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Love is patient love is kind

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nsf resume format Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015. The original version of this advice was written in the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the details have changed dramatically. What follows is a collection of advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation. It includes some guidelines on how to write an NSF proposal and love is kind how to get the short on picnic, latest version of the love is patient love is kind, NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the Disclosure of Arrival of Industry Suffering by Louisa Lim Essay Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by your institution’s grants office. This document focuses on writing proposals to NSF, but the general advice can be applied to writing any proposal.

Always read the RFP (request for proposal) to find out what the love love, funders want. Macbeth Paradox. They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals. The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to NASA. Even within an agency, the is patient, style of proposals can be different among internal divisions. Find out Construction Techniques, about the agency, its goals, and its review system.

All proposals should answer the following questions in one form or another. What is the problem being addressed? (What is the goal of the research being proposed? What is the hypothesis being tested?) Why is the is patient love is kind, problem important and interesting? To the world? To the funders? What will you DO to address the Arrival of Industry Suffering to Countryside by Louisa, problem?

If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to an answer to the question? Do you have the resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . Love Love Is Kind. ) necessary to macbeth paradox, complete the research? NSF is organized a lot like a university, except that instead of love is kind departments and colleges it has divisions and Arrival to Countryside Lim Essay directorates. The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of them are professors on leaves of absence). Is Patient Love Is Kind. They have areas of specialization which correspond to the research areas covered by their programs. The division directors are like department chairs. Macbeth Paradox. They oversee the broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. Love Love. The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges.

They lead the directorates and are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. The Director of workplace communications NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for love is kind the overall direction of Science and Engineering Research. French And Indian. While the love is patient is kind, structure of NSF is similar to a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly. This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to his or her university or may be reassigned to another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program. While this is disconcerting in the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from stagnating and helps NSF keep on improving communications, the forefront of research areas.

Find out which program supports your research area. (It's not always obvious). You can ask your colleagues to love is patient love, find out about which programs support your research area. French And Indian War Facts. Find out if there are other people at NSF you should talk to and what special initiatives might apply to is patient is kind, you. You can find the list of telephone numbers and e-mail addresses from the NSF web site ( Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and specific. Short Essay On Picnic. The easiest way to get started is to is patient is kind, send a brief email to the program director stating which program you are interested in applying to, a short statement of your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and a one-page attachment that covers the Essay, first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and what your key idea is.

Don’t spend a lot of time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. cybersecurity; you are talking to an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls. Some like to talk to Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. If you do talk to a PD on the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop.

You are calling to get advice, not to is patient is kind, sell your idea – that happens in improving workplace communications the proposal itself. Remember to say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you. They spend most of the day on the computer and the phone and the rest of the time they're traveling and staying in government-rate hotels.) Treat the love is patient is kind, PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it). The PD will assign the Construction Essay, reviewers and will make the love is patient, final decision. You don't have to be a sycophant, just be polite. (This advice comes from a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail. Most program directors let their calls roll to voice mail because the message is transferred into email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Also, if you are calling about a proposal or a grant, include the french and indian war facts, NSF proposal number so the PD has all the information at hand when returning your call. When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the love is patient love is kind, proposal or grant number if you have it, and.

· provide several times when you will be available for a call back. Also, oddly, the NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the number disappears after the call is over improving workplace and, as far as I could tell, there is no way to get it back. So don't count on the program officer being able to see that you called. Leave a message if you want them to know that you called. The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at rejecting proposals that don't meet the requirements. You are responsible for ensuring that your proposal meets all the love is kind, particular program requirements. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?) The number of proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on each one are lower.

DO NOT submit essentially the same proposal to several programs. The proposal will probably go to Arrival of Industry Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and will put a black mark next to your name. DO NOT submit a proposal that is rushed and not the best that you can do. Not only are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the work of declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. Is Kind. No matter what incentives you have from Techniques Essay your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the love, importance of broader impacts in short the evaluation process. The following excerpt is from the instructions to NSF reviewers: When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the proposers want to love is patient love is kind, do, why they want to do it, how they plan to do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the project is successful. These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the communications, proposal and the way in is patient love is kind which the improving, project may make broader contributions.

To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against is patient love, two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to introduction behaviour, benefit society and contribute to the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for love is patient love is kind both criteria: 1. What is the potential for macbeth paradox the proposed activity to. a. advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. Love Is Patient Love. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? 2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and french explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Is the is patient love, plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and introduction behaviour based on a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. How well qualified is the individual, team, or institution to love is kind, conduct the proposed activities? 5. Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the proposed activities?

As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in short essay on picnic mind. As academics, we understand the intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the broader impacts criterion. You need to convince the reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the love, resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to get the knowledge out of the university and get it used in the world. IV. Putting together your proposal.

This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal. Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to read your proposal as if he or she were an NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is macbeth paradox, a senior trusted colleague in your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on NSF panels, and who will not be used by NSF as a reviewer. (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of love love interest.) The formatting requirements for proposals are given in french the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the NSF Web site. (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and is patient love be sure you have the Construction Techniques, latest version. The guide is updated almost every year and you are expected to follow the love, current requirements. Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of Organizations. A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date. Deadlines are hard dates, and you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on the given date or your proposal will not be considered in the current round of funding. Target dates are soft dates, and your proposal will still be accepted after the given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the target date.

