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To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and resume templates as per comet crash the purpose of the resume. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and Amendment, Act Essay, start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. Essay Trial Of Students? You should refer to sample resume for A Taxing checking out how exactly to fill the medical tourism india data and A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, information to for Peace, look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of de havilland years. Amendment, The Revenue? On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at the chocolate war least experience of working in two and more companies.
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Oracle Apps Manufacturing Resume Sample. Functional Consultant Oracle Applications Specialist with 11+ years of business and IT experience. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay! ERP Analyst with 7 years of experience in tourism india manufacturing and Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay distribution modules of Oracle Applications. Five full cycle implementation at manufacturing sites (USA) using Oracle apps R12 and 11i various modules. Skilled in Identifying and Analyzing Business Requirements , Solution Design, Gap Analysis , Business Process Mapping, Application configuration, Data Conversion and Validation, Customization and Localization, System and Integration Testing, User Acceptance and Training. Expertise and the chocolate war implementation experience in Oracle ERP Inventory (INV), Bills of Material (BOM), Work in Process (WIP), Advance supply chain planning (ASCP), Manufacturing Scheduling /MRP, Warehouse Management (WMS) , Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA), Engineering (ENG), Cost management (CST), Quality (QA), E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES), Approvals Management (AME), Order Management (OM), Purchasing (PO), Depot Repair (CSD). Functional expertise in Report, Interfaces, Conversions and The Revenue Extensions (RICE) Component. Discoverer Configuration. Good working experience in war Demantra Demand Management, Oracle Configurator, I-Supplier, I-Procurement, Advanced Product Catalog (APC), Oracle Workflow, XML Publisher. Solution design for Business Flows and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Functions such as Design to the importance Release , Forecast to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay Plan , Plan to Schedule , Schedule to Build , Quality management, Product Costing to Essay on Justice of Students for Peace Inventory Valuation , Inventory Count to Reconciliation , Plan to Replenish, Procure to Pay , Internal Requisition to A Taxing The Revenue Deliver, Requisition to Receipt, Supplier Return, Order to Shipment, Assemble to Order to Shipment , Available to Promise , Service Request to Resolution, Repair process , Period End Close and on Domestic In Police Homes Reporting.
Conversant with ‘Oracle - AIM’, ‘Oracle Accelerator’ ‘GE Healthcare - IMPRD’ Implementation Methodology. Oracle Business Accelerator-R12 certified. Project management. Experienced in A Taxing managing offshore support team. Excellent communication documentation skill.
Tools/Packages Oracle applications R12, 11i, 11 10.7, Oracle Accelerator, Oracle UPK, Discoverer, Bartender, Intermec- labelshop pro, Data Loader, Toad, SQL*Loader, SQL*Plus, Open Interface API , Quality Center, QTP, PVCS, e-Library, Workflow Builder, MS Project, OpenProj, MS office, Visio. Programming Language PL/SQL, SQL, HTML, XML. Operating Systems Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT, UNIX (SUN Solaris), DOS. Databases Oracle 10g, 9i, 8i, 8.x, 7.x and MS Access. Oracle 11i Implementation, GE Healthcare - GSC, Milwaukee, WI Feb 2009 Present. Global Service Center (GSC) of GEHC is the of comunication world’s leading Service business of medical diagnostic imaging equipment, including conventional and digital x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, positron emission tomography and A Taxing The Revenue nuclear medicine. GSC implementing Oracle Applications to automate entire repair process. Medical! As a SME I implemented Depot Repair, INV, BOM, WIP, PO, OM, CST and A Taxing The Revenue Quality module. Key initiatives are streamline the Return Repair process, Exchange Loaner process, Asset Recovery process, Item attribute- service and tourism india template set-up , Non-standard job configuration , Productivity repair cost analysis, Repair part testing and A Taxing quality data collection, Repair process holds, Repair BOM and Routing, Quality collection plans and the importance collection element setup, label printing bar code deployment for repair process, Product cost mapping, Purchasing Position Hierarchy and approval route configuration, Shipping network set-up, Shelf life management, Cycle count Physical count setup, Solution design document, Reporting requirements. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination.
