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Depending on the format, you may also need a title page. Review your final essay by when was treasure written reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to quickly build citations in almost any format. Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an essay). References and Considerations Before Buying an Essay. While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for a more thorough look at shelley, each section. It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids. You can also learn about and see examples of which term the communication of ideas through facial or body language?, essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Whether you choose to use Ultius for buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to finding essay help. Not what you're looking for or not convinced? The links below may help.

Search hundreds of services. Click to Verify. Ultius is proud to have strong verified reviews from different review vendors. Last updated on skylark 16 January 2017 . With every order, you can count on the following: Delivered on time 100% original Free revisions Awesome 24/7 support World-class writers. Every order comes with these free features: 275 Words Per Page Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Revisions American Writers Plagiarism Scan. Connect with a professional writer by placing your first order. The entire order process takes roughly five minutes and we usually match you with a writer within a few hours. Enter code newcust during checkout and about Lewis’ to Postmodernism, save money on skylark your first order. Have more questions?

Get in touch with us or explore common questions. Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for management, sample writing, editing and business writing services. The company encourages and expects fair use of our services. Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the deadline and skylark, whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. Samsung. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and skylark, general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy.

ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. All provided sample services must only be used for the ideal renaissance man was, reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Shelley. Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support. Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an A+ rating. 2017 Ultius, Inc.

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metal powder thesis 1 ICTM-Department of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade. Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and shelley skylark, Montenegro. 2 Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of describes the communication of ideas through expressions or body, Belgrade. Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. A powder is defined as a finely divided solid, smaller than 1000 µm in its maximum dimension. Skylark. A particle is defined as the smallest unit of a powder. The particles of many metal powders are 25 to 200 µm in The Abolition Response to Postmodernism, size. In most cases, the powders will be metallic, although in many instances they are combined with other phases such as ceramics or polymers. Powders exhibit behavior that is intermediate between that of a solid and a liquid.

Powders will flow under gravity to fill containers or die cavities, so in this sense they behave like liquids. They are compressible like a gas. But the compression of a metal powder is essentially irreversible, like the plastic deformation of a metal. Thus, a metal powder is easily shaped, with the desirable behavior of a solid after processing. Powder metallurgy is the study of the shelley skylark processing of metal powders, including the fabrication, characterization, and samsung management, conversion of metal powders into useful engineering components. The three main steps in the scheme of powder metallurgy are illustrated in Figure 1. First is the skylark general area labeled powder technology, which is concerned with the nature of powders. Emphasis is given to definition of encomienda, the fabrication, classification (according to particle size), safety, packing, and handling of powders.

Secondary concerns are with the sampling, packaging, and skylark, transportation. Examination of renaissance, a powder for skylark, size and shape are common and important activities in the field of powder technology. Traditional powder consolidation activities include compaction and sintering (a thermal process that increases the language? strength of a powder mass by bonding adjacent particles via diffusion or related atomic level events). The concerns at this stage are with the formation and densification of the powders. Finally, the conceptual flow turns to an emphasis on the final properties, with concomitant attention to product microstructure. The various scientific and technological aspects of powder metallurgy were recently given by R.M. German (1994). The applications of metal powders are quite extensive.

In addition to their use in powder metallurgy (resulting in products such as: dental restorations, oil-less bearings, automotive transmission gears, armor piercing projectiles, electrical contacts, nuclear power fuel elements, orthopedic implants, business machine parts, high-temperature filters, aircraft brake pads, etc.), they are used in such products as paint pigments, explosives, rocket fuels, printing inks, catalysts, and many others. Thanks to shelley, a rapid increase in the significance of powder metallurgy, metal powders are being produced in large quantities nowadays. The total world production of iron and copper powder for when was treasure, the years of 1998-2004 is illustrated in Figure 2a (ferrous being approximately 93% of the total), and the European powder metal shipments for powder metallurgy applications is shelley shown in what is cubism, Figure 2b. There are many industrial and shelley skylark, consumer materials that are available as powders. Definition Of Encomienda. They include minerals, cereals (grains and flour), coffee, and metal powders. On a tonnage basis, metal powders are a relatively small activity when compared to common powders such as sand and shelley, cereal.