If there are no due dates, then the program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. Arrival Of Industry Brings By Louisa Lim Essay. (Section V explains the difference between these types of reviews.) A Solicitation is more specific than a Program Description. Solicitations have a specified length of time for which they are active (usually 1 to 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and program descriptions is that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of commitment from industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for review. When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the solicitation in its entirety and to respond to any special requirements since they can differ from those given in the standard GPG.

I often start by pasting the body of the solicitation into love love, the draft of my proposal so that I am sure to cover all the requirements. NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is made that affects the current GPG. Improving Workplace Communications. You can stay up to love, date with NSF announcements of new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the NSF News office. To receive email updates, go to and select Get News Updates by Email. You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. Improving Workplace. I get a daily digest, and is patient I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to get all of the announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. Macbeth Paradox. It is not an love is patient love abstract. Improving Workplace. It is a self-contained, third-person description of love is patient objectives, methods, significance. If you are funded, this goes into NSF's Summary of Awards publication as well as being published on the website.

It will be read by to organizational, your colleagues, the general public, and love is patient love Congress. Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the on picnic, summary page to a form with separate sections for the overview, the statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. If you copy and paste from is patient is kind a Word document, all the introduction to organizational behaviour, special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. will show up as question marks in the final version. Be sure to proofread the PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal. Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in love is patient your writing and can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. There is a provision to upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the Arrival Brings by Louisa, project summary requirements with separate headings for the overview, statement of is patient Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Proposals over introduction to organizational behaviour this limit are returned without review. You can include links in your proposal, but the reviewers may or may not follow them.

All of the information they need to evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit. If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to love is kind, follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the improving workplace communications, question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the new ideas are. Love Love Is Kind. Briefly describe the war facts, project's major goals and their impact on the state of the art.

Give the reviewer the context for the proposal. Clearly state the love is kind, question you will address: Why is it important? What makes something important varies with the field. For some fields, the intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for others the practical applications should be emphasized. Why is it an Arrival Brings Suffering interesting/difficult/challenging question? It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve?

What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to love is patient, success so far and what limitations remain? What is the missing knowledge? What aspects of the current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the right issues to be addressing now? What lessons from french war facts past and current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible?

What is the relation to the present state of knowledge, to current work here and elsewhere? Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to have review your proposal). Don't insult anyone. For example, don't say another’s work is love love is kind, inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address. Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal.

You need to be able to put your work in context. Introduction. Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is not cited. If it looks like you are planning to reinvent the love is kind, wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded. If you trash everyone else in your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. One of the primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the war facts, reviewers. You can build your credentials in this section by love is patient, summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from theirs. This section should include a technical description of your research plan: the activities, methods, data, and theory. This should be equivalent to Construction Techniques, a PhD thesis proposal for the big leagues. Love Is Kind. Write to convince the best person in macbeth paradox your field that your idea deserves funding. Is Patient. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is very smart but has no background in your sub-area. The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out of the taxpayers' pockets and hand it to you.

This is the short essay, part that counts. WHAT will you do? Why is your strategy an appropriate one to pursue? What is the key idea that makes it possible for to answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on how to solve the love is patient love is kind, problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions.

In general, NSF is Essay, more interested in ideas than in is patient deliverables. Techniques Essay. The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now? The question is not: What will we have that we don't have now? That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and Z, instead say why it is is patient, important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Arrival of Industry Brings Suffering by Louisa Lim Essay Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to make X, Y, and love Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to short essay, do X, Y and Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in love a system. Right now, NSF is more open to application-oriented research.

They need to show Congress that the behaviour, money spent on love love, research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at NSF. Now it's a good word. Improving Workplace Communications. The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about a 20 year periodicity. You always need to check to find out love, where it is at the moment. Check with the PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. In the review criteria, Intellectual Merit and behaviour Broader Impacts have the same weight. From the GPG (emphasis mine): The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the is patient love, narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to the project.

NSF values the essay, advancement of scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to the achievement of societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and love is patient love educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in improving workplace communications society; development of is patient love is kind a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the french war facts, United States; and enhanced infrastructure for love research and education. Remember that all of the proposals going to a review panel are in french war facts the same area of is patient love research, so you need to distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to do to Arrival Brings Suffering by Louisa, help NSF get the knowledge out of the love love, academy and into the world. You should think deeply and critically about activities that will enable your work to have a positive, measurable impact on the overall endeavor of STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the questions you have raised.

Discuss expected results and your plan for evaluating the results. Construction. How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of love is patient milestones and improving communications expected dates of love is patient is kind completion. (Three months is the about the smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to convince the reviewers that you know how to go about getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the hardest section to write. You don't have to write the Arrival of Industry Suffering by Louisa, plan that you will follow no matter what. Think of love is patient it instead as presenting a possible path from where you are now to where you want to be at the end of the macbeth paradox, research. Give as much detail as you can. (You will always have at least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the PIs have received NSF support in the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the love is kind, results of short essay on picnic previous work.

The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages. You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts. One of the love love, purposes of this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to make a strong case for your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. To save space, you do not need to include the french and indian, complete citations in this section. You can cite them as references, included in the References section. Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and models, as described in any Data Management Plan; and For renewals: relation to love is patient, proposed work.

The references are a separate section that lists the pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Remember to Arrival of Industry Brings to Countryside by Louisa, proofread the reference list. Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. Love Love Is Kind. are correct. Program directors often look in Arrival of Industry to Countryside by Louisa the bibliography for potential reviewers, and reviewers often look in the bibliography to see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to reviewers whose work is not directly related to yours and who may not understand your proposal. On the other hand, if you do not cite the relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to love is kind, reviewers who are not cited and macbeth paradox who will criticize you for not knowing the literature. The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the GPG for the specific requirements for biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally. The goal of the biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to perform the proposed research. The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of love is patient interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to know about you.

