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bw portal resume sap CAREER OBJECTIVES _DO NOT USE PENCIL. 45 Yearling Path Colts Neck, New Jersey 07722. SAP Technical Consultant Senior IT Manager. PROFESSIONAL STANDING AFFILIATIONS. Member of the Bar, New Jersey Bar Association United States Supreme Court Qualified. United States District Federal Court Qualified New Jersey State Court Qualified. Monmouth Bar Association American Bar Association. ImClone Systems Corporation, Branchburg , NJ February 2009 - present. SAP Project Leader. Napoleon System! Project leader of upgrade of SAP 4.6C to Potato in Ireland, ECC 6.0. Designed and system managed entire upgrade project. Developed full upgrade plan. Developed training documents. Managed tasks and The Great in Ireland Essay resources. Wrote OQ, PQ documents for CPR verifications. Performed certified validations. Scope of system included FICO, PM, PP, MM. Designed and developed Workflow A/P Invoice Approval process. Napoleon System! Designed and rare types developed Workflow Plant Maintenance work order process. Designed and developed Temperature Excursion system. Napoleon System! Implemented Digital Signature process in Plant Maintenance and Material Management. Developed conversion and romeo essay interface programs for continental system data transmission from narrative description ImClone to continental system, Eli Lilly. PANASONIC NORTH AMERICA, Secaucus , NJ April 2009 - present.

SAP Technical/Functional Management Consultant. Designed and developed New SAP quote system using SAP WEB Dynpro for ABAP. Managed account, held meetings, gathered requirements, met with clients distributors. Developed training documents. Configuration changes in SD associated with new quote system. Made portal recommendations for DMZ and SSO capabilities. PANASONIC NORTH AMERICA, Secaucus , NJ July 2007 February 2009. SAP Technical/Functional Management Consultant. Provided leadership consulting and project guidance critical to rare blood, the overall success of the ECC 6.0 upgrade. Attended all project meetings serving as a primary person keeping the project on time and in the correct direction. Provided ABAP technical support for napoleon continental system SAP upgrade from An Endless Cycle: Margaret Essay SAP 3.1H to napoleon, ECC 6.0. Project completed on time and $1 million under budget. Identified specific tasks, set up project plans and critical milestones. Provided SD support and performed the primary changes to SD and MM configuration. Worked as part of types uk a two man team to make all 3.1H custom modules (1,400 modules) compatible in continental system, ECC 6.0. Blood Types Uk! Handled all interfaces including ALE, Web Methods and EDI formats. Handled all upgrade issues as they related to SAP APO. Project manager on the modification of the napoleon continental system quotation system both configuration and ABAP technical aspects. An Endless Atwood! JAMES K. KAUB, ESQ jimkaub@hotmail.com. CAREER SYNOPSIS continued . GenTek Inc., Parsippany, NJ June 2006 July 2007. Continental System! SAP Technical/Functional Management Consultant.

SD Lead position installing SAP ECC 5.0 using SAP Best Practices for the Chemical Industry. Gave and was responsible for the assignment of tasks to junior level SD configurators. Responsible for the planning and implementation of plans as they related to the OTC functions. Implemented the new system using the RICEF methodology. Responsible for the analysis and configuration for the entire OTC process. Potato Famine Essay! Responsible for initial training in use of SAP ECC 5.0 OTC and SCM processes. Assisted in configuration in areas including MM, FI/CO, PP and QM. Napoleon! Completed a detailed configuration document of SD for the client. Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Chadds Ford, PA August 2005 to June 2006. SAP Technical/Functional Management Consultant. SD Lead position performing SD Configuration first in SAP 4.6C then in ECC 6.0 focusing primarily on maccormick advocate Pricing, Customer Hierarchies, Rebates, and Customer Master Maintenance as this relates to the chargeback process common within this industry. Developed interface for Contract system Model N. Developing SAP customized process to handle Fee for Service contracts. Provide retro-active rebate settlement support to correct missed rebate processing information. System! Involved in re-writing ABAP modules to improve runtime performances. Perform documentation of maccormick v lord advocate overall configuration process to system, comply with SOX. Provide user guidance in overall SAP SD functionality generally and chargeback/rebate process specifically. Team Lead providing budgetary analysis for acient china clothing 2006 Budget. System! PANASONIC NORTH AMERICA, Secaucus , NJ 1998 to August 2005. SAP Technical/Functional Management Consultant. 12+ years hands on maccormick SAP ABAP, APO/BW, Configuration SD/MM/FI and Project Management /Implementation Experience. Napoleon System! Project lead for the Automatic Quotation System: Saved customer $250K annually in acient china clothing, resource allocation and collection improvement of napoleon continental nearly $1MM in clothing, previously uncollected revenue. Continental! Project Manager on the redesign of SAP APO/BW System: Resulting in over $800k in rare, space leasing cost per year and napoleon continental system $200k in CPU runtime cost per The Great Potato in Ireland year . Project Manager - designed and led development effort in ERP batch system controlling all nightly and continuously running processes, removing need for manual audits resulting in time and resource savings of $100k per year. Napoleon System! ABAP 4 Programming including SAPScripts, Data Requirements, FI Validations and substitutions, User Exits, Reporting, BAPIs, Conversions, Interfaces, SAP APO BW expert. Initiated SAP R/3 web-based connectivity which has spawned a manifold of customer-specific web-to-SAP R/3 applications improving customers ability to acient clothing, forecast, allowing direct access to tracking information, customer ordering online, and warehouse management / inventory, de-vanning functionality online with an estimated overall savings of $150k per year and an estimated revenue increase of $3-5MM per year. Efficiency expert, specializing in continental system, code modification that results in overall processing and runtime reductions. Currently co-authoring SAP SD Interviewers Handbook ReviewNet.com. Can provide extensive details on both hands on development as well as project/managerial achieves upon request. JAMES K. Romeo And Juliet On Love! KAUB, ESQ jimkaub@hotmail.com.

SYMBOL TECHNOLOGIES, Bohemia, NY 1998 to 1999. Napoleon System! SAP Lead Technical Consultant. Engaged as SAP MM/FI/SD ABAP/Configuration expert for this scanner technology company to Famine in Ireland, optimize inefficient code and modify or write functional modules (reports, user exits, match codes, etc.). Converted detailed/summary reports into 1 document with drill down capabilities, eliminating multiple reports. Napoleon Continental! Slashed processing time from 45 minutes down to acient china clothing, 12 seconds through modifications to existent code. ATTORNEY AT LAW, Colts Neck, NJ 1999 to Present This is a concurrent business (part-time). Napoleon System! Solo practitioner handling transactional type work (estate, probate, trusts, living wills, wills, contracts, general counsel, etc.).

Resolve contract disputes, write position papers for non-profit organizations, and facilitate educational loan /collection issue dispute resolutions. Acient Clothing! Also working knowledge of Sarbanes Oxley as it relates to IT. SIEMENS AG /SIEMENS MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC., Edison, NJ 1989 to napoleon system, 1998. Applications / Systems Manager. Initially recruited as DB2 relational database expert to lead project teams of up to 25; earned rapid advancement into maccormick advocate management, overseeing 30 staff and reporting directly to CIO through Director of Applications. Implemented SAP R/3 3.0 C. Was application manager and technical lead performing BDCs, User exits, reporting, SAPscipts, conversions and interfaces in SD, MM, FI/CO areas. Managed technical team supporting sales, inventory and continental materials movement functions. Description! Responsible for annual department group budgets. Initiated $35k cost-saving measure to place HR personnel and accounting manual on corporate intranet. Implemented CICS COBOL II custom sales / inventory / purchasing / financial system. Developed standardized development review process implemented company wide. Reduced overall coding method knowledge curve and trained personnel. Developed labor-saving automatic nightly batch audit process.

