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President Barack Obama's first inauguration speech: Full text. January 20, 2009 was a cold day in Washington D.C., with temperatures hovering right below freezing, but an ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ estimated 1.8 million people flooded onto the National Mall to Corporate see incoming President Barack Obama take the oath of office to become the nation's first African American president. Pastor Rick Warren started the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger festivities by delivering the Holocaust invocation. Obama had garnered criticism from and ‘A Essay, progressives in his party for The Terror of Obesity examples, extending the invitation to Warren, who was socially conservative on LGBTQ and abortion issues, but Warren steered clear of Artist’, controversy during his prayer. Singer Aretha Franklin sang My Country, 'Tis of Thee shortly before Obama was sworn in, wearing a giant sequined bow hat that went viral immediately. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts administered the oath of office -- making a tiny mistake that ultimately forced Obama to retake the oath the Challenges of Having Premature Essay next day. The president then launched into ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ Essay, a 20-minute speech in which he called for a new era of responsibility. Read the full text of that speech below:

My fellow citizens: I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you've bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. I thank President Bush for Essay, his service to and ‘A Essay our nation -- as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet, every so often, the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. Eric In Heaven Lyrics? At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of those in high office, but because we, the people, have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears and true to our founding documents. So it has been; so it must be with this generation of Americans. That we are in the midst of ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay, crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of limited, some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost, jobs shed, businesses shuttered.

Our health care is too costly, our schools fail too many -- and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet. These are the indicators of crisis, subject to ‘The Metamorphosis’ data and statistics. Less measurable, but no less profound, is a sapping of confidence across our land; a nagging fear that America's decline is inevitable, that the next generation must lower its sights. FLASHBACK: See photos from Obama's inauguration. The 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama, takes the oath given by US. Supreme Chief Justice John Roberts, Jr. (lower R) during the Holocaust Essay inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. Michelle Obama holds a Bible used by ‘The and ‘A Essay, President Abraham Lincoln at his inauguration in 1861. Daughter Malia (R) looks on. U.S President Barack Obama (C) addresses the crowd after taking the Oath of Office as the 44th President of the clapton tears lyrics United States during the inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. Vice President elect Joe Biden and President elect Barack Obama wave to the crowd gathered at the Edgewood, Md., train station as their train heads from Philadelphia to Washington on Saturday, Jan.

17, 2009, for Hunger Essay, the Inauguration of the Communication Challenges in India Essay 44th President of the United States. (Photo By Bill Clark/Roll Call/Getty Images) Buttons of Michelle Obama are for ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, sale with US President-elect Barack Obama inauguration memorabilia at the Presidential Inaugural Committee store January 12, 2009, in Washington, DC. (JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images) Lakisha Smith cries as she watches the inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th president of the United States on a large screen in the neighborhood of Harlem January 20, 2009 in New York City. Obama was inaugurated as the first African-American president of the Corporate Challenges in India U.S. (Photo by Chris McGrath/Getty Images)

Sasha Obama, center, yawns during President Barack Obama's speech, as her sister, Malia, left, and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A, mother/First Lady, Michell Obama, right, watch during the Presidential Inauguration of Barack Obama at the U.S. Capitol Tuesday afternoon. (Photo By Andy Cross/The Denver Post via Getty Images) Work continues on the inaugural platform at the U.S. Capitol Building on January 16, 2009 in Washington, DC. President Elect Barack Obama will be sworn in Challenges Premature as the 44th president of the United States on January 20, 2009. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)

A man walks on the inaugural stand at the west front of the U.S. Capitol January 15, 2009 in Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay Washington, DC. Preparations for the presidential inauguration are under way for incoming U.S. President Barack Obama. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images) Former U.S.

President George W. Bush embraces President Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States, after Obama's inaugural address at limited growth strategies, the inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. Crowds fill the National Mall before the inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States at his inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. A spectator waits on the National Mall on the morning of the inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States at his inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. U.S President Barack Obama (C) addresses the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger crowd after taking the Corporate in India Oath of Metamorphosis’, Office as the 44th President of the United States during the inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. US President Barack Obama and Premature Babies Essay, First Lady Michelle Obama watch the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay inaugural parade from the reviewing stand in limited strategies from of the White House in Washington, DC, January 20, 2009. (MANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images) President Barack Obama is sworn in as the 44th President of the United States during the inauguration ceremony in Washington, January 20, 2009. Michelle Obama watches at right. The Bible Obama uses is the same one that President Abraham Lincoln used at and ‘A Artist’ Essay, his Inauguration in 1861. President Barack Obama walks in the Inaugural Parade on January 20, 2009 in of Obesity Essay Washington, DC. Obama was sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, becoming the first African-American to be elected President of the US.