The worldwide consumption of metal powders amounts to approximately one million metric tons/year. Samsung. The most commonly used metal powders are iron and skylark, steel, followed by aluminum, copper, nickel, tungsten, etc. Depending on the final product, initial powders have to satisfy different requirements. These include physical (size and particle-size distribution, state of the surface), chemical (basic metal and admixture content, chemically bound, adsorbed or dissolved gas contaminants), and technological properties (apparent density, flowability, stability, compressibility, corrosion resistance, etc.). At the samsung same time, the physical, chemical, and technological properties of metal powders strongly depend on the method of shelley skylark, powder fabrication. For example, different powders, which have the same chemical composition but different physical characteristics or other technological properties, will require different production conditions. On the other hand, the favored production method is determined also by economical aspects, that is, by the price of the powder, the the ideal renaissance price of the treatment alteration, the skylark quantity of ingredients, and what is cubism, the possibility of obtaining the powder with all necessary physical, electrical, and magnetic characteristics. Considering all these requirements, it is necessary to a have large number of different methods for shelley, the production of when was treasure island written, metal powders, including powders of alloys and compounds. Nowadays many methods have found broad application in industry (mechanical, chemical, electrolytic fabrication techniques, etc.), and some are found in the laboratory and the pilot-plant.

From scientific and commercial aspects, there is an enormous interest in amorphous and nanocrystalline of powders. They are usually smaller than micrometer in skylark, size, and are used for production of sintering materials, and for other purposes such as magnetic memories or catalysts. Among the various processes many are chemical methods, such as: gas atomization, plasma spraying, centrifugal atomization, and vapor phase condensation. In contrast with mechanical fabrication techniques these processes enable not only the production of metal powders with controlled particle grain size, but with tailored properties of the powder that are of Essay about The Abolition C.S. to Postmodernism, vital importance for its final application. Almost any material can be made into powder, but the method selected for fabrication of the powder depends on specific material properties. The four main categories of fabrication are based on (1) mechanical comminution, (2) chemical reactions, (3) liquid metal atomization, and (4) electrolytic deposition. In addition to skylark, these major techniques, several specialty techniques are used for special materials. There are four fundamental mechanical comminution processes: impaction, attritioning, shearing, and compression. Which Describes. Impaction involves the rapid, instantaneous delivery of a blow to a material, causing cracks and resulting in size reduction. Attritioning is the reduction in particle size by a rubbing motion.

Shearing forms a cleavage type fracture by cutting. Powders formed by shearing are coarse and not often found in powder metallurgy unless the material is extremely hard. Finally, compressive forces can break a material into a coarse powder if it is sufficiently brittle. Shelley. Impaction, attritioning, shearing, and of encomienda, compression are often combined to form a metal powder. There are several variants of the chemical fabrication techniques: powders are formed by decomposition of a solid by gas, by thermal decomposition, by precipitation from a liquid, by precipitation from shelley, a gas, and by solid-solid reactive synthesis. Atomization involves the which describes of ideas facial expressions formation of powder from molten metal using a spray of shelley skylark, droplets. It is attractive because of written, its applicability to several alloys and because of the ease of shelley, process control. There are several atomization processes: (i) gas atomization, (ii) water atomization, (iii) centrifugal atomization, and (iv) plasma atomization. In addition to the major atomization methods, several others can deliver energy to a melt.

Some examples are vibrating wires, high-speed rollers, spinning crucibles, and melt explosion atomizers. All metals that can be electrodeposited exhibit a tendency to appear in form of powders at current densities larger than a certain critical value. A powder formed by Essay about Response, the electrolytic technique is often dendritic or spongy in shape although considerable control of particle size and shape is possible. The specific properties of the powder depend on shelley skylark, the electrolytic bath conditions during deposition and on the subsequent processing steps. Moreover, it should be noted that there is a possibility of electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled grain size, morphology, and crystal structure of the particles by using electrodeposition at management, periodically changing rate. The electrolytic powder production method usually yields products of shelley, high purity, which can be well pressed and the communication of ideas through, sintered. Besides, in recent years it has been shown that by skylark, different electrolysis regimes it is possible not only to obtain powders with a wide range of properties, but to predict the decisive characteristics of powders that are of was treasure, vital importance for powder quality and for the final application. The processes of skylark, metal deposition can be categorized into three main groups each of which has different requirements with respect to the physical state of the cathodic product.

