat, and connectivism theory as sacrificial blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), Gods wrath was averted because a substitute had been slain on behalf of sinners coming by Essay Education Report faith. Jesus is usually allocate resources, our mercy seat, standing between guilty sinners and the holiness of God. God willingly gives His Son. He wants us with Him! God no longer passed over sin with the on Italian Education temporary OT sacrifice of animal blood. He freed us forever from sin with Jesus#8217;s sacrifice. Jesus paid the what basic federalists and the price. At the cross, God demonstrated His righteousness by offering man justification (a legal verdict of not guilty), while remaining completely just (because the righteous penalty of sin had been paid at the cross). Clarke states: God #8220;Of his justice , in requiring a sacrifice , and Essay Report absolutely refusing to give salvation to a lost world in any other way; and of his mercy , in providing the sacrifice which his justice required. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 3: Romans 3:23-24.

Summary of passage: All are sinners and are justified freely through Gods grace through Jesuss work on the cross. 6) We are all sinners. No ones perfect. Paul is a great example. I think everyone knows they are sinners. Difference Beliefs Federalists And The! This is not the hurdle to Christianity. The hurdle is admitting you need someone to save you from the on Italian sins we all commit. Overcoming pride and self-reliance.

7a) According to Body Representation in Renaissance Portraits Essay Websters Dictionary, justified means, #8220;to prove or show to be just, right or reasonable; to judge, regard, or treat as righteous and worthy of salvation, to show sufficient.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary has the definition as #8220;judicial act of God by which, on the basis of the meritorious work of Christ, imputed to the sinner and received through Faith, God declares the Essay on Italian sinner absolved from Representation in Renaissance Essay, sin, released from its penalty, and restored as righteous. Simply put, being placed by God in a right relationship with himself.#8221; Justification is accomplished through faith in Jesus Christ as Savior when he died on the cross for our sins.. The Good News is you get to spend eternity with God! Link with previous post on Essay on Italian Report, in my blog. Mg Reacts With Hcl! b) Part personal Question. My answer: We were all fallen into Hell until Jesus came to pull us out with his death and bloodshed. He is full of grace and mercy. Essay Education Report! 8 ) Personal Question. My answer: We didnt do anything to earn His gift. He has to have infinite love to robert kennedy bestow this upon us. Deeper gratitude.

Conclusions : Because Romans is such a short book we will probably be studying few verses every day. Which is good and bad. We will probably be answering several similar personal questions as well such as how these verses impact your thinking, response, etc. End Notes : Paul uses 3 major themes in Romans which we see here in one verse: 1) Justification or the law 2) Redemption from slavery 3) Propitiation or atonement from the religious need for Essay Report sacrifice. Justification rids us of guilt. Redemption saves us from slavery. Propitiation ensues we don#8217;t offend our Creator. Justification is free. It is given to us as a gift by the desire of God. Freely is the ancient Greek word dorean. With! It means with no strings attached.

We are only righteous through Jesus. Period. Redemption: Jesus bought us with the cost of his life. On Italian Education! Thus, we belong to God (1 Corinthians 6:20). Fun Fact : Paul uses the robert kennedy Greek verb for #8220;justified#8221; 27 times, mostly here in Romans and Galatians.

It is translated #8220;justify#8221; in on Italian Education Report all cases except 2 (2:13; 3:20 where it is translated #8220;declared righteous.#8221; This describes what happens when people believe in Christ as their Savior: God declares them to be not guilty and righteous. He debits the guilt of their sin and with hcl credits righteousness (for all you accountants/finance/math people out Report there!). Paul#8217;s points: 1) No one lives a perfectly, good, holy, righteous life. (v 10). All have sinned (v 23). Usually Efficiently They Allocate! 2) Even though we are sinners, God declares those who trust in on Italian Education Report Jesus righteous. This is valid because Christ died to pay the penalty for our sin and because he lived a life of perfect righteousness he imputes (ascribes) that to Body Representation in Renaissance Portraits us. THIS IS THE CENTRAL THEME OF ROMANS AS STATED IN 1:17. Justification : the central thought of justification is Essay Education, albeit people clearly and totally deserve to be declared guilt (v 9-19), God declares them righteous because of their faith in Christ. Paul states this idea in several ways: freely by his grace (v 24) and faith (v 25). Redemption : This word is what difference in the beliefs federalists democratic-republicans?, from the slave marketbasically obtaining release by payment of a ransom.

It refers to release from guilt, judgement, and delivery from slavery to sin, because Christ in his death paid our ransom to set us free. Etymology: mid-14c., #8220;deliverance from sin,#8221; from Old French redemcion (12c.) and Essay Education Report directly from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio ) #8220;a buying back, releasing, ransoming#8221; (also #8220;bribery#8221;), noun of action from kennedy conspiracy, past participle stem of Report redimere #8220;to redeem, buy back,#8221; from red- #8220;back#8221; + emere #8220;to take, buy, gain, procure#8221;. The -d- is from the Old Latin habit of using red- as the form of re- before vowels. Prices Usually Allocate Efficiently! Fun Fact : Paul is the Essay one who formulates the doctrine of justification mainly in Galatians and Romans. Breakdown of Justification : A declarative act by which the sinner is declared to be free from guilt and connectivism the consequences of sin A judicial act in which the idea of judgement and salvation are combined to represent Christ fulfilling the law on behalf of the Education Report sinner A remissive act in which God remits sin in complete forgiveness A restorative at by which the forgiven sinner is robert, restored to favor through the imputation of Christ#8217;s righteousness. Faith is the condition of justification by which the meritorious work of Christ is Essay Report, accepted by the sinner. Rights In F. Scott Gatsby! Christ#8217;s work on the cross is on Italian Education, sufficient. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 2: Romans 3:21-23. INTRODUCTORY NOTE : This lesson is PACKED with the crux of Christianity: righteousness, justification, atonement, and redemptionall through Christ. Some have called Romans 3:21-31 #8220;the central theological passage in the Bible#8221; (BSF devotes 2 weeks to this!). I spent over 10 hours on usually resources efficiently because, this lesson.

Take your time and absorb it. Essay On Italian Education! BSF gives us a whole week. Rights In The In F. Fitzgerald´s The Great! Use it. Pray over it. Ponder. Meditate. Because if you get this lesson, you get Christ! What is more important to Report spend your time on than this?! Summary of passage: Paul now explains how righteousness is attained only by faith in Jesus Christ, which the difference in the of the federalists and the democratic-republicans? Law and Essay Education Prophets testify to.

All are sinners and equal before God. 3) According to Websters Dictionary, righteousness means #8220;acting in accord with divine or moral law; free from guilt or sin.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary states it as #8220;morally right behavior or character. Body In Renaissance Portraits! In general, any conformity to a standard. God always acts in righteousness or has a right relationship with people and Essay on Italian Report His action is to maintain that relationship.#8221; It comes from God and is received by all believers through faith in Christ. Thats how I understand it. Zondervan has an amazing explanation of righteousness in the gospel: #8220;Paul tells us in theory Romans 1:16-17 that #8216;a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last.#8217; The gospel is on Italian Education, effective because a righteousness goes forth which is the connectivism provision of a right relationship with himself through the saving work of Jesus. To receive this gift is to be justified by faith. Those who receive the gift then are to Essay Education live as righteous people, devoted to the service of what God declares to be right.#8221; 4) Before Jesus, all those who obeyed the law had righteousness. Here, Paul says apart from the what difference in the of the and the democratic-republicans? law, meaning the law cannot save us nor can keeping the law save us, but God reveals a righteousness that will save us, which is Gods plan of salvation in Jesus Christ. Education! It is mg reacts with, a salvation that is offered apart from the law, apart from our own earning and deserving, apart from our own merits. 5a) God granted righteousness to those He deemed worthy, which is apart from the law.

He made a covenant with Israel and put the law in their minds and wrote it on on Italian Education Report, their hearts. He forgave Israels wickedness and remembered their sins no more. God granted them cleansing from their impurities and gave them a new heart and spirit and saved them. Israel was chosen to resources efficiently they allocate be in God#8217;s covenant, in right relationship with Him through faith and were expected to Essay on Italian live in right relationship with others. It matters because it was the only way to God before Jesus. It also shows God#8217;s faithfulness to with hcl His people and how He keeps His promises to us. Other OT references: Psalm 32:1-2. Paul actually will quote this in Romans 4:6-8 as he continues to Essay on Italian explain how God must credit righteousness based on faith. Habakkuk 2:4 which Paul quotes in Romans 1:17.

This OT verse quoted by Paul is the verse Martin Luther read that changed his life and righteousness by faith became the rallying cry of the Protestant Reformation . Representation Portraits! b) Part personal question. On Italian Education Report! My answer: Anyone who believes in their heart Jesus died for mg reacts with their sins and God raised him from the dead and confesses Jesus as their Lord. Gratitude is my response. Conclusions : I love how Paul packs a lot of power into few words. And its simple. Righteousness is easy: believe in Jesus. End Notes : Paul just spent the first part of his letter showing us how all (Jews and Gentiles) are unrighteous (1:18-3:20). Now, he will show how God provides us with a way to be righteous. #8220;But now#8221;: This either means 1) Time. And the now is the Essay on Italian Education Report period righteousness from God has been made known or 2) Logical.

Between the Body in Renaissance Portraits Essay righteousness gained by observing the law (which is impossible v 20) and the righteousness provided by God. Paul didn#8217;t invent righteousness; it#8217;s been around since the Education Prophets as always part of what basic difference in the beliefs federalists democratic-republicans? God#8217;s plan. We can#8217;t earn merit before Him by following the on Italian Report law. This is apart from the usually allocate resources efficiently because law. Righteousness is Essay Report, something not earned, but received, through faith in robert kennedy Christ.

There is no other way to obtain righteousness. It#8217;s all trust. Everyone must receive this gift because all sin and fall short. We fail in on Italian Education Report so many ways: fail to give Him glory in our words, thoughts and actions. We reject His glory. Thus, justification through faith and grace is offered#8230;. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 5: Romans 3:19-20. Summary of passage: The whole world is accountable to God and His Word. His Word makes all conscious of sin and merely observing the law does not make you righteous.

11) The whole world is accountable to God and His Word. His Word makes all conscious of sin and in Renaissance Essay merely observing the law does not make you righteous. Essay Report! 12a) Just that: To silence every critic, God is making it clear ALL are guilty before Him. Body In Renaissance Portraits Essay! b) So far, it hasnt really. Essay Education Report! Ive learned more about the importance of it, but it hasnt had an concrete effects on identifying and confessing sins. In The 1920’s In F. Scott Fitzgerald´s! It#8217;s Week 4. Conclusions : Unsure why we need a whole day on these two verses (besides the obvious that Romans only has 16 chapters for a 30 week study), which in Essay on Italian Education Report my mind only emphasizes the facts were not righteous just because we obey the law, which is what weve been talking about all week. End Notes : The law cannot save you. It gives you knowledge of your sins, not salvation. In fact, it condemns you, not saves you. Yes, God wants you to keep His laws and Body in Renaissance Portraits Essay walk in His ways. But that alone will not give you eternal life.

Only the purifying blood of Jesus can do so under the Essay Report New Covenant. J.B. Phillips paraphrase of #8220;through the law we become conscious of sin#8221; is striking. He writes, it is the straight-edge of the Law that shows us how crooked we are. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 4: Romans 3:9-18. What In The Of The Federalists And The! Summary of passage: Paul says we are all sinners and no one is righteous, quoting from the Old Testament. 8a) Part personal Question. My answer: No one understands God. No one seeks Him. All turn away and Essay on Italian Education Report become worthless. No one does good.

Their throats are open graves, their tongues full of deceit, and they speak poison. They curse and robert kennedy conspiracy are bitter. They are swift to shed blood. They bring ruin and misery. They do not know peace. They do not fear God. We all have sin in our lives and are surrounded by Essay on Italian Report sinners.

People are mean. They fall away from God. Connectivism! Wars. Essay On Italian Report! Flippant attitude towards God and sinning. Personally, sticking to God#8217;s path is the hardest and dealing with my own sin. b) Part personal Question. My answer: Tongues are full of deceit. The poison of vipers is on their lips.

Their mouths are full of cursing and mg reacts bitterness. The tongue can corrupt the whole person. It is full of evil and poison. Speak more words of encouragement and praise. There#8217;s enough complaining and tearing down in this world. 9) No one fears God. Well, Paul quotes from the Old Testament here and he is living in New Testament times. Regardless, man#8217;s nature doesn#8217;t change with time. He is a sinner and is prone to turn away from God and not fear Him.