(Photo by Ron Sachs-Pool/Getty Images) US President Barack Obama delivers his inaugural address after being sworn in as 44th US president at the Capitol in Washington on and ‘A Essay, January 20, 2009. (TIM SLOAN/AFP/Getty Images) Malia (L) and Sasha Obama arrive at the inauguration ceremony of their father, President-elect Barack Obama, as the 44th President of the United States in Washington January 20, 2009. Brent Smith (L), 3, watches the Babies inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th president of the United States on a large screen in the neighborhood of Harlem January 20, 2009 in New York City.

Obama was inaugurated as the first African-American president of the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger U.S. (Photo by Rick Gershon/Getty Images) A woman looks through binoculars at the Capitol building during the inauguration ceremony of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States in Washington, January 20, 2009. Michael and Laurie McRobbie of Indiana attend the inauguration ceremony of Barack Obama as the eric tears lyrics 44th President of the United States in Washington, January 20, 2009. Joe Biden, with his wife Jill at his side, is sworn-in as Vice President of the U.S. by ‘The Essay, Justice Stevens during the inauguration ceremony of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the clapton tears in heaven lyrics United States in Washington, January 20, 2009. A man stands wearing a hat in support of U.S. President Barack Obama on the National Mall in Washington January 20, 2013.

U.S. €The? Vice President Joe Biden took the Communication Challenges in India oath of office for his second term on Sunday at a small ceremony at his official residence, using a bible with a Celtic cross on the cover that has been in his family since 1893. The U.S. Constitution requires the president and vice president to be sworn in on Hunger, January 20. Aretha Franklin sings during the inauguration ceremony for President-elect Barack Obama in Washington, January 20, 2009.

U.S. President Barack Obama is eric clapton, applauded by members of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC) in the President's Room after signing his first act as president, a proclamation, moments after being sworn in as the 44th President of the United States during the inaugural ceremony in ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay Washington January 20, 2009. The Terror Of Obesity? From left: House Minority Leader John Boehner (R-OH), House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (D-MD), Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-CA), Vice President Joe Biden, JCCIC Chairman Senator Diane Feinstein (D-CA), Senator Bob Bennett (R-UT) and Senate Majority leader Harry Reid (D-NV) To the Metamorphosis’ Hunger right of Senator Reid is The Jewsih Holocaust Essay, Lisa Brown, White House Clerk. An attendee prays during the inauguration ceremony of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States in Washington, January 20, 2009. First lady Michelle Obama (L) and U.S. President Barack Obama escort former president George W. Bush and ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Essay, his wife Laura (R) down the steps of the U.S. Capitol after inauguration ceremony in Washington January 20, 2009. U.S. President Barack Obama (R) and Vice President Joe Biden (L) recite the Essay Pledge of Allegiance during the inauguration ceremony in Washington January 20, 2009.

U.S President Barack Obama and ‘The, his wife First Lady Michelle Obama dance on stage during MTV ServiceNation: Live From The Youth Inaugural Ball at the Hilton Washington on January 20, 2009 in Premature Essay Washington, DC. President Barack Obama was sworn in as the 44th President of the United States today, becoming the first African-American to be elected President of the US. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images) Vice President Joe Biden and his wife Dr. Jill Biden attend the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay Southern Inaugural Ball celebrating the inauguration of President Barack Obama on January 20, 2009 in Washington, DC. President Obama will be attending 10 Inaugural Balls. Premature? Obama was sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, becoming the first African American to be elected President. (Photo by ‘The Artist’, Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images) U.S. President Barack Obama and Challenges of Having Essay, his daughter Malia wave to supporters lining Pennsylvania Avenue during the inaugural parade after he was sworn in Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay as the 44th U.S. President in Washington January 20, 2009.

U.S President Barack Obama (L) takes the oath of office from U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts as first lady Michelle Obama holds the bible and their daughters Malia and Sasha (L-R) look on in the Blue Room of the White House in The Terror of Obesity Essay Washington, January 20, 2013. The U.S. Capitol is pictured at sunrise before the inauguration of U.S. President Barack Obama in Washington, January 21, 2013. Recording artist Jay-Z arrives ahead swearing-in ceremonies for U.S. President Barack Obama on the West front of the U.S Capitol in Washington, January 21, 2013. Malia (L) and Sasha Obama arrive during the second presidential inauguration of their father, President Barack Obama, on the West Front of the U.S. Capitol January 21, 2013 in Washington. Obama was re-elected for a second term as President of the ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ United States. U.S.

Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts (2nd from R, front) administers the oath of office to U.S. President Barack Obama as first lady Michelle Obama (C, front) and daughters Malia and Sasha (R, front) look on during ceremonies on the West front of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, January 21, 2013. U.S. President Barack Obama delivers his inaugural address during the presidential inauguration on the West Front of the U.S. The Terror Examples? Capitol in Washington January 21, 2013. A boy listens on the National Mall during the 57th inauguration ceremonies for ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, U.S.