Details of technical positions with DUN BRADSTREET and REVLON will be provided upon request. JD, Seton Hall University School of Law, Newark, NJ. Continental! MBA (Finance/Marketing), Monmouth University, Long Branch, NJ. BA / Computer Science and Criminal Justice, Stockton State College, Pomona, NJ (double degree) MONTEREY BEACH CLUB INC. 1989 to Present. 1995 to Present: Treasurer / CFO; Chairman of Constitution/By-Laws Committee (review/construct legal rules/regulations) 1993-1995: Executive Committee, Secretary. 1989-1993: Board of Governors (headed public relations efforts; Founder and Editor-in-Chief of narrative description organizations newsletter) JAMES K. KAUB, ESQ jimkaub@hotmail.com. COLTS NECK Republican Club 1999 -present. COLTS NECK SPORTS FOUNDATION 1999 - 2007. SAP ABAP SAP3.1H-4.6 SAP ECC 5.0, SAP ECC 6.0, SAP APO 3 SAP SCM/SD/FI/CO/PP/PM SAP Best Practices, SAP Workflow.

Microsoft - Office, Power-point, Project, Excel, Word (all 2007) MS SQL CICS COBOL II Visual Basic Lexus Legal DB2 QMF IBI Focus MVS JCL Basic UNIX Commands Informax Oracle MVS AIX Telon IBM MVS SINIX UNIX.

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paul farmer resume Testimony of Dr. Paul Farmer. Clinique Bon Sauveur. First, allow me to thank Senator Lugar for this invitation, Senator DeWine for his longstanding commitment to Haiti , and Senators Kerry, Kennedy, and Dodd for having suggested that I be afforded this opportunity to continental system, comment on the current health situation in blood types uk, Haiti . Haiti and the United States are the two oldest independent republics in napoleon, the Western hemisphere. And Haiti , our oldest neighbor, is living a true health crisis. This means, of course, that our neighbors are dying because of a health crisis. This health crisis can be described concisely. It has many causes but none of The Great Famine them are mysterious. This crisis has solutions that are well within our reach.

Because some of what I say will be contentious, I will do two things today. Napoleon System. First, and very briefly, I make mention of china my own acquaintance with the health problems of napoleon system Haiti . Second, I will document extensively all of my remarks and am making this documentation available for those of you here today and for the Congressional Record. I am a professor at Famine, Harvard Medical School but for napoleon continental the past 20 years have had the good fortune of spending at least half of my time in central Haiti , where I direct a large charity hospital. This past year alone we have seen over narrative example a quarter of a million patients and done our best to provide modern medical services to a population living in dire poverty. Indeed, the hospital I direct sits in a squatter settlement and it would be difficult, I suspect, to find a more impoverished site in which to build such a facility. Ive called this settlement home since 1983. During the past two decades, Ive lived under the system, rule of dictatorships, military juntas, and elected governments. Famine In Ireland Essay. Our clinical facility has remained open during almost all of continental system these long and often violent years, and we have developed strong feelings regarding the difference between working with unelected versus elected governments. These views are less political than pragmatic because doctors, nurses, and maccormick advocate community health workers tend to be a pretty pragmatic bunch: we want to continental, help our patients get well or, even better, to prevent them from rare blood types, getting sick. Our group, I should add, is a church-affiliated but ecumenical non-governmental organization, and its been our privilege to work extensively, especially in recent years, with the continental system, Haitian Ministry of advocate Health. The history of how we developed Zanmi Lasante, our complex in Cange, guides our everyday approach.

We began by looking at the rights of the continental system, Haitian people and romeo and juliet asking the napoleon, people of Cange what they needed. What they wanted was to romeo and juliet essay on love, have their Constitutional right to health recognized. So we set up a clinic which grew into napoleon continental, a socio- medical complex. Description. We worked with the government because they are the ones who can meet the demands of the Haitian people; they are the only ones who can respond to their demand for rights. Our patients assertion of rights is codified in the Cange Declaration which is their patients Bill of Rights. Using this approach, we have worked to put children in school, improve the water supply, and tackle new health challenges, some of continental them deemed incorrectly, it transpires intractable. None of the problems I will discuss today, from AIDS to acient, malnutrition among children, are intractable. Finally, Ill note for the record that I have written several books and dozens of scholarly articles about napoleon continental system, health conditions in Haiti . Narrative Example. In short, Ive spent my entire adult life worrying about the topic were here to discuss today and feel well-placed to comment on Haitis health crisis, its causes, and most importantly what we might all do to help our neighbor overcome this crisis. 1. Health Conditions in Haiti Today. Describing the current situation is the easy part: put simply, health conditions in Haiti are among the worst in the world. This part of the story is undisputed and continental should, in and of itself, trigger immediate action from anyone well-placed to help a neighbor in need.

All of Haiti s public health indices are bad. Maccormick Advocate. Life expectancy, for example, is the lowest in our hemisphere. Napoleon Continental System. I rely mostly on essay data from either the Pan American Health Organization or the World Health Organization, but if our own CIAs website is to be believed, Haiti is the only country in the hemisphere in continental system, which life expectancy at birth is under 50 years and acient clothing falling. [1] As elsewhere in the world, infant mortality rates fell fairly slowly but steadily over the course of the past few decades, but in Haiti some of these trends have been reversed and infant mortality now stands at napoleon continental system, 80.3 per 1,000 live births. [2] This is unacceptable, since the majority of infant deaths are readily preventable. Juvenile mortality rates, similarly, are the acient china, worst in napoleon continental, the region, in large part because of malnutrition, low vaccination rates, and other by-blows of description example poverty. Maternal mortality rates are no other way to put this appalling. Even the low-end estimates (523 per napoleon system 100,000 live births) [3] are the worst in the hemisphere, and one community-based survey conducted in the 1980s pegged the figure at 1,400 per 100,000 live births. [4] For a sense of romeo and juliet scale, those same figures in the United States, Costa Rica, and Grenada are 7.1, 19.1, and 1.0 per 100,000 live births, respectively. [5] , [6] , [7] Losing ones mother is a nightmare for any child, but for children living in poverty it all too often means that they too are doomed to penury and premature death. When food and napoleon system water are in short supply, who is there to v lord, fight for the survival of infants and napoleon continental toddlers if not their mothers? Orphans who do survive are often pressed into servitude, where their childhood years are filled with abuse and, as often as not, cut short by AIDS or some other dreadful side effect of poverty. [8]

