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Define profit motive

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biography title Celebrating 125 Years of motive Publishing. Celebrating 125 Years of Publishing. Cloth ISBN: 9780804738880. Paper ISBN: 9780804738897. Ict! Winner of the 2010 Outstanding Academic Title Award, sponsored by Choice. Charlotte Perkins Gilman offers the definitive account of this controversial writer and activist's long and eventful life. Charlotte Anna Perkins Stetson Gilman (1860–1935) launched her career as a lecturer, author, and reformer with the story for which she is define motive, best-known today, The Yellow Wallpaper.

She was hailed as the brains of the US women's movement, whose focus she sought to broaden from suffrage to economics. Summary! Her most influential sociological work criticized the competitive individualism of capitalists and Social Darwinists, and touted altruistic service as the prerequisite to both social progress and human evolution. By 1900, Gilman had become an international celebrity, but had already faced a scandal over her divorce and abandonment of her child. Define Profit Motive! As the for grandmother years passed, her audience shrunk and grew more hostile, and she increasingly positioned herself in opposition to the society that in motive an earlier, more idealistic period she had seen as the kmart better part of the self. In her final years, she unflinchingly faced breast cancer, her second husband's sudden death, and finally, her own carefully planned suicide— she preferred chloroform to cancer and cared little for a single life when its usefulness was over. Charlotte Perkins Gilman presents new insights into the life of a remarkable woman whose public solutions often belied her private anxieties. It aims to recapture the drama and define complexity of Gilman's life while presenting a comprehensive scholarly portrait. About the author. Cynthia J. Davis is Professor of bruno boy in the striped English at the University of South Carolina, Columbia. She is the author of Bodily and Narrative Forms: The Influence of Medicine on American Literature, 1845-1915 (Stanford, 2000) and co-editor of Charlotte Perkins Gilman And Her Contemporaries: Literary and define Intellectual Contexts (2004) and Approaches to Teaching Charlotte Perkins Gilman's The Yellow Wallpaper and Herland (2003). In her immensely readable and comprehensive biography, Cynthia J. Davis tells Gilman's fascinating life story with precision, wisdom, and tact.

Davis's Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Biography provides the gladiators most complete consideration of Gilman's life. Motive! This book includes twenty-five photographs, some never before published, and its careful documentation of sources will prove a boon to future Gilman scholars. —Jean M. Lutes, Feminist Collections. Davis's long-awaited masterpiece is the most comprehensive Gilman biography to date. Both lyrical and scholarly, this splendid volume offers a coherent and compelling narrative of Gilman's life, work, and departmental frost philosophy, drawing upon a rich field of define profit source material . . . It is essential reading for Gilman scholars and kmart fail promises to be the definitive Gilman biography for years to come. —Jennifer S. Tuttle, Resources for American Literary Study. Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a remarkable retelling of a 'living' that includes, but is not limited to, the define profit motive career of a figure larger than life . . . Refreshingly, Davis does not shy away from juxtaposing Charlotte's professed philosophies with her lived experiences. A major strength of this biography is combat, Davis's willingness to reveal inconsistencies, contradictions, and define profit motive potentially unflattering elements of Charlotte's aspirations . . . Even though Davis's work weighs in at kmart, over five hundred pages, her writing style and fruitful research leave the reader wanting more, rather than less, of both Charlotte's and Davis's observations.

—Cara L. Burnidge, H-Net. Thanks to Cynthia J. Davis, scholars, students, and general readers finally have a definitive, authoritative, and comprehensive biography of the often enigmatic Charlotte Perkins Gilman. This much anticipated study of Gilman is, in a word, superb . . . [I]t is in the lesser known documents and materials that Davis has found the stuff great biographies are made of. Her meticulously researched volume brings both substance to define, and new revelations about Gilman's life in a manner that is captivating, thorough, well-informed, and inclusive . . . This book is a must read for anyone interested not only in Gilman but also in the cultural, intellectual, and social history of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. —Denise D. Knight, Legacy. Funeral! To read Davis's book is to be enriched by the lively, evocative pen of Gilman the poet. Every chapter and every section of motive every chapter (generally there are five) has an departmental frost epigraph, often a selection from the poetry, which Davis uses skillfully to interpret her life. —Louise W. Motive! Knight, Women's Review of Books. The plethora of biographical data the author resurrected informs this comprehensive, scholarly portrait of Gilman's complex, controversial life and career, significantly contributing to the study of American literature, particularly 19th-century American women writers. The book is noteworthy not only for federal combat, its inclusion of new salient information about Gilman, but for the careful correlations Davis provides to better present Gilman, the private woman, and her particular public forums of activism . . . Motive! Summing up: Essential. —M.L. Mock, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, CHOICE. This may be the definitive biography of Charlotte Perkins Gilman.

Over the last twenty years, a wealth of biographical data has come to kmart, light, much of it unearthed by Davis. Felicitously written, judiciously organized, and critically and theoretically informed, this Gilman biography will supersede all that have come before it. —Gary Scharnhorst, University of New Mexico. A Jewish Voice from Ottoman Salonica. Edited and with an Introduction by Aron Rodrigue and Sarah Abrevaya Stein; Translation, Transliteration, and Glossary by Isaac Jerusalmi. Nelly Sachs, Flight and Metamorphosis. Aris Fioretos Translated by Tomas Tran?us. The Sun Never Sets. L.W. Bill Lane, Jr. with Bertrand M. Patenaude, Introduction by Kevin Starr.

An American Cakewalk. Witnesses of the Unseen. Define Profit! Lakhdar Boumediene and Mustafa Ait Idir. Francoise Davoine Translated by Judith G. Miller with a preface by Mieke Bal. Georg Simmel and the Disciplinary Imaginary. Elizabeth S. Goodstein. The Case of Mistress Mary Hampson. Why Did Fail! Jessica L. Malay.

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englishessays.net reserves the define profit motive right to and safety, change these Terms and Conditions at any time and your continued use of the Website will signify your acceptance of define any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and gladiators combat, Conditions on a regular basis. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of define $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»). FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and disclosed and bruno from boy in the striped, provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.).

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Panel Stories: Public Lies Private Lives in Panelaks and Sidlistes. Prejudiced and Prefabricated Judgements obscure the define motive, lives that were, are and from boy in the striped, can be lived in housing estates built during the communist period. Debunking these myths – these panel stories [1] – can help promote wider and define profit, deeper reflections on funeral the communist period, postcommunist transition and the material politics of both the past and the present. By Benjamin Tallis. Despite their best efforts neither jetset shock therapists nor home-grown dissidents and their various governmental inheritors have been able to profit, make postcommunist transition a clean break with the past.

Apparatchiks and functionaries were denounced and (occasionally) lustrated, only to re-appear as nomenklatura capitalists and even government ministers. Statues were removed, but the metronomic passing of time in combat their after-image triggers memory, not forgetting. Streets and metro stations were renamed, but we still know who Evropska and Dejvicka used to be. The persistent presence of the communist past is define motive, a key site of struggle for Czech (and Slovak) collective memory. Bruno Boy In. Competing interpretations, both domestic and international, significantly impact the ways in which people can live today, how post-communist societies are structured and whom they are for. Material reminders of that time have come in for define profit motive particular criticism and none more so than the panelaky , the concrete-panel blocks that make up the sidliste and sidlisky which became such prominent features of Czechoslovak socialist cities. While a nascent revisionism has begun, belatedly and hesitantly, to departmental, recognise the architectural quality and even (shock, horror!) beauty of Czech brutalist architecture, it tends to focus on particular marquee buildings (such as the Nova Scena of the National Theatre or the profit, Nova Budova of the National Museum). Meanwhile the communist-era housing estates are still routinely damned from all sides. However, recent research has shown that both domestic and international criticisms of the panelaky and why did kmart fail, sidliste are wide of the mark. Blinkered by ideology and blind to the plurality of panelak and project life lived both then and now, these flawed critiques are indicative of wider problems of both understanding and policy in postcommunism. This essay sets out to define profit motive, debunk three of the most significant myths or ‘panel stories’ associated with communist era housing projects: (1) that panelaks and sidlistes were a ‘communist’ idea that were imposed on Czechs and Slovaks from health and safety ict elsewhere; (2) that problems with high-density public housing are indicative of the futile and define motive, flawed pursuit of modernist and social-democratic goals; and (3) that people lived, live and health ict, will live badly in panelaks and sidlistes.

Condemned by some at profit motive, the time of their construction as “cement deserts” good only as “battle grounds for high-rise brats,[2]” the estates provide an all-too-easy synecdoche for the time of their building; “monotonous and repetitive, banal, inhuman […] poor in quality[3]” or most commonly (and lazily) “grey”[4] or at least “grayish.”[5] Normally nuanced and even-handed judges have been moved to unequivocal castigation of the bruno from pajamas, aesthetics and morals of the ‘structural panel buildings’ that make up the vast majority of Czech housing constructed between 1955 and 1990. Sean Hanley of the UCL School for Slavonic and Eastern European Studies describes the “monster estates” as “hideous” and define motive, “awful,” and Vaclav Havel famously spoke of “undignified rabbit pens, slated for liquidation.”[6] The controversy and criticism that continue to batter these concrete facades, from both home and abroad, reflects and reinforces a particular politics of from boy in pajamas, memory, identity and belonging. Motive. It stems from a combination of blanket judgements on kmart fail the communist period, teleological notions of neoliberal postcommunist ‘transition’ and particular (Western European and North American) experiences and ideological interpretations of high-density social housing. Negative Czech judgements on panelaks in popular discourse and the statements of well-known figures seem to define motive, stem largely from the circumstances of their making – they were built by the communists and must therefore not only be bad, but are a malaise forced upon Czechs (and others) by unwelcome intruders and occupiers.[7] The popular and academic focus on the myriad crimes and appalling injustices of the communist regime have helped to support such views. These are undoubtedly important stories that needed to be told about life in communism. However, they are not the only stories of that time and cannot be used to sustain uniformly negative views of an era in ict which, under trying circumstances, people continued to live, laugh, love, have children and make the define profit motive, homes in which they could grow up. Health And Safety. The regime failed in its totalizing ambitions, but has been posthumously been granted success that it could have only dreamed of in a totalizing memory of the define profit motive, time that erases the gladiators, positives of this painful past. Similarly, while institutional design and define profit motive, the processes of re-adopting democratic politics, market economics and re-integrating to international institutional structures have been highly significant, they have often obscured lived experiences of robert frost, transition, what came before and what may come after.[8] This blinkering, combined with the prefabricated opinions of many Americans and Western Europeans towards large scale public housing projects has allowed skewed views of the material and define profit motive, social conditions of sidliste life to dominate past and present. After the fall of the wall, it was easy for incoming investors, advisors and other ‘tutors’, keen to falling, school the ‘children of the revolution’ in their neoliberal ways, to tar the panelaky with the same brush as their own concrete jungles.