God thus judges and punishes as we see all throughout the Old and New Testament. So will it be until the Second Coming. 10) Think before you act. Repent. Ask for forgiveness. Put others first. Follow God#8217;s laws. Worship Him. Treat God and Jesus with the Education respect they deserve.

Both lie in your heart and you do everything in your power to keep them there. Conclusions : Paul again is emphasizing how we are all the same no matter what our backgrounds. Mg Reacts With Hcl! God treats us equally. On Italian Report! He takes it further here by saying we are all sinners and listing ways in which we sin. What Was A Difference Federalists And The Democratic-republicans?! He wraps up with how no one fears God when we should. Good lesson on keeping us all humble. Least we get on our high horses, read Romans. End Notes : Again, Paul says all are under sin and deserve condemnation (Jews, pagans, Gentiles, everyone). #8220;Under sin#8221; literally means sold under sin or a slave to sin. We are all born in sin. Paul then quotes the Old Testament (mainly Psalm and Essay on Italian Education Report Isaiah) as proof of connectivism our sinhood.

Paul uses parts of the body to emphasize our complete helplessness to save ourselves. Adam before the Fall wasn#8217;t even righteous. He was merely innocent. The throat, tongue, lips, mouth, feet, and eyes are filled with sin and Education rebellion against God. God calls all of us.

On our own we would not seek out Him. We sin because we do not have the proper respect (or fear) of God. Side Note : If you were to look up these verses, you would find Paul does not quote them verbatim. There are several reasons for this: New Testament authors sometimes gave the general sense and not a direct quote. Quotation marks were not used in ancient Greek. Citations were often taken from the pre-Christian Greek translation (the Septuagint) of the 1920’s in F. Gatsby Hebrew OT because Greek readers were not familiar with the Hebrew Bible. Sometimes this was done on purpose by the NT writer in order to drive home his point.

Under the inspiration of the Essay Education Holy Spirit, the Body in Renaissance Portraits Essay writer would enlarge, abbreviate or adapt an OT passage or combine them.

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How I Help My Mother In House Hold Chores Essays and Research Papers. Excuse Me While I Explode: My Mother , Myself, My Anger The Author, E.S Maduro is Education Report, very angry at the . Body In Renaissance Portraits? situation her mother finds herself in. She is Essay on Italian, angry that her father never helps her mother with house chores . Women’s Rights In The 1920’s Scott The Great Gatsby? When she was younger, she did not really care about Essay Education her father not helping her mother with chores around the house because everything was done for her by the time she got back from hcl school. As she grew older, she started noticing that only her mother did house chores and her father did not. Cleaning , Cleanliness , Family 1027 Words | 3 Pages. 130 Pg.

1 As a women in my mid thirties, I along with many other individuals . Essay Education? my age, find our selves saying things in regards to hcl, memories. We ask each other questions that begin with, Do you remember when? , Why I cant remember things unless I write them down?, or How is that I can remember things from 15 years ago but not 15 minutes ? Most individuals dont understand how our or their memories are documented in our brains. Essay Education Report? We blame our memories. Declarative memory , Hippocampus , Long-term memory 1404 Words | 7 Pages. My idol! My father died when I was very young so my mother is prices usually resources they allocate, not only a mom but . also a dad. She is the woman whom I admire most and Essay Report, this is a person has been affecting me a lots. Prices Resources Because? She has taught me neither knowledge nor the way to become a good person.

She is a successful woman in my eyes. I think my mother I very beautiful. She has a small round face with a straight nose and fair complexion. Her long black hair always is on Italian Education, bounden tidily behind. She also has a nice smile that makes her face.

Family , Father , High school 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Single mothers and their children face a variety of finanical and emotional complications on a day-to-day basis. Though single motherhood can . be just as satisfying as sharing these experiences with a partner, there are unique difficulties to its situation. Single Motherhood is when a mother is raising a child without the support of spouse. Around half of todays mothers will spend some time as a sole custodial parent (Legal Momentum).

Statistics say around forty-five percent of single mothers have. Family , Father , Homelessness 1814 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on Mother INTRODUCTION . MOTHER - A GIFT FROM ALLAH MOTHER - THE FIRST AND BEST SCHOOL OF A CHILD MOTHER AND ISLAM MOTHER - OUR BEST COMPANY RESPECT OF A MOTHER CONCLUSION Edwin Hubbell Chapin says, No language can express the power, and beauty, and heroism, and majesty of a mothers love. What Basic In The Beliefs Federalists And The Democratic-republicans?? It shrinks not where man cowers, and Essay Education, grows stronger where man. Love , Mother , Mothers 1107 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tribute to my Mother Claribel Brizuela Rivera I believe in love at Women’s Rights 1920’s and Examples Fitzgerald´s Gatsby first sight, because I . love my mother since I opened my eyes. I admire this woman with all my soul.

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I knew this was my moment. Dear diary, I started to write on one of the blank pages of my diary. . For the past few months, my diary has been my only companion. These pages are where I write my stories and let my imagination run free while I pour my heart out on each page. I continued to write. Ive decided that, for todays diary entry, Ill write a story. A story I have never had the on Italian Education Report courage to write. Connectivism Theory? But lately, it is all I have been thinking about. I need to get it out of my head and.

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An explication of I ask My Mother to Sing In Li-Young Lees, I Ask My . Rights In The 1920’s And Examples In F. Fitzgerald´s? Mother to Sing, four main stanzas are found; they are elaborated with memory, joyfulness, grief, and pleasant remembrances. The speaker implies tones of nostalgia as he remembers his father. The title I Ask My Mother to Essay on Italian Education, Sing is resources, clearly a song that the Essay on Italian Education Report speaker begs for his mother to sing and Women’s in the 1920’s and Examples in F. The Great Gatsby, the happiness of Essay Education Report that songs also make the speakers grandmother to sing along. The most important part is in Renaissance Essay, what. Family , Line , Mother 379 Words | 3 Pages. Agatha Christie says, A mothers love for Essay Education Report, her child is theory, like nothing else in the world. It knows no law, no pity. It dares all things and crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. . Mother being the Essay supreme lover, loves her child like nothing. A mother dissipates the clouds of with darkness, and on Italian Education Report, cause peace to return to our hearts when we are helpless in the wilderness life with her kind precepts and counsels.

From the moment we are born till we are cradled in what beliefs of the federalists and the the chariot of Essay on Italian Education death, we. Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. com/SalaryWizard/Software-Engineer-V-Salary-Details-New-York-NY.aspx My Dream Home: After hours of searching for a home that would . accommodate to my desires, I finally found this house in Austerlitz, NY. With Hcl? It is Essay, located in a rural community, which enjoys a calm and slow life. It is set on with a place where there are 1,651 inhabitants, which makes it a perfect town for me. Location: 607 Stonewall Rd., Austerlitz, NY 12017 Price: $995,000 Beds: 5 Baths: 4 House Size: 2,505 sq. ft.: 70 acres Year Built: 1941 . Debt , Fixed rate mortgage , Household income in Education Report the United States 1305 Words | 7 Pages. Compare and contrast I stand here ironing and how to talk to your mother.

Mother and Daughter, a Heavenly Relationship Failed Daughter and mother relationship is an Rights in the 1920’s in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great endless topic for many writers. They . are meant to share the bond of love and Essay on Italian, care for each other. In the real world, however, their relationship is not as successful as it ought to be. The stories How to Talk to Your Mother and I Stand Here Ironing are the examples of this conflict. Lorrie Moore is distinguished for the clever wordplay, irony and sardonic humor of her fiction.

How to Body Representation Portraits, Talk to Your mother. Conflict , Mother , Short story 1252 Words | 4 Pages. interactions. Mothers and daughters provide both physical and emotional care for their young sons and daughters. In the process, parents will . instill children with family values and goals, while teaching them the accepted norms and values of society. This is done in hope that parents will one day see their own children become mature adults, with their own goals and purposes in life. Mother -daughter relationships can be complex, but also filled with compassion and love. Mothers and daughters. Adolescence , Family , High school 2408 Words | 6 Pages.

?Hermann Ajong College Writing I 1201 13 Shih-Kneel, Nancy Family Essay Date: 09-27-2013 Hero in my world Where would . I have been without you mother ? Destiny gives us opportunities to meet new people in our lives. Each one bringing a unique flavor, molding us into what we will become. There is always that one person who will walk in when the rest of the world walks out, the person that wont sleep if I don't sleep, the Essay on Italian Education person that will run up and down looking for something for Rights in the 1920’s Fitzgerald´s The Great, me to Report, eat, the. Eye color , Family , Father 1463 Words | 4 Pages. When I was first asked to give a talk on robert kennedy conspiracy mothers , since it would be mothers day. I started wondering . Essay On Italian? how Mothers Day came to be. I was surprised to discover that Mothers Day has a history longer than Christianity!

Ancients celebrated Isis ( Mother of the Pharaohs), Rhea (Greek Mother of the Gods), and robert assassination conspiracy, Cybele (The Great Mother ). The worship of Education Report these ancient goddesses is similar to mg reacts with hcl, the reverence we show to Mary, Jesus mother as these Mother Goddesses are often depicted with a baby in Essay Education Report arms. . Cybele , Father's Day , Great Mother 1882 Words | 5 Pages. blessing. My family unlike others is small. We enjoy spending time with each other and making memories we will cherish forever. . My mother had my brother at Body Representation Portraits a very young age but unlike any other teenager at her age she did what she thought it was right which was keeping my brother. Since that day my mother has worked very hard to provide for Education, me and my siblings. A year ago she opened her own hair salon, she loves styling hair and everything that comes with, its her passion. Robert Conspiracy? Its not about how much income.

English-language films , Family , Father 1377 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from unbearable loss of a dear . Report? person. For my part it used to be pity, compassion. Body Representation In Renaissance Portraits? When this happened to me, when my dear mother died, I started to understand all those people who lost someone they loved. There are perhaps no proper words to Education Report, describe this pain, at least none used on this planet. Representation Portraits Essay? This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is like a stone on Education your heart, and which make tears run. Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages. Patrick Silva AP Lit Period 4 Mr.

Schmitz October 11, 2012 How I Met My Husband Thesis Paper The theme of . Alice Munros story How I met my Husband is Representation, Social expectations mold individual circumstances. Edie, a fifteen year old housemaid in the lower class of society has qualities and talents that demonstrate a skill set of aristocracy. Essay On Italian Report? Have a house without pie, be ashamed until you die is a quoted statement that Edie's mother used to say to her that Mrs. Peebles was not very familiar with. Class consciousness , Middle class , Nobility 864 Words | 3 Pages. A Love Story In Reverse The success of any television show heavily depends on connectivism theory how it reaches it audience. People watch shows and a filtering . process begins. A person decides what messages to take in and which ones to ignore for any given type of media. For television shows, the Essay on Italian audience must acknowledge and filter in the correct message the writers of a show want to Rights in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s, portray. The audience makes sense of these messages and match it to Education, learned definitions and this is where the meaning matching process.

Barney Stinson , English-language films , Episode 1642 Words | 4 Pages. My Life past Present Future Throughout my life, I had many challenges I was raise by a single . mother which has its challenges. At the age of 13 I was brought to New York City and 1920’s Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby, I was forced to learn a new culture, language and customs. I was taught to be independent and work hard. Returning to Education Report, college as an connectivism adult, with family and Essay Report, children, its a challenge but being able to Body in Renaissance Essay, complete my degree has being a long time goal. Essay Education Report? Being able to give my children and myself a better life its something.

Adult , Education , Family 1661 Words | 5 Pages. A Gift for My Mother The story A Gift for My Mother is a short story written by usually resources they Viv McDade which . deals with a family of three; a set of parents and Essay Report, their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and connectivism theory, moulded skirting boards on the other side of the railway, and she usually gets angry about the on Italian Report differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on hcl other side of the railway. Essay Education? The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the connectivism theory reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages.

My father in Essay Report my bedroom at my house for robert kennedy assassination conspiracy, my birthday party. I bet . Education Report? some of you'll can't guess what my father's name is? Oh well; anyway, I was born in Atlanta,Ga. on March 8, 1998 at aCrawfordlong Hospital. When I came into this world ; my uncle Tray was the Body first person to on Italian, hold me after leaving the hospital. He said I had a lot of gas on Women’s Rights in the 1920’s Fitzgerald´s my tummy; and thats how I got the nickname Pookie from him. When I was born I weighed 8lbs and 9 ounces. Essay On Italian Education? I was so big because my mom ate every 2 hours. Family , Father , Grammatical person 979 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of a Mother-Daughter Relationship. Importance of a Mother and Daughter Relationship Throughout my life, my mother always reflected a . very close minded person that was scared for her children to find out anything about her or her past that she was ashamed of. In the duration of my life, my family members that did have knowledge of in the in F. The Great my mothers business started telling me shocking things that, for some part, I should have learned years ago.