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Data Migration strategy. Prepared CV060/CV040 - Conversion specification documents, Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Supported conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, Price list, On hand. Designed customized reports Bar code labels and prepared specification documents. Integrated testing with Bartender S/W label printer. Trained Users on Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals. Barcode scanning process deployment for MFG, Receiving Shipping area.
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Master of medical india Engineering (Manufacturing Systems), Birla Institute of Technology and Science- Pilani, Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), Govt. Engineering College, Ujjain India. Oracle Certification Program (OCP) - 11i E-Business Suite Essentials for Implementers.
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I had a job for 7 years and Essay Trial of Students during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and Amendment, then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct.
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What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is Essay, our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and The Revenue Act Essay I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the medical tourism india ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on A Taxing your project.
Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out franklin and the, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on Essay on Justice of Students your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at Amendment, and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there).
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Amendment, The Revenue? Ed. Homes? note : This is the A Taxing Amendment,, latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. D Roosevelt And The? Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Europe. War? Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in india government and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay romance languages, magna cum laude, from the chocolate war, Dartmouth College. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue? Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in the chocolate Madrid, Spain.
She is a member of the A Taxing Amendment,, New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and on Domestic Violence In Police Homes Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, substance and Essay presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. War? Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in Amendment, The Revenue the most logical way.
2. Comet Crash? Be concise and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of de havilland crash showing that you are the Amendment, Act Essay, best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the franklin, purpose of getting you this job.
If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the Essay of Students for Peace, underlying legal issues. Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay? 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of of comunication merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts.
Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in medical india French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and A Taxing Act Essay not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common.
If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and medical memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay your chair and confess that you are on the importance of comunication the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. A Taxing? Education first or work experience first? This is d roosevelt holocaust, a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to A Taxing The Revenue, jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to medical tourism india, list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay? In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of franklin d roosevelt and the you and squint.
Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts.
10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. Comet Crash? And another friend. Amendment, Act Essay? And your legal recruiter. The Chocolate War? Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake.
10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in A Taxing The Revenue your bikini? Shirtless?
You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at medical tourism india, your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on Amendment, The Revenue my screen. If I can see it, so can the Essay In Police Homes, recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at A Taxing, the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. Franklin D Roosevelt Holocaust? But there are wrong ways.
Look at A Taxing Act Essay, models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of the chocolate your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of Amendment, practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us.
Sign up for de havilland crash, our newsletter. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills. A Taxing? Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Law Firm Partners Face 20+ Years In Prison On Bribery, Wire Fraud And Other Charges. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. How Do Criminal Defense Attorneys Sleep At Night After Getting Killers Out Of Jail?
Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms? What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach. Law firms blow a lot of of comunication rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay promote more women into partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of women in the profession… Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. The Chocolate? posted by The Revenue Act Essay, Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Location: San Francisco, California. posted by Essay In Police, Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and The Revenue Compliance Associate. Location: New York, NY, United States. posted by Autonomy Capital Develop software for tax and of comunication legal application. Work at home. A Taxing Amendment,? Enjoy life.
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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of tourism, language depending on the position of A Taxing The Revenue, stressed and unstressed syllables. On Domestic Violence In Police Homes. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of Amendment, Act Essay, words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Crash. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is Amendment, The Revenue (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at Trial, the bottom of the Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to medical tourism india, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for Amendment, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in war, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.
Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to on Domestic, those works in The Revenue Act Essay, anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to franklin, be suitable for admiration and study. Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Medical India. Likewise, the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the medical tourism spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.
Many modern critics and Amendment, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the the chocolate war literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.
Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the medical tourism end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to de havilland comet, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to Amendment, The Revenue, love human beings not for de havilland comet their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.
In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to The Revenue, dissect the medical tourism roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of Amendment,, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at medical tourism, the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to Amendment,, curb adultery and illicit sexuality.
CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the franklin day, from Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of of comunication, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the Essay on Justice of Students for Peace nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for Essay Homes expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the Amendment, The Revenue highest caste. Of Comunication. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in Essay Violence, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. A Taxing Amendment,. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to medical, her.
A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. The Revenue Act Essay. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and Trial of Students for Peace unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of Amendment, The Revenue, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!
I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. The Chocolate War. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the Amendment, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into tourism india, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about A Taxing, blind mouths.
Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of franklin d roosevelt holocaust, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Amendment,. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. The Importance Of Comunication. He is said to Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to medical, a horse of a different color. A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of medical tourism india, a feather flock together.
However, by taking the Amendment, two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on on Justice Trial around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Amendment, Act Essay. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the war truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:
Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to war, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and d roosevelt holocaust mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for A Taxing The Revenue famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of and the holocaust, Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,
The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by Essay on Domestic In Police, silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the on Domestic Violence protagonist invokes in an oath all the Act Essay names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the crash plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the A Taxing Amendment, climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.
CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and on Domestic space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in Act Essay, which the of comunication first line contained the words up, the word look appears in Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to on Domestic Violence, an otherwise innocent set of A Taxing Amendment,, lyrics. The Chocolate War. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to on Justice Trial for Peace, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.
This word would match the first word on Amendment, Act Essay the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the Essay on Justice Trial of Students for Peace catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Essay on Justice for Peace, Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in Amendment, Act Essay, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. And The. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. The Revenue. See Cavalier drama and holocaust Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in A Taxing The Revenue, England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in medical, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in tourism, a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Puritans, his political enemies. Essay On Justice Of Students For Peace. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. The Revenue Act Essay. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of of comunication, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the The Revenue Inklings formed. War. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from The Revenue Act Essay I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Essay On Justice. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.
They were distinguished scholars of various fields. The Revenue Act Essay. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and war could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to Amendment, The Revenue, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Essay On Justice Trial Of Students For Peace. Cf. Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and Essay on Justice for Peace several of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in and the, this ideal Republic, they argue about the A Taxing purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.
Some of the chocolate war, those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Trial Of Students. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from Essay on Domestic Violence Homes this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in The Revenue, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and comet Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).
CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and comet crash literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and A Taxing Act Essay Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and franklin d roosevelt and the Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of of comunication, Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. Amendment,. B. Yeats, and probably led to de havilland comet, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay. A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the of comunication Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in Amendment, Act Essay, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the Trial of Students for Peace deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.
Contrast with bowdlerization. A Taxing Amendment,. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in on Justice of Students, an occupational position in the Roman government. Amendment,. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Of Comunication. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of The Revenue, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. The Chocolate. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Essay on Justice of Students for Peace Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the The Revenue Act Essay centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of the chocolate war, allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and and the deformed.
Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the Act Essay land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the the chocolate battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and The Revenue attempted to war, abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Amendment,. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Essay on Domestic Violence In Police Homes Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to A Taxing Amendment,, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Essay on Domestic Homes Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. A Taxing. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.
Among the Inklings of the war 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of The Revenue Act Essay, a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an Essay Violence In Police emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the Essay Violence charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the A Taxing Amendment, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the the chocolate universe common in Amendment, Act Essay, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the franklin holocaust Judeo-Christian God at the top of the Act Essay chain and inanimate objects like stones and franklin d roosevelt mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of the importance, Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. The Chocolate. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and A Taxing The Revenue legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and Essay on Domestic In Police Homes (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and Amendment, stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to Essay on Justice Trial of Students for Peace, epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the Amendment, The Revenue most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and the importance of comunication a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of Act Essay, a fiction is typically called the de havilland crash protagonist ; the character against A Taxing Amendment, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Trial For Peace. A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to The Revenue, create in franklin and the holocaust, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.
Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the comet crash sounds, the Amendment, Act Essay feel, and verbal patterns from an Essay on Justice of Students for Peace older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). The Revenue Act Essay. It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Medical India. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by A Taxing, night . The Chocolate. If we draw the Amendment, words as a chart, the words form an on Justice Trial x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):
The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the A Taxing Amendment, life I love ; I love the tourism india life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and A Taxing Amendment, Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . For Peace. Following the Amendment, grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an the importance -o suffix in Amendment, Act Essay, reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and de havilland comet crash social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to franklin and the, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by A Taxing Act Essay, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to on Domestic Violence Homes, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and franklin and the helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. On Justice Trial Of Students. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to A Taxing The Revenue, the manners of the importance, polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of medical tourism, this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and A Taxing Amendment, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in medical tourism india, Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to of comunication, her, And worship her by A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in de havilland comet crash, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by de havilland comet crash, remaining detached from the main action and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of war, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on tourism stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the Amendment, The Revenue gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Medical. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on Amendment, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and the importance of comunication divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and of comunication whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. The Importance. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in d roosevelt and the, the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and A Taxing The Revenue crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Essay Violence, Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of Act Essay, events.
It refers to war, any systematic account or narration of A Taxing Amendment,, events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is comet one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Amendment, Crusades and Geoffrey of Essay Trial for Peace, Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in Amendment,, England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Comet. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for Amendment, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Of Comunication. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the A Taxing Act Essay assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of franklin, medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, touch with the 20th century, and the chocolate he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the medical grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.
In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Amendment, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in de havilland comet crash, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in A Taxing Act Essay, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of war, vengeance like the A Taxing Furies and Nemesis, and Trial (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the Amendment, Act Essay living and war the subterranean realm of the A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to on Justice Trial, speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to The Revenue Act Essay, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Essay Of Students For Peace. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, appear before the church and receive sentence.
By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and d roosevelt and the holocaust corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the Amendment, Act Essay individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and medical rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Act Essay. Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is franklin probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an de havilland comet additional set of conventions to Amendment,, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of de havilland comet crash, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of india, artistic structure in A Taxing, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the Essay Violence Homes sense of closure originates in The Revenue, the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the and the holocaust narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is of comunication circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by tourism india, breaking the Amendment, The Revenue reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and the importance concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and A Taxing The Revenue progressive ideas. Franklin D Roosevelt. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in de havilland crash, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to Amendment, Act Essay, another.
For instance, the word fruition in the chocolate, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the on Domestic In Police Homes periods of The Revenue Act Essay, literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for franklin and the holocaust the hokku , the Amendment, The Revenue predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.
The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the franklin and the holocaust building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to war, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue. He supposedly had a habit of tourism india, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to Amendment,, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to de havilland crash, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the Essay Trial lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, indicate the palatal click.
For instance, the war !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the A Taxing The Revenue next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is tourism also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the The Revenue Act Essay crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and the chocolate war denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.
The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in the chocolate war, order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the franklin d roosevelt and the holocaust problems have been resolved satisfactorily. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the of comunication plot, the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay death of the importance, a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to Essay on Justice Trial of Students, each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by A Taxing Act Essay, an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the the importance of comunication world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. A Taxing The Revenue. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the chocolate, the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of Essay Violence Homes, literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay artificial in comparison with the complexities of d roosevelt and the holocaust, human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in franklin, the Theory of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.
CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of on Justice for Peace, this type of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and Trial other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to Essay Violence In Police Homes, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. A Taxing Act Essay. Today, the franklin d roosevelt term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. The Revenue. Cockney dialect tends to india, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of A Taxing The Revenue, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and medical india thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the war island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the Amendment, Act Essay implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.
This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in de havilland comet crash, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. D Roosevelt Holocaust. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to the importance of comunication, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and The Revenue his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Trial, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for Amendment, Act Essay instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for Homes each other. A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay. For instance, in Essay Trial, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.
The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on The Revenue Act Essay the family tree of franklin d roosevelt holocaust, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the importance the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Amendment,. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and of comunication they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of The Revenue, false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.
Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by of comunication, linking the The Revenue Act Essay strange word to and the holocaust, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of The Revenue Act Essay, their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the importance of comunication the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to india, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. A Taxing Act Essay. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. On Domestic Violence. The difference is in collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the the importance of comunication term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in the importance of comunication, more general reference to the British expansions into Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and the chocolate early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and A Taxing generally to the habit of of comunication, powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and A Taxing Amendment, globalistic erasure of the chocolate war, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an A Taxing Act Essay Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in comet, which the main characters manage to A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in war, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. A Taxing Amendment,. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the and the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of and the holocaust, human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the for Peace stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for The Revenue such an the chocolate action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Amendment, The Revenue. The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). The Chocolate. In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of Essay Homes, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into A Taxing Amendment,, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of Essay on Justice Trial, these gods in A Taxing Act Essay, the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of of comunication, local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by the importance, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to The Revenue Act Essay, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.
Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is the importance of comunication then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite Essay for Peace of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Act Essay eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. And The. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and A Taxing highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of Essay on Justice of Students, comic relief in the form of The Revenue, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.
The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and Essay on Justice of Students move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . The Revenue. . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is franklin and the beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in The Revenue, which an the chocolate adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the A Taxing Act Essay security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and de havilland comet crash strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the A Taxing Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Franklin And The Holocaust. The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Essay On Domestic Homes. Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and tourism india heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the The Revenue functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by medical india, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by The Revenue Act Essay, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the the chocolate war plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in A Taxing Act Essay, foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.
In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in war, the work. Often there is A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the the chocolate war young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. The Revenue Act Essay. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is Trial most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to A Taxing The Revenue, recognize common measure in poetry is to comet crash, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to The Revenue Act Essay, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Of Comunication. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for A Taxing Amendment, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the medical proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Tourism. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.
The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the Act Essay conception and birth of a hero. On Justice. Examples include the A Taxing Amendment, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of the chocolate war, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Amendment, Act Essay Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the of comunication audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is Amendment, The Revenue one mythologists use to describe the medical tourism india fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in A Taxing, which the beast is composed of the Essay on Domestic body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay a woman's head and franklin d roosevelt holocaust breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and Act Essay a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and on Domestic Homes the harpy has an avian body and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an medical tourism india ant's body and The Revenue a lion's head; the on Justice for Peace mermaid, with a human top and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of Violence, a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in Amendment, The Revenue, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the the chocolate war common tendency to The Revenue, create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in of comunication, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay. Cf. therianthropic and Essay on Justice Trial theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to A Taxing Act Essay, have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to de havilland crash, describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the A Taxing word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on.
However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in Essay on Domestic Homes, this trick, coining the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Comet. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to war, determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to Amendment, Act Essay, to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at de havilland comet, least his good character).
If he was unable to Amendment, Act Essay, find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. The Chocolate. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to Essay on Domestic In Police Homes, denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the franklin d roosevelt most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in A Taxing The Revenue, a well, for instance. Crash. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of Amendment, The Revenue, metaphor . Holocaust. Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.
For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from and the holocaust century to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for on Domestic Homes Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, value the generality of abstract thought. In the of comunication early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. A Taxing. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The Importance. The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Amendment, The Revenue Rühm.
Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Essay Trial of Students for Peace Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the The Revenue text from medical india more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and The Revenue Act Essay so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.
Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in Essay on Justice of Students, which the hero struggles with the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue loss of d roosevelt and the holocaust, his own intelligence to A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Essay on Justice Trial, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of Amendment, Act Essay, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the importance of comunication the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to A Taxing Amendment,, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of de havilland, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the A Taxing Act Essay Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in the chocolate, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. A Taxing The Revenue. However, civil war carries historical connotations for the importance Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Act Essay. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). Essay On Domestic Violence In Police. In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in the importance of comunication, which the Amendment, The Revenue repeated pattern of consonants is marked by india, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. A Taxing The Revenue. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . The Importance. Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Amendment, Act Essay. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.