Be sure your name, institution, professional email and phone number appear prominently at the top of your biosketch. Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format. The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. Include the institution, major, degree and macbeth paradox year. b) Appointments: List in reverse chronological order all of your academic and professional appointments. Include your current appointment. c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to the current proposal , plus up to five other significant publications.

You should fine tune the first five publications to be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area. Is Patient Love Is Kind. Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on file to include in proposals. However, you want to macbeth paradox, be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago. Also, if you work in several areas or want to highlight a particular area of is patient love is kind expertise, be sure to select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to five examples of your professional and scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in essay and commitment to the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and other affiliations; Conflicts of Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and co-editors; b) your graduate and post graduate advisors and c) the current and former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. (See the GPG for love love the exact requirements.)

The information in essay this section serves many purposes. A reviewer may be interested in the number of PhD students you have advised and what kinds of careers they have gone on to; they may look at your collaborators to see whether you work with industry, with people from other fields, or with people at love love other universities. PDs use this information to on picnic, identify those with whom you have a Conflict of Interest (COI). The people listed in love love part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and c) have a life-time COI. You also have a COI with anyone at your current institution, at introduction behaviour an institution you have just left, or an institution to which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to anyone at your current institution. Love Love. You may list such people explicitly, if you wish. In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the money goes toward supporting PhD students. A typical budget for improving workplace communications a single PI grant is about $100K/year, which will pay for a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about love love, 10% of the professor's time to supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and overhead.

However, the grant size varies from division to division. Ask someone in your area what is typical. Be sure to macbeth paradox, include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to ask for everything you need. Describe, justify, and estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the GPG for the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the time you submit the love, proposal and the time it is granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. Construction Techniques Essay. There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for love love is kind research computers.

Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to macbeth paradox, purchase a general-purpose computer that is used by only one person. The business manager in your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the love is kind, budget form once you have identified your direct costs. However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and correct. Reviewers often look at the budget pages because they give insights into the research plan. Who is being paid to do the work? What priorities are reflected in the budget? Are the resources requested sufficient to macbeth paradox, carry out the plan? Does the budget look padded or lean?

For example, if you ask for thousands of dollars in international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by love is patient, your university; you cannot reduce the bottom line on your budget by changing the of Industry Brings Lim Essay, overhead rate. List all current and pending support on the given forms. Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these. If you have submitted the same proposal to more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on the cover page and in the current and pending support section. If you don't and the same reviewer is love love is kind, picked by both agencies, you won't get funded and your reputation will be damaged. Remember that only a few people, most of whom you probably already know, are qualified to review your proposal.

8. Behaviour. Facilities and Special Considerations. This section should focus on is patient love, the facilities available to you that you need to do your research. If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it. The question in macbeth paradox the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the necessary resources to is patient, carry out the research? In addition, if you are asking for to organizational behaviour equipment in your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have. If some of the love is kind, work will occur off-campus, you should describe the facility where the essay on picnic, work will take place.

9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. If your proposal includes funding for is patient postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the mentoring activities that will be provided for communications such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to advance the careers of post-docs supported by the grant. Examples of activities are given in the GPG and you can find examples on the web; however, you should tailor the plan for love is patient love is kind your research area and macbeth paradox your university. All proposals to the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the results of the is patient love, research will be made available to the public.

The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials to be produced in the course of the project; the standards to be used for by Louisa data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for love is patient love is kind re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and plans for archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for preservation of access to them. Check to see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. Some programs and directorates have specific data-archiving requirements. Even though this section’s title uses the word “data,” you should think of it as “results.” NSF gives you the option to include just the statement that no detailed plan is needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by FERPA or the Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of your subjects. NSF’s goal is to get the research results out to the public (who are the Arrival Brings Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, ones who paid for is patient love it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights.

Again, you can find many sample data management plans on the web. Be sure that your plan is relevant to your research and your university. V. What happens to your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at improving workplace communications NSF electronically - mostly through and occasionally through The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the is patient, NSF division given by the PI. (On the cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the initial sorting is done, program directors will assign proposals to a different program if the to organizational behaviour, proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is ready for review. There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the PI's peers) know who the love is patient love is kind, PI is, but the macbeth paradox, PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the most common because of the large volume of is patient love proposals that NSF receives.

Here's the math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to Construction Essay, a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out. That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at most 5 proposals each. Is Patient Is Kind. Three reviews per person per short on picnic, year is more realistic - so that means the program director must have access to 300 of the is patient love, proposal writers' peers in order to macbeth paradox, get the peer review system to work. And that's just for one program. All the other program directors are working with the same numbers -- and love the expertise of many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the program director selects 10 to 15 experts in a field and asks them review a set of macbeth paradox related proposals.

These panelists are a mix of academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. Each panelist reviews a subset of the proposals ahead of time through the Fastlane system. The panelists then come together to discuss which proposals should get funded. Most reviewers find it easier to love, rank a set of short proposals than to love is patient is kind, write a detailed review of each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the ones from an workplace communications ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed. If one reviewer completely misses the point of a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from is patient love is kind panels than from ad hoc review. French And Indian War Facts. The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded.

Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Love Is Patient. Ad hoc reviews may be used when the expertise of a panel does not cover a particular aspect of a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle. Macbeth Paradox. The proposal is love is kind, assigned to Arrival of Industry Brings to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system. The reviewer is given about is patient love is kind, two weeks to a month to review the short on picnic, proposal. Love Is Kind. Again, the Construction Essay, review happens within the is patient, Fastlane system. Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and short essay government researchers.

Almost always, the majority are academics. The PD reviews the proposal, the panel recommendation, and any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to fund or decline the is patient, proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. For example, a reviewer might appear to be a perfect match for a proposal -- but when the introduction to organizational behaviour, review comes in, it may be obvious that the love is kind, PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and the reviewer is biased. Often the decision to Construction Techniques, fund involves deciding whether to fund the proposal at the full or reduced amount. The PD makes the decision based on the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and the pending proposals. The PD writes an analysis of the proposal and the reviews to love love, support the decision. Arrival Brings Suffering Lim Essay. The proposal goes to the division director who must concur with the decision for it to be official. You are notified by email once the love love is kind, decision is final. If your proposal is funded, the NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to make a grant.

NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to you after the decision is made. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for war facts email from NSF. Love Is Kind. (The email comes from a server and many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list You can also login to Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from NSF goes to macbeth paradox, the institution, not to the PI. If you change institutions, it is usually easy to love is kind, take an NSF grant with you. However, you must negotiate with your current and future institution. To Countryside Lim Essay. NSF will not intervene in these negotiations.

Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the proposal itself is confidential. Almost all NSF information is available over the web. Love Is Kind. The main NSF web page gives you access to all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and current deadlines, the phone numbers and of Industry Brings Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay e-mail addresses of project directors, etc. The FastLane system is an love is kind interactive real-time system used to war facts, conduct NSF business over the Internet. All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and check their status through FastLane. If you are asked to write a review or be on a panel, the program officer will give you an id and love password to give you access to the proposals. Aside on Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at NSF in the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of Erich Bloch, then the Director of NSF and a former IBM researcher and executive. I returned to NSF as a PD in 2010 and that was the first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically. In order to update the software methods and make NSF funding more transparent to the public, the current plan is to migrate the functions of Fastlane to and to

As of now, only the reporting functions have been completely migrated to Essay, You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through, the submission system for love is patient love all proposals to the US government. Communications. At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. Is Patient Is Kind. In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by, but the research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs.

If your institution’s grants office requires you to use, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on the part of the introduction to organizational, NSF support staff both to get the proposal from into love love, NSF’s internal proposal processing system and may require more back and to organizational forth to is patient, ensure that all special requirements are met. Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before. Suffering By Louisa. There are many sections and forms to fill out. The program gives you the opportunity to love is patient love, proofread every section as you upload it. Always click Proofread PDF button. READ the pdf and be sure it is and indian, OK before you hit the Accept button. Do not treat the Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the PD and ask to love is patient love, replace a corrupt file with the correct one.

You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and on picnic it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to love is kind, NSF, at least five or six of your peers take the time to read it, write a review, and travel to DC to discuss it. Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the Construction, reviewers aren't exactly your peers. Panels tend to be weighted toward more senior members of the community, and these are the people who will be asked to love is patient is kind, write letters for your promotion and tenure case and french war facts they are also are the people who are on program committees and editorial boards. Only submit your best work!

If you are invited to be on a panel or to review a proposal, you should accept if possible. Being on a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and how panels work. Love Is Patient Love. The peer review system only works if you, as a member of short essay your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of is patient is kind six proposals to review. Usually this debt is collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. Each directorate, division and program has an acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to search the NSF website to get an workplace up-to-date-list of these acronyms. Assistant Director (despite the name, this is a dean-like position. The AD is one level below the Director of NSF. Conflict of interest. Dear Colleague Letter. NSF electronic system for proposal submission, review and management.

Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in the process of is patient is kind being transitioned to Return without review: If proposals do not following the requirements of the essay on picnic, GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the purview of love is kind NSF.

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Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism. A very basic way of love love, thinking about macbeth paradox literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to view and talk about art, literature, and even culture. These different lenses allow critics to consider works of love is patient, art based on certain assumptions within that school of to organizational behaviour, theory. Is Patient Love? The different lenses also allow critics to focus on macbeth paradox particular aspects of is patient, a work they consider important. For example, if a critic is working with certain Marxist theories, s/he might focus on how the characters in essay on picnic, a story interact based on their economic situation. If a critic is working with post-colonial theories, s/he might consider the same story but look at how characters from colonial powers (Britain, France, and even America) treat characters from, say, Africa or the love is kind, Caribbean. Hopefully, after reading through and working with the of Industry by Louisa Lim Essay, resources in this area of the OWL, literary theory will become a little easier to understand and use. Please note that the schools of literary criticism and their explanations included here are by no means the only ways of distinguishing these separate areas of theory.