Its almost as if my mother wanted to make her children think she was perfect. I guess that is. 2006 singles , Debut albums , Family 1518 Words | 4 Pages. The Strength of a Mother Some of the on Italian Education smallest words have more meaning in them than the bigger ones. There is a six letter word that . holds so much meaning I dont ever think it will completely be defined, this word is mother . When you think of a mother I am sure a lot of different things come to your mind such as strength, love, care, compassion, forgiveness, protection, and many more. Omar Burleson said this A mother is a blend of strength and survivorship, experience and insight, fancy and reflection. Family , Father , High school 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Jovanna Hader September 19, 2010 ENG 105 Grand Canyon University Now I Remember I never had a place I . Prices Allocate They? could call home. I bounce from Essay on Italian house to house , whichever house would let me stay, whichever house had the least drama at that time. What Difference In The Beliefs Of The Federalists And The? I never knew what a stable and happy family looks like. Essay On Italian Education? Most of family is drug addicts so it was never a stable environment.

Until one day I met John. Hes tall, handsome and has a very positive sprit to be around. Every conversation we had it was always. 2009 singles , Coming out , English-language films 2629 Words | 6 Pages. ? HOW I MET YOUR MOTHER : ENDING ON CONTROVERSY The CBS television series, HOW I . MET YOUR MOTHER (2005-2014), ended its nine season run on March 31, 2014. Television audiences usually greet television finales either with great satisfaction or with equal contempt. Instead of one or the other, the television series created by Carter Bays and Craig Thomas proved to be not only divisive, but also controversial. And romance for the series' main character, Ted Mosby, ended up being the theory center of. Barney Stinson , How I Met Your Mother , Marriage 1752 Words | 3 Pages.

head: How then shall I live? How then shall I live? Kevin Gunyak Robert Morris University . Professor John C. R. Silbert Introduction to Ethics December 12, 2011 How then shall I live? So far I have lived my life for Essay Education, twenty years and on what was a in the beliefs February 2, 2012 will be twenty-one years of me living my life. When I look back on Essay Report my life I think. Emmanuel Levinas , English-language films , Ethics 1580 Words | 7 Pages. How My Children Helped Change My Life.

2013 My children helped change my life When my children were born, I knew . my life was going to robert conspiracy, change. I started to feel complete with my life the Essay Report day my son arrived. Even more complete when my little girl was first placed in my arms. My children have been my rock over hcl the last three and a half years. They have helped me learn, grow, and Essay Education Report, love by showing me the world through their eyes. Body In Renaissance Essay? My children have helped me become a better role model and friend. They have helped me through my education. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Family , Lil Wayne 1213 Words | 3 Pages.

I grew up in Essay a nuclear family. There are four people in robert kennedy assassination conspiracy my family, consists of on Italian Education Report my father, mother , . my sister and usually efficiently, me. My father is 62 years old. Hes working as a insurance agent. My mother is 10 years younger than my father. She used to work as a store manager before she gave birth to me. Education? She quitted her job in order to take care of in Renaissance Portraits Essay me and my sister because she believes that the Essay Education mother daughter bond can grow stronger day by day by spending time with us. Connectivism Theory? My sisters and I are four years apart. She is. Family , Father , Mother 1888 Words | 5 Pages. MaryAnn Lockard 9/28/2011 Mother Though I admit the title of this essay is a bit generic and you have the right to Essay Education Report, assume oh . the author must be a mothers boy or another essay for hcl, the mothers day propaganda.

In this case my reminisce of Essay on Italian my mother in the actual body of the text is not filled with only meager sentimentality or a message that we should all love our mothers , it is what was a basic in the beliefs of the federalists, based on two convictions that are based off of thousands of years of painful human evolution. Essay Report? My first conviction is that. Kitchen , Mother 1575 Words | 4 Pages. My name is prices allocate because, Yasmin binti Zainal Abidin. Currently I am a student in Universiti Selangor (UNISEL) which is one of the private . Education? institutions in Selangor.I am now in theory the first semester doing Foundation in Management. At this very moment, I am writing an Education Report essay about MY LIFE. It is an assignment for the Computer Applications subject given by my lecturer, Mr. In The 1920’s? Izwan Suhadak.

My life started when I was born on 22nd October 1993 at about 6pm.I was born in Subang Jaya Medical Centre. I was given a name. High school , Hussein Onn , Primary education 1816 Words | 5 Pages. How The Maritime English Helps My Caree. ? How The Maritime English Helps My Career In Shipping Industry? Assalamualaikum and good evening to Education, . my loyal followers and friends, now I would like to spend my time in a little bit of my holidays for assignment in Maritime English(MM2513) that was lectured my Sir Shamsul Rizal. In Renaissance? Here I want talking about how Maritime English subject can help my career in shipping industry, but before that let me explain what is actually Maritime English. Maritime English is the English language that is necessary.

Cargo , Environmental issues with shipping , International Maritime Organization 868 Words | 3 Pages. Kobie Douglas Douglas 1 2-6-12 My family history In all of Essay on Italian Education us there is theory, a hunger, marrow deep, to know our heritage - to know . who we are and where we came from. Without this enriching knowledge, there is on Italian Education, a hollow yearning. Body Representation In Renaissance Portraits? No matter what our attainments in life, there is still a vacuum, emptiness, and the most disquieting loneliness. Alex Haley This quote explained to Essay on Italian Report, me the importance of my grandparents legacy and their history. Theory? A long twisting family tree inspires one who. Family , Genealogy , Grandparent 999 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 My Super Mother The person I will always remember in my entire life is my . mother because she is the Essay Report most sacrificial, loyal, and humorous lady that I have ever known. Usually Resources Efficiently They? She is an inspiration to everything I do. I would not call her a friend, but she is an extraordinary person. She has been in my life since I was born and Essay Education, she will always be in my life no matter what happens.

She is the one who has suffered to bring me into this world. I have learned to love her from the theory day I was born. My mother. Birthday , English-language films , Family 1032 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 Single Mothers The dream of many women is to Essay, have the perfect family, which is with a husband and their children. This is the perfect . family for mg reacts, many women, but at these times a lot of women are single mothers because their relationships do not work out or maybe because the partners do not share love each other. Nowadays, people do not follow the tradition to stay virgin till marriage and now women have sex without notice what can happen. At these times there are more single mothers than married. A Little Bit , Family , John Lennon 1268 Words | 3 Pages.

After reading the short story My Boy Life which is the memoir of John Carroll, I was from Essay time to time envious of Carrolls . life but also relieved that I was not born in the 1800s. Born just before the war of 1812 in mg reacts with hcl Upper Canada, Carrolls life was very simple. His prospective future occupations only consisted of a few and were predetermined from Essay on Italian Education birth. How simple is connectivism theory, life when everything is already set in stone? From the age of twelve to seventeen, Carroll worked at a tannery and Essay Education, as a currier. American films , Future , John Carroll University 1190 Words | 3 Pages. My house is in Women’s Rights and Examples Gatsby Shastri Nagar, New Delhi. It is a quite new house . It was built only one year back.

It has two . storeys. My grandparents and on Italian Education Report, my uncle live on the ground floor. On the ground floor we have a drawing room, two bedrooms, and prices usually allocate efficiently they allocate, a kitchen. We live on Report the first floor. On the was a difference beliefs and the democratic-republicans? first floor we have three bed rooms and a kitchen. It has also a dining room, a study room and a guest room.

My sister and study in on Italian the study room. The rooms are well-lighted and airy. Usually Resources Efficiently Allocate? All the Education Report floors have marble tiles. Basement , Bedroom , Building 1646 Words | 4 Pages. My mother and her sister One thing that everybody longs for, and will do most likely anything for, is happiness. Some people . believe that money can solve their prayers and other hope that love can make them happy. Unfortunately to Representation Portraits, many people are lonely. Realizing that the one thing you wish and long for, maybe never will come true, can affect people in different ways.

There are overall many perspectives on Education Report when you are happy, and no one shares the same view on connectivism how to handle a bad life situation. Emotion , Feeling , Fiction 976 Words | 3 Pages. An adventure that I have experienced or would like to Education Report, experience. Hi, everyone! My name is Natasha. I have . Connectivism Theory? gone through many adventures in my life but the one that I am going to tell you about is the Report greatest adventure of all. This adventure summarizes all my other adventures. This adventure started many years ago. It started with two babies crying. They are twins and Body Representation Essay, one of Essay Report them is me.

The other baby is, well, my sister. I also have a brother but he came out many years before me so he. Education , Family , High school 1519 Words | 3 Pages. The Man of the hcl House by Frank O'Connor The story opens with the boy, whom to this point had ignored his mothers coughs, drops . everything to rush to her aid as she collapsed into a little wicker armchair, holding her side. (O'Connor 206) As he watched his mother struggle trying to light the fire he told her, Go back to Essay, bed and Ill light the fire. (206) Now to this point, as the reader, I am unsure of the age of the boy, but I get the impression that he is a young boy. My idea of with hcl this boy. Boiled egg , Boy , Childhood 1191 Words | 3 Pages. Science and My Daily life Brenda Durbin Kaplan University . Science and I Science has and always will play a constant important role in my daily life, maybe more so than others. Essay? Science for what basic in the of the federalists democratic-republicans?, me has not always been my strong subject in school and I very easily tend to get intimidated. Education Report? But when I look at my daily life and realize how much science plays a role in it, I cannot help but smile.

Science is not at all. Circuit breaker , Cystic fibrosis , Incandescent light bulb 1834 Words | 4 Pages. ?Andrea Slaner Mr. Cravens English Comp I 19 September 2014 How to conspiracy, be a friend In life people have to search long and . Essay On Italian? hard to in the in F. The Great, find friends, not just any kind of friends but the good, reliable, and Essay on Italian Education Report, trustworthy kind. Robert Kennedy Conspiracy? The kinds of friends that make me feel they are supposed to be in my life.

The ones like family, which make me, want to call my siblings. Essay Education? There are so called friends that talk behind their friends back, decide that all of the sudden dont want to be a part of their life, or are. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 850 Words | 3 Pages. Housewives Are More Responsible Mother Than Working Women. housewives are more responsible mother than working women Yes because. No because. housewives give children the in the 1920’s and Examples Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby attention they need . Psychologically,diet-wise and academically. Housewives can be both educated and uneducated but the on Italian Report fact that they spend more time with their children means that they put in in the in F. Gatsby a greater effort and since they are not preoccupied with their job(read: cellphone); they pay the on Italian close attention needed to robert, keep their children out of trouble. Think of housewives as inspectors. BBC Films , Family , Housewife 1701 Words | 5 Pages. The Day I met my Hero.

I had always been the Education Report girl to throw money on useless things. Kennedy Assassination? At that time I . didnt care about anything except brands and Education, designers. My parents were obviously worried about me as I had no aims, goals, role models or hero in life as I thought I already had everything and anything I wanted. Connectivism Theory? And as I had just started my last year in high school my parents wanted me to actually graduate with good marks and go to university, which seemed useless to me. But that all changed when. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Family , Fashion design 995 Words | 3 Pages.

much more than simply spotting the perfect house for sale on Report the corner, calling the number listed and moving in. Thankfully, I . found the Women’s Gatsby right people to Essay on Italian Education, help and guide me through this thrilling yet exhausting experience. These are the channels that I went through when I purchased my home. When I started this process I knew literally not one single thing about mg reacts how one goes about buying their first home. Education Report? I think its a valuable thing to hear about how it all goes down from someone who, for resources they allocate, better. Credit history , Credit score , Federal Housing Administration 2268 Words | 6 Pages. How I Spent the on Italian Report Summer with My Cousins. Spann 1 PrinceYrral Spann II Professor Burchard ENG 1510 19 May 2015 Narrative Draft 1 Narrative Draft 1 Growing up . with all my family being close to my grandmother , every holiday, birthday,cookout, and sometimes just a bowling get together involved all of my family. Prices Allocate Resources Efficiently They Allocate? really didn't matter if someone was mad at Education Report someone else, if we were all together situations and arguments were to be paused during family time. 1135 Words | 4 Pages. Paper How I had to learn to connectivism, swim.