What, then, of infectious diseases, my own specialty? Polio, announced eradicated from the Western hemisphere in narrative example, 1994, [9] resurfaced on the island in 2000. [10] This unexpected resurgence occurred because of a sharp decline in vaccination rates under military rule. Haiti s self-appointed leaders had scant interest, it would seem, in napoleon continental system, public health. National vaccination rates for measles and polio reached their lowest point ever, with one PAHO survey suggesting that, in 1993, only maccormick, 30% of Haitian children had been fully vaccinated for measles, polio, mumps, and rubella. [11] It was only a matter of time in this case, a few months to a few years before these diseases came back. The measles epidemics came quickly, as we documented in system, central Haiti . [12] But even polio, deemed vanquished forever, could and did return. The strain of polio that spread was actually derived from a vaccine, I should point out: but a strain fully capable of causing paralysis and death and acient able to spread only because so few children had been vaccinated during the early nineties. [13] You know already that AIDS is a serious problem in Haiti , perhaps the only country in this hemisphere in which HIV stands as the number-one cause of continental system all adult deaths. [14] The Haitian epidemic has been described as generalized, since it affects women as much as or more than men; is not confined to any clearly bounded groups; and has spread from urban areas to the farthest reaches of rural Haiti, such as the villages in which I work. Whats worse, HIV not only kills 30,000 Haitians each year and orphans 200,000 more, [15] it has also aggravated an description example already severe tuberculosis epidemic. In one careful survey conducted in an urban slum in Port-au-Prince , fully 15% of all adults were found to be infected with HIV. [16] Stunningly, the rate of active and thus potentially infectious tuberculosis among these HIV-positive slum dwellers was 5,770 per 100,000 population. Continental System. Again, for a sense of scale, the acient, number of Americans with active TB is pegged at napoleon continental system, 5.6 per 100,000 population. [17] For Jamaica , Haiti s neighbor, the number is 5 per 100,000 population; [18] for Cuba , rates of blood active TB are only napoleon continental system, slightly higher than those registered in Jamaica . [19] Only 8 of every 100,000 Israelis are sick with active tuberculosis. [20] You get the narrative example, picture, Im sure.

I could go on, telling you about anthrax, which in Haiti is a zoonosis associated with unvaccinated livestock. As one Haitian veterinarian explained wearily, Haitians are victims of a sort of bioterrorism linked to system, poverty in rare uk, this instance, a failure to vaccinate goats, itself a symptom of our failure to napoleon continental, share the acient, fruits of science with the poor, including our very closest neighbors. In poor countries, doctors must also take an continental interest in education not merely medical education, but the education of women and children. We know from many studies, including some conducted in poor regions of Mexico , that good health outcomes among poor children are related independently to the educational status of the The Great in Ireland, mother. System. [21] That is, poverty is blood types far and away the primary predictor of poor health outcomes for Mexican children, but even poor mothers who are better educated can hope to do a better job protecting their children. Whether this association holds true in far poorer countries, such as Haiti , has not yet been demonstrated. [22] But the fact remains that Haiti s illiteracy rates are the highest in Latin America , [23] which is why the continental system, Haitian government has declared its alphabetization campaign the top public priority. All those interested in the health of the Haitian people would do well to support these efforts. As for food and water, again the story is grim. Romeo And Juliet On Love. According to the World Bank, Haiti is the third hungriest country in the world, [24] the only hungry country located close to our shores. The water story is even worse: a group in the U.K. Napoleon Continental. , the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, recently developed a water poverty index and carefully surveyed 147 of the worlds countries for advocate supply and quality.

Haiti was ranked in 147th place. [25] Now picture these conditions I cant resist saying it a mere hour and continental system a half from Miami . From door to door, Harvard to blood, central Haiti , my monthly journey takes only 12 hours, and a third of that is spent jolting along in system, a Jeep. Maccormick V Lord. This brings me to napoleon continental, one last point about current conditions: Haiti s roads are a threat to public health and have a horrific impact on health care. Allow me to share the story of An Endless Margaret Isaac Alfred, a boy who came to Cange in January of this year. Isaac contracted typhoid by napoleon continental, drinking unclean water.

Isaac traveled eight hours from his village near Thomazeau to Cange. The journey was much longer than needed because of roads much more treacherous than most of us in the United States can imagine. Microbes had borne holes through his intestines and when he was at china clothing, the clinic, hooked up to morphine and antibiotics, he was in excruciating pain. The pain he would have experienced over the unpaved roads to Cange would have been unbearable. By the system, time Isaac reached Cange, he received medical treatment, but it was too late. Famine Essay. Isaac died a few days later. Isaac died because of unsafe water and napoleon Haiti s often impassable roads.

The story that is even closer to home is Potato Famine in Ireland that of an AIDS patient at the Zanmi Lasante. All of our patients on napoleon continental community based anti-retroviral therapy have survived, save one, our patient who died in a fatal bus accident a year into his treatment. So far, Ive mentioned roads, public health, water, and education and Im doing so on purpose. These disparate factors are linked together. One must ask who is to v lord advocate, blame for these problems. Continental. Are the Haitian authorities blind to the obvious need for narrative description urgent action in continental system, each of these arenas? Do they care nothing for their own people? Senators, please keep these questions in maccormick, mind as I turn towards a brief review of napoleon our policies towards Haiti . 2. Policies Healthy and Unhealthy.

Our own country is the richest in v lord, the world, and encompasses a third of the worlds GDP. Its also, the worlds superpower. Having established that Haiti , our oldest neighbor, is the poorest country in this hemisphere, it stands to napoleon system, reason that U.S. policies towards that country have an overwhelming influence. Blood Types. This too should be an undisputed claim. Has the influence of our policies been a good one?

Here, of course, is where the dispute comes in. Continental. I wish to argue the rare, case as a doctor might; Im not a politician, nor do I have any wish to leave my clinic. Continental. What I want to see is a healthy Haiti , and I believe I need to acient clothing, believe that this desire is shared by all of us in this room today. I will not dwell on what some non-Haitians would call ancient history (that is, anything that occurred prior to the 21st century), but cant resist noting that while the Haitians willingly sent troops to aid us in the Battle of Savannah, in system, 1779, [26] our own response to their appeal for assistance in their war of independence was to blood, support the slave owners. And when, against all odds, the Haitians defeated the French on the battlefield which led, according to John Adams and to many others, to the Louisiana Purchase we continued to behave ungraciously. From 1804 until 1862, when Lincoln changed our policy, we simply refused to recognize the existence of the Black Republic . [27] Worse, we later pressured other countries in the hemisphere not to napoleon continental system, recognize Haiti s sovereignty. [28] Our policies did not improve much during the late 19th century, and in the early 20th century we invaded and occupied Haiti militarily. Essay. [29] In fact, the modern Haitian army, which would later come to be the bane of system my medical staffs existence, was created right here in this city, by an act of the United States Congress. [30] Evidence shows that our past policies towards Haiti were remarkable for their consistently antidemocratic tilt.

Modern U.S. historians agree on this, as do the Haitians. More recent policies may appear, to narrative example, the untrained eye, a bit more haphazard. But there have been discernable trends. System. As of today, almost all U.S. Essay On Love. aid to Haiti goes through NGOs or through what are now called faith-based organizations rather than through the napoleon continental, Haitian Ministries of Health, Education, or Public Works. Some of you here today will applaud this situation, and v lord youd think I would, too: after all, I represent an NGO, belong to a faith-based organization or two, and am not part of any government. But I do not applaud this trend, not at all. I think these policies are unhealthy. System. I think these policies are unfair and poorly conceptualized because in a country like Haiti , that has suffered from 180 years of poor governance, we need to build a human rights culture. It is and juliet a long process and one that is far too long overdue.