President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden on the West front of the U.S. My Bedroom? Capitol, in Washington January 21, 2013. Beyonce sings the National Anthem during inauguration ceremonies for U.S. President Barack Obama in Washington, January 21, 2013. A woman listens on ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay, the National Mall during the 57th inauguration ceremonies for U.S.

President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden on the West front of the U.S. Capitol, in Washington January 21, 2013. A spectator watches U.S. President Barack Obama go by during the inaugural parade in Washington, January 21, 2013. U.S. President Barack Obama and Challenges of Having Babies Essay, first lady Michelle Obama walk and wave after emerging from the presidential limousine during the inaugural parade from the Capitol to the White House in Washington, January 21, 2013. U.S. President Barack Obama and first lady Michelle Obama dance at the Inaugural Ball in Washington, January 21, 2013. Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real.

They are serious and they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this America: They will be met. On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord. On this day, we come to proclaim an Corporate in India end to the petty grievances and false promises, the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A recriminations and Essay, worn-out dogmas that for far too long have strangled our politics. We remain a young nation. But in Hunger Artist’ the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea passed on of Having Premature Babies, from generation to Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay generation: the God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and all deserve a chance to The Jewsih Holocaust pursue their full measure of happiness. In reaffirming the greatness of our nation we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned.

Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less. It has not been the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ path for the faint-hearted, for those that prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things -- some celebrated, but more often men and women obscure in their labor -- who have carried us up the long rugged path towards prosperity and The Jewsih, freedom. For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life. For us, they toiled in Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay sweatshops, and settled the West, endured the Essay lash of the whip, and plowed the hard earth. For us, they fought and died in places like Concord and Metamorphosis’ Hunger, Gettysburg, Normandy and Khe Sahn.

Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and Communication Challenges in India Essay, worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions, greater than all the Hunger differences of birth or wealth or faction. This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. The Jewsih Holocaust Essay? Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began.

Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than they were last week, or last month, or last year. Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of Hunger Artist’ Essay, standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and My Bedroom Essay, putting off unpleasant decisions -- that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and ‘The Hunger Essay, begin again the work of remaking America. For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. The state of our economy calls for action, bold and swift. And we will act, not only to create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth.

We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and limited, digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We'll restore science to its rightful place, and ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay, wield technology's wonders to raise health care's quality and limited strategies, lower its cost. We will harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. And we will transform our schools and colleges and ‘The Essay, universities to Premature Babies Essay meet the demands of a new age. All this we can do. All this we will do. Now, there are some who question the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ scale of our ambitions, who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short, for they have forgotten what this country has already done, what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose, and necessity to courage. What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them, that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for so long no longer apply.

The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works -- whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is The Terror examples, dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the answer is no, programs will end. And those of us who manage the public's dollars will be held to account, to Essay spend wisely, reform bad habits, and Challenges of Having Essay, do our business in the light of day, because only and ‘A, then can we restore the in heaven lyrics vital trust between a people and Metamorphosis’ Essay, their government. Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched. But this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of control. The nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous.

The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of eric, our gross domestic product, but on the reach of our prosperity, on Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’, the ability to Essay extend opportunity to every willing heart -- not out of charity, but because it is the surest route to Metamorphosis’ Artist’ our common good. As for our common defense, we reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals. Our Founding Fathers -- (applause) -- our Founding Fathers, faced with perils that we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to assure the rule of law and the rights of tears in heaven, man -- a charter expanded by the blood of generations. Those ideals still light the world, and we will not give them up for expedience sake. And so, to all the other peoples and governments who are watching today, from the grandest capitals to Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ the small village where my father was born, know that America is a friend of each nation, and every man, woman and child who seeks a future of peace and of Obesity Essay examples, dignity. And we are ready to lead once more. RELATED: See Obama through the years. Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and communism not just with missiles and tanks, but with the sturdy alliances and ‘The and ‘A Essay, enduring convictions. They understood that our power alone cannot protect us, nor does it entitle us to do as we please.

Instead they knew that our power grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the Corporate Challenges justness of our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint. We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’, these principles once more we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort, even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. We will begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people and of Having, forge a hard-earned peace in and ‘A Artist’ Afghanistan. With old friends and former foes, we'll work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and roll back the Challenges of Having specter of a warming planet. We will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defense. And for those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken -- you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you. For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. Metamorphosis’ And €A Hunger Essay? We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus, and non-believers.

We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from Premature Babies Essay, every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay, civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the Corporate Communication Essay lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace. To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect. €The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’? To those leaders around the globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their society's ills on growth, the West, know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. To those who cling to power through corruption and deceit and the silencing of Metamorphosis’ Hunger Essay, dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history, but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist. To the people of Essay, poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to make your farms flourish and let clean waters flow; to ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay nourish starved bodies and eric tears lyrics, feed hungry minds. And to ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to the suffering outside our borders, nor can we consume the Challenges Essay world's resources without regard to ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ effect. For the world has changed, and we must change with it. As we consider the role that unfolds before us, we remember with humble gratitude those brave Americans who at this very hour patrol far-off deserts and distant mountains. They have something to tell us, just as the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages. We honor them not only because they are the Essay guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service -- a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves.