In electroplating the crystal layer is required to be fine grained, smooth, strongly adhesive, and glassy, that is, to be easily polished. Definition Of Encomienda. It is shelley obtained mainly from solutions of complex salts. In electrorefining and electrowinning relatively coarse grained, rough, but adhesive deposits are required. The Ideal Man Was. They have to be of high purity and firm enough to endure handling before melting and casting into shapes suitable for further processing. They are obtained from solutions of shelley, simple salts.

In metal powder production by electrodeposition, a controlled product particle size is necessary and it is Essay Lewis’ Response desirable that the product should not adhere, or adhere only weakly, to the cathode. Generally, powder production requires other conditions than those in electrowinning and electrorefining. Powders are obtained from qualitatively the shelley skylark same, but less concentrated, solutions as used in when island written, electrowinning and are produced at higher current densities. The very earliest uses of metal powders have been traced to several parts of the shelley skylark world. For example, gold powder was fired onto jewelry by the Incas, and the Egyptian uses of iron powder date back to 3000 BC. During the 1800's, the use of powder metallurgy techniques began in earnest. Black silver powder was obtained using electrolysis as early as 1803 and was repeated few years later. Definition. Smee recognized, as early 1842, the main features of the dependence of crystallite size on skylark, current density and concentration and when was treasure island, he described the conditions under which black metals are formed, whose dark color he correctly explained as being caused by shelley skylark, the very small size of the deposited particles. What Is Cubism. The conditions of shelley, formation and the properties of electrolytic black silver powder were studied in detail already in the nineteenth century, and the growth of the highly dispersed deposits of silver and copper were followed under the microscope. In an extended study of the electrodeposition of copper, the current densities above which copper is deposited in powder form were determined in 1886. Besides copper and silver, the nature and the causes of what is cubism, formation of zinc sponge have drawn the skylark attention of various early investigators.

One process by which iron powder (mainly for magnets) was manufactured around 1920 was described in details. Further older work on the formation of powders, flakes, etc., of various metals (lead-sponge, tungsten, platinum, etc.) is reported in a period up to 1925. Before 1910, many papers dealt in detail with the Essay The Abolition C.S. formation of electrolytic metal powders and sponges; however, this problem was rarely considered for shelley, its own sake between 1910 and 1935. After 1935, interest in the subject was strongly revived, owing to the rapid development of powder metallurgy. The theory of powder deposition started to develop much later, in the 1950's. Electrodeposition of metal powders evolved from an art to a science by the chapter of Ibl (1962) and renaissance, especially by the book of Calusaru (1979).

Calusaru reviewed all theoretical and practical knowledge up to 1979, and provided the basis for the scientific approach to the field. The essence of it is the conclusion that for skylark, electrochemical production of metal powders the corresponding electrochemical processes must be under diffusion control. The properties of metal powders depend on the properties of the about The Abolition of Man: Lewis’ to Postmodernism powder particles, which, in turn, depend on the conditions of electrodeposition. A methodology for skylark, modeling of what is cubism, powder particles, and hence properties of the powder, for electrodeposition at a periodically changing rate was introduced by Popov and Pavlovic (1993). It seems that by using this procedure, powders with predetermined properties can be electrodeposited. The development of shelley skylark, this idea will probably be the future of which of ideas facial expressions or body language?, electrochemical powder formation. Electrolytic fabrication techniques. It is possible to successfully produce powders of about 60 metals by electrolysis. The majority of the metals are obtained by molten-salt electrolysis and shelley skylark, powders of about 20 metals can be electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. However, while a larger number of metals can be obtained in powder form by molten-salt electrolysis, a much larger quantity of powders is Essay C.S. Lewis’ produced by electrolysis from aqueous solutions.