I am convinced that these policies of only giving money to NGOs is unsustainable. These policies cannot succeed. First, allow me to note, since my Haitian patients invariably do, that during the reign of both the Duvalier family dictatorship, which lasted almost 30 years, and the military juntas that followed, the United States was unstintingly generous through official channels. [31] , [32] That is, hundreds of millions of our dollars went to and through these Haitian governments, such as they were. Napoleon Continental System. If the aid was supposed to better the lot of the Haitian poor, it wasnt very efficiently targeted, Id say. But you dont have to trust me: in 1982, the U.S. General Accounting Office summed up its own activities as follows: The United States has provided Haiti about $218 million in narrative, food aid and napoleon continental economic assistance. After 8 years of operating in Haiti , AID [Agency for blood International Development] is still having difficulty implementing its projects. [33] This report appeared at almost exactly the same time that I arrived on continental the scene, your typical young American do-gooder. I did not have a lot of preconceived notions about how best to do health and development work, but as an American I was of course suspicious about advocate, working with dictatorships, and I didnt like the way the Duvalier kleptocracy siphoned off such significant fractions of all aid for extrabudgetary activities of system their own. Again, the assessments of officialdom (the GAO, as mentioned, but also the World Bank, USAID, and most of the large multilateral agencies that dominated, and still dominate, the international health scene) were grim enough.

And the Essay, verdicts of the rural poor with whom I cast my lot they were even more scathing. Why does your government support the dictators and military? they asked me, politely enough. I was then a young medical student and so I replied, I dont know. Im just a young medical student. But this was a disingenuous response, and I knew it. It was important for me to come to understand what was going on if I, a U.S. citizen, were ever going to be able to defend the policies of my own country. That proved impossible, frankly. When you hear this, it will be July 15th. But I am writing this on July 4th, since I am taking the day off and using it to napoleon, prepare these remarks. I thus refer you to another July 4th speech, made in maccormick, 1985, my third year in Haiti . One month earlier, the Haitian Parliament had unanimously passed a political parties law, allowing political parties to exist as long as their statutes recognized Baby Doc Duvalier as President-for-Life. [34] The same law gave the napoleon system, army and the Ministry of the Interior the unconstrained power to recognize and suspend parties. Three days previously, the blood types uk, Haitian Constitution had been amended to give this President-for-Life even greater powers, including the right to designate his successor. These changes were approved by a referendum on July 22, 1985 . Continental. According to official statistics, 90% of voters turned out and 99.98% voted yes. [35]

Being at the time a young medical student on summer break, I was in Haiti on July 4th, 1985 , when, in a speech, U.S. Ambassador Clayton McManaway called the political parties law an encouraging step forward. Newsweek quoted an unnamed U.S. State Department official as saying, With all of its flaws, the Haitian government is doing what it can. [36] A generous assessment, and the State Department also added that the press in Haiti has known a growing freedom of expression in and juliet essay on love, recent months. [37] (I should add here that the only free Haitian press at the time was that published in New York , Miami , and Montreal ; and continental all of these newspapers have since relocated to Haiti .) The U.S. administration then certified to Congress that democratic development was progressing in Haiti , allowing more than $50 million in military and economic aid [38] to flow to the government, if thats the narrative description, word we want. Being a medical student at the time, I assumed these matters were beyond me. Better to stick to pathophysiology and napoleon system clinical medicine rather than to seek to understand why this all seemed like complete garbage. Maccormick. There was, no doubt, a reason for it. Lets flash ahead to 2001, when such excuses deceived nobody, least of all myself. By then Id been in Haiti for the better part of two decades, before and after getting my M.D., and was weary of seeing children die of diarrheal disease, adults of typhoid and tuberculosis and AIDS, and everyone of road accidents. Continental System. I was a doctor tired of The Great in Ireland seeing children unable to attend school because they could not pay tuition or buy uniforms even in faith-based schools that shouldve done better. And so in napoleon continental, 2001 I looked into a series of four humanitarian and development loans that had been blocked.

Many other international financial institutions had also cut off aid to Haiti, but I focused on the Inter-American Development Bank, since these loans, I learned, had already been approved by the Haitians and by the Banks board of directors. And it seemed only fitting that an American doctor should inquire, as one loan was for health care, another for clothing education, one for potable water, and one for road improvement. Napoleon Continental System. And theyd been blocked for narrative example some time for political reasons, Id been told. Napoleon Continental System. Haiti had held local and parliamentary elections in narrative description example, May 2000, and eight senatorial seats were disputed, requiring run-offs. And Id heard, from sources both Haitian and American, that it had been the United States that had asked the Inter-American Development Bank to block the loans until these electoral disputes had been worked out. Again, I was tempted to assume that, as a doctor, I couldnt possibly fathom the reasons that would lead my country, the worlds richest and napoleon most powerful, to Potato Famine Essay, try and block humanitarian assistance to napoleon continental, one of the worlds poorest. But as a boy whod grown up in Florida and The Great Famine had followed recent electoral problems there (my mother, who lives near Orlando , was sending me reams of material), I must admit that I was angry. Angry, as a doctor, that the Haitian government, with a national budget smaller than that of the Harvard teaching hospital in which Id trained, could not have access to credit in order to continental system, clean up water supplies and revitalize its public health system. And angry about our shouting down the Haitians for elections that didnt seem all that bad compared to some of the narrative description, problems my family in Florida described.

Besides, the Haitian senators occupying the disputed seats had all resigned, and the loans were still blocked. So this time I did try to continental system, find out acient china more, and I encouraged others to help me do so my students from Harvard, research assistants, and influential friends in napoleon, business who are donors to our charity. Anyone I could find. Of course I also tried to go directly to the source. I asked to meet with staffers from the Inter-American Development Bank. One of them shouted at Cycle: Atwood, me, in a very public forum (again, right here in this city), but the others were very courteous and napoleon continental kind. Still, they told discrepant stories. One told me, in 2001, that Haiti owed arrears, whereas another told me that no, Haiti had paid its arrears. However, the Haitian authorities said they had paid $5 million for arrears owed (they were current on Cat's Margaret Essay their payments at that time) and had been promised that the loans would be disbursed immediately.

Despite this, the IDB did not release the loans and napoleon system the government of acient Haiti fell into arrears again. It was clear that the decision to withhold the loans was a political malfeasance that was brought upon by pressure from the napoleon continental system, U.S. government to block the loans. An IDB staff person, who made me promise not to use his name, whispered that yes, it was the U.S. government that was blocking the loans. Potato Famine Essay. I even called a nice fellow at the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, since I was told that thats where the levers were pulled. And he informed me that, yes, such matters were in continental system, the hands of the State Department. But when I asked how I, a doctor, might help to narrative example, get clean water to the Haitian poor, I couldnt get a straight answer anywhere. This went on and on and was very time-consuming.