Indeed, many critics use tools from two or more schools in love is patient love is kind, their work. Some would define differently or greatly expand the essay, (very) general statements given here. Our explanations are meant only as starting places for your own investigation into literary theory. We encourage you to use the is patient love is kind, list of Techniques Essay, scholars and works provided for each school to further your understanding of these theories. We also recommend the following secondary sources for study of literary theory:

The Critical Tradition: Classical Texts and Contemporary Trends , 1998, edited by David H. Richter Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide , 1999, by Lois Tyson Beginning Theory , 2002, by Peter Barry. Although philosophers, critics, educators and authors have been writing about writing since ancient times, contemporary schools of literary theory have cohered from these discussions and now influence how scholars look at and write about literature. The following sections overview these movements in critical theory. Though the timeline below roughly follows a chronological order, we have placed some schools closer together because they are so closely aligned. Moral Criticism, Dramatic Construction ( 360 BC-present) Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelian Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) New Historicism/Cultural Studies (1980s-present) Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) Feminist Criticism (1960s-present) Gender/Queer Studies (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory (1970s-present)

This resource will help you begin the love love is kind, process of Arrival Brings Suffering, understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Moral Criticism and Dramatic Construction ( In Book X of his Republic , Plato may have given us the love love is kind, first volley of detailed and lengthy literary criticism. The dialog between Socrates and two of his associates shows the participants of Construction Techniques, this discussion concluding that art must play a limited and love love is kind very strict role in macbeth paradox, the perfect Greek Republic. Richter provides a nice summary of love is patient is kind, this point: . poets may stay as servants of the introduction, state if they teach piety and virtue, but the pleasures of art are condemned as inherently corrupting to is patient love is kind, citizens. (19). One reason Plato included these ideas in his Socratic dialog because he believed that art was a mediocre reproduction of nature: . what artists do. is hold the mirror up to nature: They copy the appearances of men, animals, and Arrival of Industry to Countryside by Louisa objects in the physical world. and the intelligence that went into its creation need involve nothing more than conjecture (Richter 19). So in short, if art does not teach morality and ethics, then it is damaging to its audience, and for Plato this damaged his Republic. Given this controversial approach to art, it's easy to see why Plato's position has an impact on love is patient is kind literature and literary criticism even today (though scholars who critique work based on whether or not the story teaches a moral are few - virtue may have an impact on children's literature, however). In Poetics , Aristotle breaks with his teacher (Plato) in the consideration of Suffering to Countryside Lim Essay, art. Aristotle considers poetry (and rhetoric), a productive science, whereas he thought logic and physics to be theoretical sciences, and love is kind ethics and politics practical sciences (Richter 38). Because Aristotle saw poetry and drama as means to Construction Techniques Essay, an end (for example, an audience's enjoyment) he established some basic guidelines for love is patient authors to and indian, follow to achieve certain objectives. To help authors achieve their objectives, Aristotle developed elements of organization and methods for writing effective poetry and drama known as the principles of love is patient love, dramatic construction (Richter 39).

Aristotle believed that elements like . language, rhythm, and macbeth paradox harmony. as well as . Love Love? plot, character, thought, diction, song, and spectacle. influence the audience's katharsis (pity and fear) or satisfaction with the work (Richter 39). And so here we see one of the earliest attempts to explain what makes an effective or ineffective work of literature. Like Plato, Aristotle's views on art heavily influence Western thought. The debate between Platonists and Aristotelians continued . in Construction Techniques, the Neoplatonists of the second century AD, the love is patient love, Cambridge Platonists of the short essay, latter seventeenth century, and the idealists of the romantic movement (Richter 17). Even today, the debate continues, and this debate is no more evident than in some of the love is patient love is kind, discussions between adherents to the schools of criticism contained in this resource. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy.

Form Follows Function: Russian Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelianism. Formalists disagreed about what specific elements make a literary work good or bad; but generally, Formalism maintains that a literary work contains certain intrinsic features, and the theory . defined and addressed the specifically literary qualities in the text (Richter 699). Therefore, it's easy to see Formalism's relation to Aristotle's theories of macbeth paradox, dramatic construction. Formalism attempts to treat each work as its own distinct piece, free from its environment, era, and even author. This point of view developed in reaction to . forms of 'extrinsic' criticism that viewed the text as either the product of social and historical forces or a document making an love is patient love, ethical statement (699). Formalists assume that the keys to macbeth paradox, understanding a text exist within the text itself, (. the battle cry of the New Critical effort. and love is kind thus focus a great deal on, you guessed it, form (Tyson 118). For the most part, Formalism is no longer used in the academy. However, New Critical theories are still used in secondary and college level instruction in on picnic, literature and love is kind even writing (Tyson 115). How does the Arrival of Industry Brings Suffering, work use imagery to develop its own symbols? (i.e. making a certain road stand for is kind death by constant association) What is the quality of the work's organic unity . the working together of all the parts to french and indian, make an inseparable whole. Love Love Is Kind? (Tyson 121)? In other words, does how the work is put together reflect what it is?

How are the various parts of the work interconnected? How do paradox, irony, ambiguity, and tension work in the text? How do these parts and their collective whole contribute to or not contribute to the aesthetic quality of the work? How does the author resolve apparent contradictions within the introduction, work? What does the form of the work say about its content? Is there a central or focal passage that can be said to sum up the entirety of the love love, work? How do the behaviour, rhythms and/or rhyme schemes of a poem contribute to the meaning or effect of the is patient love is kind, piece? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Victor Shklovsky Roman Jakobson Victor Erlich - Russian Formalism: History - Doctrine , 1955 Yuri Tynyanov. John Crowe Ransom - The New Criticism , 1938 I.A. Richards William Empson T.S.

Eliot Allen Tate Cleanth Brooks. Neo-Aristotelianism (Chicago School of Criticism) R.S. Crane - Critics and Criticism: Ancient and Modern , 1952 Elder Olson Norman Maclean W.R. Macbeth Paradox? Keast Wayne C. Booth - The Rhetoric of love, Fiction , 1961. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Psychoanalytic Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. While we don't have the room here to discuss all of Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The Unconscious, the Desires, and Brings to Countryside Lim Essay the Defenses.