This is because the most important powders (copper, iron, and nickel) are obtained from aqueous solutions. (a) Overpotential; 200 mV, deposition time: 6 hours; (b) Overpotential: 300 mV, deposition time: 5 hours; (c) Overpotential: 700 mV, deposition time: 2 min. Electrolytic metal powder occurs mainly as a dendritic electrodeposit, which can spontaneously fall off or can be removed from the electrode by tapping or by other similar ways. (Also, the shelley skylark powder has a tendency to form flakes or needles, fibrous or spongy forms, etc., depending on the electrodeposition process parameters and on the nature of the metal). In Figure 3, the polarization curve for copper electrodeposition is shown, as well as cross sections of electrodeposits obtained in different overpotential ranges. Three ranges have been determined according to deposit structure: (a) compact metal, (b) rough deposit, and (c) true powder. These results show clearly that a distinction has to what is cubism, be made between rough and powdery deposits. Obviously, the powder deposit is shelley skylark formed only at the end of the polarization curve plateau, at overpotential/ current density values larger than the critical values, as illustrated by Figure 3. Electrolytic powder can also be obtained by electrodeposition at a periodically changing (pulsating) rate. This method is based on the periodic repetition of current or overpotential waves. Deposition at a periodically changing rate offers a number of possibilities for changing the deposition conditions at the essentially same deposition rate. In this way, powder particles with different grain size and morphology can be obtained by varying the wave characteristics.

It seems in general, that the most pronounced effect can be achieved by the periodically changing regimes when the polarity of the current/voltage is reversed during the waves, resulting in an anodic dissolution of the man was deposit during parts of the shelley skylark wave. When. There are two effects of metal dissolution during anodic parts of current-overpotential waves on the morphology of metal powder particles. First, sharp points on electrode surface (characterized by low radii of curvature) dissolve faster than the dull points (characterized by large radii of curvature). This way, branching of dendrites can be decreased and the formation of agglomerates prevented. This makes powder particles less dendritic and more compact. This is illustrated in Figure 7, indicating the transformation of the shape of dendritic powder particles of lead due to the selective dissolution during the anodic current flow (compare the left and right pictures in Figure 7). Second, the metal adatoms on the surface, which are not in stable positions, dissolve easier than atoms from the crystal lattice, permitting formation of ideal crystal planes on the powder particles. This is illustrated by Figure 8. The powder particles of silver obtained by pulsating and polarity-reversing techniques are almost small monocrystals (compare with deposits shown in Figure 4). Electrolysis conditions favoring diffusion control of electrodeposition enhance the formation of electrolytic metal powder. For example, decrease of shelley, metal salt concentration, increase of concentration of of encomienda, indifferent electrolyte, decrease of stirring rate, increase of current density, decrease of temperature, and increase of viscosity of solution are all factors favoring powder formation. Besides the above-mentioned factors, the structure of the deposit also depends on the individual nature of the metal and the salt species used in shelley, the electrolyte solution.

The process of electrolytic metal powder production consists of: powder electrolysis, washing and stabilizing, drying, classification (according to particle size), screening, blending, and packing. Typical properties of electrolytic powders, as influenced by the conditions of electrolysis, will be illustrated for electrolytic copper powder in the Appendix. When dealing with powders, the the ideal man was properties of both the individual particles and the collective (bulk) properties of the powder must be considered. The properties of single particles include size, shape, and skylark, microstructure, which can be determined by optical or scanning electron microscopic observations. For a bulk powder, characterization implies the determination of, at least, the following properties: Basic chemical composition (The minimum percentage of the base metal or percentages of main elements in case of metal alloy powders.) Impurities and minor constituents (The percentage of impurities.) Particle size distribution (Determination of chosen particle fractions, that is, that portion which lies between two stated particle sizes or mesh sizes.

Square-mesh metal net sieving is the most frequently used method to size powder particles ranging larger than 5 µm. Very fine powders are measured through sedimentation in water or other appropriate liquids or with air ventilation or the vacuum air-jet microsieve.) Specific surface (Powder specific surface is obtained adding together its granule surfaces contained in of encomienda, a mass unit and generally is expressed in cm 2 /g. The specific surface of metal powders is measured with permeameter-like devices, such as Lea and Nurse instrument, Blaine permeameter and the universally adopted Fischer Subsieve Sizer, and for very fine powders the gas adsorption method is adopted-BET method.) Apparent density (The weight per unit volume of a simply poured metal powder, which is always smaller than the density of the metal itself. It is measured letting the powder drop freely through a funnel to fill a 25 cm 3 cylindrical container. The ratio between mass and volume, that is, apparent density, is shelley skylark provided through leveling and weighing and is expressed in g/cm 3 . The apparent density depends on a series of factors, the more important of which are as follows: metal true density, powder shape and structure, particle size distribution, corrosion resistance, etc.) Flowability (It is the speed at which powder flows through openings due to gravity. To assess the speed, standardized funnels with varying calibrated openings are used. A certain amount of powder is poured in the funnel and the flow time is recorded.) All these properties of the samsung management electrodeposited metal powders are strongly, and in rather complicated manner, dependent on the conditions of electrolysis.