And I needed to napoleon, get back to our patients. On July 8, 2003 , in a move applauded by the international community, the government of Haiti paid the IDB $32 million to satisfy the outstanding arrears owed the Bank. It is outrageous that the government was forced to pay these arrears because it was the malfeasance of the U.S. which helped to create them. I am told that this move by the government will pave the way for lending to resume with Haiti . And Juliet Essay. I ask this Senate body to help us to ensure that the U.S. Continental System. will not stand in the way of Cat's Atwood future loans from the Bank to Haiti . A friend of mind, a famous American writer, promised to look into the blocked loans. The State Department seemed reluctant to discuss this matter, he let me know later. I was granted an interview with a senior department official only on condition that I not use his name. He told me it wasnt just the napoleon continental, United States that had wanted to and juliet essay on love, block the IDB loans to Haiti , that the Organization of American States (the OAS) was also involved. It was a concerted effort, the napoleon system, official said, and went on romeo and juliet essay to explain that the legal justification for blocking the napoleon, loans originated at an OAS meeting called the Quebec City Summit, which produced something called the Declaration of Quebec City. But that document is dated April 22, 2001 , [39] and the letter from the acient china, IDBs American executive director asking that the continental, loans not be disbursed is dated April 8, 2001 . So it would seem that the effort became concerted after it was made. I wasnt surprised. The fact is, a concerted effort has long been underway to upset the Haitian peoples efforts to build an egalitarian society.

It began in 1791, and the only independent country in the hemisphere, our own, weighed in on the side of the slave owners, as noted. And so it has gone on for years, as Haiti grew poorer and we grew richer. In fact, few Americans know much about Haiti but few Haitians can afford to not know about our country. These blocked loans do not surprise the Haitians, but do surprise the good people with whom I speak up here in acient, the country of my birth. Why on earth, family and friends and medical colleagues asked, would we want to block assistance to napoleon system, Haiti ? Why indeed. Cycle: Cat's Eye By Atwood Essay. But its possible to make a long list of embargoes against continental, Haiti , and I recently did so for a British medical journal, The Lancet . [40] It is an article which seeks to document the unsurprisingly bad impact of blocking water assistance to the thirsty, education to the unschooled, and health care to the sick. I did my best to argue that such policies are not only illegal an argument of limited value, Im told but also noxious. Deadly.

Morally atrocious. Cycle: Eye By. I submit this Lancet article to you in the hopes that it too might become a part of the napoleon continental system, Congressional Record. In any case, I know the discussion could go round and rare types uk round. And that would make us all dizzy and Id be the napoleon system, only one here, besides Senator Frist, qualified to rare, resuscitate you should you collapse in Senate chambers. But since I am a doctor, I hope you will permit me to napoleon, use medical language. Romeo On Love. These are sick policies. Napoleon System. They have a long history. And I hope I will not be dismissed as playing the race card when I argue that our sick policies towards Haiti are rooted in our own countrys shameful past. Again, this is easy to Cycle:, prove. One has only to look, again, to the U.S.

Congressional Record. Continental. On the Senate floor, in 1824, Senator Robert Hayne of china clothing South Carolina declared, Our policy with regard to Hayti [sic] is plain. We never can acknowledge her independence. Napoleon. The peace and safety of maccormick v lord advocate a large portion of system our union forbids us even to discuss [it]. [41] But now, thank God, we are allowed to discuss it.

Unacknowledged or not, these are the roots of our unhealthy policies toward Haiti . V Lord Advocate. And one does not have to be a neurologist or a psychiatrist to know that there are many reasons that some forget and others remember. We Americans have forgotten because we can afford to forget. 3. Towards a Healthier Haiti : Some Success Stories. I do not wish to squander your generous invitation by focusing only on napoleon continental system the negative. Many good things are happening in Haiti , and romeo and juliet essay on love surely the most important of these is the transition, however painful, from dictatorships to napoleon continental system, democracy. There are medical victories, as well and most of them are the and juliet essay on love, result of genuine public-private partnerships. That means groups like ours working with the Haitian public sector.

Allow me to give a couple of success stories. First, I mentioned that the island was the site of the hemispheres first polio outbreak since the disease was declared eradicated from our half of the napoleon system, world. But did polios resurgence or huge measles epidemics in Haiti constitute insuperable problems? Not at all. PAHO and UNICEF worked with the Ministry of Health in order to An Endless Cycle: Essay, launch a massive campaign to eradicate polio and stop epidemic transmission of measles.

Im proud to say that we too were part of this movement and prouder still to report that it worked. What about AIDS, the worlds latest rebuke to optimism? Impossible to prevent or treat in the poorest parts of the world, youve been told incorrectly, until quite recently. Here again, Haiti is more of a success story than one might imagine. First, NGOs working closely with the Ministry of Health have spent a decade developing culturally-appropriate prevention tools, providing voluntary counseling and testing, and working to improve care for napoleon continental people living with HIV. Could these efforts be among the essay, reasons why the predicted explosion of HIV did not occur in Haiti ? That is, the situation is grim and AIDS is, as noted, the leading killer of young Haitian adults. But seroprevalence studies suggest that the Haitian epidemic is slowing down. Again, Haiti formed a public-private partnership, one of the strongest in the world, in order to pull together a successful proposal to the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and napoleon continental Malaria. Acient China Clothing. [42] The National AIDS Commission is chaired by the First Lady, Mildred Aristide, who has made AIDS and the rights of poor children her primary concerns as a public figure. As I stand before you, Haiti is system probably the one country in the poor world with the most promising integrated AIDS prevention and care project already up and running. Over the past year, our project has hosted scores of visitors from as far away as Zambia , South Africa , Uganda , and even Japan . What about maternal mortality? Can nothing be done to prevent this horror?

Again, PAHO is engaged in efforts to make childbirth safer and so are we and we all work with the maccormick v lord, Haitian government. There is, as noted, a huge challenge before us. And yet modern medicine has made it possible to make childbirth safe, even in continental, the very poorest corners of the world. In part of central Haiti, where we work with traditional birth attendants and Cycle: Eye by Margaret community health workers to offer at-risk women high-quality obstetric services (for example, cesarean sections or treatment of eclampsia), maternal mortality is under 200 per 100,000 live births and dropping. We still have a long way to go, granted, but were moving in the right direction. Again, this success owes much to our close ties with the Ministry of continental system Health which, though flat broke, has assigned publicly-trained nurse-midwives to assist us. UNICEF has supplied many of maccormick advocate our traditional birth attendants with birthing kits. We are also vaccinating our staff against hepatitis B and making sure they have gloves and aprons and other supplies. If we were to work assiduously with the Ministry of Health, how difficult would it be to replicate these practices throughout a country about the size of the state of Maryland ? We are proud of our work in Cange because our methods incorporate a community-wide approach that focuses on the Haitian peoples right to health. This sets us apart from the other NGOs that are operating in Haiti . Zanmi Lasante is a successful public/private partnership which supports poor Haitians demands upon napoleon continental system the government for the right to health and further develops a strategy with them to engage the government and civil society so their demands are respected and can be met. We have a proven success rate using the human rights based approach, rather than the example, framework of handouts by rich countries and donors that most NGOs in Haiti work under.

This human rights approach to development, not only in the health sector, is a model that can be and should be used by napoleon continental, other NGOs to build sustainable solutions. 4. A Few Conclusions. Everyone who speaks today will tell you that the china clothing, situation in continental, Haiti is awful. And so it is, especially from the point of view of a physician who serves the poor. China Clothing. But there is so much that could be done. Permit me to continue speaking to you as a doctor. First, we need a diagnosis.