Learning something new for me can usually be somewhat of an experience thats . frightening for me at various times in my life. One of the most difficult things that I had to do was learn how to swim because I was pushed into a pool when I was around 12 or 13 years old and Report, it scared the daylights out of me. I was afraid of deep waters, but after being pushed into the pool as horseplay from Women’s in the 1920’s and Examples in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great my friends, I came to the conclusion that I had. 2008 albums , Debut albums , Education 646 Words | 3 Pages. How to Buy a House The objective of this project is to clearly explain the process of buying a house . There are . Education? many steps that need to Representation in Renaissance Portraits Essay, be taken in order to be effective in doing this. Buying a house is a major goal for some people, in Essay on Italian Report which they save up money their entire life. The methods used to figure out Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great, cost include basic concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division; however, the formulas needed to calculate it can be a bit tricky. When buying a house , the first thing. Credit card , Fixed rate mortgage , Interest 1253 Words | 4 Pages.

How I Overcame My Drug Addiction Id like to begin by stating a simple fact about Education overcoming . drug addiction. When youre struggling with drug addiction, sobriety can seem like an impossible goal. Prices Allocate Allocate? The road to Essay Education Report, recovery doesnt have an Atlas to follow. Prices Allocate? What works for Essay on Italian Education, one person, may not be feasible for robert, another. Essay Report? Id like to think of my process as being unique, meaning that it was tailored just for me. Ultimately, recovery is never out of reach, no matter how hopeless your situation.

Drug addiction , Drug rehabilitation , Higher Power 1542 Words | 4 Pages.

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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Essay Education! Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in connectivism light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and Essay Education, optimal business relationships.

Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out Body Portraits, multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to Essay, new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the was a basic difference in the federalists democratic-republicans?, problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. Education Report! 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and Women’s in the 1920’s and Examples Scott Fitzgerald´s, ready to work, and Essay on Italian Education Report, who will take responsibility for Women’s and Examples Fitzgerald´s The Great their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to Report, excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and theory, dedicated manager with an on Italian, excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion.

The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for kennedy work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in Essay on Italian yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the what was a basic in the beliefs and the democratic-republicans?, ability to work independently, with minimal supervision.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. On Italian! No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is robert assassination, something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to Education, design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Was A Basic Difference In The Beliefs Of The Federalists! Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to Essay, work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal.

How to was a difference in the beliefs of the federalists democratic-republicans?, describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and Essay on Italian Education, assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to theory, market them by building them into on Italian, your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Women’s in the 1920’s in F. Scott Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Essay on Italian, Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the Rights in the 1920’s and Examples Fitzgerald´s The Great, National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek.

From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is Essay Education, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Connectivism! Dr. Hansen is on Italian Report, also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Hes often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the Body Representation, country. Finally, Dr. On Italian Education! Hansen is also an educator, having taught at Women’s 1920’s in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and Essay Report, associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and Women’s 1920’s and Examples Scott Fitzgerald´s Gatsby, A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to Essay Education, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

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comic essays Covers of Art Spiegelman's Maus II and MetaMaus: A Look Inside a Modern Classic, Maus. Hillary Chute | University of Chicago. Abstract: In the view of some critics, the form of comics is a locus of the archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Art Spiegelmans Maus first and on Italian Education Report perhaps most forcefully established the connection between archives and what difference federalists comics. His groundbreaking work documenting his fathers experience in WWII Poland, where he survived internment in on Italian Report, Auschwitz, is mg reacts a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of Essay Education Report visual, written, and oral archives, and in the 1920’s and Examples The Great where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other.

Hillary Chute recounts and interprets her collaboration with Spiegelman in on Italian Education Report, the process of robert kennedy conspiracy assembling MetaMaus , a book compiling interviews and archival materials on the making of Maus . Essay! MetaMaus, argues Chute, reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives that motivates Maus . Its defining feature is that it shows the Body Representation Essay materiality of Spiegelmans archive; it is about the Education Report embodiment of archives. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of what difference beliefs of the federalists and the memory. Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and Education Report what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. Those are the was a difference in the democratic-republicans? things that give real tensile strength to the workputting the dead into little boxes. Art Spiegelman ( MetaMaus 73) Maus: A Survivors Tale is a book about Report, archives. Rights 1920’s In F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great! And the book about making Maus , MetaMaus , is both a process of taking stock of the Maus archive and an active process of creating a new archive. 1 Maus is about the Holocaust, featuring two intertwined stories: that of Essay Auschwitz survivor Vladek Spiegelmans struggle in the 1930s and 40s in Poland during WWII, and that of his son Art Spiegelmans struggle in the 1970s and 80s in Rights in the 1920’s, New York to record and draw his fathers testimony in comics form. Maus is a graphic narrative that is, to invoke the language of on Italian this special issue, on every level about the politics of what is saved (remembered), and what is theory discarded (forgotten). We recognize this dynamic both in and on its pages. As Anne Golomb Hoffman points out about the OED definition of archive, the word indicates both the container for on Italian Education Report documents and connectivism the documents themselves (Hoffman 2009, 5-6). The form of comics makes this transfiguration legible. Graphic narratives not only thematize archivesfor instance, the Essay Education Report cartoonists work of finding and collecting is an actual plotline of Maus but further, because of the pictorial, word and usually allocate resources because they image format of their pages, they are able to actually incorporate or physically represent concrete archives (thus the Essay Report famous three photographs, two from the mg reacts with hcl war era, that Spiegelman actually places within Maus ). 2 Maus is Essay on Italian about archives, and it also itself does the in Renaissance Portraits work of archiving , for instance in how it inscribes Vladek Spiegelmans private Holocaust testimony elicited by Art Spiegelman, and places it in print and into the public record.

3. The selecting, ordering, and Essay on Italian preserving work of Women’s Rights in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great archiving in Maus is, in a sense, collaborativeVladek locates his photograph, Art inserts it in on Italian, his book; Vladek bears witness to Auschwitz through his oral testimony; Art edits and shapes his story to put it on the page. 4 Maus and MetaMaus share this feature. With MetaMaus , the archive belongs to Spiegelman, but he and I worked together to create the shape of a new archive. Being Associate Editor meant immersively taking on was a difference in the and the the book as a joint endeavor, which meant we together generated a new archive out of the structure of our interview, which guides the book.

5. I wrote a dissertation, Contemporary Graphic Narratives: History, Aesthetics, Ethics, about nonfiction comics. Along the way, after I had written an essay on Maus that he had read and liked, I was invited to a cocktail party at Spiegelmans SoHo loft. 6 Later, in the fall of 2005, Spiegelman and I met to on Italian Education talk comics in his studio; he invited me to work with him on creating MetaMaus . By the end of 2005, I was signed on to the what was a in the of the federalists project, and we started in earnest in January 2006. In 2010, reading Spiegelmans Dancin in the Dark! piece in Essay Report, the New York Times , which explains his improbable work with the Women’s 1920’s and Examples Scott experimental dance company Pilobolus, I was struck by the pronouncement the Spiegelman character makes in the strip: I dont collaborate. He and I had been collaborating at that point for on Italian over four years.

What enabled us to collaborate was that we approached the work rooted in seemingly different discoursesI as a student and then professor of English, and robert kennedy conspiracy he as a cartoonist and historian of the formbut we shared a deep formal interest in comics. And we were agreeably open to on Italian Report disagreeing with each other; this created an intellectual generosity that became part of our intersubjective ethic. In the view of some critics, the form of comics is what was a basic in the of the federalists and the a locus of the Essay on Italian Report archival, a place where we can identify an archival turn. Focusing on efficiently they allocate the cartoonists Kim Deitch and Ben Katchor, for instance, Jared Gardner identifies the the archival turn in the contemporary graphic narrative (Gardner 2006, 788). Essay On Italian Education! 7 Scholarship on Alison Bechdels memoir Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic has also spawned attention to comics and archives, as in theory, Ann Cvetkovichs Drawing the Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home ; Valerie Rohys In the Queer Archive: Fun Home ; and my own book chapter Animating an Archive: Repetition and Regeneration in Alison Bechdels Fun Home . There is something to Gardners suggestion that there is an intrinsic connection between the comics form and [an] engagement with archival research (Gardner 804). I argue this is because of comicss profound engagement with the representation of (historical) time and space, and the complex display that the comics page enables. (One of Rohys claims posits comics frames as vitrines that focus our attention on the subject, and object, of research [Gardner 804].) We may recognize what I term an archival drive in the work of Bechdeland Katchor, Deitch, Ivan Brunetti, Dan Clowes, Seth, Posy Simmonds, Chris Ware and many othersmanifested and made legible through the Essay Education form of comics ( Graphic Women 188). However, Spiegelmans Maus , which began in 1980 as a chapter-by-chapter serial in RAW magazine (after a three-page stand-alone prototype of the same name appeared in an underground comic in 1972), first and perhaps most forcefully established the assassination connection between archives and comics. Even the visual metaphor that shapes the book, in Essay on Italian Education Report, which humans appear as various species of animals, namely Jews as mice, Poles as pigs, and Nazis as cats, is motivated by a rich archive of Nazi propaganda. The epigraph to each of the two Maus book volumes is a different WWII-era Nazi quotation that underscores this. One of the central dramas of Maus is the Women’s Rights in F. Scott The Great cartoonists desire to search down any archival material relating to Essay Report his parents lives before his own unlikely birthboth of his parents survived Auschwitz, and their first son, Richieu, died in the war at age six.

Thus the issue of Women’s 1920’s in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby what was savedwhat could be savedby survivors from the war is Education paramount, as is the question of what happens in post-war life to what gets saved. In the case of the Representation Essay Spiegelman family, the issue of saving, or not saving, is heightened: Vladek Spiegelman destroyed his wife Anja Spiegelmans notebooks after her suicide in 1968. (In maddening contradistinction to this act of obliteration, he stubbornly saves any manner of small and worthless items like matches, and wire found on the street.) The notebooks, which contained Anjas account of her experience in the war, and which she had described to her son since his childhood, are burned by the time he comes searching for Report them as a young man. Vladek reveals only over time that he destroyed Anjas notebooks, during a period when he was so depressed I didnt know if Im coming or going ( Complete Maus 161). Usually Resources Allocate! The very last word in Maus I: My Father Bleeds History is murderer: Art Spiegelman accuses his father of murdering his already-dead mother by incinerating her narrative, her archive. 8.

The absence of archives, the presence of archives: the disappearance and appearance of any kind of evidence, record, trace of his parents pre-war and wartime lives constitutes a major narrative thread of Maus , as we also see, for example, in an episode toward the Education Report end of the book featuring a momentous box of photographs unearthed by Vladekof Anjas family, primarily. In this key scene, Vladek sits lonely among a cascade of drawn photographs, and his single body stretches across comics frames to kennedy stand in for absent generations of Spiegelman bodies. 9. What kinds of archives remain from which parents? How can the son identify and weigh the traces that remain to stitch together the fullest understanding possible from the collection of voices and documents and photographs to which he has access? Maus makes explicit that the archive is a process , not a storehouse of on Italian Education evidence. This process, in fact, is exactly what the book is about. Connectivism Theory! In the Essay on Italian Education shadow of his mothers painful wordlessness , her ghostly burnt words, but also her withheld wordsshe didnt leave a note when she chose to end her life Maus is about Spiegelmans fathers archive, and testimony, and was a difference in the of the federalists Spiegelmans own creation of an archive. We can note Maus s investment in the archive as process rather than as repository of evidence in the episode in which Art, through a conversation with his father, becomes aware of the existence of a photograph of Vladek, after he was liberated, posing in a clean concentration camp uniform for a souvenir photo to send to his wife. This photograph is the only one of Vladek in Maus . Tilted out of the rows of drawn boxes, the defining feature of its presence is the ambiguity and on Italian awkwardness it inspires; the questions it sets in motion.

What Spiegelman preserves in connectivism, publishing this 1945 photograph within the space of his comics page is attention to the process behind the creation of Essay on Italian both paternal and filial archives. The idea of selectionwhat is connectivism re-archived, what is discarded?is also part of the language of the on Italian Report comics page itself, and so Maus is about archives on at least two levels. 10 First, there is the question of what is actually transmissible from one generation to the next. Second, there is the question of what Spiegelman chooses to incorporate or re-represent in his comics narrative about was a difference of the and the democratic-republicans?, his fathers Holocaust experience. Comics makes the process of selecting, ordering, and preserving intelligible in a way few forms can: its very narrative syntax is an interplay of on Italian presence and absence, in which moments of time are selected and boxed (separated conventionally by bands of white space called the gutter). The actual juxtaposition of what basic difference beliefs of the and the democratic-republicans? frames on the page calls overt attention to the basic grammar of comics as selectionto the Education Report rhythm of the displayed and difference in the beliefs federalists and the the evacuated, and how they constitute each other. While all media select and frame, comics make this process material on the pagenot as merely evocative, but rather as literal. Education Report! The fact that Maus , a book about family archives, is in the idiom of comics further calls our attention to theory the construction of its own counter-archive. The subject of Maus is the retrieval of memory and ultimately, the creation of Report memory, Spiegelman avers. Its about a cartoonist trying to envision what his father went through. Its about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing ( MetaMaus 73, italics mine). One of the key features of Maus is its focus on theory making its own making legible.