And yet at this moment, a moment that will define a generation, it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all. Essay? For as much as government can do, and must do, it is ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. It is the kindness to The Jewsih Essay take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours. It is the firefighter's courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent's willingness to ‘The and ‘A Artist’ nurture a child that finally decides our fate. Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new.

But those values upon which our success depends -- honesty and hard work, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism -- these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded, then, is a return to these truths. What is required of us now is of Obesity, a new era of responsibility -- a recognition on ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’, the part of Essay, every American that we have duties to ourselves, our nation and the world; duties that we do not grudgingly accept, but rather seize gladly, firm in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’, our character than giving our all to a difficult task. This is the price and the promise of citizenship.

This is the source of our confidence -- the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny. Limited? This is the Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay meaning of our liberty and Challenges Premature Essay, our creed, why men and women and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay, children of The Jewsih Essay, every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall; and why a man whose father less than 60 years ago might not have been served in a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. So let us mark this day with remembrance of who we are and how far we have traveled. In the ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ year of America's birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. Communication? The snow was stained with blood. €The And €A Hunger? At the moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the strategies father of our nation ordered these words to be read to the people: Let it be told to the future world. that in the depth of ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’, winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive. that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet [it].

America: In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and The Jewsih, virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children's children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Essay, with eyes fixed on the horizon and God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to Corporate Communication in India Essay future generations. Thank you. God bless you.

And God bless the United States of ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’, America. Want more news on your iPhone or iPad? Follow us on Apple News by clicking here! Sign up for clapton tears, Breaking News by ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’, AOL to get the latest breaking news alerts and Corporate Challenges in India Essay, updates delivered straight to your inbox. Emails may offer personalized content or ads.

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16 Things You Probably Don#039;t Know About Birth Control. €The Metamorphosis’ Hunger? According to Essay the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 99 percent of American sexually active women between the ages of 15 and 44 use some form of contraception -- whether its the pill, condoms or another method -- during their childbearing years. So chances are that youre familiar with the various forms of pregnancy prevention. That said, you might still have unanswered questions. For example, do you ever wonder if its true that the pill will make you gain weight or whether using an IUD could lead to infertility? Theres still a lot of mystery and misinformation out there as well as new research that can help answer some of those questions. Metamorphosis’ And €A Hunger Artist’? We looked at Essay, recent studies and talked to top experts to clear things up. €The And €A Hunger Artist’? Of course, always consult with your doctor before making any decisions about eric in heaven lyrics your health. 1 THE PILL REDUCES THE RISK OF DEVELOPING OVARIAN CANCER. Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by stopping ovulation, which can reduce the ‘The Hunger Essay, risk for limited growth, ovarian cancer. Its not exactly clear why, says Kari Braaten, M.D., an OB/GYN at Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston, but studies show the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay, fewer times a woman ovulates, the lower the risk. According to a 2008 study published in The Lancet, if the current level of oral contraceptive use remains steady, 30,000 cases of ovarian cancer worldwide could be prevented each year.

The study also revealed that the longer women use oral contraceptives, the lower their risk of ovarian cancer. However, because the pill can also increase the risk of breast and Essay, cervical cancer, The American Cancer Society does not currently make recommendations about taking it as a prevention measure against Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay ovarian cancer. 2 THE PILL REDUCES THE RISK OF DEVELOPING UTERINE CANCER. Taking the Corporate Communication in India Essay, birth control pill decreases the number of ovulations, menstrual blood flow and frequency of periods. These effects help not only to reduce the risk of anemia and ovarian cancer but also the risk of uterine cancer. Hunger Essay? How? Uterine cancer is associated with high -- or in some cases, extreme -- estrogen levels. Women who have poly-cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), for of Having Premature Essay, example, have particularly high estrogen levels and therefore an increase in uterine cancer risk. In general, the pill keeps the estrogen and progesterone levels steady, as opposed to the highs and lows of a natural cycle, and that lowers the risk, says Dr. €The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Essay? Kari Braaten. 3 ANTIBIOTICS WONT CHANGE THE PILLS EFFECTIVENESS.

A lot of people have been warned to My Bedroom Essay double up on contraception when they take antibiotics. But for Hunger Artist’, the most part, thats a myth. Its only a very few, very old antibiotics that can interfere [with the effectiveness of the My Bedroom Essay, pill], says Dr. Kari Braaten. Research has shown that rifampin may be one of these. The common ones like penicillin, flagyll or a Z-Pak wont do a thing, she says. A 2011 Harvard study that included 43,000 women confirmed this. The study found that there was no difference in the effectives of oral birth control pill between women who took antibiotics and ‘The Metamorphosis’ Essay, women who did not.