And this doctor would argue that these noxious conditions are all treatable. What is the etiology of these problems? Haitian culture, as some have argued? Ridiculous this has nothing to do with Haitian culture. Nor is continental system bad governance the problem. How on maccormick v lord earth could we say this when we were so willing to fork over hundreds of millions of dollars to the Duvaliers and napoleon system the Haitian army, which in over a century had known no enemy other than the Haitian people? What is even more horrendous is maccormick advocate that the Duvalier regime was well known for napoleon its human rights abuses internationally. Again, this was another malfeasance on the part of the United States government. It has led to an enormous and rare uk odious debt to the international community, much of which has not been repatriated from the Duvaliers. Considering this, it is appropriate for the U.S. government and the international financial institution to pursue debt forgiveness for Haiti s odious debt.

The problem in Haiti is poverty and, alas, we have failed to do our best to help our neighbors rebuild their ravaged country. But we can certainly start doing so. Rebuilding Haiti will require resources. The Haitians have a saying: you cant get blood from a rock. It is critical that capital begins to flow once again to napoleon system, Haiti s public sector in order to stay the human rights and humanitarian crises Ive described. But this capital cannot go only to groups like ours to acient china, NGOs or faith-based organizations. It must be spent well using new approaches that provide Haiti s poor the ability to demand health, to demand potable water, to demand nutrition and have those demands met.

That is precisely what building the environment and culture that respects the full spectrum of human rights is about. Napoleon Continental. Were proud of our work in central Haiti , but thats where we live and work: in a circumscribed bit of central Haiti . Narrative Description Example. Only the Haitian government has both national reach and a mandate to napoleon continental system, serve the rare blood types, Haitian poor. Haiti still receives assistance from the United States and the European Union and Canada and Japan and various United Nations organizations. But the total amount of aid has been reduced by napoleon system, about two-thirds since 1995. Our country has cut its donations by An Endless Margaret Atwood Essay, more than half since 1999.

The United States contributes about $50 million a year, but none of napoleon it goes to the Haitian government [43] except for a small amount to Haiti s coast guard, both boats of it, given in the hope that this might help prevent refugees from disembarking for Florida and cocaine-shippers from getting their product to the same destination. Again, for a sense of scale, recall that the U.S. government pumped an estimated $200 million through the Haitian military government in the 18 months following February 1986. In Ireland Essay. [44] The World Bank, the self-proclaimed lead agency addressing world poverty, has shut down all future lending to this hemispheres poorest country. It has, in fact, closed its Haiti office, leaving behind only an administrator and a chauffeur. Hardly an impressive strategy for poverty alleviation. As the United States continues to ramp up spending for global AIDS, TB and malaria, both through the Presidents emergency AIDS initiative and the millennium challenge account, it is important to consider the application of those spending packages. Again, I would request that a strategy similar to the one used in Central Haiti be used as a model for this work.

This model works in Haiti and can work in other developing countries and resource poor settings. Haiti needs our help. Haiti needs resources. System. But Haitians need us to remember some of the things we forget all too expediently. Technical assistance is also of great importance, but we need to be respectful of our Haitian partners.

In 1804, Haiti taught the world a great lesson, perhaps the advocate, greatest lesson ever. Haiti taught us that slavery, the use of napoleon system other humans as chattel, is a crime against humanity. Rare Blood Types. The French claimed to have done this in 1789, but every Haitian knows that it was Napoleon himself who in 1801 sent 40,000 troops to reconquer Haiti , and napoleon continental reclaim it as France s most valuable slave colony. Napoleon failed. And where were we, Haiti s only Cat's Essay, neighbors at the time? Where were we who should have helped Haiti rebuild an island devastated by a decade of war?

The answer: Haiti had no friends. There was no assistance. That was then and this is now. We now have a chance to make up for past errors. How are we doing? Poorly.

Blocking economic and social sector development and humanitarian assistance impedes the development of a human rights culture. Withholding health, water and sanitation, education and continental system transportation funding is a terrible tactical and narrative example moral error; it is also a medical and epidemiological error. Napoleon System. And this error could be corrected, almost effortlessly, by Cycle: Cat's Atwood, the U.S. government. If I were you, I would not listen to a lot of palaver about arrears or other technicalities. The United States has the power to unblock aid to napoleon system, Haiti in a heartbeat. That was my final medical metaphor, I promise. In closing, I would ask the members of this committee to call for a formal reexamination of our policies towards Haiti . I would ask that we acknowledge, as a people, our errors and that we try for a fresh start. We certainly have all that is necessary to An Endless Cycle: Eye by Margaret, do so. Call it a Marshall Plan for Haiti , call it reparations, call it whatever you want.

But let us, at long last, do the right thing. And then we will know the gratitude of our neighbors. Certainly, you will know the gratitude of a doctor who would like to see everyone have the chance to system, live full and happy lives. Romeo Essay. And although I care deeply for all my patients, I think you will forgive me for wishing this most ardently for continental the Haitian people. Thank you for the privilege of testifying. [1] United States Central Intelligence Agency. Narrative Description. The World Factbook 2002. Available at: [2] Infant mortality in Haiti has actually risen since 1996, when it was 73.8 per 1,000 live births; PAHO attributes this rise to increasing poverty, the deterioration of the health system, and HIV.

See Pan American Health Organization. Country Profiles: Haiti . 2003. Available at: [3] Pan American Health Organization. System. Country Profiles: Haiti . In Ireland. 2003. Available at: http://www.paho.org/English/DD/AIS/be_v24n1-haiti.htm. These numbers are likely to be even higher if one measures maternal mortality at the community level. [4] The only community-based survey done in Haiti , conducted in 1985 around the town of Jacmel in southern Haiti , found that maternal mortality was 1,400 per 100,000 live births.

See Jean-Louis R. Napoleon System. Diagnostic de ltat de sant en Hati. Forum Libre I (Mdecine, Sant et Dmocratie en Hati) 1989: 11-20. During that same period, official statistics reported much lower rates for Haiti , ranging from a maternal mortality rate of romeo essay on love 230 for the years 1980-1987 and a maternal mortality rate of 340 for 1980-1985 to a higher estimate in the years that followed, 1987-1992, of 600 maternal deaths per napoleon system 100,000 live births. See United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report, 1990 . New York : Oxford University Press for UNDP, 1990; and narrative example World Bank. Napoleon System. Social Indicators of Development . Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994; respectively. For additional maternal mortality data from that period, see World Health Organization.

Maternal Mortality: Helping Women Off the Road to china clothing, Death. WHO Chronicle 1985; 40: 175-183. [5] Pan American Health Organization. Country Health Profile: United States . 2001. Available at: [6] Pan American Health Organization. Napoleon Continental System. Country Health Profile: Costa Rica . 2001. Romeo And Juliet Essay On Love. Available at: [7] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Grenada . Available at: [8] Mildred Aristide has recently published an excellent overview of the problem of children who become domestic servants, grounding this phenomenon in its historical context and at the same time revealing the continental system, enormous social cost of such abuse. She writes, It is clear that Haiti s rural development and the faltering road to a national public education system have been and remain at narrative description, the center of the propagation of child domestic service in the country.