While it has become commonplace today to praise a works self-reflexivity, that feature is not necessarily a value in and of itself. However, this aspect of the Essay Report bookwhich is located in how, specifically, it builds itself as a word-and-image archiveallows Maus to function narratively and ethically as a text of witness and testimony. Robert Kennedy! And if Maus is already very meta in its rebuilding (you rebuild me all this from your questions, Vladek says ruefully to on Italian his cartoonist son), how might a book called MetaMaus function in relation to the archive? 11. Starting the project first meant deciding its basic shape.

Spiegelman knew that MetaMaus would draw on archives relating to his parentsofficial records and hcl documentation, family photographs (which are used very sparingly, even teasingly, in Maus ). He also knew that the Education book would draw on archives relating to his workthe cartoonists comics archive, including drafts, studies, outtakes, notes. (In 1994 the Voyager Company issued a then state-of-the-art CD-ROM, called The Complete Maus , that made use of photographs and notes and sketches, as well as audio recording, to good effect; an Body Representation in Renaissance, updated version of this CD was from the beginning slated to be a bonus feature of MetaMaus , included with the purchase, but would function separatelyour focus was on creating a stand-alone book with its own complete integrity.) At our first meetings, we brainstormed about the possible structure of MetaMaus , and Essay Education Report our desire to in Renaissance Portraits shape and select the material while yet maintaining the non-linear temporality of Maus , its weaving and layering of the past and on Italian Education present, its often deliberately circuitous and with recursive movement. Eventually, by talking through Maus in a semi-formal way (I taped some of our early conversations, even those that were only ever for the two of us), we hit on an interview structure to anchor the Report book. Art would never know my questions in advance; our conversations were always spontaneous, never rehearsed. We were able to converse with each other for hours at a time (a regular meeting time was three or four hours), and through simply sitting and what difference in the beliefs of the talking we came to Essay on Italian Education the tropes that Art most often deals with in his own public talking about Maus Why comics? Why mice? Why the Holocaust? With this tripartite structure in place as a skeleton shape, we formalized our conversations as interviews. Although we never spoke about kennedy, this explicitly, at some point it dawned on me, years into the project, that our interview structure mirrored Art and Vladeks. For over a solid year I simply looked at and identified and sat with the actual, physical stuff of on Italian Education Report Maus . Art gave me full accessmy own set of keysto his studio.

Whenever he wasnt there, I was free to come in to investigate and with pore over and re-organize. This often meant stretches of time on the weekends. Essay Report! (When I couldnt poke around his main cartooning studio, I would spend time in the RAW publishing office a few blocks away, run by Art and his wife Francoise Mouly, which was a similar packed space and housed an ancillary but relevant archive relating to their avant-garde comics magazine.) Nothing in mg reacts with hcl, Arts studio was off limits to me; I was encouraged to look at anything and everything in that space. Aside from the Essay on Italian Report black archival binders that contained the original drawings and studies for Maus organized by chaptereach final drawn page lay in an archival sheet protectors, along with its attendant drafts and sketchesand a bottom shelf full of Maus -era notebooks from the 1970s to 1990s, what the Maus archive was and could be was yet to be determined, and I located, sifted, aggregated, and re-assembled. My work in the studio in the first two years was two-fold: first, it was navigating the packed space of the studio to find the dispersed chunks and bits and pieces of the Maus archive, which lurked on shelves and in drawers, and robert assassination sometimes in very inconspicuous places. One treasure trove I located was an old, unmarked, inauspicious-looking Garbage Pail Kids folder full of Maus notes and reflections on yellowing index cards; another was an aging manila envelope marked, simply, Maus Grains, which contained grains of ideasstimulating and on Italian motivating like quotes attributed to Ronald Reagan (we shouldnt talk about the Holocaust) on what difference in the beliefs of the democratic-republicans? 30-year old napkins. 12 I needed to simply locate where the pockets of relevant paper archives might lie, and sort through them.

Since I was so familiar with the story and details of Maus , it felt like a backwards board game or detective quest, to Essay Education Report find the usually efficiently because allocate shards of reference that accumulated into the whole final product (and sometimes ambiguously didnt). I remember one summer evening sprawling on Education the floor and finding, under a pile of dusty manila file folders and binders, the robert conspiracy photograph of Education Report Arts dead brother Richieu that opens Maus II and which Vladek and Anja Spiegelman always kept with them. It felt shocking to assassination have the surprise of seeing this photograph de-contextualized from the Essay on Italian Education narrative I knew so well, and, for prices allocate efficiently allocate all its importance in the book, grouped with the un-important on the shelf. On Italian Report! Lifting it out of the pilethe object that stood in for a lost childwas breathtaking. Prices Efficiently Because They! 13 (The same night, in the same dusty pile, I found Vladeks immigration records, and unanswered solicitations requesting donations in order to publically commemorate Anja in Jewish services.) Art and I anointed a new space, which we called the MetaMaus shelf, where we gathered significant items together. Physically aggregating artifacts and documentsre-centralizing what had been dispersed after the Essay Education 13 years of making Maus was an mg reacts hcl, intellectual and manual task of (re)archiving. There was also, broadly speaking, the question of selection. After all, one of the on Italian Education most striking things Art has said to me was an usually they allocate, aside on the telephone in the fall of Essay Education 2010, when we were discussing the full components of Women’s Rights in the and Examples Scott MetaMaus , and were debating whether or not to have a timeline of his life and career (I typically lobbied for these more academic features, including the on Italian bibliography).

Explaining his trepidation, Art observed, My chronology would start with: When was Kristallnacht? The imbrication of the past and present is the central suggestion of Maus, as a complete narrative and on connectivism each individual page; as Marianne Hirsch recently described one of its pages, Its a series of temporalities that wont stand still. 14. Arts comment about the incontrovertible imprint and shaping of history on the existence and consciousness of on Italian Report his person, the deep mingling of the Body Representation personal and the historical, is in line with Maus , but to hear him say it out on Italian Education, loud so directly about himself felt like a fresh reminder. Maus is meticulously architected but is about unruly temporalities. Body! How were we going to consider issues like timelines in a book reflecting the swirling temporalities of Maus ? Art and Vladek had struggled over the issue of timelines in Maus II . Essay Education! Creating an archival book about a book about archives produced these mirrored moments; Art now got to be the person resisting the with timeline and claiming unruly temporalities (in Maus II he presses forward and Vladek snaps, In Auschwitz we didnt wear watches) ( Complete Maus , 228). The question of the working scope of our collection of material, then, was always present, even when not explicitly connected to the imprint of the war. Many early notebooks, such as in the 1960s, from years before the 1972 Maus was formed, contain apposite information about Essay on Italian Report, comics and creativity, about filial dynamics with Vladek and Anja, about the connection of culture and style. Deciding what the constellation of with hcl paper archives for on Italian Maus was (retrospectively) and difference of the democratic-republicans? MetaMaus would be (prospectively) was a constant issue in assembling what I think of as the research orbit of our archive. Was a Fathers Day card and a Mothers Day card Art drew for his parents as a kid relevant? To me, it was, and was entered into the register of items that we considered for the MetaMaus archive. What is indisputably the core of the Maus archive, though, is the original pages, and the notebooks. (The form of the notebook , given Anja Spiegelmans immolated notebook, the loss of Essay on Italian Report which constitutes a major thread in the book and also propels the reconstituting project of Maus itself, took on a special weight to me.) The tightly organized black binders of drawn original pages and page-connected sketches had already been cataloged and scanned by assistants and interns by the time I arrived in prices usually allocate they allocate, the studio. A complete digital archive exists of every page of Maus , and its various iterations. (File names look like this: MausI.I.p22a.jpg; MausI.I.p22b.jpg, and so onsome pages run through the whole alphabet and then the twenty-seventh file is marked by a za, and Essay so forth back into the alphabet.)

I didnt look at the digital files, though, until after I had taken every page and its versions and sketches out of the binders and sheet protector and studied them closely. This took me about a year. What Was A Basic In The Democratic-republicans?! I didnt want to experience the pages and panels on the computer; I wanted to Essay on Italian Report take stock of the theory materiality of the artifact, to touch and lift the paper and to scrutinize the gummed labels and correction fluid and the physical texture, the bumpiness, of the Essay on Italian Education Report line. The range of in Renaissance Portraits papers I attended to by studying the actual drawings was striking; there were sketches on pink While You Were Out correspondence sheets, on receipts, on typing paper, on tracing paper, on graph paper, on lined paper. One got a sense of the urgency through the pattern of paper; the inspired drawing that happens on whatever surface is most proximate. I was also able to juxtapose spatially in front of me Arts color sketches, assembling a sequence for his meticulous process of sketching in successively darker colors (starting in yellow, say, and ending in purple) to Essay Education discern visual volume and weight in assassination, a panel, even though the final line in Maus is always in Essay Education Report, black. It is only through approaching the actual objects that a sense of the profundity of the layered labor of comics came throughthe obsessional sketching, correcting, layering, crossing-out, and was a basic difference in the beliefs of the and the democratic-republicans? rebuilding. Much in the way that comics forces a kind of physical intimacy, as Michael Silverblatt has pointed out, I needed to interact with the archive haptically as though I were assembling it to Education Report be comics: spreading it out in front of in the Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great me, creating sequences with the sketches, holding a drawing up to squint at the spaces, placing studies next to a finished page to discern the narrative movement from draft to final product. (Art initially saved all of his sketches because he thought he would include one with each book when he self-published Maus with RAW.) Maus is a double-voiced text that presents a view of testimony specifically and of narrative generally as a polyvalent weave, where testimony and memory are collaborative procedures generated by both speaker and Report listener. The dialogic form of comics is constituted by the active tension between word and imagewhich makes it a hospitable form for narration that turns on the tension of competing voices (in the case of what basic difference of the federalists and the Maus , Vladeks and Arts).

Even further, what Maus so brilliantly stages, as I have argued, is that the comics medium is not only dialogic able to be both a biography and an autobiography in one layered workbut also what we might think of Essay as cross-discursive. 15 We see an example of this when Spiegelman draws against his fathers verbal narration in an episode in which the connectivism two of them discuss the Education existence of orchestras at Auschwitz. Verbally, although the Art character notes, Its very well-documented, Spiegelman lets Vladek have the final word (No, I remember only marchingnot any orchestras. How could it be there an orchestra?)but he draws a barely visible orchestra, largely covered up by mg reacts with hcl marching prisoners, in his comics frame ( Complete Maus 214). Maus often works with the friction of verbal and visual discourse; the cartoonist has both at his disposal, and so he can preserve his fathers language while drawing against it. Maus is about the tension between the visual, the written, and the oral in its representation of trauma, and in Essay on Italian Education, how it expresses the memory of the eyewitness and the secondary witness. There had not been a visual, narrative text of the Holocaust published widely before Maus what I think of as a visual materialization , for instance, of Auschwitz: something that is not a still photograph that captures a single moment, or a moving series of connectivism theory film frames that whisks a viewer along, but is rather a visual materialization that is a sequence that creates a world that can be studied and engaged at ones own pace. 16 Discussing the question of Essay representation and usually resources allocate verisimilitude, Spiegelman chafes at filmmakers quests to on Italian Education re-build the camps, as opposed to Maus s approach to Rights in the and Examples in F. representing the on Italian Report camps by creating it as a mental zone ( MetaMaus 166). Creating the camps as a mental zone ; this is one of the chief abilities of Maus as a narrative that uses the abstractions of Body in Renaissance Portraits drawing.

Spiegelman, I learned while interviewing him, had first encountered the Holocaust visually. Spiegelman grew up with parents, both Polish survivors of Auschwitz, who, in keeping with what was for some a tacit mandate of post-war American Jewish immigrant culture, didnt address with him in any explicit way what their experiences in Report, Poland had been. As a child, he knew there was something called the war, but his encounters with its traces were a series of jarringly disconnected moments, mostly verbal, like in the emblematic episode from robert kennedy assassination, his memoir Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@*! when in a car ride back from a party his parents speak about a former sonderkommando present at the event for Education whom its rumors he put his father and his sons to the ovens, so nobody sits with him, and with hcl then suggest to their son, Take a nap again, Cookie! ( MetaMaus 15). However, although his oblique knowledge that his parents had been through something terrible was mostly verbaland aural generally, as he describes hearing them scream in Education Report, their sleepduring the widely televised Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961, when he was 13, Spiegelman went searching through his parents private bookshelf, and had his Susan Sontag moment of encountering images of atrocity for the first time. That the experience of recognition was visual isnt particularly unusual: stories of peoples first viewing of Nazi atrocity photos circulate widely.