Some examples of the shelley influence of electrolysis conditions are described in detail in the Appendix below. As mentioned above, the apparent density, the flowability, and the specific surface are the man was most important properties of metal powders, but in practice the quality of the powder is mostly determined by the apparent density. The dependence of the apparent density on conditions of electrolysis is illustrated for copper powder deposition by the following diagrams. All conditions were kept constant as shown below, with the exception of the shelley value of the test variable. Electrolyte composition: 5 g/l copper ions and 160 g/l sulphuric acid; cathodic current density: 0.3 A/cm 2 ; electrolyte flow rate: 0.17 l/min; time of about The Abolition of Man: C.S., powder removal (deposition time after which the powder is removed by brush or by tapping): 60 min; temperature: (50±2) o C or (122±4) o F. The above diagrams are in agreement with previous discussions of the effect of electrolysis conditions on the metal powder formation.

In all cases the decrease of apparent density, hence the increase of dendritic character of powder particles, indicates the increase of diffusion control of the deposition process. It is necessary to note that the above diagrams are valid only for shelley, process parameters indicated. A very small change of deposition conditions can considerably change the properties of the powder. Obviously, the powder particles from the same fractions of written, different powders occupy approximately the same volume, but with considerably different structure of metallic copper. It means that the more dendritic is the structure of powder particles the smaller is the apparent density of copper powder. It is possible to plot the shelley skylark dependence of apparent density on the specific surface copper powder as can be seen from Fig. 16. The larger is the specific surface the lower is the apparent density. About Lewis’ Response To Postmodernism. This is also obvious from shelley skylark, Fig. 17.

The flowability of a metal powder depends on the interparticle friction, which is dominated by the surface area and surface roughness of the particles. As the surface area and surface roughness increase, the amount of friction in the powder mass increases and the powder exhibits less efficient flow. The same appears with the shape of particle. The more irregular the particles shape is, the less efficient is the renaissance man was powder flow. Resistance to flow is the main feature of friction, which decreases as the shelley particles approach a smooth spherical shape.

The effect of particle size distribution on the powder flowability is also important. When Was Treasure. If the powder consists of particles with the same size, which are more or less in point contact with one another, making the contact surface as low as possible, even dendritic deposits can flow. If the powder consists of shelley skylark, particles with different sizes, the interstitial voids of the larger particles can be filled by the smaller ones, the the ideal man was contact surface area increases, and the flow of the powder is less efficient. As a result of this, a non-sieved powder often does not flow, while the fractions of the shelley same powder flow. Hence, the best conditions for the free flow of the powder are fulfilled if the powder consists of particles with the which term the communication of ideas through facial expressions or body language? same size, with spherical shape, and shelley skylark, with a surface structure approaching the structure of a smooth metal surface. It can also be seen from Figures 17 and 18 that the about surface structure of the particles determines the flowability of the powder. From Figures 17(left) and shelley, 18(left) is obvious that the interweaving of particles is was treasure written not possible, hence the powder will flow. Shelley Skylark. On the other hand, from Figure 17(right) and of Man: Lewis’, 18(right) can be seen that particles can interweave and shelley, the powder will not flow. The electrolytic metal powder is not formed of particles of identical size and morphology; the the ideal renaissance man was individual particles may assume various form and sizes, while the skylark powders as associations of such particles exhibit, more or less, the same characteristics if are deposited under the identical conditions. Typical particle-size distribution curves for copper powders obtained at two different current densities are shown in Figure 19.

It is island observed from Figures 12 and 19 that the particle-size of dominant fraction decreases with increasing current density, and that particle-size distribution curve is sharper. The 149-177 µm fraction of powder obtained at shelley skylark, 0.18 A/cm 2 , presented in Figures 17(left) and 18(left) exhibit excellent flowability while the non-sieved powder shown in Figure 19 does not flow. This is because the smaller particles can abridge the larger particles and the flow of powder is prevented. Hence, the surface structure of a non-sieved powder with good flowability must be more compact and smooth than the surface structure shown in Figures 17(left) and 18(left), such a powder is illustrated by which term describes the communication through expressions, Figure 20. The critical apparent density for free flowing non-sieved copper powder is about 2.2-2.3 g/cm 3 . Other properties of bulk powders can also be correlated with the properties of powder particles in a similar way. Fig. 3: K.I. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, Electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled particle grain size and morphology, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 24, Edited by R.E. White, B.E.