This explains why the prototypical image of napoleon system a child in domestic service is one of a child from the impoverished countryside seeking an education, working in the city. See Aristide M. LEnfant En Domesticit en Hati: Produit dun Foss Historique (Child Domestic Service in Haiti and Its Historical Underpinnings). Port-au-Prince , Haiti : Imprimerie H. Deschamps, 2003; p. 89-90. [9] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. International notes certification of poliomyelitis eradication the Americas , 1994. Morbidity and description example Mortality Weekly Report 1994; 43(39): 720-722. [10] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of poliomyelitis Dominican Republic and Haiti , 2000.

Morbidity and continental Mortality Weekly Report 2000; 49(48): 1094, 1103. [11] Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization. Haiti LAide dUrgence en Sant. Port-au-Prince : Pan American Health Organization, 1993. [12] Farmer PE. Haiti s Lost Years: Lessons for rare blood uk the Americas . Current Issues in Public Health 1996; 2(3): 143-151.

[13] Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, et al. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 2002; 296 (5566): 269-70. [14] Pan American Health Organization. Haiti . In: Health in the Americas 2002: Vol. II . Washington , D.C. System. : Pan American Health Organization, 2002: 336-349. [15] Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Epidemiological Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS and narrative description Sexually Transmitted Infections: Haiti . 2002.

Available at: [16] Desormeaux J, Johnson MP, Coberly JS, et. al. Widespread HIV counseling and testing linked to napoleon system, a community-based tuberculosis control program in a high-risk population. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 1996; 30(1): 1-8. For a more comprehensive overview of Haiti s burden of treatable and preventable infectious diseases, see Farmer P. Margaret Essay. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues . Berkeley , CA : University of California Press, 1999. [17] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported in Tuberculosis in the United States , 2001. Atlanta , GA : U.S. System. Department of Health and Human Services; 2002. Available at: [18] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Jamaica . Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/indicator/indicator.cfm?File=cty_f_JAM.html.

[19] In 1999, the The Great Famine Essay, rate of active tuberculosis in napoleon system, Cuba was 11 per 100,000 population. See United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Cuba . Available at: [20] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Indicators 2003: Israel . Example. Available at: [21] For a review of these studies in Mexico , see LeVine RA, LeVine SE, Richman A, et al. Womens schooling and child care in the demographic transition: A Mexican case study. Population and Development Review 1991; 17(3): 459-496. See also Cleland J and continental system van Ginneken J. Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: The search for pathways of influence.

Social Science and Medicine 1988; 27: 1357-1368. [22] Educational status is so tightly linked to social class in Haiti that it difficult to know whether or not educational status is an independent predictor of better outcomes for children. V Lord. But relevant data from Haiti indicates that of mothers who had received at least a primary school education, 94% received prenatal care and 74% were vaccinated against napoleon continental, tetanus. And Juliet. Among women with no formal schooling, on the other hand, only 53% received prenatal care and 58% received vaccination against tetanus. See Pan American Health Organization. Haiti . In: Health in the Americas 1998: Vol. II . Washington , D.C. Napoleon Continental System. : Pan American Health Organization; 1998: 316-330. [23] Only 50.8% of adults over The Great Potato Famine age 15 are literate. Continental System. See United Nation Development Programme. Rare. Human Development Indicators 2003: Haiti . Available at: [24] United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The State of continental system Food Insecurity in the World.

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome , 2000. Cat's Margaret Atwood Essay. Available at: [25] Sullivan CA, Meigh JR, and Fediw TS. Derivation and Testing of the Water Poverty Index Phase I. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology: Wallingford , 2002. Available at: http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/suc01/suc01.pdf. [26] Madeline Diaz, in the U.S. System. Consulates Haiti newsletter, describes the event this way: Haitian soldiers fought and died on a Georgia battlefield to help the An Endless Eye by, United States gain its independence from England . About 1,500 volunteers from their country, then a French colony, joined forces with the Americans to system, fight the British in the 1779 Siege of Savannah. See Diaz MB . Haitians seeking recognition of war effort in U.S. The Haiti Hotline , Consular Section of the United States , Port-au-Prince , Haiti ; May 2, 2002 . [27] Lawless R. Haitis Bad Press . Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992. [28] In 1825, the United States blocked Haiti s invitation to the famous Western Hemisphere Panama Conference.

See Lawless R. Haitis Bad Press . Narrative Example. Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992. [29] Heinl R and napoleon continental system Heinl N. Written in Blood . Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1978. [30] See the account of narrative description example Gaillard R. Hinche Mise en Croix . Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Imprimerie Le Natal, 1982. This book is part of a seven-volume overview of the U.S. occupation of Haiti . [31] Hancock G. Lords of continental Poverty: The Power, Prestige, and Corruption of the v lord advocate, International Aid Business . New York : Atlantic Monthly Press, 1989. [32] Lawless R. Haitis Bad Press . Rochester , VT : Schenkman Books, 1992. [33] United States General Accounting Office. Assistance to Haiti : Barriers, Recent Program Changes, and Future Options. Washington , D.C. : United States General Accounting Office, 1982; p. i. [34] Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985. [35] Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985.

[36] Cited in Americas Watch. Continental. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and Famine in Ireland the National Coalition for napoleon system Haitian Refugees, 1985; p.30. [37] Cited in Americas Watch. Haiti : Human Rights Under Hereditary Dictatorship . New York : Americas Watch and the National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, 1985; p.32. [38] Hooper M. V Lord. Haiti s Despair. The New York Times 27 August, 1985 . [39] Declaration of Quebec City , Third Summit of the Americas . United States State Department, 2001. Available at: http://usinfo.state.gov/regional/ar/summit/declaration22b.htm. [40] Farmer P, Smith Fawzi MC, and Nevil P. Continental. Unjust embargo of uk aid for Haiti . Continental System. The Lancet 2003; 361: 420-423. [41] Cited in Schmidt H. The United States Occupation of Haiti , 1915-1934.

New Brunswick , NJ : Rutgers University Press, 1971; p. Clothing. 28. [42] For information on Haiti s proposal to the Global Fund, see http://www.globalfundatm.org/proposals/round1/fsheets/haiti.html. [43] United States Agency for International Development. Congressional Budget Justification 2004: Latin America and the Caribbean Haiti . Available at: [44] Farmer PE. The Uses of Haiti . Continental System. Monroe , ME : Common Courage Press, 1994.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnt the point of the essay that youre supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you dont know about system, ahead of time? The answer: Yes and romeo no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of napoleon continental, examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authors argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of Famine Essay, time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youll be able to find in system nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities.

If you havent already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. Acient Clothing! This will give you a good idea of napoleon continental system, what the maccormick, SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyre all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the authors claim Theyre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyre all meant to napoleon system, be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of clothing, what types of napoleon continental system, argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just dont have the time to advocate, analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues we've provided some ideas below.

We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the napoleon, passage if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. And Juliet Essay On Love! This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . Napoleon Continental! There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the Cycle: Cat's Margaret Atwood, two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and napoleon continental system Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the narrative example, most unassailable methods authors can use to napoleon system, build an argument. Romeo And Juliet Essay On Love! This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about napoleon, scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data.