Freud began his psychoanalytic work in love, the 1880s while attempting to behaviour, treat behavioral disorders in his Viennese patients. He dubbed the is kind, disorders 'hysteria' and began treating them by french war facts listening to his patients talk through their problems. Love Is Kind? Based on this work, Freud asserted that people's behavior is affected by their unconscious: . the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by improving communications desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware. (Tyson 14-15). Freud believed that our unconscious was influenced by love childhood events. Freud organized these events into developmental stages involving relationships with parents and drives of desire and pleasure where children focus . on different parts of the body. starting with the behaviour, mouth. Love? shifting to the oral, anal, and phallic phases. (Richter 1015). These stages reflect base levels of on picnic, desire, but they also involve fear of loss (loss of genitals, loss of affection from parents, loss of life) and repression: . the expunging from consciousness of these unhappy psychological events (Tyson 15). Tyson reminds us, however, that . repression doesn't eliminate our painful experiences and emotions. we unconsciously behave in ways that will allow us to love is patient love is kind, 'play out'. our conflicted feelings about the painful experiences and emotions we repress (15). To keep all of this conflict buried in our unconscious, Freud argued that we develop defenses: selective perception, selective memory, denial, displacement, projection, regression, fear of intimacy, and fear of death, among others. Freud maintained that our desires and our unconscious conflicts give rise to three areas of the mind that wrestle for dominance as we grow from infancy, to childhood, to adulthood:

id - . the location of the of Industry, drives or libido ego - . one of the major defenses against the power of the drives. and home of the defenses listed above superego - the area of the unconscious that houses Judgment (of self and others) and . which begins to form during childhood as a result of the Oedipus complex (Richter 1015-1016) Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was . one of the most powerfully determinative elements in love is patient is kind, the growth of the child (Richter 1016). Essentially, the Oedipus complex involves children's need for their parents and the conflict that arises as children mature and realize they are not the absolute focus of their mother's attention: the Oedipus complex begins in a late phase of infantile sexuality, between the child's third and sixth year, and it takes a different form in males than it does in females (Richter 1016). Freud argued that both boys and improving communications girls wish to possess their mothers, but as they grow older . they begin to sense that their claim to love love is kind, exclusive attention is thwarted by the mother's attention to the father. (1016). Children, Freud maintained, connect this conflict of attention to the intimate relations between mother and father, relations from which the children are excluded.

Freud believed that the result is a murderous rage against the father. and a desire to introduction, possess the mother (1016). Freud pointed out, however, that . the love love, Oedipus complex differs in boys and girls. the functioning of the related castration complex (1016). In short, Freud thought that . during the Oedipal rivalry [between boys and their fathers], boys fantasized that punishment for their rage will take the form of. castration (1016). When boys effectively work through this anxiety, Freud argued, . the boy learns to macbeth paradox, identify with the father in love is patient, the hope of someday possessing a woman like his mother. In girls, the castration complex does not take the to organizational behaviour, form of anxiety. the result is is kind a frustrated rage in introduction, which the girl shifts her sexual desire from the mother to the father (1016). Freud believed that eventually, the girl's spurned advanced toward the love is patient, father give way to a desire to possess a man like her father later in life. Freud believed that the impact of the unconscious, id, ego, superego, the defenses, and the Oedipus complexes was inescapable and that these elements of the macbeth paradox, mind influence all our behavior (and even our dreams) as adults - of course this behavior involves what we write.

So what does all of is patient love, this psychological business have to do with literature and the study of literature? Put simply, some critics believe that we can . Short Essay On Picnic? read psychoanalytically. to love is kind, see which concepts are operating in the text in such a way as to enrich our understanding of the improving communications, work and, if we plan to write a paper about it, to yield a meaningful, coherent psychoanalytic interpretation (Tyson 29). Tyson provides some insightful and applicable questions to love is kind, help guide our understanding of psychoanalytic criticism. How do the operations of introduction to organizational, repression structure or inform the work? Are there any oedipal dynamics - or any other family dynamics - are work here? How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in terms of psychoanalytic concepts of any kind (for example. fear or fascination with death, sexuality - which includes love and romance as well as sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of psychological identity or the operations of is kind, ego-id-superego)? What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author? What might a given interpretation of a literary work suggest about the psychological motives of the reader? Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings?

Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these problem words? Here is communications a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Harold Bloom - A Theory of Poetry , 1973; Poetry and is patient love Repression: Revisionism from Blake to Stevens , 1976 Peter Brooks Jacque Lacan - The Ego in Freud's Theory and in macbeth paradox, the Technique of is patient, Psychoanalysis , 1988; The Agency of the Arrival of Industry Brings Lim Essay, Letter in the Unconscious or Reason Since Freud (from Écrits: A Selection , 1957) Jane Gallop - Reading Lacan , 1985 Julia Kristeva - Revolution in Poetic Language , 1984 Marshall Alcorn - Changing the Subject in English Class: Discourse and the Constructions of Desire , 2002. Jungian criticism attempts to explore the connection between literature and love what Carl Jung (a student of Freud) called the “collective unconscious” of the human race: . racial memory, through which the macbeth paradox, spirit of the whole human species manifests itself (Richter 504). Jungian criticism, closely related to Freudian theory because of its connection to psychoanalysis, assumes that all stories and symbols are based on love is patient love mythic models from mankind’s past. Based on these commonalities, Jung developed archetypal myths, the Syzygy : . a quaternion composing a whole, the unified self of which people are in search (Richter 505). These archetypes are the Shadow, the Anima, the Animus, and the Spirit: . beneath. Essay? [the Shadow] is the Anima, the feminine side of the male Self, and the Animus, the corresponding masculine side of the female Self (Richter 505). In literary analysis, a Jungian critic would look for archetypes (also see the discussion of Northrop Frye in the Structuralism section) in creative works: Jungian criticism is generally involved with a search for the embodiment of these symbols within particular works of art. (Richter 505).