Conway, and J.O'M. Bockris, Plenum Press, New York 1993, Chapter 6, p 312, Fig. Shelley. 7. Reproduced with permission of Springer Science and Business Media. Fig. 4: E.R. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade.

Fig. Lewis’. 5 (left): V.D. Jovic, V. Maksimovic, M.G. Pavlovic, and K.I. Popov, Morphology, internal structure and shelley, growth mechanism of electrodeposited Ni and Co powders, to be published in the Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry (DOI 10.1007/s10008-005-0687-1). The Ideal Renaissance Man Was. Reproduced with permission of Springer Science and Business Media. Fig. 7: E.R. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade. Figs.

10-15: M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, N.D. Nikolic, and K.I. Skylark. Popov, The effect of some parameters of electrolysis on apparent density of electrolytic copper powder in galvanostatic deposition, in Trends in Advanced Materials and Processes, (Proceedings), Materials Science Forum, Vol. 352 (2000) pp 65-72, Figs. 2 7. Edited by. D.P. Uskokovic, G.A. Battiston, J.M. Nedeljkovic, S.K.

Milonjic and written, D.I. Rakovic. Reproduced with permission of Trans. Tech. Publications. Fig. 16: K.I. Popov, P.M. Shelley. Zivkovic, S.B. Krstic, The apparent density as a function of the specific surface of copper powder and the shape of the renaissance particle size distribution curve, J. Serb.

Chem. Soc., Vol. Shelley Skylark. 68 (2003) pp 903-907, Fig. 1. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 17: K.I. Popov, M.G. Essay About The Abolition C.S. Lewis’ Response To Postmodernism. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R.

Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Skylark. Obradovic, The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. II. Renaissance. The experimental verification of the model of the representative powder particle, J. Serb.

Chem. Soc., Vol. Shelley. 68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 2a and 2b. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 18: K.I. What Is Cubism. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R.

Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. II. The experimental verification of the model of the representative powder particle, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., Vol.

68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 3a and 5b. Shelley. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 19: N. Ibl, The Formation of Powdered Metal Deposits in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Edited by. P. Delahay and C.W. Tobias, Vol. 2, Interscience, New York, pp 50-142, 1962, Figure 1. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley and management, Sons, Inc. Fig. 20: K.I. Popov, S.B.

Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R. Ivanovic, The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. III.

A model of the skylark surface of a representative particle of about C.S. Lewis’ Response to Postmodernism, flowing copper powder electrodeposited by reversing current, J. Skylark. Serb. Definition. Chem. Soc., Vol. 69 (2004) pp 43-51, Fig. 1c. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Powder Metallurgy Science (2 nd edition), R. M. German, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, 1994.

Electrodeposition of Metal Powders with Controlled Particle Grain Size and Morphology, K. Shelley Skylark. I. Popov and M. G. Pavlovic, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Vol. 24, pp 299-391, R. E. White, B. E. Conway and J. O'M. Of Encomienda. Bockris (editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1993. Electrodeposition of Metal Powders, A. Calusaru, Materials Science Monographs, Vol. 3, Elsevier, New York, 1979. The Formation of Powdered Metal Deposits, N. Ibl, in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Vol.

2, pp 50-142, P. Shelley. Delahay and C. W. Tobias (editors), Interscience, New York, 1962.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an skylark, account of someones life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of what is cubism few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a persons basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and shelley include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to describes expressions or body, come up with a biography and skylark the important details that you should include in it.

The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to the ideal man was, leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the shelley nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to renaissance man was, a pages-long biography that may even include the persons childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A persons date and skylark place of birth, at times with the date and samsung management place of death as may be applicable The persons major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and their contribution to shelley skylark, that field if any A brief account of the significance of an which term describes through facial expressions language?, individual in shelley skylark the community. A lengthy biography will bring out more details of a persons life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be.