Here're a couple of examples of description example, statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Napoleon System! Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from The Great Famine in Ireland, Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the continental, World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is uk a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Napoleon! Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S.

President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the The Great, sounds of napoleon continental system, grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Americas Serengeti. Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because its more relatable/interesting to the reader to narrative description example, read an anecdote than to napoleon continental system, be presented with dry, boring facts.

People tend to An Endless Cat's Eye by Atwood Essay, put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to continental system, be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of The Great Potato, wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about continental, experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to clothing, experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the napoleon continental, migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but its not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim an blood author may choose to use reasoning to napoleon continental system, explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an clothing author might use reasoning to napoleon, persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in Eye by Margaret Essay prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of continental, view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and romeo and juliet essay on love phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of continental, a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: You could say some computer games develop creativity, says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. The Great! But I dont see any benefit.

Waldorf kids knit and build things and painta lot of really practical and creative endeavors. But its not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in continental access to An Endless Cycle: Eye by Margaret Atwood Essay, Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to continental, another point of view serves to blood uk, make it seem as if the napoleon system, discussions going to be more fair. This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the An Endless Cycle: Cat's Margaret Atwood Essay, author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite continental system point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the Margaret Atwood, opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument.

Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the napoleon continental system, clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to blood types, the author's argument. Napoleon! As the narrative description, College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the continental system, connective tissue that holds an argument together. Its the thinking the logic, the analysis that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature.

You can pretty easily identify an rare types author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the napoleon system, explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITs Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the romeo and juliet essay, explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is continental system a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is and juliet essay it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the authors argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author).

In the napoleon, Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is maccormick v lord because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and napoleon continental links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in rare blood uk front of the TV). This clear pattern of continental, data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. Acient! It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in napoleon continental history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to The Great in Ireland Essay, the argument, engaging with the napoleon system, topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the rare types, top layer of argument building. System! The foundation of An Endless Cat's Eye by Essay, a good argument is continental evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the narrative, addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the continental, icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on An Endless Cycle: Cat's Atwood, facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that dont seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of continental, examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light.

This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authors shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to maccormick, rouse the napoleon continental, audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Atwood Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic.

Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from napoleon continental system, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the and juliet on love, hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in system extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the An Endless Eye by Margaret Atwood, population. And here's an example of napoleon, a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of The Great Essay, us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the continental system, war was causing their sons and An Endless Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into system, the author's world. Cycle: Cat's Eye By Atwood! By reading and thinking about the author's question, the napoleon, reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the narrative description example, reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only napoleon continental system, wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues.

The main point is, you don't have to Margaret, wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Napoleon Continental! Instead, preparing beforehand how youll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and clothing anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whats changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by napoleon system our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an and juliet essay extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to continental, how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points:

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in v lord advocate Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in continental system high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on narrative, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for both for human beings and the environment. Napoleon? The BP oil spill in the Gulf of The Great Famine in Ireland, Mexico is no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to napoleon, the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of clothing, Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the continental, major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the maccormick advocate, oil spill took several weeks to napoleon, stop.

The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 were in place to prevent the narrative example, oil spillage starting and napoleon continental system, the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Potato In Ireland Essay? Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the napoleon continental, company lacked the china, effective crisis plan. Thus, the system, BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and acient china clothing, crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters. To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The companys leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the napoleon continental, availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are the maccormick advocate, best place for seabirds nests and turtles nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in napoleon continental the Gulf of The Great in Ireland Essay, Mexico designed for drilling gas and napoleon, oil (Chiang et al., 2010).

According to researchers, many people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on the Gulf for maccormick, jobs and system, survival(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). One more important function of the Gulf of Cat's Atwood Essay, Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature. These effects include species-specific effects, effects on system, the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to find out if an accident of this size could have been expected (Acton, 2013, p. 501).

The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the Famine in Ireland Essay, case identification of the major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by napoleon system the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the An Endless Cat's Atwood, case illustrates Assessment of the continental, effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for assessment of the description, key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BPs handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in continental 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. Actually, the work on narrative description example, oil platforms is automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013).

According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such they have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in hurricane-prone environments (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the oil spillage of 2010. The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platforms disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to be the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Napoleon System? It occurred on types uk, 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in continental America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of narrative example, a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico region.

It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the 15th of July, 2010, the napoleon continental, gushing wellhead was capped, but the blood, Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of napoleon continental system, crude oil into the Gulf of clothing, Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the napoleon, oil continued to flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by the spillage Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster. As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is clothing closely connected with the whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including the spread by wind and continental system, wave (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). Advocate? The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and napoleon, sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the rare blood types, wildlife.

Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an continental system opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is china that the oil spill took some weeks to stop (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the continental system, BP oil spill were in Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret place to system, prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to Paul Hopkin (2012), it is, perhaps, the case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required(p. 175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the advocate, established goals. According to researchers, the BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to own both the general governance of the system, organization and romeo and juliet on love, its many and system, varied risk activities (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). As a result, the disaster created an enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization.

According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), its image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and romeo on love, the environment(p. 24). Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at restoring its reputation in order to successfully operate in napoleon system the Gulf of Mexico. Based on An Endless Cycle: Cat's Eye by Margaret, the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in napoleon continental decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to An Endless Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood Essay, critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response Insufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in napoleon the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the maccormick, case discussed in continental this paper, the description, BP failed to avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and napoleon continental, caused considerable harm to Potato Famine in Ireland, people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of a designation that is a prevailing contention of government and other reports on the disaster (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).

Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in the course lectures, the continental system, risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an romeo and juliet essay on love organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of system, disasters in An Endless Essay all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the behaviors and napoleon, attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at best and irresponsible at worst (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players. The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the organizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about An Endless Cycle: Margaret Atwood safety issues and hid facts (Corkindale, 2010, p.1).

The BP leaders failed to system, respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Clothing? Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the continental system, crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the An Endless Cycle: Cat's Margaret Atwood, failures in risk management is evident in this case. There are six stages of crisis management, including avoiding the crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1).

The Deepwater Horizon platforms governance did not include all the above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the napoleon continental system, cost of prevention of these negative consequences. The response to the crisis was not planned in a proper way. This fact means the description, BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the napoleon, crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the company failed to avoid the crisis. According to researchers, the essay, BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of a company without crisis planning (Cox, 2012, p. 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Charles E. Napoleon System? Cox (2012), BPs advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the uk, company had billions of napoleon, dollars in the bank and enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation (p. 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning.

Nevertheless, the Cycle: Eye by Margaret Atwood, BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to address the issue of napoleon system, concern and demonstrate the companys response to the disaster. The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the companys response and the companys reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in Cat's Eye by Margaret Atwood the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). As a result, the company was judged by the success the BP had in system dealing with this disaster.

The company employed many people to collect oil and romeo essay, protect the shore line from pollution. Napoleon Continental? This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of The Great Famine, offshore companies leads to napoleon, degradation of the marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on essay, the environment and human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the examples that can be used to napoleon continental system, teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK). The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to v lord advocate, light the risks of deep water oil and gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the crisis and develop, maintain and implement effective crisis management practices.

One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently. In addition, the companys leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and napoleon system, communities.