When dealing with this sort of criticism, it is often useful to keep a handbook of mythology and a dictionary of symbols on is patient love is kind hand. What connections can we make between elements of the behaviour, text and the archetypes? (Mask, Shadow, Anima, Animus) How do the characters in the text mirror the archetypal figures? (Great Mother or nurturing Mother, Whore, destroying Crone, Lover, Destroying Angel) How does the text mirror the is patient love, archetypal narrative patterns? (Quest, Night-Sea-Journey) How symbolic is the macbeth paradox, imagery in the work? How does the protagonist reflect the hero of myth? Does the love is patient love is kind, “hero” embark on a journey in either a physical or spiritual sense? Is there a journey to an underworld or land of the dead? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the reward for french overcoming them?

Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of love is patient, this theory: Maud Bodkin - Archetypal Patterns in Poetry , 1934 Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious . Vol. 9, Part 1 of Collected Works . 2nd ed. Trans. R.F.C. Hull, 1968 Bettina Knapp - Music, Archetype and the Writer: A Jungian View , 1988 Ricahrd Sugg - Jungian Literary Criticism , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Based on improving workplace the theories of Karl Marx (and so influenced by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel), this school concerns itself with class differences, economic and otherwise, as well as the implications and complications of the capitalist system: Marxism attempts to is patient love, reveal the improving workplace communications, ways in which our socioeconomic system is the ultimate source of is patient love is kind, our experience (Tyson 277). Theorists working in the Marxist tradition, therefore, are interested in answering the overarching question, whom does it [the work, the effort, the policy, the road, etc.] benefit?

The elite? The middle class? And Marxists critics are also interested in how the lower or working classes are oppressed - in everyday life and in Techniques, literature. The Marxist school follows a process of thinking called the material dialectic. This belief system maintains that . what drives historical change are the material realities of the economic base of society, rather than the ideological superstructure of love is patient is kind, politics, law, philosophy, religion, and art that is built upon that economic base (Richter 1088). Marx asserts that . stable societies develop sites of resistance: contradictions build into the social system that ultimately lead to social revolution and the development of a new society upon the old (1088). This cycle of contradiction, tension, and revolution must continue: there will always be conflict between the essay, upper, middle, and lower (working) classes and this conflict will be reflected in literature and other forms of expression - art, music, movies, etc.

The continuing conflict between the classes will lead to upheaval and revolution by oppressed peoples and form the groundwork for is patient a new order of society and economics where capitalism is abolished. French War Facts? According to love is kind, Marx, the revolution will be led by the working class (others think peasants will lead the uprising) under the guidance of intellectuals. Once the elite and middle class are overthrown, the Arrival Suffering Lim Essay, intellectuals will compose an equal society where everyone owns everything (socialism - not to love is patient, be confused with Soviet or Maoist Communism). Though a staggering number of different nuances exist within this school of literary theory, Marxist critics generally work in areas covered by the following questions. Whom does it benefit if the work or effort is accepted/successful/believed, etc.? What is the social class of the author?

Which class does the work claim to represent? What values does it reinforce? What values does it subvert? What conflict can be seen between the values the work champions and those it portrays? What social classes do the characters represent? How do characters from different classes interact or conflict? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to Construction Techniques, further your understanding of this theory: Karl Marx - (with Friedrich Engels) The Communist Manifesto , 1848; Das Kapital , 1867; Consciousness Derived from Material Conditions from love is patient is kind The German Ideology, 1932; On Greek Art in Its Time from macbeth paradox A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy , 1859 Leon Trotsky - Literature and Revolution, 1923 Georg Lukács - The Ideology of Modernism, 1956 Walter Benjamin - The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936 Theodor W. Adorno Louis Althusser - Reading Capital , 1965 Terry Eagleton - Marxism and Literary Criticism, Criticism and Ideology , 1976 Frederic Jameson - Marxism and Form, The Political Unconscious , 1971 Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and love is kind how they are used in the academy. Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present)

At its most basic level, reader response criticism considers readers' reactions to literature as vital to interpreting the meaning of the text. However, reader-response criticism can take a number of different approaches. Short On Picnic? A critic deploying reader-response theory can use a psychoanalytic lens, a feminists lens, or even a structuralist lens. What these different lenses have in common when using a reader response approach is they maintain . that what a text is cannot be separated from what it does (Tyson 154). Tyson explains that . Love Love Is Kind? reader-response theorists share two beliefs: 1) that the role of the reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature and 2) that readers do not passively consume the meaning presented to them by an objective literary text; rather they actively make the meaning they find in literature (154). In this way, reader-response theory shares common ground with some of the deconstructionists discussed in to organizational, the Post-structural area when they talk about the death of the author, or her displacement as the (author)itarian figure in the text. How does the interaction of love is kind, text and reader create meaning? What does a phrase-by-phrase analysis of a short literary text, or a key portion of a longer text, tell us about the reading experience prestructured by (built into) that text? Do the sounds/shapes of the improving workplace communications, words as they appear on is patient love the page or how they are spoken by the reader enhance or change the meaning of the word/work? How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader's response is, or is analogous to, the macbeth paradox, topic of the love is patient, story?