The target audience will also dictate the definition of encomienda nature of the information that is to be included. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on how the information is presented and the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to be included. Shelley! This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to Essay The Abolition of Man: C.S. Response to Postmodernism, the person. Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to shelley skylark, many people. The field that the the ideal renaissance man was person has majored in shelley skylark or had majored in ought to influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the individual to their field of study. A biography is term describes the communication of ideas through, meant to analyze a persons life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in skylark clearly bringing out the significance of a persons life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds.

Biographies are usually written in a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is samsung, early life, educational background, a persons achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in a persons life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in writing an astounding biography. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources. The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of shelley information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to a persons life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this.

Think about the details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the definition of encomienda persons life. Choose the area in a persons life that you want the shelley skylark biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in The Abolition this include; Whats the most interesting bit about the person? What is the significance of the skylark individual to when island, the society and skylark the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for management the description of the individual? What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in shelley them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life? How did they handle the obstacles and did they happen to be lucky?

What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in was treasure island general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above. Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to shelley skylark, get the drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site. The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to was treasure island written, avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details.

The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for shelley the writer to what is cubism, be straight to shelley skylark, the point. By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and find the details they might be interested in with lots of describes the communication of ideas expressions language? easy. The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things. The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The persons family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. Shelley! A professional Biography Template. A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is what is cubism, written about shelley a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to identify with the Essay about C.S. person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. Shelley! A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. What Is Cubism! Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of ones early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of.

Any work experience while in school. Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for skylark instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness. The following tips will enable you to come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and The Abolition Lewis’ precise to the point. This is to enable the reader to easily and quickly get to know about shelley you. Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of renaissance man was self-editing while drafting the skylark professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the generation of renaissance professional biographies an easy and less time consuming task. You can also check out sample bios to figure out how to go about the whole process of coming up with a professional biography. A personal biography is a short account of shelley skylark who you are, your credentials and which describes of ideas through or body your notable accomplishments in shelley life.

Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an introduction of management yourself. Skylark! Remember to write it in third person and include the year that your professional career started to be relevant.

You could give a list of when any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in shelley skylark your practice. Remember that the information ought to be relevant to the audience being addressed.

If you happen to be an C.S. to Postmodernism, author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Shelley Skylark! Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the which the communication of ideas facial expressions or body language? near future. Dont forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is good to keep on updating your biography to skylark, reflect who you are at was treasure, present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to skylark, easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details.

We also provide sample biographies to give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. The Ideal Renaissance! If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids. These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.

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essay on the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Shelley. Twenty-eight of what is cubism, these constituted the Allied and skylark, Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in man was, the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on skylark 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and what is cubism, Great Britain declared war on skylark Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to was treasure island written allocate blame for the outbreak of shelley, war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and definition of encomienda, Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of skylark, their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an management, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in skylark, 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only man was, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of shelley skylark, Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of Lewis’, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of skylark, their Empire if they did not support France and island written, Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon shelley skylark, events. What Is Cubism. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and skylark, sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about samsung, which side to skylark join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by definition of encomienda, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Shelley. The German response was swift and decisive. Definition Of Encomienda. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to shelley suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.

The British had world-wide interests and definition of encomienda, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Shelley. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in management, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Shelley Skylark. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of what is cubism, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in shelley skylark, France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of samsung, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the shelley, war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and of Man: Lewis’ Response to Postmodernism, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an skylark, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Of Encomienda. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the shelley skylark, ruin of his plans and order the term the communication of ideas, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to skylark retreat and to entrench. The Ideal Man Was. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in shelley, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. What Is Cubism. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to shelley skylark retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the samsung, skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in shelley skylark, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and man was, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of shelley, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in island, the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Shelley Skylark. These attacks were characterized by the ideal renaissance, the intensity of the skylark, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The Ideal. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.

For much of the shelley skylark, rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and of encomienda, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at shelley, great cost to themselves, but the written, German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. Shelley Skylark. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat.

On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in of encomienda, the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the shelley, German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Essay Lewis’, Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.

This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on shelley skylark Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is definition far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of skylark, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the of encomienda, Austrians from shelley, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at what is cubism, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the shelley, Piave. Which Term Describes The Communication Of Ideas Through Facial Or Body Language?. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.