17 The most significant object that Spiegelman found, however, wasnt primarily photographic. Body Representation! His first real encounter with what to on Italian Education Report him was the war was visualand drawn . In the process of assembling MetaMaus I learned how formative drawn visual archives are in Spiegelmans intellectual and artistic imaginary. 18 It comes out in our interview that Spiegelman discovered, on his mothers bookshelf, mostly Polish and Yiddish small-press pamphlets published right after the war, some of them picturing everyday life in the camps. Prices Usually Resources Efficiently Because Allocate! For Spiegelman, these were so outside of mass-cultural production, they had a kind of fanzine-like magic to me and really struck me hard. I couldnt understand those words in those pamphlets but pored over the two that had pictures.

Anything at all with cartoon-like drawings had an immense pull on me, especially those from before my own childhood ( MetaMaus 49). The archive I discovered researching MetaMaus opens up traditions of visual witness related to WWII that helped to inspire and innovate, even indirectly, the Education Report comics cultures and scenes that sprouted in the late 1960s and early 70s. A plausible arc for the comics field might actually begin with Paladij Osynkas 1946 Auschwitz (owned by Anja Spiegelman), move on to Spiegelmans 1972 Maus, and continue on to Maus and the legions of work it has inspired. Most of what happened was not photographed, Spiegelman reminds readers about Auschwitz in MetaMaus (50). Taking this seriously, can we posit the urgency to testify to life and robert conspiracy death in WWII as the genesis of what we now recognize as contemporary comics? Something introduced, say, in the generational transmission of the pamphlets and sparked by the taboo-shattering (itself Vietnam war-induced) ethic of the underground comics? Although Spiegelman couldnt read the text because he didnt know the languages, the on Italian images and the amateur graphic design, and humble printingconstituted his first understanding of life during the war; his parents circumstance. Usually Because! His first full experience of Essay Education recognition with the Holocaust was visual and drawn hand-made images of mg reacts with witness. Some of these, as he points out, were what we would think of as quite cartoonyone was a booklet, basically, of Education Report gag cartoons by a Ukrainian inmate about Auschwitz, with jokes like Ha ha! You didnt get any soup! (49).

19 One pamphlet that had small, poorly printed watercolor drawings of Ravensbruck struck Spiegelman deeply. Prices Allocate Resources! ( MetaMaus features several images from two of these pamphlets, Ravensbruck and Essay on Italian Report Auschwitz , both from 1946, and which both happen to be in Ukrainian, and Women’s Rights in the and Examples Gatsby the accompanying DVD has the entire contents of on Italian several of the pamphlets under the heading Anjas Bookshelf.) 20 Spiegelmans experience with these unpretentious, cartoon-like drawings of what he calls the oxymoron of life in a death camp was formative for Maus , which first appeared in theory, similarly designed and printed serial booklets in the 1980s. That his experience was visual and Essay Report necessarily not verbal at the level of comprehension also allowed him to encounter the discourse of the visual in a heightened way, even as it shared space on was a basic in the beliefs democratic-republicans? the page with captions. Spiegelman says, about survivor drawings and surviving art from the war: Those drawings were a return to drawing not for its possibilities of imposing the self , of finding a new role for art and Essay Education Report drawing after the camera, but rather a return to the earlier function that drawing served before the cameraa kind of commemorating, witnessing, and recording of informationwhat Goya referred to when he says, This I saw. (italics mine) He continues, The artists are giving urgent information in the pictures, information that could be transmitted no other way (49-50). Indeed, Goyas use of handmade images as a form of reporting has been important to contemporary cartoonists as a model of visual witnessing. Nonfiction comics emerged forcefully in Women’s in the and Examples Scott The Great Gatsby, the postwar period, and Essay the genre of nonfiction comics developed in its contemporary specificity, I argue, out of WWII, where we can locate powerful aesthetic and resources because allocate political antecedents in Essay on Italian Education Report, the realm of urgent handmade works of visual witness. Spiegelmans Maus archivewhich is now part of the public MetaMaus archivemakes this legible. I am fascinated by how, broadly speaking, the discourse of the visualand the hcl notion of visual archives emerges out of a tension with other media discourses.

This is something we see in the formative post-war pamphlets, which combine word and image, highlighting, for Essay on Italian Education Report Spiegelman, the status of the image, since the words were not fully accessible to him. We also see this throughout Maus , a visual narrative based on oral testimony that consistently heightens our awareness of visual, written, and oral archives, and where they interact, overlap, or get transposed one into the other. As a newly constituted (shadow) collection of basic in the beliefs of the sources and on Italian Education Report archives, MetaMaus preserves, and draws attention to, the in the Scott Fitzgerald´s tension between the oral, written, and visualand within the realm of the visual, the difference between the drawn and on Italian Education Report the photographicthat characterizes Maus . It preserves the hcl interstices that Maus sets in motion, even as it operates in the realm of the explanatory. Used by Permission of the Wylie Agency LLC. The visual surface of MetaMaus reflects the tension between different kinds of extant archivesoral, written, photographicand the cross-discursive work of (re)building new archives (all in the realm of the ideographic , of the printed page) that motivates Maus . MetaMaus s defining feature is that it shows the materiality of Spiegelmans archive; it is about the embodiment of Essay on Italian Education Report archivesarchives as bodies, bodies as archives. The archived body is key in MetaMaus . In the image of the 1979 lithograph Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), the very first and one of only very few full-page images in the 300-page book, the revenge seems to be the usually allocate mere existence of the sons postwar body next to Report his mothers that is was a basic difference in the beliefs federalists being presentedarchivedby the illustration (41). 21 As Spiegelman says in our interview, Taking on my parents Holocaust story was a way of Essay Report getting to the primal moment of prices usually allocate resources because my birth, because there was no way they were supposed to be alive and coupling after WWII.

It is Essay on Italian Education Report a specific journey that has nothing to do with history and everything to do with history: one or both of mg reacts with these people is supposed to be dead, which means Im not supposed to be here ( MetaMaus, 199). This archiving of bodies that happens through their visual materialization on the page and then public dissemination takes on extra resonance given the Nazis famous recordkeeping, archiving and marking, of those they arrested and eliminated. 22. A small but significant detail that indicates MetaMaus s investment in staging the Report materiality of usually allocate because archivesor what I think of as the embodiment of archivesis evident without even turning a page. The fairly spare back cover is black: it features two full-color images, along with bold text in Essay, white, grey, and red. The top image, flush right, an illustration from the early 90s, depicts Spiegelman as a mouse from Maus reading Maus in a library alongside a realistically-rendered mouse reading George Herrimans comic strip Krazy Kat , which stars Ignatz Mouse. Mg Reacts Hcl! The text that begins directly below the Essay Education Report image in fact overlays it; the bold red vertical bar of the what was a basic federalists democratic-republicans? sans serif uppercase letter I (In the pages of MetaMaus ) covers the a that begins Spiegelmans lowercase, bottom left corner signature. The I, glossy, stands out against the matte finish of the hardback cover. Essay On Italian Education! A smaller image, a study for the back cover of Maus II , hovers in the bottom left of the Women’s and Examples Fitzgerald´s back cover, leaning outwards at a slight angle. The original barcode, which is continuous in the image with Vladeks striped camp uniform, here touches MetaMaus s barcode, making all three contiguous.

The most striking visual detail, however, is that this back cover study from on Italian Education, Maus II appearing on robert kennedy conspiracy the back cover of MetaMaus is visually affixed : two small, glossy, transparent pieces of tapenot flat-edged, but textured, as if torn from a rollpaste up the Report image on either side. (The I now becomes legible, perhaps, as red tape, holding up the previous image; a letter becomes a visual design element, a kind of picture writing that constitutes the stuff of theory comics.) The back cover, then, points to the image as object : not only transparent representation what it presents, depictsbut a medium-specific artifact with a material weight and logic that is handled, moved, touched, placed. This approach, highlighting the artifact as an object in space, is in keeping with both my research in the Maus archive, in Essay Education Report, which I studied the physical paper object over available bitmaps or pixmapsand with comics as a practice in general, which is a way, as Spiegelman puts it, of turning narrative into geography ( MetaMaus , 185). MetaMaus showcases the materiality of its archive throughout. A draft of a tier of panels, in usually resources efficiently because they, which Vladek confronts Art about finding an early autobiographical comic strip, Prisoner on the Hell Planet, sits at the top of a MetaMaus page, anchored by black electrical tape on either side (many of Spiegelmans drafts and Essay Report sketches were taped into notebooks or folded in to other studies and notes) (35); full draft pages show excision marks and yellowing from glue stains, as in the page about a ghetto cake baked with detergent (74); some of these draft pages, whose coloration and textures display their layers of composition, are shown full-size to prices usually allocate resources allocate highlight their physical features, as in the final art for the significant Time Flies page, which makes us take stock of the material weight of the words placed into the hanging balloons (163). A reproduction of a lithograph introducing the Why Mice? chapter has an evident blind stamp in the corner (110); a page of a notebook containing a sketch for Education one of the very earliest iterations of Maus is a scan not just of the panels but of the entire piece of paper, a crinkled, yellowed sheet with three holes, one ripped, on assassination its left-hand side (121). A handwritten pencil note of my own, dating a research image as April 6, 1940, remains in its top-right corner (even I was surprised it wasnt Photoshopped out) (137).

USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. The image that is the exemplar of Spiegelmans focus on the materiality of the apparatus of the Essay Report comics pagean image I fell in Body in Renaissance Portraits Essay, love with in 2006, as soon as I saw it in a 1979 notebookcomes to readers under the rubric of Maus studies in style, as Spiegelmans caption puts it (141). Mickey Mouse, making a quizzical expression, faces outward, looking at Education Report, the viewer. Mg Reacts With! The pen drawing appears on white lined paper; every other horizontal bar created by on Italian two lines is blank. At first glance, it looks as though the mouse is divided up, like he got erased or sliced, and Spiegelman is drawing his disconnected body parts as an exercise in style. But if one takes the visual logic of the papers format into usually allocate resources they considerationtaking the drawn image on as inextricably located in and not just on the material space of the pagewe see that the mouse is behind the bars of the actual page and interacting with it . His little hands reach out, holding onto the blue line top edge of a bar he stands behind. Essay Report! Spiegelman puns on the materiality of the page, calling our attention to its determining properties. The character is behind bars of paper, and he reaches out of Representation Portraits these bars; hes two-dimensional and, it suggests, three-dimensional at once, existing both inside and outside of the frame we put him in. This image asks us to take stock of the materiality of its composition, just as the weightier Time Flies drafts doversions of the famous final page, which Spiegelman has called his avant-garde Times Flies pages because they show the represented object; in this case, fliesboth inside and on Italian Education outside of the material frames of the page (see pages 160-161).

The books interest in showcasing archives as full artifacts in space, revealing their three-dimensionality, is particularly evident with photographs. Prices Allocate Resources Because They! Not all photographs in MetaMaus are treated this way. In some cases, they provide a visual referent for an illustration, as in the small photographic image presented overleaf from the full-page Mom and Me in the Park, 1951 (Maus Revenge), which functions, in spite of the pressure Spiegelman places on Report this notion, as a kind of objective correlative for the lithograph (220). (The book has 66 stand-alone photographs, some public, such as a famous clandestine photo smuggled out from Auschwitz, or a U.S. military aerial shot of Auschwitz, but most private family photos, in addition to a collage page of maternal Zylberberg family photos [19 in all], and a collage page of paternal Spiegelman family photos [14 in all].) 23. USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. However, the what difference in the beliefs of the federalists and the democratic-republicans? photographs that do highlight their own materiality are striking, as in Essay on Italian Report, the photograph of Vladek Spiegelman, one of only three photographs to appear in Maus , on the pages of MetaMaus . The question of how the Rights in the 1920’s and Examples in F. Scott The Great three photos in Maus re-appear in MetaMaus exemplifies the books creation of Essay Report its new archive. In an Rights and Examples in F. Fitzgerald´s, unnamed but dedicated eight-page section on photography in the chapter Why Comics?, in which all three Maus photographs reappear, we see the breathtaking souvenir photo of on Italian Education Vladekonly the photograph is different. Women’s Rights In The And Examples In F.! Maus embeds a clean copy of the 1945 photograph on page 294, breaking out of the frame, revealing black space behind it.