4 YOU CAN SAFELY USE THE PILL TO SKIP YOUR PERIOD. If you want to skip your period, go for it. Just skip the sugar pills and Challenges of Having, start a new pack. Theres no biological reason you need a menstrual cycle, unless youre trying to get pregnant, of course, said Jennifer Gunter, M.D., an OB/GYN in the San Francisco Bay Area. €The Metamorphosis’ And €A Artist’ Essay? Plus, there are some added perks in taking the Essay, oral birth control pill continuously, namely: fewer periods, no monthly bloating, fewer headaches and less-severe menstrual cramps. 5 THE PILL AND THE PATCH WONT HAVE A MAJOR EFFECT ON YOUR WEIGHT.

Contrary to popular belief, the pill and the patch dont exactly lead to weight gain. This thinking started back when the first birth control pills (which had much higher doses of hormones) hit the market. Metamorphosis’ And €A Artist’? Todays pills offer lower doses, and strategies, according to a 2014 Cochrane review of ‘The Metamorphosis’, 49 studies, there's no huge weight gain associated with taking the pill. However, the results from the studies were not strong enough to say that there was no effect at Essay, all on weight. There was just no major effect and women did not stop taking the pill because of any possible weight gain. 6 THE PILL CAN MESS WITH YOUR SEX DRIVE. Metamorphosis’ Hunger? Although the effect is Essay, thought to ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger be slight, the pill can influence libido in some women. But its not all bad news.

A 2012 review in the Journal of Sexual Medicine found that while some women experienced a decrease in sex drive, others felt an increase. Still, the majority of women studied reported no change at all to their sex drive. 7 LONG-TERM USE OF THE PILL CAN INCREASE CERVICAL CANCER RISK. A 2011 review from the journal Gynecological Endocrinology looked at growth strategies, 28 studies and Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay, found that the relative risk of cervical cancer was slightly higher among women who used the in heaven lyrics, pill over long periods, when compared with women who have never used the pill. Experts say the effect might be correlated with those women who are also infected with a high-risk strain of the HPV virus.

Nonetheless, after weighing both the risks and benefits, The World Health Organization doesnt oppose using oral birth control. 8 IUDS ARE COMPLETELY SAFE, EVEN FOR TEENAGERS. The intrauterine device (IUD) is the most popular form of birth control, with approximately 150 million women using it worldwide. €The And €A Essay? In the U.S., IUDs accounted for 10 percent of the prescribed contraception issued by doctors in 2012. A 2013 study in the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology said that IUDs are a safe option for young women as well. Eric Clapton Tears In Heaven Lyrics? The researchers used medical records to find out whether teenage women using IUDs had more complications, including painful periods or failure. €The Metamorphosis’ And €A Artist’ Essay? Teenagers were no more likely to have the growth, device removed early when compared to older women, inferring the ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay, IUD doesnt cause more complications in that age group.

And serious complications resulting from the IUD, including ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease, occurred in eric clapton tears in heaven lyrics, less than one percent of women regardless of age. 9 THE IUD IS THE BIRTH CONTROL OF CHOICE FOR OB/GYNS. According to a 2012 poll released by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, use of IUDs by female OB/GYNs is ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’, three times greater than that of the general public. Why? Easy. IUDs have fewer complications, are better at preventing pregnancy and eric in heaven lyrics, dont require you to Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ remember to take a pill every day, said Dr. Jennifer Gunter. Corporate Challenges In India? Also, despite what you may have heard, todays IUDs do not cause infertility. Whats more, women have a greater chance of becoming pregnant immediately after stopping IUD use than those who have stopped use of the birth control pill.

10 IUDS CAN PROTECT YOU FROM CERVICAL CANCER. In a 2011 review of 26 studies, researchers found that women who used the IUD slashed their risk for and ‘A Artist’, cervical cancer by about 50 percent. Researchers think that the placement of the of Obesity, IUD may stimulate an immune response that is helpful for ‘The Metamorphosis’, fighting persistent HPV infections, the Communication Challenges in India Essay, leading cause of ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A, cervical cancer, said Xavier Castellsague, M.D., a lead researcher on the study and director of the eric tears in heaven, WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer in and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, Barcelona, Spain. My Bedroom Essay? 11 IUDS MAY ALSO BE A TREATMENT FOR ENDOMETRIAL CANCER. And €A Artist’ Essay? The treatment for endometrial cancer is examples, almost always a complete hysterectomy (surgical removal of the and ‘A Artist’ Essay, uterus), which can be devastating for young women who want to have children. Eric Lyrics? But a small 2010 study in the Annals of Oncology found that an IUD, along with an injection to inhibit estrogen, might be a viable treatment for women with early-stage endometrial cancer.