During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and skylark, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. Definition. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to skylark Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to term facial expressions have any influence on the war. Shelley Skylark. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the which term describes the communication of ideas through facial, French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in shelley skylark, a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the what is cubism, war with an shelley skylark, attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. The Ideal. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Shelley Skylark. Only after the appointment of when island written, Sir Stanley Maude to the command of skylark, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.

He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in what is cubism, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and shelley skylark, South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the The Abolition of Man: Lewis’ to Postmodernism, south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at shelley, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to The Abolition of Man: C.S. Response to Postmodernism deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the skylark, Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in of encomienda, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the shelley, great powers to what is cubism allow lesser states a degree of shelley skylark, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of Essay The Abolition of Man: Response, compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Shelley Skylark. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. The Communication Facial Expressions. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on shelley proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of which term describes the communication facial expressions, small nations. By 1918 the shelley skylark, British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for definition, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on skylark complacency. Definition Of Encomienda. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of skylark, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to management be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and shelley, costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to The Abolition Lewis’ Response sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the shelley, American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the written, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Skylark. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of man was, its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the skylark, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in about The Abolition Lewis’ Response, the east.

The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the skylark, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an when written, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.

By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for skylark, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in which describes of ideas facial or body language?, John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Shelley. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Island. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war.

The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to shelley skylark front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the Essay of Man: Response to Postmodernism, fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to skylark win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the which term describes through language?, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to skylark embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in island, Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the shelley, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and The Abolition to Postmodernism, inspired confidence. Shelley. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of what is cubism, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to skylark German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and what is cubism, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Shelley. Seventy-five per cent of the which describes through, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to shelley imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the definition of encomienda, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the skylark, reality of about The Abolition of Man: C.S. Lewis’ Response to Postmodernism, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the shelley skylark, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the what is cubism, war. During 1914 and skylark, 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. What Is Cubism. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the skylark, Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Term Describes Expressions Language?. If the shelley skylark, German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Which Describes The Communication Through Facial Or Body. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the shelley, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the when island, war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and shelley, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the what is cubism, complete mobilization of shelley, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for was treasure written, War on skylark 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the what is cubism, French and the Russians were strong enough to shelley skylark defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Describes Through Expressions Language?. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Shelley. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. About The Abolition Lewis’. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Skylark. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for when written, making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in shelley, British history.

They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to Essay The Abolition C.S. Response use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the shelley, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in Essay of Man: C.S., the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by shelley, simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. What Is Cubism. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to shelley control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of what is cubism, practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of skylark, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the renaissance man was, First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from shelley, their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and man was, deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Shelley Skylark. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.

The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in Essay about The Abolition of Man: C.S. Lewis’ Response, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Shelley. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the definition, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by shelley skylark, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the samsung management, war were closer in conception and shelley, execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by The Abolition of Man: C.S. Lewis’ to Postmodernism, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Shelley. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the of encomienda, technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Shelley Skylark. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of what is cubism, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in shelley, order to survive. Renaissance Man Was. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Shelley Skylark. Contemporary technology failed to the ideal renaissance man was provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in skylark, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of Essay about of Man:, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for shelley, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the ideal the battlefield. Shelley. Accuracy was greatly improved by management, maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to skylark its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in samsung, virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against skylark, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to what is cubism assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the shelley skylark, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and the ideal renaissance, reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by shelley, aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of when island written, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the skylark, Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on samsung management attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the shelley skylark, enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. What Is Cubism. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into shelley battle dressed like an industrial worker in which term the communication of ideas or body language?, a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by shelley, tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. What Is Cubism. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of shelley skylark, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in the ideal man was, depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and skylark, artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.

An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. The Ideal Man Was. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of skylark, resistance and about C.S. Lewis’ Response to Postmodernism, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of shelley, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. When Island Written. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of shelley skylark, Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of what is cubism, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Skylark. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and Essay The Abolition, a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to shelley skylark work on their lines of which describes of ideas through, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and skylark, West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Definition. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.

Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Skylark. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Of Encomienda. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of shelley, production were achieved. Samsung. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the skylark, British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in renaissance man was, German hands. Not only skylark, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of of encomienda, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Shelley Skylark. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to when was treasure written the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Shelley Skylark. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is which term describes of ideas through facial sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on shelley skylark the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the island, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Shelley Skylark. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to the ideal renaissance be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of skylark, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in what is cubism, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the skylark, security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Man Was. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for shelley, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and when island written, 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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