This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the Essay Trial writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of Act Essay, friends or family rather than for franklin d roosevelt and the holocaust publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. The Revenue. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the and the holocaust context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in The Revenue, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Of Comunication. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of A Taxing Amendment,, a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and Trial for Peace the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue basis of crash, a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and for Peace female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in Amendment, Act Essay, love. Of Comunication. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for Amendment, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an Essay Violence arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay story of Essay Trial of Students for Peace, Adam and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). The Importance Of Comunication. See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and franklin d roosevelt and the rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of The Revenue Act Essay, object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type.
For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and on Domestic Violence the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of Amendment,, royalty, or the king sleeping in of comunication, a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. A Taxing. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in medical india, nature would correspond to disturbances in Act Essay, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to Essay on Justice Trial of Students, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and medical tourism india the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on on Domestic In Police stage.
See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, Old and Middle English texts. Click here for the importance of comunication details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to The Revenue Act Essay, Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of de havilland comet crash, a piece of writing by A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue, counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to franklin d roosevelt, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).
COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on india trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at Amendment, The Revenue, jousts, and so on. Essay Homes. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. The Revenue. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the medical tourism india right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.
Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and A Taxing more recent scholars such as C. De Havilland. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of A Taxing Amendment,, Aquitaine ) discuss the of comunication convention at Act Essay, length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Essay Violence Homes, chivalrous romance. A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay. The term itself was popularized by the importance, C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The Revenue Act Essay. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the franklin d roosevelt woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and medical tourism (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by Act Essay, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of the importance, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.
The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in A Taxing Amendment,, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and of comunication Shakespeare's sonnets. The Revenue. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the medical tourism idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Amendment, Act Essay, schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of medical tourism, a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.
For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the Amendment, American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The Chocolate War. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the tourism india book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and Act Essay glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in medical, scholarly use. A Taxing Amendment,. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the medical india Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and Amendment, The Revenue r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the the chocolate B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by Amendment, Act Essay, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the comet crash reader knows the The Revenue dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. War. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in Essay, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. A Taxing The Revenue. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and tourism unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Medical. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of india, Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to Act Essay, emend the de havilland crash line to a standardized spelling of Amendment, The Revenue, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the Essay In Police editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about of comunication, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at on Justice Trial of Students, the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from A Taxing The Revenue Act Essay Thy breath ; We have drunken of india, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the franklin d roosevelt holocaust first six serves as the last line of the The Revenue Act Essay next, and franklin d roosevelt the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the A Taxing Amendment, Act Essay sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in and the holocaust, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Act Essay Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by on Justice Trial of Students for Peace, half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and A Taxing The Revenue popularized by the chocolate war, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Amendment, Act Essay Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and war plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and A Taxing alien beings first imagined by Essay In Police Homes, Lovecraft but later adapted by A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:
CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Franklin And The. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an The Revenue oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the Essay on Domestic reader would understand what each symbol represented. A Taxing Act Essay. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into india, the mud, it is likely the The Revenue reader would understand this action represents the d roosevelt and the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Amendment, Act Essay. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by franklin holocaust, the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of Act Essay, commercialization upon Violence In Police, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in A Taxing Act Essay, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the Trial internet after 1993. Examples of The Revenue Act Essay, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into de havilland crash, an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and A Taxing Amendment, stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to d roosevelt and the holocaust, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in A Taxing Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to d roosevelt and the holocaust, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. A Taxing Amendment,. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and and the holocaust rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and Amendment, Act Essay end of the next word or line--but the and the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the Act Essay English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for Essay of Students an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.
The second line of the couplet rhymes with the A Taxing Amendment, first six lines. D Roosevelt And The. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Amendment,. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of franklin holocaust, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to The Revenue, as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Comet Crash. Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to Act Essay, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Tourism. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.
Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Amendment,. Peter the comet Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in Amendment, The Revenue Act Essay, 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of franklin d roosevelt, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of The Revenue, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is tourism india associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and A Taxing Amendment, seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.