They knew of the define, riots in Toxteth and Brixton and heard in the Sidlistes the echoes of the doomed Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis. The self-styled ‘tutors’ found eager prefects in the dissidents of the communist period, all too happy to run-down the remnants of a hated regime, often with little thought for the people who lived there. Unlike many dissidents and their quieter sympathisers, the Sidliste dwellers were not waiting for prime real estate to be restituted to them. Many of these tutors also had a double interest in departmental robert frost denigrating the communist past. Define Profit Motive. It would both bolster their own superiority (and thus legitimacy as teachers) and enhance the case for neoliberal transition as a greater contrast to what had gone before, rather than a more social-democratic approach. Tearing down the old structures of ownership and usage was more feasible than destroying the panelaks themselves and raised the potential for Western-owned banks to introduce market rates to these rent-controlled worlds. Social research conducted over the last two decades has questioned the basis for each of the criticisms leveled at Panelaks and sidlistes, exposing them as mere ‘Panel Stories’. Challenging these stories and telling new tales of the striped, panelak life not only has specific relevance to profit motive, these persecuted places but opens up the possibility of questioning the socio-political settlements of transition more widely. Snow On Cedars Summary. It can allow us to ask again what type of societies we want to build, who they are for and how they are constructed, as well to re-examine the various roles of the state, the profit, market, the why did, individual and the collective. Detail from define motive building at Sidliste Invalidovna, Prague.

Panel Story 1: A Communist Idea, Imposed from Outside. Over the last five years, the writings of departmental, Kimberly Elman Zarecor have made a good deal of multidisciplinary Czech scholarship on panelaks and sidliste’s available to profit motive, Anglophone audiences. Zarecor has exposed the double fallacy of claims that concrete tower blocks were a communist idea and that they were only accepted in Czechoslovakia under Soviet duress[9]. Zarecor highlights how far from falling being imposed from outside, the define profit motive, specific circumstances of postwar Czechoslovakia spurred the continuation and development of snow falling summary, interwar architectural practices and define profit motive, politics to accelerate and intensify, but not intitiate, the federal gladiators, development of define profit, prefabricated structural panel housing in the communist era. The construction technology for Czech panelaks owed its development to the Building Department of the Bata shoe company in Zlin, which had been experimenting before the war with prefabricated building technologies. The architects Hynek Adamec and Bohumil Kula had continued these experiments during the war and headed the projects on the striped pajamas new structural panel housing at the time when the department was incorporated into motive the communist Stavoprojekt building co-ordination system. Why Did Fail. Despite Zlin having been renamed Gottwaldov after Czechoslovakia’s first communist leader, Zarecor points out that Adamec and Kula were still working in the same office when developing the motive, first panelak – the G-building (named for Gottwaldov). Zlin, Bata building from Zlin.cz; Zlin workers housing, pre-war brick (erasmusu.com) and fail, post-war concrete (zippomaniac.fr) Far from following developments elsewhere, Czechs (and Slovaks) were actually ahead of the game in panel building. Define Profit Motive. The crucial breakthrough – as Zarecor shows – came when an innovative solution was found to the problem of joining the concrete panels together in a stable way.

The use of a series of funeral speeches for grandmother, steel ‘hooks’ and staples’ allowed for full exploitation of their structural properties and eliminated the need for an additional skeleton.[10] The pioneering architects who found this way previously worked for the feted (and avowedly capitalist) Bata company and were actually continuing construction-technology research that had begun long before the profit motive, communist takeover. It is also significant to note, however, that the ideas which inspired the social aspects of both the panelak and the sidliste can also be found in the first Czechoslovak Republic (as well as elsewhere). The First Republic under the ‘Liberator-President’ and ‘philosopher king’ Tomas Garrigue Masaryk is widely hailed as the Czech golden age, a brief and fail, glorious interlude of independence, after empire and define motive, before both Nazi occupation and Soviet subjugation. The wave of creativity in both culture and commerce that was unleashed during this time merits this golden reputation, with companies such as Bata and Tatra stylishly propelling Czechoslovakia into the ranks of the top-six exporting economies in the world. The poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and Jaroslav Seifert; the painting of Frantisek Kupka, Jindrich Styrsky and federal combat, – the already post-gender – Toyen; the buildings of local talents such as Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik, Josef Fuchs and Oldrich Tyl, alongside those of define motive, proto-starchitects Adolf Loos and Mies van der Rohe, ensured that there was plentiful art to speeches for grandmother, accompany the industry.

Karel Teige, Building and Poem (1927) the Minimum Dwelling (1932). However, like much of Europe at the time, the First Republic was also awash with radical Marxist ideas. A mixture of proactive idealism and define motive, reaction to the polarized living conditions of the time inspired those such as Nezval and Karel Teige – writer, architecture critic and ringleader of the federal gladiators combat, radical Devetsil group – to rail against the inequalities and injustices they saw around them. They sought collective salvation through both art and industry, but saw that both should serve functional, social goals rather than being beholden to define profit motive, the monied mores of the market. Teige in particular struggled with the why did fail, tension[11] between instrumental social function and liberating creative expression, but in define architectural terms prioritized the falling summary, former, arguing that beauty would spring from the minimal forms that would most efficiently serve their purpose.[12] Demanding that those at the sharp end of the housing crisis at the time receive only “the best of the best,” Teige publically upbraided Le Corbusier for abandoning such functional purity and effectively re-introducing decoration; he slammed Mies’ much-praised Tugendhat Villa as the “pinnacle of modern snobbery.”[13]

Villa Tugendhat, Brno, from the guardian.com. It is therefore no wonder that Zarecor is motive, able to from, draw a clear line between the construction of define profit motive, panelaks and sidlistes in the communist period and social tendencies in speeches First Republic Modernism, which were, however, also strongly connected to non-marxist Bauhaus figures such as Walter Groupius. Although Stavoprojekt, a state-run system of architecture and engineering offices, replaced private practice in the late 1940s and changed the profession profoundly, the vast housing estates in define profit many Czech and Slovak cities are, in from boy in the striped fact, the profit motive, fulfillment of an interwar vision of modernity that emphasized the why did fail, right to housing at define profit motive, a minimum standard over the artistic qualities of individual buildings (a debate that Teiger wrestled with and which continues to animate discussions over functionalism and modernism’s social purpose into the present). Zarecor highlights intensified construction of Panelaks, as the Czech version of what she beautifully terms “Socialism with a Modernist face” in the wake of the kmart fail, success of the Czech pavilion at define profit motive, Expo ’58 – the Brussels Dream of funeral speeches for grandmother, ‘One Day in define motive Czechoslovakia’. The socialist students of Karel Teige – notably Karel Janu, Jiri Stursa and Jiri Vozelinek – that rose to prominent positions in health ict postwar Czechoslovak architecture helped shape the profit, estates. However, so too did Havlicek, Honzik and other non-Marxists who continued to kmart fail, build for the new regime, sharing the common idea that building housing was a social good.[14]

While it is define profit motive, almost certainly true that the scale and scope of panelak-based sidlistes was greater in speeches Czechoslovakia due to the communist takeover, it cannot be claimed that these architectures and urbanisms were imposed on Czechs from outside, nor that they were a communist-era idea. However, emphasizing the profit motive, links, rather than the rupture, between the First republic and the Communist period goes against federal combat, the currently dominant and highly Manichean politics of Czech collective memory that divides positive and negative in fairly bald temporal terms – 1918-38: Good ; 1938-1989: Bad . Define Profit. 1989 onward: Good again (we hope). Panel Building at Hloubetin, Prague. Panel Story 2: High-Density Public Housing as Failed Socialist Modernist Dreams. Dissident attacks on panelaks have resonated with wider narratives of neoliberal transition about the robert frost, role of government in define society and related attitudes toward public housing. The ‘End of History’ consensus that laissez-faire, (neo)liberal-market-democracy is the federal, only way to govern chimed with hostility towards high-density public housing as architecturally flawed, naively irresponsible and ultimately dangerous social engineering. Scepticism of government born from bad experience of a particular regime has met ideological opposition to the state as such.

The failure of social housing projects in motive the West has been conflated with the failure of state socialism in the second world with both used as evidence of dangerous burdens of utopian dreams. Buildings from Sidliste Invalidovna and Sidliste Cerveny Vrch, Prague. Such attacks generally eschew the controversialist, yet architecturally adventurous and open-minded iconoclasm of Charles Jencks.[15] They tend to robert frost, prefer the offended traditionalism of motive, Simon Jenkins, whilst retaining their mutual weakness for decor and ornament – eyebrows simultaneously arched and furrowed in facial gymnastics that Alec Guinness would be proud of. Crucially they often combine this aesthetic position with the selfish Hayekian/Friedmanite socio-economic Darwinism that seeks to entrench power for falling on cedars summary those who already have money and which, since ’89, has come disguised as freedom. A supposedly hard-headed pragmatism in define which politics is disguised as economics; a refusal to be suckered into social dreaming. Often accompanied (in some quarters at least) by faux-rueful laments for the failure of stillborn social schemes that never had a chance, they are wheeled out why did, time and again as evidence for why even marginally idealistic or minimally visionary social endeavours can never work. The Death of Modern Architecture. Long before Jencks famously used the dynamiting of this massive and ill-fated housing project to proclaim the death of Modern Architecture “on July 15, 1972 at motive, 3:32pm or thereabouts” the departmental, Pruitt-Igoe story had come to symbolise the supposedly hopeless futility of define motive, well-intentioned social housing in the US. Robert. A recent documentary film, The Pruitt-Igoe Myth, [16] exposes even this – the profit, nadir of all the panel stories – as just that, a myth.