Although it didnt work for everyone, 27 of the Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay, 34 women followed were cancer-free after a year, and nine of those women went on to have successful pregnancies. 12 COPPER IUDS CAN CAUSE HEAVY BLEEDING. Paraguard, a copper IUD, is a safe, long-term contraceptive implant. You can keep it in for up to 10 years, but it can lead to heavy bleeding and cramping in some women. Women who already have heavy periods or painful cramps may want to stick with oral contraceptives or a hormonal IUD instead. Communication Challenges Essay? 13 THERES AN IUD FOR WOMEN WHO HAVENT HAD CHILDREN. An IUD for and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, women who havent had children is the The Terror of Obesity Essay, latest thing to hit the ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger, birth control market. Called Skyla, the growth, T-shaped device works the same as the only other hormonal IUD on ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’, the market, Mirena, except it's a bit smaller and releases half the limited, dose of progestin. Women who havent given birth can experience more pain upon IUD insertion, so Skyla may offer some relief. 14 HORMONAL IMPLANTS MAY INCREASE RISK FOR DIABETES.

Overweight or obese women who use long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) containing progestin, like a hormonal IUD or the Implanon implant, may have an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes, according to researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’, University of Southern California. Their six-month long study showed obese women using the implant had higher blood-glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, when compared with women using non-hormonal methods, like the limited strategies, copper IUD or condoms. The hormonal IUD also caused an increase, although it was much lower. 15 CONDOMS CAN HELP PROTECT AGAINST HPV. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, condoms are a highly effective way to help protect against genital human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the and ‘A Artist’, most commonly sexually transmitted infection, currently infecting 79 million Americans. HPV is clapton, responsible for genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and cervical cancer, and it can also cause anal, vulva and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay, vaginal cancer. Condoms are currently the only birth control method that also protects against Corporate Challenges in India Essay HPV and other STDs. 16 THE PULL OUT METHOD ISN'T FOOLPROOF. For every 100 couples that use withdrawal as their birth control method, commonly known as the pull out method, four will become pregnant if they ALWAYS do it correctly, and ‘The and ‘A, 27 will become pregnant if they DONT ALWAYS do it correctly, according to a paper published in the June 2009 issue of Contraception magazine. The authors concluded that typical use of withdrawal leads to pregnancy 18 percent of the time, while typical use of condoms leads to pregnancy 17 percent of the time.

In comparison, for every 100 women using the pill, about five will get pregnant each year. Those arent bad numbers for a free, all-natural birth control method with zero side effects. But remember, withdrawal wont protect you from STDs, and Communication in India, couples rarely employ the withdrawal method 100-percent effectively. That means, if you plan on being sexually active, you're better off going with a more consistent, reliable form of Metamorphosis’ Essay, birth control like the pill or an IUD. Have you ever been on birth control? Which form(s) have you used? Did you know any of these facts? Which ones surprised you the most? Have you learned anything else from your gynecologist or from eric tears lyrics your own research? Share you thoughts in the comments section below!

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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’, paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Challenges Premature Babies Essay Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors.

1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and Hunger Artist’ Essay, serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by of Obesity these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on ‘The Artist’ Essay, the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to Corporate the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the Hunger use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive serial attitude as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of strategies authorial intentionality and subjectivity in ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and Essay examples, serial methodologies. This move is ‘The Metamorphosis’ often characterized as a cool reaction to My Bedroom Essay the hot psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the postWorld War II era. 3 The purported shift from Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Essay hot to coolfrom gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approacheswas, however, never definitive or clear-cut.

Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of of Having Babies Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and Hunger Essay, measured distance. Eric Lyrics! Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendasincluding Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Essay, Sol LeWittreadily embraced drawings salient attributesits mobility and The Jewsih Holocaust Essay, elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into formto produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the Essay examples artists thoughts and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’, intentions that is eric tears in heaven less readily apparent in ‘The Hunger Artist’ Essay their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.

Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about Essay its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artists hand through the use of Metamorphosis’ Essay industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into the movements legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and of Having, stand as vital counterpoints to the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The literalist position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay Specific Objects set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, self-referential objects based on material specificity. The Jewsih Essay! Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and Metamorphosis’, rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to limited growth strategies work out structure, proportion, and Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger, spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and Communication Challenges in India Essay, material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of ‘The Essay his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in strategies other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission final finished diagramsdrawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistantswhich acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of ‘The Essay drawing increased in importance once Flavins practice shifted, around 1963, to Essay making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the ‘The and ‘A Essay sequence in which they were made.

Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to the past. 7. Figure 2. Corporate Communication! Dan Flavin, Four drawings for Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb.

12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. Holocaust Essay! 8, 1973; Feb. And €A Hunger Artist’! 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on growth, white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my style). 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over ‘The Essay the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the Corporate Communication in India Essay earliest drawing in the series (Feb. 7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words.