In MetaMaus , we see a draft sketch for on Italian Education the same tier of panels, but this time with the original battered, creased photograph of Vladek tilting out with, of the frame. The caption underscores this attention to the actual material object: The original copy of Vladeks photo (220). The photo here highlights its own romantic, and filial, generational, transatlantic transmission : it looks like a photograph from 1945 that was carried with an Essay on Italian Education Report, itinerant person and mailed from Germany to a wife in Poland and brought to Sweden and the U.S. and passed along to a son decades later might lookit looks used, worn, traveled, gripped by many hands (the creases generate from the middle sides of the photograph, as if bent by actual touching). Further, the last conventionally narrative page of the book, before the Chronology and Index, ends with a photograph of Rights in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby Anja Spiegelmanand gives us, literally, a three-dimensional presentation: it shows us the front of the photograph, and then the back, delivering the complete object to readers. On Italian! Spiegelmans caption, unusually, appears at Body Representation, the top, so that the pages ensuing narrative is given over to Report the logic of the full artifact, and the book ends with Vladek Spiegelmans handwriting in pen on the pictures back: Last cruise together with my beloved wife March, 1968. Died May 21 st 1968. (There is no page number for this page; just Vladeks conclusive period.) If, as discussed previously, MetaMaus also showcases and enacts Maus s cross-discursive battles between Art and usually allocate because they allocate Vladek, it nevertheless gives Vladek the last word on an incontrovertible fact. The photograph appears not only as a powerful image, but as a powerful archival object with emotional and actual weight (the front image of the on Italian Report picture, angled right, even creates a small soft shadow on the handwritten back inscription). Along with the amplification of embodiment and materiality of the archive seen in robert kennedy assassination conspiracy, Maus, MetaMaus s visual surface is Essay Education also characterized by the cross-discursive dynamics Maus enacts. Although Art and I did not deliberately plan this aspect of the bookas we did not consciously plan the unrehearsed but recorded interlocutionary structure of mg reacts hcl MetaMaus as a mirroring of Maus MetaMaus presents a tension on on Italian Education the page between the prose interview and efficiently because allocate the graphics. 24 The pages of MetaMaus reflect, then, the tension between word and image that motivates the internal movement of all comics, and that our collaborative connection could be said to reflect. In some sense, our work was about establishing the book, too, not only as containing comics within it, but further and Essay on Italian Education Report more importantly establishing itself as more comics-like than it might have otherwise been.

The seemingly endless process of sifting and condensing and distilling and locating our words in meaningful relation to highly curated images in space was, in essence, the practice of comics. And MetaMaus also enacts all of the interruptions, interstices, ambivalence, counterpoints, and (de-regulated) rhythms between word and image and presence and absence that the best comics do. As a graduate student at the University of Chicago pointed out to me, for instance, on the first narrative page of the bookthe opening of our interviewit looks, visually, like our interview is being pushed down by the two-page comic strip Mein Kampf, an earlier (1995) and much briefer meditation on theory memory, archives, and Maus (12-13). 25 Although the Education Report Hillary font, as we called it, a grey-green bold sans serif, opens the first chapter with a question in enormous letters on the title page, when one turns the page, one does not first encounter the continuation of the interview implied by the question, but rather, immediately, the comic strip, which spans over four-fifths of each of the opening pages. From the very outset, the book establishes a tension between its prose and its graphics that is itself characteristic of comics. The images can be interruptive or force the eye out of usually allocate efficiently because they continuous reading.

Sometimes the Essay on Italian Education Report interview jumps across pages, which are built on a vertical two column grid, and when one turns the page, one is met immediately with an image opening the subsequent column, over Rights, which ones eye must skip in order to continue the interview, or on which one will pause before re-orienting with the interview. 26 There is no right way to absorb the pages; no correct order, as in comics, between words and images. Double-spread pages, as in our discussion of creative block in the chapter Why Mice?, sometimes create an diagonal quadrant effect, in which a page with the basic vertical sequence text-image is followed overleaf by a page with the basic vertical sequence image-text, demonstrating that there is not only Essay on Italian Report, one acceptable way to take in the combination of visual and verbal elements ( MetaMaus 146-147). 27 I often felt that I had to optically climb over resources they, the visual/archival elements to keep the thread of the text going (incidentally, in the previously unpublished comic strip that accompanies the discussion of creative block, Spiegelman draws an interviewer climbing over elements of the pastbodiesin order to ask him questions about Maus ). MetaMaus values the Education interruptions of the visual archive, setting down and placing pressure on certain rhythms established between the visual archival elements and what basic difference federalists democratic-republicans? words on the page. The ethic of interruptiveness the pages set in motion is writ large in instances where the conversation is temporarily broken off by entire separate sequences, such as the appearance of the Family Tree section, which arrives not as an appendix, but rather in the middle of one of Spiegelmans responses; it bisects page 223 vertically and Essay on Italian Report continues for seven pages, after which we are returned to Arts analysis of Rights 1920’s Scott a specific page of Maus . The breaks are thematic, but theyre not clean. On one hand, this rhythm is Essay on Italian Report about a dynamic in theory, which we have a conversation about artifacts, and then let the artifacts speak for themselves, as in the Family Tree sections aggregation of family photographs. The non-linearity of MetaMaus , its edges and interruptions, reveals the book as testimonynot only a book about testimony (Spiegelmans fathers), but rather distinctthe testimony, not testament, of Essay Education a son, artist, and secondary witness, solicited through conversation. MetaMaus balances the weight of assassination its archive with the visual emptiness of space. It shows the counterpoint of presence (the materiality of paper, ink, photographs) and absencethe unfilled speech balloons that suggest, at least graphically, the absences that remain despite all the work of rebuilding. The appearance of empty balloonssomething we dont get much of in Maus , despite Spiegelmans nod to Becketts statement on silencein MetaMaus makes legible and material the on Italian question: How do you fill in the gaps? 28 (In their graphic evocation of the theory empty boxes of the Essay on Italian Education Report post-war Spiegelman family tree, the empty balloons suggest the presence behind the absence.) They are not about connectivism, emphasizing the fact of the unrepresentable or untellablein a recent public event, Spiegelman quipped that unlike when he started Maus , today the unspeakable gets spoken within 10 minutesbut rather about the effort made to communicate.

29 In my examination of Spiegelmans drafts and studies, I was always surprised at on Italian, how resonant the visual of the robert assassination conspiracy empty balloon felt, especially in dialogues, with physical gestures and the indication of articulation in on Italian, place and the words themselves evaporated: it looked like the representation of Women’s Rights in the 1920’s in F. Fitzgerald´s The Great Gatsby people trying to talk to each other, and Report it suggested, in a way, at least graphically, that the usually resources because they allocate site of interlocution was enough, no matter what the precise shapes of sound were. The last page of our interview features one drawing, and one photograph. In the drawing, a color panel study from Maus with blues and reds, the text box is empty, and the speech balloon is empty (234). Essay On Italian Education! Vladek and Anja, reunited, embrace tightly (the words we are missing in both dialogue and narration are Vladeks; his voice will later connect to and fill this blank space, when his handwritten inscription on the back of a photograph of Anja ends the book.) This panel sits in the center of the page; our interview flows around it, and ends right before a photograph of Vladek and Anjas cemetery tombstonethe Spiegelman tombstone drawn in what was a of the and the, Maus that concludes that book. Our last page enacts a reversal. While the final page of Essay Education Maus (its enough stories for was a basic of the federalists now, Vladek says) offers an ink headstone, under which Spiegelmans signature sits, as if buried (or engendering his parents story backwards), MetaMaus s conclusion to talking offers a photographic headstone, above which sits Spiegelmans typographic signature, in a way retracting the primacy of self that Maus s last marks could be seen to indicate. Maus s signature reads, by hand, art spiegelman 1978-1991, the Education span of connectivism theory time he worked on Maus ; MetaMaus s reads Art Spiegelman, with Hillary Chute, NYC, 2006-2010, the span of time during which we put together MetaMaus . USED BY PERMISSION OF THE WYLIE AGENCY LLC. On one level, in its archival display mode, the page seems to cede to the indexicality of the on Italian Education Report photograph, which is unattributedno caption or date fixes this object, so it has a certain timeless resonance.

Yet on another level, we have Spiegelmans post-plot ending, a black page overleaf with three small color panel studies, also with blank white text boxes, that float, unanchored, at the bottom of the page. They show a man, walking alone under a moon, train tracks ahead of him (the images depict Vladek, finally, heading home to Poland from Germany). Body Representation In Renaissance Portraits Essay! We end, on one hand, with the graphic emptiness of words, but also the fullness of richly colored visual images. And while both pages offer unfilled spaces of the verbal within their panels, our last interview page offers a rich flow of prose, itself counterbalanced with the Education strictly visual post-plot ending with no words. Essay! Presenting its historical and newly constituted archives, MetaMaus enacts the frisson between words and images throughout. The boxes of comics are archival boxes boxes of on Italian Education Report space to put things in, to frame things with, to enclose and preserve with (even if the basic difference of the democratic-republicans? elements inside will not stay still, spilling out into the gutter, or literally breaking the frame). The impulses shaping comics most basic grammar express an on Italian Report, archival drive, or suggest what we might think of as comics archival unconscious. 30 In a 1977 meditation on comics, Spiegelman points out that comics framesalso called panels, or boxesare like windows of a building (Introduction np).

They may be this, but they are also containers , literal boxes that are the building blocks of a psychic and material edifice, offering the look and view implied by windows, but also the Rights in the and Examples in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s The Great power to hold, include, delimit. The work that comics enacts is architectonic , as Spiegelman has often pointed out. Maus , he says, for Essay instance, could not be accomplished without the Body in Renaissance Essay architectonic rigor of Essay Education cartoonist Winsor McCay; his own attempts to define comics as a medium are to get at what the architectonics of comics might be. 31 The OED defines architectonic as of or pertaining to architecture, suited or serviceable for was a basic beliefs of the and the the construction of buildings; of or pertaining to construction. Two further definitions there pertain: one, noted to be used by Aristotle, is having the function of superintendence and Essay control, i.e. having the relation that an architect bears to the artificers employed on the building; directive; controlling. The next is, simply, pertaining to the systematization of knowledge. All of these apply to comics, which is a system of mg reacts with knowledge, in addition to a form of expression, that has everything to do with being an artificer in the Greek sense and one who controls the shape of time, space, and material on the page. 32 The architectonics of comics is the process of Essay on Italian Education archiving. It makes a location for ordering information to express history and memory. In Renaissance Portraits! 33.

Spiegelman later likened comics boxes to packed suitcases, and he has figured comics boxes as boxes of memory smashing up against each other. 34 He has also likened comics panels, the forms most essential grammar, to on Italian coffins. He told me, to cite again an earlier quotation, that Maus is about choices being made, of finding what one can tell, and what one can reveal, and what one can reveal beyond what one knows one is revealing. In Renaissance! Those are the things that give real tensile strength to the workputting the Essay on Italian Report dead into little boxes ( MetaMaus , 73). The language of putting the dead into little boxes is especially resonant given that Maus literally buries Vladek Spiegelman, ending the theory book with his headstone. To archive something can mean to materialize something in Essay on Italian, order to place and bury it, as when I asked Spiegelman about a notebook entry, on what seemed to me the key issue of his identification with Vladek, and his responseprinted in MetaMaus , was, Well, tell me more.

You know, I put in a notebook so Id never have to hcl think about it again (32). 35 Then someone comes along and digs it up, as I did, and as Art did when he searched down information in his fathers archives for Essay Education Maus (only there, his father had burned Anjas notebooks, incinerating as opposed to burying to ensure finality). But comics procedure of conspiracy archiving doesnt have to be only entombing (and the dead dont stay dead). Comics inscribes its information in boxes on the page in order to preserve and commemorate, but also to disseminate, to circulate, to produce an interaction. Hillary Chute is the author of on Italian Education Graphic Women: Life Narrative and Contemporary Comics (Columbia 2010) and Associate Editor of 1920’s and Examples The Great Art Spiegelmans MetaMaus (Pantheon 2011). She is working on a book titled Disaster is My Muse: Visual Witnessing, Comics, and Documentary Form . Chute is the Education Report Neubauer Family Assistant Professor in English at the University of Chicago and will be a Visiting Scholar at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for 2012-2013. 2 For more on Maus and photography, see Hirsch, Family Frames , and connectivism theory Liss, Trespassing Through Shadows . 3 Vladek Spiegelman, posthumously, became a historical public figure. For a time, although not currently, there was a discrete Wikipedia entry for Vladek; Stanley Crouch named him in his pantheon of heroes, and Lauren Rednisss recent book Radioactive features an entry on Vladek in a section on famous Polish citizens. 4 See Iadonisi for a take on the collaborative narrative fabric of Maus . 5 The main body of the book is an interview I conducted with Spiegelman for a period of two-plus years, which we had transcribed along the way and Essay on Italian Education Report which I then edited from hundreds upon hundreds of pages down to workable drafts that we condensed into the roughly 234 pages that appear in allocate because, the printed book. 6 See Chute 2005. Report! Indy magazine is no longer operative.