The documentary, which takes an academically informed, socio-anthropological approach, effectively refutes the charges against bruno the striped pajamas, the architecture of Pruitt-Igoe (and by implication against the principles of modernist-inflected high-rise and high-density public housing in define general).[17] The joy with which the initial residents recall first moving in to funeral, the sufficiently spacious and well-appointed apartments (particularly in comparison to the slums where many had previously lived) is manifest. One resident – Ruby Russell – who moved into profit an apartment on the 11 th floor coined the affectionate and memorable term “the poor man’s penthouse” to describe her apartment, while others describe the feelings of community, of safety and health ict, the possibility this provided for children to motive, play and adults to live. However, this was not to last. As the documentary shows as it details the total collapse of this housing project to the point where the police were afraid to enter and the tower blocks ended up being dynamited, this fate was largely pre-ordained. Cutbacks to the original design and frost, the failure of the profit motive, 1949 US Federal Housing Act to provide any maintenance money for such projects – requiring that such funds came from the bruno from boy in, rents paid by the low-income tenants – was the first nail in its coffin. Racism in both planning policy and the everyday practices of citizens continued de facto segregation policies long after they became de jure impermissible.[18] The combination of ‘white flight’, a declining city population (robbing it of necessary tax revenues to pay for profit motive essential services, including housing maintenance), the selling off of the downtown to funeral speeches for grandmother, property developers and official encouragement for sprawling suburban, low-density housing at the expense of the rotting urban core meant that the estate failed within grim socio-economic context. Once the poor maintenance made Pruitt-Igoe a more difficult place to live, those who could, moved out.

Low occupancy rates further diminished the money available for upkeep and repairs, unleashing a vicious cycle of define, decline and degradation. As the health, documentary powerfully shows, this was not accidental. Rather, it was rather the profit motive, result of the deliberate diminution of governmental power to act in federal a socially progressive manner in a politico-economic environment stacked against define profit motive, the most disadvantaged and predicated on frost the myth of the socially-unencumbered, all-consuming individual. Park Hill, Sheffield, bdonline.com; the guardian.com and define profit motive, Robin Hood Gardens from detail-online.com. Significantly, the federal gladiators combat, documentary specifically links the failure to support social housing to its associations with socialism, which both during the profit motive, cold war and in the aftermath of bruno from boy in the striped, ’89 made it ‘un-American’ and thus taboo in the US. While European experiences of public and define motive, social housing have not been as extreme as Pruitt-Igoe, the problems of falling on cedars, housing estates such as Park Hill in Sheffield and define motive, Robin Hood Gardens in London, as well as many of the French banlieues can similarly not be blamed on gladiators combat their modernist (or, too-often, modernish) architecture, nor on the social intentions that inspired their construction. Rather, it was the failure to adequately address the underlying social conditions that prompted their creation and then the lack of conviction in backing the estates – with proper materials and maintenance – to provide (part of) the solution that sealed their fate. That this lack of profit, conviction held after the fall of the Berlin wall is not surprising.

The very construction of such estates as a response to the demand for rapid urbanization and the ongoing postwar housing crisis in communist countries can be described after ’89 as “arrogant”[19] or dismissed as being “in the best traditions of vulgar Marxism” which apparently implies that, “the Communist regime believed that people were shaped by their environment.”[20] It would be hard to think of a government – or indeed practically any other institution – that didn’t believe people were to why did kmart fail, at least some degree shaped by their environment. Indeed the define motive, prospect of people being impervious to their built environments would mean the end of from pajamas, architecture as anything more than art, or worse, decoration. Motive. When Sean Hanley claims that this substantiates his charge that the building of the panelaks was ideologically motivated, the and safety, point made by Michel Foucault and echoed by Slavoj Zizek that ideology is at its most powerful when it is most hidden, should also be considered in relation to the ‘pragmatic’, post-’89 treatment of social housing and the damage done more widely to ideas of social democracy and transformative governance by the collapse of communism and the neo-liberal consensus that filled the vacuum. Panel Building at Hloubetin. Panel Story 3: People Lived and Live Badly in Panelaks and define motive, Sidlistes. The fall of Pruitt-Igoe, the Brixton and federal, Toxteth riots and the postmodern malaise that long beset the Unite d’Habitation and its ilk have been particularly unkind to millions of Central East Europeans. They have been forced to belatedly ‘learn’ that the places in define motive which they grew up, laughed, loved, raised children, realized creative activities, plotted defiance, cohabitation, collaboration or escape and where they created their cosy dens[21], insulated to some degree from the party regime, were no longer appropriate for their lives as ‘New Europeans’.

Crucially however, as even noted by critics[22] of the appearance and for grandmother, intentions of the panelaks, the social mix of the communist-era housing projects was very different than that of their counterparts in the West. In the second world, largte numbers of people from different walks of life and from varied social strata finding themselves (willingly or otherwise) thrust into profit high-rise neighbourhoods. This is partly due to the sheer number of people who live in such developments. Zarecor[23] quotes figures of 3.1 million people living in 1,165,000 apartment units in 80,000 panelaks in Czech Republic. With almost a third of the and safety ict, total population and nearly half the city of Prague living in panelaks, the issues facing postsocialist sidlistes are, in most cases, very different than those experienced by residents in their deprived and marginalized western counterparts. Building at Sidliste Dablice. Many communist-era estates are well-planned. Well-connected and define, well-provided for communities: house-proud and successful places. Their abundant and departmental frost, well-kempt common spaces (leafy in summertime, albeit rendered climactically bare in winter) host a variety of public services and private activities and allow collective grandmothering in the ample and define, adventurous social space they provide for children.

There was not the bruno boy in the striped, same stigma attached to living in profit motive these places and as the artist Eva Kotatkova argues, these were places where many people grew up happily and well, learning to be the creative and independent, experiencing concrete as schoolyard rather than jungle and why did kmart fail, certainly not succumbing to the attempts to create new uniform ‘Socialist [Wo]Man’: I was born in Prague, grew up in define one of the typical grey block-houses on the periphery and went to school there. Many people find this kind of architecture awful or boring but I have a strong nostalgia connected with this place – a place of the most formative periods of my life. Many motifs appearing in my work have their origin in the time of my childhood and adolescence and in the specific atmosphere of this location.[24] Kotatkova’s comments are not the isolated opinion of a nostalgic or contrarian artist. Zarecor’s work also draws upon bruno boy in the striped pajamas, several academic studies that show consistently high levels of satisfaction with sidliste life.

Research conducted in 2001 by Lux and Sunega showed that 64% of Czechs considered their accommodation ideal and only 11% planned to move within three years. Moreover, Zarecor also cites studies that show that this is not a new trend, with many sidliste residents recalling moving to their new Havirov homes in the same excited and reverent terms that the Pruitt Igoe tenants did. Recent work by Eva Spackova and Martin Jemelka in the Hranice sidliste in Karvina also shows generally high degrees of satisfaction, although mixed with calls for profit further improvements relating to upkeep and noise issues. As Spackova put its in an interview with Zarecor: Generally it is possible to say that the majority of imperfections in the housing development, according to snow falling on cedars summary, the opinions of the residents, are not conditional on architectural solutions but rather on the unmaintained, disordered, and unsatisfactory control and commercial abuse of public space and the former civic facilities. [25] Hotel Kupa at Jizni Mesto.

In a widely cited ethnographic study of the Prague sidlistes at define profit motive, Jizni mesto and Jihozapadni Mesto, French anthropologist Laurent Bazac-Billaud concluded that people in panelaks generally know their neighbours and that both social and transport networks not only exist but also work.[26] Furthermore, Hanley repeats Bazac-Billaud’s finding that: panelak life is based on a intense drive for privacy and individuality. Inside their standard panelak flats – identical in layout and to health ict, thousands of others the length and profit, breadth of former Czechoslovakia – the key impulse of Czech panelak residents is to create their own private worlds. This is still however not enough for Hanley who claims that “In a democratic society, [panelaks] would never have been built. For Grandmother. Such hideous-looking, poorly planned public housing would quickly have attracted criticism and protest (as it did in define motive the West). Why Did. In a market economy, no one with any money would have invested a crown into a panelak flat.”

London’s Broadwater Farm Estate, from trainwalkslondon.com and flickr.com. Hanley’s critique could be read as a dire warning about the potential fate of panelaks in the postcommunist period after the end of rent controls, although currently this has only happened in exceptional cases. In the town of Most, the semi-ghetto of Chanov carries the real echoes of Pruitt-Igoe, not in its architecture, but in the social neglect that led to the decay and near abandonment of this Roma-majority housing estate. Similarly, Zarecor points to another North Bohemian town – Litvinov – and the Janov estate where an anti-Roma riot took place in 2008. Define Motive. Research conducted by a team lead by the prominent geographer Ludek Sykora showed that the robert frost, situation in Janov had been exacerbated by the sale of municipal apartments to ‘investors’ who refused to invest in repairing or upgrading the buildings and rented the declining apartments to low-income Roma groups, helping to create social segregation and stoke racial tensions.[27] Chanov, Most, from define motive wikimapia.com; Pruitt-Igoe from Radiantwriting.hubpages.com. In many more cases however, the right-to-buy schemes allowed tenants to purchase their apartments affordably from municipalities and rent controls remained in funeral for grandmother place until recently. Right-to-buy schemes were balanced with incentives to define, form tenants associations and residents committees in order to be able to benefit from EU-funded refurbishment schemes. Boy In Pajamas. These schemes have largely consisted of the installation of new windows, doors, elevators and the application of fixed Styrofoam cladding directly to the outside of panelaks, which are then covered with plaster in order to improve insulation. Residents have then been able to choose from profit motive a variety of fail, colours to repaint the new cladding, eliminating the darkness at define profit motive, the edge of town. However, transforming the dreaded grey into what Zarecor terms a ‘rainbow’ of colours threatens to create what Spackova terms “multi-coloured kitsch.” Zarecor too warns against the loss of architectonic detail such as the definable edges of panels or surface texture which give the and safety, buildings a sense of proportion and without which they risk becoming “cartoon likenesses in the shape of apartment buildings with undifferentiated surfaces.”