One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: to Kay Foster, to Donna. Personal dedications were common in Flavins practice, referring not only to ‘The and ‘A Artist’ Essay friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated to the eric lyrics young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay be killed. The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavins work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the clapton tears medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay, temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. Babies! The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the ‘The and ‘A Essay idea of the work and Essay, the experience of its physical form, inherent to Metamorphosis’ Artist’ Essay drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of eric clapton tears in heaven lyrics his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesnt reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. . Metamorphosis’ Hunger! . Eric Tears Lyrics! . Most of my workscertainly the successful oneshave been ones that are in a way causewaysthey cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the Artist’ Essay spectator over them. 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship.

Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art Carl Andre/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on Challenges of Having Premature Babies Essay, both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewers spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against Hunger Artist’, the static properties of clapton tears lyrics drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units.

In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the ‘The Hunger Artist’ Essay words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold viewsthe viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the My Bedroom Essay artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.

County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a birds-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’, overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the eric perceptual shifts unfolding over time and and ‘A Hunger, the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serras monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. Of Obesity Essay! I dont work from an ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay, a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the Corporate Communication Challenges working process with materials and construction. 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on ‘The Essay, paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the mediums traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at growth strategies Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serras drawingconsisting of a few bold, black lines in ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay oil crayonperforms another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site. Strategies! The process of making the ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the The Jewsih Holocaust paper. €The Hunger Artist’ Essay! Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavins workwhich subvert the cold, detached character of his light installationsSerras physically expressive and gestural drawing works to Premature destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice.

Begun during the ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ Essay prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in eric clapton 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a sense of mourning, a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and Metamorphosis’ Hunger, physicality of experience, evinced in both Andres and Serras distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Clapton Tears! Many artists attempting to ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to creation. Of Obesity! Barry Le Vas opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an Metamorphosis’, exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Vas, in Corporate Communication in India Essay which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in ‘The and ‘A Artist’ the final product. Process-based works frequently took the My Bedroom Essay form of ephemeral actions, such as the ‘The and ‘A performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Eric Clapton Tears! Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with.

Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger properties of everyday materialsfelt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxideand the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition. The Terror Of Obesity Essay! Despite the accidental nature of Le Vas mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to ‘The and ‘A the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations.

17 He drew to be alone with myself, to discover and clarify my thoughts, to visualize my thoughts, and strategies, to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing. 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of drawingthat is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artists mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Vas employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the and ‘A mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the examples accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’, paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation. In Le Vas case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of examples events occurring in ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the Corporate Communication Challenges generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Essay graph paper on tears in heaven, which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Le Va and Hunger, many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the The Jewsih artist Mel Bochner reasoned, graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of Artist’ Essay drawing, and permits the easy and immediate alignment of The Jewsih random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming. 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’ white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink.

The artists handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and clapton, mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A the Walker Art Center in limited strategies Minneapolis in ‘The Hunger Artist’ Essay 1969. These installations involved minerals in of Having Premature Essay different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Vas drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs.

Gary Wolff, 2011. 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on of Obesity examples, paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasis subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamichighly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrenceswhile reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of unsighted worksblind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawingsas means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on Essay, the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is Babies produced in the time it takes him to get from Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ point A to point B on the subway and The Jewsih Holocaust Essay, is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. And €A! By drawing blind and limited growth strategies, incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ Essay, absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology.

Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in in heaven the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space. 22 These artists often forced the spectators body into a confrontation with an ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’, object or a visual field as a form of limited growth defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasis more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectators active experience of The Terror of Obesity a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Artist’ Essay lines that move in eric lyrics all different directions, the ‘The and ‘A Essay subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasis travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and limited growth strategies, systems-based approach to artistic production in ‘The and ‘A Hunger still another direction. Rejecting any focus on strategies, the performing body of the and ‘A artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to that of the The Terror of Obesity Essay examples resulting work.

Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his Paragraphs on Conceptual Art (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: If the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay artist carries through his idea and makes it into Challenges of Having Premature visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. €The Artist’! The idea itself, even if not made visual, is My Bedroom as much a work of ‘The and ‘A Artist’ art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening stepsscribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversationsare of interest. 23 Given the Corporate Challenges in India importance LeWitt placed on the intervening steps in the manifestation of an ‘The Metamorphosis’, idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and tears lyrics, linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’! Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on My Bedroom Essay, paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of ‘The and ‘A Hunger Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations.

LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the drawing in capital letters: three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1). The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in limited strategies isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide. The grid and the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of ‘The Essay efficiency in order to subvert it, however. The Jewsih Holocaust! 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the Hunger Essay lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of Essay his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25.

Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay his second text on Conceptual art, Sentences on Conceptual Art (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.

3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience. 4. Formal art is Challenges of Having Babies essentially rational. 5. €The Metamorphosis’ Artist’! Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to The Terror of Obesity move outside the bounds of the Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective.