7 It seems there might be an archival turn everywhere. In a highly specific way, however, it is usually allocate efficiently because clear to me that my field of study, contemporary nonfiction comics, is deeply steeped in the desires and problems that the work of archiving asks us to consider. 8 Spiegelman accuses both parents of being a murderer in Maus . In the Education comic strip Prisoner on the Hell Planet, a work from 1972 that is embedded within the book, Spiegelman ends the strip with the Art character addressing his mother right after her suicide: You murdered me, mommy, and you left me here to take the rap! 9 Hoffman points out how the body has been seen as an archive in at least two senses: as a storehouse for data and theory as itself a source of information (6). 10 The notion of selection also has parallels, although inverselyselection for Essay on Italian Report preservation versus selection for destructionto the selektions that were such a defining feature of the Nazi program of elimination and such a large part of Vladeks testimony in Maus . 11 Complete Maus, 258. 12 See Marks, Maus and Bitburg. 13 One striking and moving photograph included within MetaMaus is of Anja and Vladek in 1946, posing with this framed photograph of Richieu, as though the entire family of what was a basic beliefs of the three is having their picture taken.

Anjas elbowshe looks distracted and sad, while Vladek holds her and looks adoringly at hertouches the frame, as if establishing a bodily connection ( MetaMaus 236). 14 Second Thoughts on the Memory Industry, NYU/ New York Institute of the Humanities symposium. May 7, 2011. 15 See Chute, The Shadow of Report a Past Time. 16 One other loosely sequential form visually representing Auschwitz could possibly be the space of the museum. See Landsberg. 17 See Hirsch 2004 for an analysis of visual encounters of recognition. 18 See Drawing the Holocaust in The New York Review of Books online for an excerpt of my interview with Spiegelman that deals specifically with survivor (and non-survivor) art. 19 Another striking example of cartoon drawing of the camps is the 1942 booklet Mickey in Gurs, by prisoner Horst Rosenthal (he died the same year in Auschwitz). Hcl! See MetaMaus 138. 20 Ravensbruck , Ukrainian, artist unknown, 1946.

Auschwitz: Album of A Political Prisoner , Ukrainian, by Paladij Osynka, 1946. Spiegelman very specifically classifies these pamphlets as part of on Italian Report his mothers domain in presenting them on the DVD as Anjas Bookshelf. Anja Spiegelman was formative for his artistry in mg reacts with, many ways, including in Essay Education Report, her role as the owner and kennedy saver of the small-press pamphlets she transported from Education, Europe, and in her role drawing collaboratively with her young son through the what was a difference in the of the democratic-republicans? Scribble game (see Portrait ). Vladeks second wife (and Maus character) Mala Spiegelman translated several of the pamphlets that appeared in Education, Polish for Spiegelman during his research for in the 1920’s and Examples in F. Scott Fitzgerald´s Maus . 21 There are only fifteen instances, including double-page spreads, like one of rejection letters, in which an image occupies an entire page of MetaMaus . On Italian! This lithograph is based on a photograph of Anja and Art Spiegelman in Stockholm that appears in Body in Renaissance, MetaMaus on the facing page, at about two inches high (40). The lithograph shares the Education Report composition of the photograph, except for a cat hanging (lynched?) from a tree branch behind Anja and Art. The lithograph image does not seem to imply the adult mother in the foreground has directly physically murdered the Nazi cat; rather, the mere existence of kennedy conspiracy her three-year-old son holding her hand in a snowsuit is tantamount to murderingenacting revenge onthe cat standing in for Nazism. 22 For a recent essay on the nature of on Italian Education archives and Nazi official and private recordkeeping, see Farmer; for a take on the effect of Nazi documentation as seen in Berlins new Topography of kennedy conspiracy Terror Center, see Malamud. 23 By stand-alone I mean not embedded in Essay on Italian Education Report, another previously circulating work, as in the two photographs that are part of the Body in Renaissance reprinted story Mein Kampf that opens an early section of the book.

The first four photographs to appear in the book are these of Art (1956) and his son Dash (1995), on page 13, and Anjas Polish passport (1946) and Vladeks U.S. naturalization application (1951), on page 16, followed by the first non-circulating, non-previously contextualized photograph, Anja and Vladek kissing at Arts bar mitzvah (1961), on page 21. 24 Art and Essay on Italian Education I sometimes disagreed on efficiently because they allocate the weight that should be given to the different elements; I was much more comfortable with swaths of Report text whereas Art pushed me to see the difference in the beliefs and the importance of visual anchors. This dynamic was instructive in that its tensions are actually parallel to the basic word and Essay on Italian Report image tensions of the form of comics. 25 Thank you to Carmen Merport for her insights about this tension. Although sometimes the graphics crush down the mg reacts with hcl prose on the page, sometimes the images seem to surge up from the bottom of the page, what I think of as a crushing upwards . This is evident in a sequence in which Spiegelman and I discuss Nazi propagandaa rich archive, for sure, that has a forceful visual presence in the bookand a poster for an anti-Semitic film featuring the leering face of a swarthy, pointy-eared, kippa-wearing Jew seems to push up on a tiny top-edge illustration by Essay Report Spiegelman of cockroach Gregor Samsa, squeezing out prose and allowing for only a few lines of type in between iterations of dehumanization (114). 26 Page 22, in which a draft from Maus opens the page in the top left while a sentence jumps from page 21 to with hcl 22 below it, is one example among many. 27 Another example, involving family photographs, is 32-33. 28 The Spiegelman character says to his therapist Paul Pavel: Like Samuel Beckett once said, Every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness ( Complete Maus 205). 29 Spiegelman expands on this in conversation with me in a YouTube clip posted by the 92nd St. Y (October 6, 2011). 30 In Archival Bodies, Hoffman suggests of the notion of an archival unconscious : the archival unconscious is not so much a place, or a preexisting set of meanings, but rather the Essay Education function of an interactive process, in which something comes into being (27).

The interactive process here would be constituted in Body Representation Portraits, the relation between the psychic life of imagined and remembered histories and the process of visualizing, or materializing them. 31 Silverblatt 33; MetaMaus 166. 32 Bechdels Fun Home explicitly takes on the language of the Greek artificer and suggests the cartoonist as artificer. 33 See Chute, In the Shadow of a Past Time (also included on the MetaMaus DVD) for one view of Maus and its ordering of information. 34 See 2008s Portrait of the Artist as a Young and MetaMaus 38 for comics panels and suitcases, and Portrait as an example of panels as boxes of memory. This notion first found expression in Spiegelmans experimental piece Some Boxes for the Salvation Army (1976). 35 This exchange reminds me of Vladeks comment to Report Art: All such things from the war, I tried to Women’s in F. Gatsby put out from my mind once for all until you rebuild me all this from your questions ( Complete Maus 258). Bechdel, Alison.

2006. Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic . On Italian Report! Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Chute, Hillary. 2005. Literal Forms: Narrative Structures in Maus , Indy Magazine (March). Online. -------. 2006. The Shadow of a Past Time: History and Graphic Representation in.

Maus . Twentieth-Century Literature 52.2 (Summer): 199-230. Cvetkovich, Ann. 2008. Drawing the basic in the of the democratic-republicans? Archive in Alison Bechdels Fun Home . WSQ: Womens Studies Quarterly 36: 1 2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 111-128. Farmer, Sarah. 2010. Going Visual: Holocaust Representation and Historical Method, American History Review (February): 115-122. Gardner, Jared. 2006. Archives, Collectors, and Education Report the New Media Work of Comics. Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies . Special issue on Graphic Narrative, ed.

Hillary Chute and basic in the beliefs federalists democratic-republicans? Marianne DeKoven. 52.4 (Winter): 787-806. Print. Hirsch, Marianne. On Italian Education Report! 2004. Was A Basic In The And The! Collateral Damage. Editors Column. PMLA 119.5 (Oct.): 1209-15. --------. 1997. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory . On Italian Report! Cambridge: Harvard UP. Hoffman, Anne Golomb. 2009. Archival Bodies. American Imago 66.1 (Spring): 5-40.

Iadonisi, Rick. 1994. Women’s Rights And Examples In F. Scott! Bleeding History and Owning His [Fathers] Story: Maus and Collaborative Autobiography. CEA Critic 57.1 (Fall): 41-56. Print. Landsberg, Alison. 1997. Report! America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory. New German Critique (Spring/Summer): 63-86. Liss, Andrea. 1998. Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and prices usually resources they allocate the Holocaust . On Italian Education! Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Malamud, Randy. 2011. Meticulously Evil: Nazi Efficiencies Documented in Topography of Representation in Renaissance Portraits Essay Terror. Chronicle of Higher Education , April 22, Vol. 57, Issue 33. Accessed March 14, 2012. Essay Education! http://chronicle.com/article/Meticulously-Evil/127100/ Marks, Clifford J. 2002. Maus and Bitburg. The Midwest Quarterly : 298-313.

Redniss, Lauren. 2010. Radioactive: Marie and Pierre Curie: A Story of was a in the beliefs democratic-republicans? Love and Fallout . New York: HarperCollins. Rohy, Valerie. 2010. In The Queer Archive: Fun Home . GLQ 16.3: 341-361. Silverblatt, Michael. Essay On Italian Report! 1995. Women’s In The 1920’s In F. Scott The Great Gatsby! The Cultural Relief of Art Spiegelman. Tampa Review 5: 31-36.

Spiegelman, Art. Essay On Italian Education Report! 2011. The Complete Maus (anniversary edition). New York: Pantheon. ------. 1994. Representation In Renaissance Portraits Essay! The Complete Maus . CD-ROM. New York: Voyager Company. ------. 1998. From Maus to Now to Maus to Now . Palermo: La Centrale dellArte.

------. 1977. On Italian Education! Introduction. Breakdowns . New York: Belier Press. ------. 2011. The Complete Maus : Maus I: My Father Bleeds History, Maus II: And Here My Troubles Began . In Renaissance Portraits Essay! New York: Pantheon. ------.

2011. MetaMaus. Education! Assoc. Ed. Hillary Chute. New York: Pantheon. ------. 2008. Portrait of the was a beliefs of the and the Artist as a Young %@*! . In Breakdowns (reissue). New York: Pantheon. ------.

1976. Some Boxes For the Salvation Army. Arcade #5. San Francisco: Print Mint. Spiegelman, Art, and Education Report Hillary Chute. 2011. Drawing the Holocaust. NYRblog: New York Review of Books online. October 21. Accessed January 4, 2012. http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2011/oct/21/drawing-holocaust/

Spiegelman, Art, and Hillary Chute at the 92nd St. Y. October 6, 2011. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vnb2D4FySro. Images are from MetaMaus by Art Spiegelman. 2011 by Art Spiegelman, used by mg reacts hcl permission of Essay Education Report Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc., and mg reacts The Wylie Agency LLC. Marianne Hirsch and Diana Taylor. Volume 9 | Issues 1 and Essay on Italian Report 2 | Summer 2012. Olga Rodriguez Ulloa.

Marianne Hirsch and hcl Leo Spitzer. Andy Bichlbaum and Marcial Godoy-Anativia. Mary Marshall Clark. A SENSORIAL ARCHIVE OF THE COLOMBIAN CONFLICT. Jimena Lara Estrada. Jennifer Flores Sternad. Milagros de la Torre. Tamara Lea Spira. Vivian Martinez Tabares. Aravind Enrique Adyanthaya.

CONCIERTO PARA 3 MACHETES BY MIGUEL RODRIGUEZ SEPULVEDA. ASCO: ELITE OF THE OBSCURE, A RETROSPECTIVE 1972-1987 AT LACMA. CLIFFORD OWENS: ANTHOLOGY AT PS1. PLEGARIA MUDA BY DORIS SALCEDO. AND SO I LEFT FROM GEORGIA WALL'S UNSEEN PERFORMANCES. FELIPE DEGREGORI'S CHUNGUI: HORROR sIN LAGRIMAS.

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