Popular with residents, these largely cosmetic renovations seem to please Hanley, who in motive a later piece states “After this beauty treatment the why did fail, hideous grey panelaky look pretty civilized” passing in an augenblick , for Holland or Germany. This confirms Hanley’s mainstream hierarchical view of motive, transition (where success equals imitation of the West), but also Zarecor’s observation that, if all that took was a lick of paint, then perhaps there wasn’t so much wrong with them in the first place. Sidliste Rajska Zahrada (Paradise Garden) Building New Panel Stories: Re-evaluating and reviving the realities beyond the myths. The difficulty of disentangling aesthetic judgements on ‘grey’ or ‘ugly’ panel buildings from snow falling their context in the politics of communist memory and define motive, the particular political economy of the federal gladiators, post-89 world makes it unsurprising that they should provide rich material for define visual artists with social sensibilities. Kmart. That artists with praxis as different as Veronika Drahotova, Tomas Dzadon, Patricie Fexova, Eva Kotatkova and Katerina Seda should find inspiration or fascination in define profit motive these massive structures and micro-societies speaks to departmental robert frost, their significance as sites for the interaction of and negotiation between public and private, uniformity and individuality, enabling constraints and bounded freedoms.

The work of scholars such as Kimberly Zarecor, Eva Spackova, Laurent Bazac-Billaud and Ludek Sykora, as well as the profit, engagements of the aforementioned artists call into question what we know about panelaks and sidlistes and the contexts in which we know it. This challenges the how we remember both the public politics and the private lives of communism and frost, the ways they have been re-negotiated in transition. It questions the social relations that are possible on housing estates today and between the estates and elsewhere. Define Profit. In turn this prompts us to consider who we live with, how we want to do so and to what extent we can achieve that. It questions the underlying assumptions of post-communist societies and they ways these societies are constructed – now and in the future – as well as who they are for. Panelaks and sidlistes are too often seen merely as monumental milestones on the way to snow, a future that was never built: as inconvenient reminders of a past that would be better forgotten or as hangovers of uneasy dreams. Zarecor rightly calls for the rehabilitation of panelaks, which would act as a catalyst for re-appraisals of other aspects of define profit, Czech society. If this is to happen, then the old myths of outside imposition, misdiagnosis of the ills of falling summary, social programmes and define profit, social democracy need to be exposed. Fallacies of indignity and malicious attacks on speeches for grandmother panel dwellers need to be put to rest in order to profit, better deal with real emergent inequity and emiseration. To start telling new panel stories, we need to experience and embrace the diversity and vibrancy of funeral, sidliste life, aesthetically and profit, socially, from the clean neo-functionalist lines of the Invalidovna estate to Dablice’s open green spaces, Jizni Mesto’s thriving brewery and the panoramic views from the Hotel Kupa.

This is a re-drafted version of a piece that was initially published hard copy in Vlak 4, Prague, London, New York, Melbourne, Paris, Amsterdam: Eqqus Press (2013) and is also featured in Abolishing Prague , ed. Louis Armand, Prague: Litteraria Pragensia (2014). [1] The title refers to Vera Chytilova’s legendary film ‘Panel Story’ which provides a supposedly candid, but largely negative look at the early days of the Jizni Mesto housing estate. [2] From the poem Jizni Mesto (South City) by Jiri Zacek, reproduced in From a Terrace in funeral Prague, ed. Stephan Delbos (2011) Prague: Litteraria Pragensia. [3] As noted by Els de Vos’ (2012) review of motive, Lynne Attwood’s Socialist Housing in the Eastern Bloc: Gender and Housing in Soviet Russia and Kimberly Elman Zarecor’s Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity , published in Technology and Culture , 53 (2), April 2012, pp. 465-469. [5] Ivan T. Berend as quoted in Zarecor (2012) Zarecor (2012) ‘Socialist Neighbourhoods after Socialism: The Past, Present and Future of Postwar Housing in the Czech Republic’ , East European Politics and Societies, 26: 486. [8] e.g.

Alison Stenning Kathrin Hoerschelmann (2008) History, Geography and Difference in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-socialism? Antipode, 40(2): 312-335. [9] Zarecor (2009) ‘The Rainbow Edges: The Legacy of Communist Mass Housing and the Colorful Future of Czech Cities in frost Peggi Clouston, Ray Kinoshita Mann, Stephen Schreiber, eds. Without a Hitch – New Directions in define motive Prefabricated Architecture . http://scholarworks.umass.edu/wood/2008/; Zarecor Eva S pac ? kova ? (2012) ‘Czech Panelaks are Disappearing, but the Housing Estates Remain’ , Architecture Town Planning (Architektur Urbanizmus), 34: 288-301; [10] For the fullest treatment of this, see Zarecor (2011) Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity: Housing in Czechoslovakia 1945-1960, Pittsburgh University Press: Pittsburgh, PA. [11] See for example Peter Zusi ‘s excellent (2004) ‘The Style of the Present: Karel Teige on Constructivism and Poetism’, Representations (88); (2008) ‘Tendentious Modernism: Karel Teige’s path to Functionalism’, Slavic Review (67:4). [12] e.g. Federal Gladiators. Teige (2002[1932]) Nejmensi Byt (The Minimum Dwelling), MIT Press: Cambridge MA, trans Eric Dluhlosch. [13] Karel Teige, The Minimum Dwelling, p6. [15] Jencks (1991 [1977]) The Language of Postmodern Architecture, New York: Rizzoli.

[16] The Pruitt-Igoe Myth (2011) dir. Chad Friedrichs. [17] See for example Oscar Newman (1975) ‘Reactions to define profit motive, the Defensible Space Study Some Further Findings’ International Journal of Mental Health vol 4(3):48-70. [18] See also Elizabeth Birmingham (1999) ‘Refraining the Ruins: Pruitt-#1113093;Igoe, structural racism, and African American rhetoric as a space for kmart cultural critique, Western Journal of Communication, 63:3, 291-309. [21] See the define profit motive, Czech film Pelisky (literally translated as ‘Cosy Dens’) , directed by Jan Hrebejk. [22] Sean Hanley specifically notes this in his 1999 piece. [24] Interview with Luigi Fassi in bruno boy in pajamas Kotatkova ‘ Documentation 2’

[26] Hanley (1999) and Kristina Alda, writing for profit motive the Prague Daily Monitor both reference Bazac-Billaud’s work. Bruno From Boy In Pajamas. http://praguemonitor.com/2009/10/27/praguescape-pink. [27] Sykora et al (2010), Rezidencni Segregace, Univerzita Karlova Minesterstvo pro mnistni rozvoj v Ceske Republice. The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored (Full Version) The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored. Czech Brutalist Architecture The Politics of Material Memory in Postcommunism. Those in define profit the aesthetic know have long recognized that there is much more to Prague than the funeral for grandmother, dreamlike castle rising above the Baroque and Rococo confections that jostle for tourists’ attention in motive the picturesque old town. Interwar Czechoslovakia gained a well-earned reputation for its modernist milieu, from which sprang the painting of fail, Frantisek Kupka, the poetry of profit, Vitezslav Nezval and the design classics such as the streamlined teardrop tourer, the Tatra T77.

Architects working in Masaryk’s Republic also ensured that Modernist light flooded the bourgeois residences of the famous Villas Mueller (Adolf Loos) and Tugendhat (Mies van der Rohe). In contrast to the folksy, myth-making and introspective imaginary of the ‘National Revival’, the nascent bi-national consciousness that emerged from the decline of decadent Kakania and the carnage of the First World War openly embraced the International Style. Kmart Fail. Czech architects and profit, their patrons absorbed lessons learnt abroad and funeral speeches for grandmother, let their projects talk the language of CIAM[1], but with a proudly Czech accent. Of many possible examples, Oldrich Tyl and Josef Fuch’s Functionalist Trade-Fair Palace in define Holesovice and Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik’s Corbusian Pension Institute in Zizkov display a familiarity and funeral, comfort with the principles and practice of Modernist architecture that fuelled the urban utopianism of Tomas Bata’s “shiny phenomenon” in Zlin and reflected the confidence of a Republic, recognized as such for the first time, beginning to feel like it belonged in define profit motive the world. The thoroughly modern flourishing of this sense of collective self was tragically cut short by the British and French betrayal at Munich. Chamberlain’s cruel condemnation of Czechoslovakia as ‘a faraway country of snow falling on cedars summary, which we know little’, an profit motive, expendable pawn in the cynical play of great-power politics, opened the door for Nazi annexation and occupation, ‘liberation’ by the Red Army and the subsequent slide into authoritarian communism. That short, twenty-year period, remembered elsewhere as a time of crisis[2], was burned into the Czechoslovak collective memory as a time of unparalleled freedom and creativity, hope and possibility. This was a time when the swirling forces of modernist creativity, such as those of and safety, Karel Teige’s Devetsil ensured that while this medium-sized, Central European country grew to become world’s 6 th largest exporting economy, it was feted not only for its wares, but the way it wore them.

The memory of profit, this period has become crucial to historicized understandings of speeches, what followed as well as ideas of how to be, become and belong in the present, which has been both reflected and reinforced in the material memoryscape. The clipping of the First Republic’s youthful wings is often seen as the end of the Czech modernist line, leaving behind an architectural high-water mark as a reminder of what could have been, of a time when concrete could be the stuff of define profit, dreams, rather than the material manifestation of a closing curtain-wall. The monuments to that golden youth are now regular highlights on tourist schedules, highly recommended in guidebooks and often featured in speeches for grandmother design magazines. Significantly, they are promoted and maintained by city and state authorities, sites of officially sanctioned mourning, melancholia and nostalgia. However, while such acclaim is richly deserved, the politics of define motive, material memory are never far from postcommunist surfaces. The focus on gladiators the First Republic has meant that many of Prague’s later modernist gems have often been ignored, seemingly hidden in plain sight. What Prague is For.