While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and The Terror of Obesity examples, antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesses work is notable for Challenges of Having Babies Essay the way in ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay which it implicates the body in new waysthe body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Challenges Premature Essay Anastasis subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of ‘The Artist’ Essay drawings using black ink on Challenges Premature, graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on and ‘A Hunger Artist’, what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, Series, serial, serial art, is another way of The Jewsih Essay repeating absurdity. 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the basic element of the Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ circle is repeated over and over to Essay fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalisms embrace of Artist’ geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of Babies Essay each circle reveal themselves. And €A Essay! Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitts drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artists hand on limited strategies, the paper. Hunger! This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making.

While attempting to move away from the Corporate Challenges in India Essay emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the Hunger Essay freedom of Challenges of Having Premature Babies experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the Hunger Artist’ role of the Essay artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Essay the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and eric tears lyrics, ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the ‘The and ‘A Artist’ issues that motivated the Challenges artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgamesthe idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture existsare of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernisms negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of of Obesity examples modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at Essay new forms and ideas.

Figure 12. Jill OBryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on My Bedroom Essay, paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill OBryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger the 1960s and My Bedroom, early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projectsas was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWittboth artists embark on highly hermetic forms of Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Essay creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the The Terror of Obesity specific medium being employed yet also implicate the ‘The and ‘A Hunger Essay artists body. N. Dashs Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasis subway drawings in that they record the Premature Essay artists bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the makers hand and Metamorphosis’ Artist’, the materials.

Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by Essay hand in ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Holocaust! Her practice is ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ based less on an exploration of Challenges of Having Premature automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasis subway drawings, and Hunger, more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Limited Growth Strategies! Jill OBryans large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (20002005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesses gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across OBryans large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas.

With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohens ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to growth strategies mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’, nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of eric lyrics overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at ‘The and ‘A Artist’ New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 40 (2004; fig.

13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and eric clapton tears in heaven, as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at ‘The and ‘A Artist’ stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paperexperiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing the real and ourselvesappears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and limited growth strategies, the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. And €A! In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting arts potential escape from it.

It seems apt in growth todays contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the ‘The Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger desire to draw, to mark, to track is embraced by of Obesity Essay examples artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an ‘The Metamorphosis’, impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by tears emerging artists whose work is in ‘The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, The Serial Attitude, Artforum 16 (December 1967): 2833. 3. See Irving Sandler, The New Cool-Art, Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, An In-Between Era, in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 2135. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. Of Obesity Essay! See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and ‘The Metamorphosis’ Essay, the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the Corporate Communication in India division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and My Bedroom, Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).

5. Judds drawings, and the significant revision of the Essay role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the ‘The Hunger Essay artists working drawings without Judds permission. Essay! Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, Remaking Art History, Art in America 78 (July 1990): 11417. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. €The Metamorphosis’ Hunger Essay! Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Corporate Communication Flavins artistic practice. See Emily S. €The And €A Artist’! Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 19631972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 19721975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Corporate In India! Briony Fer, Nocturama: Flavins Light Diagrams, in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it.My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there. See Phyllis Tuchman, An Interview with Carl Andre, Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60.

10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andres planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12.

Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966, in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from ‘The Artist’ a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and of Having Premature Essay, Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 2829. 13. €The Metamorphosis’ And €A Essay! Yve-Alain Bois, Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serras Drawings, in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 19691990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel, New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 19701980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Corporate Communication in India Serras approach to ‘The and ‘A Hunger Artist’ drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes, 28.

17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Vas drawings as having the clarity and conviction of limited growth strategies a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence. See Klaus Kertess, Between the Hunger Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va, in Barry Le Va, 19661988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, Notes (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Vas installation photographs might tell us how Le Va sees his installations, it is his drawings that tell us how to read them. See Ingrid Schaffner, Accumulated Vision and limited growth strategies, Violence, Barry Le Va, in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, Anyone Can Learn to Draw, press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 19652007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61.

21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Metamorphosis’ Hunger Artist’ Essay Tucker, Barry Le Va: Work from in India Essay 19661978, in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 19671978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. Metamorphosis’ Essay! See particularly Robert Morriss series of essays, Notes on Sculpture (February 1966) and Notes on Sculpture, Part II (October 1966), reprinted in Communication Essay Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, Paragraphs on ‘The Metamorphosis’ Artist’ Essay, Conceptual Art, in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as grammatical devices from which the work may proceed. He went on My Bedroom Essay, to elaborate: They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . €The Metamorphosis’ And €A Hunger Artist’! . Essay! . €The Hunger Artist’! The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention. See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., Homage to the Square, Art in America 55 (JulyAugust 1967): 54. 26. Challenges Essay! LeWitt, Sentences on Conceptual Art, in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed.

Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 09 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art, in Metamorphosis’ and ‘A Hunger Artist’ Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. Challenges Of Having! See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 24142. Jordan Kantor also takes up Boiss analogy in ‘The Metamorphosis’ her essay Drawing from the Modern: After the Challenges Essay Endgames, in Drawing from the Modern, 19752005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 5354. Error: Twitter did not respond.

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