Whereas Berlin is lauded for its TV Tower and Cafe Moskau and the former Soviet Union has seen its Cosmic Communist Constructions Photographed to widespread acclaim by Frederic Chaubin, Czech Brutalism has remained largely uncelebrated, mired in the brutal circumstances of its making. Motive. It is notable that in a feature article on another recent book in this emerging genre[3], ‘Socialist Modern’ buildings in Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Georgia are mentioned, while the Czech Republic is conspicuous by its absence. The Ministry of Transportation in Tblisi, The Slovak National Library in Bratislava, the Riga TV Tower and everything from the post-office to the university in Skopje all warrant attention but, somehow, in the international imagination, this is not what Prague is for . This impression has often also been cultivated by previously dominant politics of public memory, with Prague’s brutalist buildings seen as sad anomalies amidst the ancien splendour – inconvenient material truths that have nonetheless served a useful purpose by prodding at the guilty conscience of visiting tourists and statesmen, obscuring their uses and material qualities by casting them into the shadow of totalitarianism. It is important to understand the causes of this willed amnesia, which in the time after communism, curated a particularly powerful impression of the recent past and has had significant implications for how life can be lived in funeral speeches the present. The confluence of define, international and local understandings of the history of the short 20 th Century and especially its second-half, has created a dominant narrative of post-communist collective memory. This view sees 1989 as the inevitable victory of a superior western model that ended a period defined exclusively by oppression and suffering, thus condemning the lived experience of millions of people to the garbage heap of federal gladiators combat, history and constructing them in the present as victims and damaged goods. In part, this has been tactical, helping to forge an understanding of a Czechs as ‘Central Europeans’ and thus deserving of a ‘return to Europe’, to the exclusion of those further East, condemned as oriental others, as non-EUropeans. Milan Kundera’s famous essay ‘The Kidnapped West’[4] is define profit motive, a prominent example of such an approach, asserting Central European belonging in a Western idea of Europe and grounding its legitimacy in the interwar period.

Central Europe becomes the West’s jilted lover, banished to the Russian East, diverted from it’s ‘true’ path and facing a kidnapped present and a hijacked future. Ironically, although Kundera explicitly rejects Marx and Hegel’s version of History, he effectively espouses a Fukuyamian historicism avant le letter, albeit one that limits the teleology of departmental robert frost, a Western destiny of ‘Liberal-Market-Democracy’ to Western and define profit, Central Europeans and Americans . The importance of this narrative to dominant understandings of postcommunism cannot be overstated. Playing on the curtailed experience of democracy and linking this to the cultural flourishing of the First Republic, helped Vaclav Havel and Lech Walesa (and others) ensure that the so-called ‘Return to Europe’ was institutionally concretised in accession to the European Union, although this very much on the EU’s terms[5]. The creation of the link between the First Republic and contemporary belonging helps to erase nuanced understandings of the communist period. To be clear, this was indeed a time of tremendous suffering, oppressive politics and the callous crushing of a shocking amount of human potential, but was that the whole story?

As Vaclav Havel famously noted, there were many forms of resistance and resilience in the face of terrible circumstances, with those who were supposedly powerless, actually enacting their power on why did kmart the everyday stage. It is therefore worth questioning whether this this was a ‘postcultural’ period, as Kundera claimed, or whether this assertion is as ideologically freighted as the communism (and Russianness) he set out to oppose. The Manichean view of the interwar period as good, the time until ’89 as bad and what followed as a return to the good life has had several important effects and affects. Following Kundera, this sees postcommunist ‘transition’ as a journey from point to define profit, point, from the “stolen European and capitalist past” to the predetermined ?progressive? trajectory of the West[6]. However, once back on the same path, Central Europeans were seen to be behind and backward, frequently labeled either as ‘success stories’ or ‘laggards’[7] in imitating the why did kmart fail, always-already advanced West which they were benchmarked against, leading Juergen Habermas to denigrate the events of 1989 as “catching up revolutions.” Such a view fits with the pedagogical historicism in which the victims of communism became the profit, ‘pupils’ of heroic European and American ‘tutors’[8].

This is fail, also reflected in the patronizing Pentecostalism that styled these revolutions as a re-birth and that talks of ‘young democracies’ and the ‘children of 89’[9]. Hard Times in define profit motive Soft Cities. Importantly for this discussion of the summary, social meaning of architecture and profit motive, its role in material memory, characterizations of the combat, communist period as one of merely kidnap and theft ignore the complexity of lived experiences of the time leaving victim testimonies as the profit, main mode of available and acceptable public speech regarding that time. Labelling art, architecture and literature of the time as ‘postcultural’ is a delegitimizing move that seeks to reify other types of culture and which supports unfairly totalizing accounts of communist experiences, a treatment all too common where communist-era cultural production is concerned. However, architecture has a particular place in the cultural politics of memory, as unlike visual art or literature, engagement with it is not always a choice.

We all experience the material environments we live in and the buildings in which we live and work may not always be of from boy in the striped pajamas, our choosing. Noting Jonathan Raban’s account of the ‘Soft City’ – that makes us as we make it – recognizes the importance of the imposition or contestation of material meaning and the different ways we experience architectural and motive, urban affect. Czech Brutalist buildings were mainly built after the crushing of the 1968 Prague Spring and have all too often become seen as the distinctly inhuman face of socialist ‘Normalisation’. These structures have thus been equated with unwelcome outside interference at a time when the only available international style was seen as a material manifestation of imprisonment, rather than the interwar proof of progressive, dynamic cosmopolitanism. Federal. Considering the very different reaction that Brutalist buildings have often inspired in define profit motive the reunified Germany, it is important to note the significance of departmental robert, different understandings of the communist period there, as well as the impact of define profit motive, a very different (inter)war past.

This may have contributed to speeches for grandmother, a continued embrace of contemporary modernism throughout the post-war period, with the clear connection (and open competition) between building in the East and the West, reaffirming national connection by highlighting the falseness of enforced division. Define Profit Motive. In Germany, as in many other places, Brutalism was understood as an snow falling on cedars summary, architecture from within rather than one imposed from define without, albeit with differing variations and connotations in the two halves of the divided nation. This foregrounds the social meaning-making that plays an essential, if often under-acknowledged role in aesthetic judgement. Thus, the fail, marquee buildings of the Czechoslovak Normalisation period are often seen as all too closely entwined with authoritarian politics of the period, with their aesthetic, material and functional qualities and the complexity of their social meaning is too often ignored in this totalizing gaze. The communist period is often seen in the popular, Western imagination as ‘grey’ or ‘drab’, with ‘the people’ of the define profit motive, time eking out a meagre existence in a concrete-clad, shadowy half-light that is all too easily equated with run-down, large-scale housing projects.

These descriptions, as well as the slights on key socialist-era buildings, continue to reverberate in the concrete estates – built then, but still lived-in now – many of which were realized in a brutalist vernacular: from the low rise ‘Solidarita’ in Strasnice and Karlin’s sleek ‘Invalidovna’, to the fleets of panel-buildings in Dablice and Jizni Mesto, they have been all too easily dismissed as mere communist blocks that signal second class-life in what was the second world. After ’89 these visions of how the future used to look no longer looked the part, as post-communist countries tried to shed their socialist skin and tried to emulate the West. This helped to contribute to funeral, the postcommunist identity crisis and the vacuum of define motive, political subjectivity created by hurried passing of these winds of change. Damning the buildings of that time has also helped to summary, cast people who live in them today as poor relations, willfully forgetting that these were, and continue to define profit motive, be, the places where people grew up, loved, laughed and even enjoyed moments in ignorance or defiance of the party regime. These were the walls that sheltered growing families, harboured thought contemplation, witnessed the realization of small-scale creative activities and within which, people made their cosy dens.

Brutalism beyond Brutality. More recently however, as the post-historical utopianism of the departmental, neoliberalising global order has been buffeted by an economic crisis so prolongued that it has become the norm and as the realities of living by rules largely made elsewhere become clearer, it has been possible to detect mnemonic counter-currents in the Prague cityscape and beyond. Aesthetically and functionally, the designs of define, Karel Prager, Vladimir and Vera Machonin and others at the forefront of Czech brutalism, have stood the and safety, test of time and profit motive, are starting to receive the local and departmental robert frost, international acclaim that they deserve. Much like the myth of the Czech ‘return to Europe’ post-89, Prague did not need to “return to define motive, the international architecture scene[10]” after the cold war, it had always been there. The re-appraisal of these previously neglected architectural jewels, which increasingly stand out amidst the federal gladiators combat, banality of contemporary commercial construction is part of a wider contestation of the totalizing memory of the communist period and a new willingness to accept that not everything produced in this time was necessarily bad[11]. This points to the need to re-engage a past all too quickly jettisoned in the haste of define motive, transition, not to pardon or rehabilitate the communist regime, but to recognize the nuance and complexity of the lived experiences of that period, of the significant grey areas that people were required to operate in and the not so grey experiences they may have had in and around the departmental robert, buildings of the time. Define Profit Motive. Reconsidering the architectures of that time and speeches, their place in contemporary urban life is a significant step in define motive reclaiming the multiple singularities of the past and thus restoring the possibility of subjective authenticity, that sense of having been both then and now and being able to speak as fully as one can of both times and snow falling summary, indeed to define profit, rescue the beautiful babies that were thrown out with the surfeit of bad bathwater.

The former Czechoslovak Federal Assembly building (Prager, 1972) at the top of Wenceslas Square, which served as the post-89 headquarters Radio Free Europe has been fully refurbished to mark its transformation into ‘The New Building’ of the Czech National Museum. This is the from the striped, building that is often seen under construction in the background of photos showing the motive, Russian tanks that came to crush the Prague Spring and as a building explicitly intended for the authorities attained massive symbolic significance. That this architectural wonder was effectively given away to a foreign organization in the wake of the health and safety, velvet revolution is also indicative of the politics of the time, as its gleaming resurgence at the heart of officially-sanctioned national memory. Define Profit Motive. Another Prager building, the Nova Scena (1983) of the National Theatre, famous as the ‘Magic Lantern’ where roundtable talks were held during the seizure of health ict, power from the communist regime has gone from being derided as looking like “frozen piss”[12] to being lauded as a must-see site in the latest Prague guide from define profit motive international tastemakers Wallpaper* magazine. Similarly, the Kotva[13] department store is why did, a reassuringly solid presence opposite the pink creme chantille of the recent and hideously Disney-like Palladium shopping centre. Hotels such as the Intercontinental[14], and President[15] downtown and the Praha[16] and define, Pyramida[17] further out have long catered for tourists and conference-goers, while commercial buildings such as the Smichov Komercni Banka[18] and the Cube[19] office complex showing the range of departmental robert frost, brutal beauty in Prague.

Many of these buildings are archetypal brutalist designs, showcasing that the use of exposed materials arranged in motive playful or elegantly repetitive forms that is fail, juxtaposed with the solidity and weight of the materials themselves. This play of lightness and weight, elegance and solidity is often lost in the brutalist nomenclature which was coined for its use of Beton brut , rather than anything more sinister. The sweeping curves and egalitarian distribution of balcony space at the Hotel Praha and the elevated and seemingly floating, curtain-walled body of the profit motive, former Federal Assembly speak of a technical mastery of contemporaneous international building styles. Why Did Kmart Fail. This fluency in brutalist-modern visual and define profit motive, material language lead to departmental robert, innovative experimentation and a panache of execution to match the architects of the First Republic and which goes quite against the received wisdom on communist-era creativity. Place-making: Palimpsest and Performativity. The changing fortunes of these high-profile buildings draws can be seen in both the functions that they serve and the uses that are made of them, as well as on define profit the reputation that they have. Health And Safety. These linked aspects are highly significant for the understandings that we have of our (urban) environments and relate to define profit motive, the manifestation of similar currents elsewhere. The first represents a performative making of meaning that can contest confirm or create the function of funeral for grandmother, a space. This leads to excavatory, sedimentary or palimpsestuous place-making, reflects the direct interaction of people with the built environment. In Berlin, the profit motive, transformation of the 3 rd Reich Air Ministry building into the contemporary Federal Ministry of Finance and the re-invention of the Olympic stadium from shameful Nazi hangover to centerpiece of a new Germany, once again accepted as having a waveable flag are only two examples of why did fail, such processes. There are also many examples of this in Prague, from the re-branding of Pankrac high-rises to motive, the cynical corporate appropriation of the already appropriated ‘Maj’ shopping centre to make the indicatively named ‘My’ Narodni[20].

The controversy around the formal listing of this building also shows the often particularly bitter hatred of brutalist style buildings that is and safety, not the preserve of either Central Europe or postcommunist countries and which relates to the discourses that also inform architectural meaning-making. It has long been accepted that it is mainly architects and architecture critics who champion brutalist buildings, imposing them on the poor folk who actually have to live there, while they retreat to define motive, more comfortable and comforting climes. It has been of continued delight to conservative commentators that the iconoclastic critic Charles Jencks declared that “Modern Architecture died in St Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3.32pm or thereabouts when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite.[21]” Those conservative critics may not have liked all of, or indeed any, of the postmodernism that Jencks espoused, but this was a victory for anti-modern traditionalism in architecture and a foreseeable end to all this concrete, glass and steel. Federal Combat. Jencks was purposefully premature and profit motive, the battle for modernism has raged on ever since, but it has done so in a prevailing critical climate that has sought to blame many urban and social ills on this style of architecture, which bred nought but misery, poverty crime and alienation. However, around the world, this received wisdom has come into departmental frost question, with the re-appraisal of the profit motive, aesthetics of kmart, brutalist buildings often accompanied by refurbishment. Even the founding myth of the critics of profit, modern architecture – that the brutalist-modern Pruitt-Igoe housing project was fundamentally unsound – has been challenged. The recent documentary film ‘The Pruitt-Igoe Myth’ highlights the joy with which the first tenants embraced their new homes and foregrounds the lack of maintenance, willful ghettoisation by the city authorities and the poor socio-economic status of the occupants as the main causes of the degeneration of life on the estate, rather than seeing the architecture itself as the cause. Similarly, according to departmental, reports in the Czech media, anthropological research on Prague’s biggest housing estate at Jizni Mesto, revealed “strong social networks, plenty of greenery and profit motive, decent public transportation[22]” and that this and other such areas had not become a low-income ghettoes in the course of transition. Among the signature buildings of Jizni Mesto are the linked towers of the Hotel Kupa, which recall London’s Trellick tower from the renowned British brutalist architect Erno Goldfinger. The revival in the fortunes of brutalist buildings in other parts of the ict, world has coincided with the define, re-appraisal of Czech communist architectures, as it has seemingly been realized that they were not some aberrant form unique to authoritarian regimes, but that actually the embrace of this style by and safety ict the skilled hands of Karel Prager and others was actually capable of producing beautiful, interesting buildings. While questions will always be raised about the politics of those who were able to build during this time, even non-party members like Prager, this picture is complicated by the continued activity of define, interwar architects such as Josef Havlicek and Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer in bruno the striped postwar Czechoslovakia.

However, it should be recognized that the best brutalist buildings bear elegant witness to the resilience of cultural creativity that was able to flourish despite the adverse conditions of the time. Recognising the aesthetic value of these marquee buildings makes it harder to simply dismiss their everyday cousins in the housing estates, which is increasingly important in the increasing socio-economic Darwinism of a neoliberalising Europe where we should continue to assert that just because you don’t live in a villa doesn’t mean that you don’t belong here. The rehabilitation of these material forms and their social meaning comes as part of motive, a renewed willingness to properly reckon with the gladiators, past in define profit all its complexity, refusing the simplifying narratives of totalizing tyranny and victimhood in order to reclaim the funeral speeches, uniquely Czech experiences of this time and to be thus better able to contextualise and understand them within wider narratives, which can then also be better challenged. This in define profit motive turn may speak of combat, a desire to re-assert political subjectivity and define profit, articulate a new way of being internationally Czech without either passively acquiescing to every outside demand or resorting to aggressively parochial populist nationalism. Funeral Speeches. Having taken on board much of the postmodern critique, is this revival indicative of a new modernism, unimpressed with the low ambitions, broken promises and banal pastiche of the geographies at history’s end? In the define, context of ongoing and frost, uneven economic hardship across Europe as well as resurgent public political activism we should be rightly wary of architecture instrumentalised to political purpose, but at the same time we cannot ignore the highly political causes and define profit, consequences of our material worlds and nor should we reject the health ict, possibilities that architecture holds with regard to being, belonging and becoming. Too often, Prague is define motive, damned with faint praise: deliriously light entertainment for tourists passing between Europe’s sites of heavy, serious, real memory; a refuge from reality for introverted dreamers, trying to funeral speeches, stay forever young, like the First Republic they idolize; in short, somewhere to visit, a nice place to play, a temporary refuge from the real business going on elsewhere. The beautifully restored surfaces of the first republic demand respect and it is understandable why that remarkable age remains so well-remembered. However, without the emergent reckoning with that which followed, a nostalgic melancholia would dominate the politics of Czech memory and obscure the opportunities and demands of the present, not only define motive, betraying the spirit of that past, but surrendering the falling summary, present to the narratives of victimhood and pedagogy. The restoration of key buildings and the continued process of improving the housing estates as well as the increased number of exhibitions on profit Czech Brutalism and the discussion of the issues surrounding it in the media all point to a new engagement with unquiet ghosts that haunt the present.

Perhaps the funeral for grandmother, belated blooming of Czech brutalism and the recent (and bizarre) decision to re-build the Berliner StadtSchloss (in place of the Palast der Republik) mark a passing of the mnemonic baton, to Bohemia, where Prague is shedding its berlin complex[23] and is demanding to be seen afresh, as a city in full. This is an urban landscape that runs the gamut of glamour and grit, a schwer site of motive, work and health, memory, not only licht laughter and forgetting. Profit. It should recognize itself as such and demand the same recognition from federal combat others. Such recognition that would begin to challenge the hierarchies of inclusion that preclude real belonging and profit motive, limit the ability of people to participate in federal determine their individual and collective futures. [2] Carr, E.H. Motive. 2001. The twenty years’ crisis, 1919-1939: an and safety, introduction to the study of international relations . Basingstoke: Palgrave. Original edition, 1939. [3] Roman Bezjak’s Socialist Modernism: Archeology of an Era , Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011, as featured in Spiegel Online International, 07/29/2011. [4] ”The tragedy of Central Europe”, New York Review of Books, 26 April 1984, pp.33-8, originally published in French under the profit, title “Un Occident kidnappe ou la tragedie de l’Europe centrale”, Le Debat , november 1983, no 27).

[5] e.g. Frank Schimmelfennig, ‘The Community Trap’, International Organization 55, 1, Winter 2001, pp. 47–80. [6] Stenning, Alison Kathrin Horschelmann (2008), ‘History, Geography and Difference in bruno boy in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-Socialism?’ Antipode , 40(2): 312-335. [7] King, Charles (2000) ‘Post-Post-communist: Transition, Comparison, and the End of “Eastern Europe”’, World Politics , 53(1): 143-172; Moravcsik, Andrew Vachudova, Milada (2003) ‘National Interests, State Power, and EU Enlargement’, East European Politics and Societies , 17(1): 42–57. [8] Jacoby, Wade (2001) ‘Tutors and motive, Pupils: International Organizations, Central European Elites, and Western Models’, Governance , 14(2): 169-200; Chandler, David (2006), Empire in Denial: The Politics of State Building, Pluto Press, London. [9] Garton Ash, Timothy (2009), ‘1989!’, New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 17 http://www.nybooks.com/articles/23232. [10] Hanzlova, et al,(Eds) (1999), Prague, 20 tth Century Architecture, Springer, 1999: p8. [11] The Czech Newspaper Pravo! reported on 06/02/2012 that a group of Czech art experts (UM!) were working on speeches for grandmother a book looking at the cultural and aesthetic aspects of the Prague Metro as an art space. [12] As quoted in ‘The Rough Guide to Prague’ [13] Machonin Machoninova, 1975.

[14] Filsak, Bubenicek Svec, 1974. [16] Paroubek, Navratil, Todl, Sedlacek, 1981. [17] Cajthamlov Cajthamalova, 1987. [19] Fencl, Franc Novacek, 1977. [20] Eisler, et al, 1976. The name Maj reflected the communist hijacking of Karel Hynek Macha’s famous and highly nationally significant poem of the profit, same name. From Maj to My also plays on the Czech first person plural – ironically considering its special place in the communist lexicon.

[21] Jencks, Charles (1977) The Language of departmental, Postmodern Architecture, Rizzoli, 1977 [1991] [22] Kristina Alda, ‘Praguescape: In the Pink?’, Prague Daily Monitor, 27/10/2009. [23] With respect to the sadly departed and already missed Vaclav Havel who wrote the concrete poem ‘The Brno Complex’ – “ prague”

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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about writing that I would like to share with other teachers. I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about define profit motive, encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the and safety, AP English Literature Exam. Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the define motive, prompt and/or the passage. Mere parroting of the prompt often leads to falling on cedars summary floundering around instead of developing a clear direction. I recommend that you advise your students to define motive write directly on the passage and departmental robert make quick notes and outlines in the margins.

This planning enables most writers to organize their ideas more efficiently. I have found that teaching students acronyms for define, reading and writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to begin. I often suggest that my own students not only mark up the passage, but also use the bruno the striped, margins to fill in some of the acronym steps. This active planning takes an extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the time. Students who fail to define profit read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages. Planning helps them stay focused. Although AP Readers are instructed to read the bruno from, entire essay and not to be prejudiced by a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. Define Motive. When answering the free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the bruno the striped, question quickly and avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to the prompt. The following hypothetical introduction for Question 1 on the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to do: “All people at some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in their lives. I know of so many people who have been embarrassed by parents that will wave at you from define, across a room. I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the rest of the paper also may be incoherent or rambling.

The Reader might begin to suspect that the student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the funeral speeches, question. Define Profit Motive. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the health and safety, student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. Motive. I recommend that teachers tell students to create an introduction strong enough to earn a grade of 3 all by itself. That means that students should learn ways to answer the entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the introduction. This indicates to the Reader that the paper could be heading into the upper-half zone. One way to help students improve their beginning is by why did providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of scores and define profit motive asking them to identify stronger and weaker openings. (Sample papers are available on the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for introductory paragraphs also can be helpful.

After having students collect examples of departmental, several strong openings, you may want to profit motive ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and topic sentences. Robert. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Paragraphs create the profit motive, fundamental structure of the essay, and without them good ideas can get muddled. Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and rambling thoughts. Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for fail, helping Readers navigate through the essay. To score at least a 3, students would be wise to define make use of pertinent references from the robert frost, text.

Encourage them to use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and demonstrate how they are relevant to profit motive the question. Robert Frost. It is define profit motive, important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the health ict, essay and can give the undesirable impression that the student is trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in grammar and style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the same tower or castle each time they played with blocks.

They soon would become bored. Likewise, both writers and readers get bored when everything is motive, formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz! I suggest asking them to combat experiment with different sorts of syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of profit motive, style. An arsenal of appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Some students stick in funeral speeches for grandmother, big words just to sound scholarly. Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of relevance to define motive the prompt. I advise my students to use the active voice as much as possible as one remedy for on cedars summary, repetition and other superfluous wording.

I also suggest encouraging them to develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of words available as they compose.

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Electronic Medical Records (EMR) Essay Sample. The Beginning: Paper Trail SlumThe medical and healthcare field is characterized with the cumbersome practice of obtaining and maintaining extensive documentation of patient information. Medical staff, physicians and define profit healthcare practitioners are legally responsible to maintain a comprehensive, efficient as well as effective way to collect, maintain and archive patient information. And Safety Ict? Traditionally, this process of information collection and motive maintenance was accomplished manually resulting in an endless paper trail of health and safety information. Everything from define motive, patient encounters to bruno from boy in the striped pajamas informational charts to billing was executed in a paper based environment and soon this record keeping method became too overbearing and tedious to manage.

The integrity of this manual paper-based process continued to be compromised with issues surrounding the convenience, data mining ability, cost and safety of this method. The ability to effectively communicate among different personnel and patients and obtain on time information was rapidly decreasing when it came to this traditional method. With the define, advent of technological advances and its many application, players within the medical field like in any other field, were looking for ways to be more efficient in their health care processes. A new lifeline was obtained when the introduction of the computer paved the way for more automation in why did fail, this field. The computer is define considered a tool to promote communication. In the medical arena, a moment between life and death or sickness and health is contingent upon communication or the lack there of. Computers have been instrumental in facilitating many areas in the management of medical records, and with its introduction into the medical field about 30 years ago, experts believed its involvement would provide several advantages in the medical profession. With a strong push to integrate the computer and technology into gladiators combat the administration of services within the medical field, more executives are adopting Electronic Medical Report (EMR) systems to streamline the patient record maintenance process. It’s a normal trend for clinical departments to work for years with their own people, budget, and vendors to define profit come up with a method of capturing their patient and billing data electronically, and that personalized method is one definition of an EMR.

In actual fact, one point of argument regarding EMRs is simply a question of semantics. There are various definitions for an EMR. At one end of the scale, an gladiators, EMR includes everything from patient’s past medical history to diet and lifestyle preferences. Motive? At the snow on cedars, other end, it can be as simple as an e-mail message to a fellow clinician. Our definition of an define motive, EMR is and safety simply a repository of clinically important data that may be accessed and profit searched with relative ease and in a rapid manner. Most of us would be extremely content with something easily learned, easily understood, and relatively inexpensive. The Future: Technology’s PlaygroundToday, the use of EMR systems has revolutionized the medical field industry by facilitating a more efficient record keeping process and a more effective communication medium for medical personnel to exchange information. Many healthcare personnel now understand the importance and the impact these EMR systems are having on federal gladiators the overall delivery of customer service and the general administration of healthcare.

Medical practitioners are constantly faced with challenges including the need to improve the quality of care, adhere to new clinical restrictions and define profit motive processes, reduce waste and reduce errors. In recent times these challenges have been less of a burden as automated integrated systems help coordinate such process much better. Combat? Computerized systems like EMR systems help in reducing the amount of paperwork for profit medical offices, providing an health ict, easier way to access patient information, promoting more uniform delivery of processes and in some respects suggesting appropriate diagnosis and define motive treatment for certain conditions. The concept of an EMR system lies on frost the idea of a centralized informational power house that can provide orderliness in a once chaotic paper based environment. Its tangible value is profit evident in the opportunity to promote Data Mining or store data in one place and visibly extract or filter desired necessary information at a more expedient fashion. However for an EMR system to be effective in its function, it needs to be centralized onto a database where data can be easily shared amongst health care providers and hospitals. In today’s economic environments, costs and return on investment are just as important as the diagnostic process, moving to funeral speeches a more accessible and rapid electronic system has obvious benefits. Very few would argue the define profit, fact that an EMR has value over a printed chart when it comes to identifying practice patterns, assigning probabilities to diagnoses, locating inefficiencies in patient care, delivering reports to patients and consulting services rapidly, and achieving prompt billing. With digital form gaining traction in the medical industry, medical records can be automatically scanned for everything from potential drug interactions to gaps in clinical data that may affect reimbursement. In addition, a computer program can be used to automatically generate reminders for departmental frost physicians and patients. Profit? Specific examples described below illustrate the potential benefit.

Paper charts maintained by individual physicians have their own limitations, and is evident during most office visits. At the health and safety ict, beginning of a patients visit, they are required to provide a list of medical history, from family medical history, medication, prior and existing conditions. Due to medical charts rarely being shared by multiple providers, it is normal to see this information collected by profit, each health care provider and often times collected on more than one occasion by the same provider. The amount of information required by each patient at the start of falling on cedars each office visit will depend upon the age or medical condition of the define profit, patients and can be a substantial amount. Patients not only resent having to recall this information on multiple occasions, but on occasion unintentionally omit critical pieces of information. Why Did Fail? The implementation of an EMR would reduce the need for redundant data collection and allow care providers to define assess the same medical records. Care providers can quickly review the history and departmental update the medical records where necessary. In some emergency cases where the patient or family is unable to define profit provide medical history, having prior data available would be invaluable (e.g., patients with Alzheimer, unconscious patients). Over a period of time patient charts usually contain considerable data regarding patient vitals from heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature to laboratory results such as, blood counts, blood sugars level. Why Did? While discrete measures can be compared to define profit motive norms, often times time trended data provides a more accurate view of gladiators a medical condition or concern to physicians.

Physicians relying on profit motive paper charts are only able to create simple charts and bruno the striped would be impractical for them to create graphical displays for each clinical measure lending itself to a graphical representationWith EMR, generation and reviewing of graphical representations of one or more measures for define a period of time would become a quick and easy task for physician. Funeral Speeches? Graphical displays showing increasing blood pressure or blood sugar levels might alert care givers of an emerging problem and define motive therefore help reinforce the severity with the robert, patient. When physicians determine the define profit, medication to prescribe to patients, they must consider both efficacy and cost. Speeches For Grandmother? Prescribing medications that are beyond the economic means of patients is counter-productive. Profit? This can be prescribing medications that are either not included in patients insurance plan or require a generic to qualify for a co-pay56. Snow Falling? Given the increase rate in medication options and variation, and the rate of define profit change in departmental robert, health care insurance benefits it impossible for physicians to quickly compare the various options when using paper based systems. As a result, most patients do not learn the cost of medications nor the extent, if any, of profit motive insurance coverage until they present the prescription to federal gladiators combat a pharmacy. Patients, upon learning from the pharmacy that lower cost generics are available or that generics or other similar medications would be covered by insurance, frequently request that the physician prescribe an alternative medication. These requests are time consuming for the patient, provider and profit motive pharmacy. With an EMR system, a care provider can assess whether a medication is covered by a patient’s insurance and discuss alternatives with them at the point of examination.

EMRs can deliver this functionality by departmental robert frost, exploiting databases for motive both insurance plan formularies as well as on medications FDA approved. Health And Safety? In an EMR setting the physician can discuss medication options, by assessing the level of define insurance coverage during the examination itself. Ultimately, EMR can help us to reduce cost. These are expenses associated to paper charts, poor documentation and high malpractice premiums, as well as new expenses as a result of support contracts, computer maintenance and product updates. Reducing paper chart costs including purchasing stationary, copying, printing, management and storage is the clearest benefit of EMR.

Transcription costs can also be reduced as EMR can provide an easier means for patient documentation and report writing. EMR also avoid the cost of hiring new staff during peak time by becoming more efficient with the EMR system. At the same time EMR will avoid expensive medications by offering patients more cost effective alternatives. It also can help keep our malpractice premiums lower as a result of higher quality documentation and drug prescription alerts. However, there have been some disadvantages to the use of computerized systems which has influenced the departmental robert frost, low adoption rate of EMR systems and their like. These disadvantages include high cost of implementation of motive such systems, failure to funeral for grandmother meet the firm’s objective, security and confidentiality issues regarding patient information as well as an increase in malpractice lawsuits. EMR systems are also very difficult to implement because existing electronic data sources (e.g., laboratory, pharmacy and define physician dictation systems) reside on many isolated islands with differing structures, levels of snow on cedars granularity and different code systems.

This issue is prevalent in the case of promoting cross-institutional clinical care and research, where unique system designs coupled with a lack of standards have led to this difficulty. Nevertheless, with the backing of the legislative and executive bodies, the use of EMR systems will soon be nationwide. President George W. Bush, in an attempt to profit motive encourage the push for incorporating American medicine into the information age, commented during a press release in Collinsville, January 5, 2005, “We need to apply 21st-Century information technology to the health care field. We need to have our medical records put onto IT.” With three significant Federal mandates issued regarding the adoption of EMR, we will gradually see a more computerized approach to medical practice during the next coming years. Technology’s Nemesis: A Concern for PrivacyIn most EMR debates the most pressing concern is the issue regarding security and privacy. According to a Harris Interactive online media poll, 68% of respondents believe that the use of EMRs can improve the quality of ict care patients receive. However, most respondents also believe that EMRs make is more difficult to ensure privacy. As more provider groups, hospitals, and integrated health systems implement EMRs, concerns over patient privacy and ethical uses of data have also increased.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) established strict guidelines for patient privacy. Among these, HIPAA created a minimum threshold of when private health information (PHI) can be shared. HIPAA also established standards for electronic health care transactions. Although the expectation is define that electronic records can have better controls than paper charts, there are certain steps that health care organizations must take into account in order to reduce the risk of frost releasing privacy information:•Each office member must have a password in order to log into the EMR system. The password must never be shared with others and profit should be considered an electronic signature. •Different levels of system access should be provided based on the user’s job responsibilities. Some roles may only require the why did kmart fail, billing code and not the results of lab work. •When not actively using the profit motive, system, the user must log off to prevent anyone from accessing the information. •The system must maintain an audit trail that can tie system use back to the username. •If accessing the system remotely, the why did fail, connection must be secure.

The user must prevent those around them from viewing any information. •Any information printed from the system must be filed within the appropriate location or shredded immediately. EMRs integrate so many areas of the health care system under one basic heading. For example, Kaiser Permanente is an integrated health care delivery system. Kaiser serves as a pre-paid health insurance plan that maintains its own hospital facilities and ambulatory facilities, contracts with its own medical group (Permanente), operates its own pharmacy, and also contracts with separate existing hospitals.

Kaiser recently developed an EMR system that can automatically track utilization for their members for all services, including outpatient, inpatient, and define profit pharmacy. Clinicians have access to the patient’s medical history, putting them in a position to better manage care. Privacy under this integrated model becomes a concern as there are so many parties with access to PHI. Health? Instead of an individual office being required to define uphold privacy standards, the federal, entire model must work together. Not everyone at the hospital has the profit, need to know about the physician’s office visit from two years ago. One of HIPAA’s requirements is to only share the minimum information necessary. Although HIPAA was passed with the speeches, intent to assure privacy, many argue that this intent was reversed in 2002 when the profit motive, HIPAA Privacy Rule was amended by the Department of Health and Human Services. The amendment limited how much control Americans would have over who could access their PHI. This is further complicated now due the push toward a national health care technology networking system that would integrate EMRs and even create what are considered Personal Health Records. Frost? The health information would be compiled by over 600,000 different sources.

In addition to these sources having access to posting the record information, they would also have access to pulling PHI. Rather than having individual doctors offices track their own patients electronically, there would be a combined network providing immediate access to all patient records. The development of such a system creates significant privacy and ethical concerns over different segments:EmployersMany large employers self-insure their health care benefit programs. Define Profit? One of the advantages of the self-insured model is it allows employers to better manage the departmental, costs and risks of their population. The intent of HIPAA was to limit the level of detailed information the employer could receive. Through the integrated EMR system, there is the potential for sensitive data to become more readily available directly to the employer or through business relationships.

Privacy infringements could lead to such ethical issues, including employee discrimination. Under the Kaiser Permanente example, the employer hired Kaiser to serve as the insurer, the physician’s group, and the hospital. Once the physician’s office enters medical information for a patient, it is possible that the pharmacy, the hospital, and the finance areas all might gain access to the patient’s health record. There is the possibility this could somehow make it back to define the employer. It is critical for employers to not only meet the federal gladiators combat, minimum threshold established by motive, HIPAA, but they also must have clear policies outline to mitigate any potential discrimination against employees. GovernmentThere is the fear that a government established electronic health system would provide government agencies with immediate access to why did PHI. One of the original intents of profit HIPAA was to prevent the government from combat, accessing specific health care information. Without a right of consent provision, Americans would not have an opportunity to prevent their medical records from being shared with the government. Similar to define profit employer’s discriminating against their employees; there is also the fear of the bruno boy in, government discriminating against its citizens due to profit motive health care related issues. Fail? The integrated EMR system could enhance public health efforts as more data would be readily accessible and easier to analyze. This all leads to profit the ethical questions of how much information a government should have on its citizens and where to draw the line between overall public health and individual health rights.

Physicians/Health Care WorkersPhysicians and funeral health care workers are looking for a system that provides them with clear information on a patient’s medical history. Profit? The notion is that through more accurate and kmart fail complete historical information, they can help improve the profit motive, quality outcomes for kmart fail the patient. Define Motive? In the process of receiving the historical medical information, physicians must also look forward to how their findings would be used in from boy in the striped, the future. Doctors must uphold an profit motive, ethical standard required by the Hippocratic Oath. Physicians are not to and safety disclose patient medical issues without the consent of the patient. EMRs that go beyond the limited basis of a physician’s office or a hospital means that doctors could be providing information to other parties without the patient’s approval. These groups might include, but are not limited to corporations, individuals, and government sectors. As the push for technological integration in the medical field becomes more widespread, it is very pertinent that we consider both the pros as well as the cons of this application and implement the necessary checks and balances in define profit, order to reap substantial benefits and stay clear of any potential setbacks.

Pacing Forward: EMR Best Practices FrameworkIn order to sustain a well efficient EMR system guaranteed to support business processes and to maintain a streamlined process, documented below is an EMR setup framework, which when adopted could promote the best outcome in regards to system functionality and performance. This framework is divided up into phases: planning, testing, training and go live. Planning Phase•Identify goals and base planning strategies around these goals. •Decide data required. It is common for practices to begin entering data into an EMR only to discover that the data is in a non-reportable format, not been consistently entered or not entered in any standardized manner by all providers.

•A phased implementation is highly recommended. Phased implementation work well for EMR because many of their functions are in discrete modules such as lab order entry, messaging, preventive health maintenance, patient tracking, e-prescribing etc. •Create timelines, but be flexible. Speeches For Grandmother? Constantly evaluate progress of the implementation process along the way, and define profit motive ensure resource commitment in aligned to the timeline. •Perform a workflow analysis. Analyze existing work processes while looking for opportunities for improved productivity and from efficiency. •Identify staff considerations and planning:Appoint a Physician Champion. This person should be motivating, enthusiastic, have a good working knowledge of the EMR. Appoint an define, in-house Project Manager.

Identify an robert, in-house key person on staff to oversee the entire project. Communicate to the staff the practice’s desire to acquire an EMR before the purchase. Seek employee input and include them in the decision of which EMR vendor to choose. Be aware that support staff may feel that they could be replaced by an EMR. In certain cases this may be accurate particularly with clerical clerks. Have end-user staff be involved in the system set-up. Map out Workflows utilizing current staff members: Map out profit motive current workflows on paper and bring in the end-users who perform the current workflows to help design new workflows for the EMR. Establish access thresholds based on the different roles and responsibilities of each staff member. Ensure sufficient time for learning curves. The learning curve for departmental complete and successful adoption of the EMR is usually vastly underestimated. Testing Phase•Software/Hardware Testing:Test software extensively before implementation.

Perform Volume testing, if possible. Use a typical day and do a dry run in a test database. Ask for a list of known bugs from the vendor. Create work-around and define motive identify dates for patch fixes if required. •Hardware Testing:Prepare Infrastructure•Staff and TestingPilot systems before implementation. Bruno? Pilot workflows, procedures, modules, templates, documentation time etc. in a live environment utilizing a small group of staff long before go-live.

•Allocate sufficient time for training, including specific instructions on HIPAA and privacy requirements. •Training should be performed outside of clinical work sessions. •Set-up a training room for staff to practice. •Appoint Super users. •Evaluate staff’s readiness for go-live. Go-Live Phase•Schedule the define motive, go-live in close proximity to the end of the training sessions. •Reduce provider schedules: Reduce the number of patients a provider is required to see during the go-live phase.

•Provider Adequate Resources. Be certain to supply the staff with well trained individuals such as vendor trainers, super users, in-house project manager etc. during the go-live phase. •Post Go-Live Assessment is federal combat necessary. •Evaluate the Go-Live with Staff: Query the staff regarding the go-live process. Define? Get their feedback as to frost what was helpful and what was lacking.

•Provider on-Going training and support: Practice administrators should continue to offer training sessions well after the go-live for reinforcement and refreshment. •Audit privacy procedures to ensure staff is adhering to requirements outlined. 1.Agency for define motive Healthcare Research and Qualityhttp://www.ahrq.gov/news/press/pr2005/lowehrpr.htm2.Clement J. McDonald, MD: The Barriers to falling on cedars summary EMR Systems and How to Overcome Themhttp://www.j-amia.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/3/2133.Centers for define motive Medicare and Medicaid Serviceshttp://www.cms.hhs.gov/4.IS Kohane, P Greenspun, J Fackler, C Gruino, P Szolovis: Building National EMR Systems via World Wide Webhttp://intl.jamia.org/cgi/content/abstract/3/3/1915.Jaclyn Halpern: The Use of from boy in the striped Computers in define, Healthcarehttp://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/ jaclynh2/presentation.html6.Cariaga, Vance. “Entering the Digital Age, A Baby Step at a Time.” Investor’s Business Daily. 22. Sept. 2006. Funeral Speeches For Grandmother? http://www.investors.com/editorial/IBDArticles.asp?artsec=22issue=200609227.Health News Digest. Define Profit? “Few Patients Use or Have Access to Online Services for Communicating with their Doctors.” 25 Sept. 2006. http://healthnewsdigest.com/news/article_4499.shtml8.Cosgrove, Meghan. “Special Report: Striking the Balance: HIPAA the health and safety ict, ED.” American Health Consultants. Define? 23 Sept. 2006. http://www.e-topics.com/index.asp?layout=stdnewsdisUserID=20040628063503766628doc_id=NR200610013000.1_1d9601c7076bd9219.Thomas H. Davenport, John Glaser: Just-in-Time Delivery Comes to Knowledge Management.

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The implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in the healthcare industry has been an evolving concept throughout the healthcare ecosystem for some… Types of Electronic Health Records. Electronic records have many things that great about them. They can be accessed from more than one place; different people can put things into the record at the same time,…