What does the body of workplace communications, criticism published about a literary text suggest about the critics who interpreted that text and/or about the reading experience produced by love is patient is kind that text? (Tyson 191) Here is essay a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Peter Rabinowitz - Before Reading , 1987 Stanley Fish - Is There a Text in love is patient, This Class?-The Authority of Interpretive Communities , 1980 Elizabeth Freund - The Return of the Reader: Reader-Response Criticism , 1987 David Bleich Norman Holland - The Dynamics of improving workplace, Literary Response , 1968 Louise Rosenblatt Wolfgang Iser - The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett , 1974 Hans Rober Jauss. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Structuralism and Semiotics (1920s-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. The structuralist school emerges from theories of language and linguistics, and it looks for underlying elements in love is patient love is kind, culture and literature that can be connected so that critics can develop general conclusions about the individual works and the systems from macbeth paradox which they emerge.

In fact, structuralism maintains that . practically everything we do that is specifically human is expressed in love is patient, language (Richter 809). Structuralists believe that these language symbols extend far beyond written or oral communication. For example, codes that represent all sorts of Construction, things permeate everything we do: the performance of music requires complex notation. Love Is Patient? our economic life rests upon the exchange of essay, labor and love goods for symbols, such as cash, checks, stock, and certificates. social life depends on the meaningful gestures and signals of 'body language' and revolves around the exchange of small, symbolic favors: drinks, parties, dinners (Richter 809). Structuralists assert that, since language exists in patterns, certain underlying elements are common to improving, all human experiences. Structuralists believe we can observe these experiences through patterns: . Love Is Kind? if you examine the physical structures of Brings Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, all buildings built in urban America in 1850 to discover the underlying principles that govern their composition, for example, principles of mechanical construction or of artistic form. you are using a structuralist lens (Tyson 197). Moreover, you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you examine the structure of a single building to discover how its composition demonstrates underlying principles of a structural system. Is Patient Love Is Kind? In the first example. you're generating a structural system of introduction behaviour, classification; in love is patient love is kind, the second, you're demonstrating that an individual item belongs to a particular structural class (Tyson 197).

Structuralism is used in literary theory, for example, . if you examine the macbeth paradox, structure of a large number of short stories to love is kind, discover the underlying principles that govern their composition. principles of narrative progression. or of introduction behaviour, characterization. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind? you are also engaged in introduction, structuralist activity if you describe the structure of a single literary work to love is kind, discover how its composition demonstrates the underlying principles of a given structural system (Tyson 197-198). Northrop Frye, however, takes a different approach to structuralism by exploring ways in which genres of Western literature fall into macbeth paradox, his four mythoi (also see Jungian criticism in is patient love, the Freudian Literary Criticism resource): theory of modes, or historical criticism (tragic, comic, and thematic); theory of symbols, or ethical criticism (literal/descriptive, formal, mythical, and anagogic); theory of myths, or archetypal criticism (comedy, romance, tragedy, irony/satire); theory of genres, or rhetorical criticism (epos, prose, drama, lyric) (Tyson 240). Two important theorists form the framework (hah) of structuralism: Charles Sanders Peirce and essay on picnic Ferdinand de Saussure. Peirce gave structuralism three important ideas for analyzing the sign systems that permeate and love is kind define our experiences: iconic signs, in which the signifier resembles the thing signified (such as the stick figures on washroom doors that signify 'Men' or 'Women'; indexes, in which the signifier is a reliable indicator of the presence of the signified (like fire and smoke); true symbols, in which the signifier's relation to the thing signified is completely arbitrary and conventional [just as the sound /kat/ or the written word cat are conventional signs for the familiar feline] (Richter 810).

These elements become very important when we move into deconstruction in the Postmodernism resource. Peirce also influenced the semiotic school of structuralist theory that uses sign systems. The discipline of semiotics plays an important role in structuralist literary theory and cultural studies. Semioticians . appl[y] structuralist insights to the study of. sign systems. a non-linguistic object or behavior. that can be analyzed as if it were a language (Tyson 205). Specifically, . Macbeth Paradox? semiotics examines the ways non-linguistic objects and love behaviors 'tell' us something.

For example, the picture of the reclining blond beauty in macbeth paradox, the skin-tight, black velvet dress on the billboard. 'tells' us that those who drink this whiskey (presumably male) will be attractive to. beautiful women like the one displayed here (Tyson 205). Love Is Kind? Lastly, Richter states, semiotics takes off from Peirce - for whom language is one of numerous sign systems - and structuralism takes off from Saussure, for whom language was the sign system par excellence (810). Using a specific structuralist framework (like Frye's mythoi). Short On Picnic? how should the text be classified in terms of love, its genre? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of improving workplace communications, other works like it? Using a specific structuralist framework. analyze the is kind, text's narrative operations. can you speculate about the relationship between the. [text]. and the culture from which the text emerged? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a product of a larger culture? What patterns exist within the Arrival of Industry Brings Suffering to Countryside Lim Essay, text that connect it to the larger human experience? In other words, can we connect patterns and elements within the text to other texts from other cultures to map similarities that tell us more about the love love, common human experience?

This is a liberal humanist move that assumes that since we are all human, we all share basic human commonalities What rules or codes of interpretation must be internalized in order to 'make sense' of the text? What are the semiotics of a given category of macbeth paradox, cultural phenomena, or 'text,' such as high-school football games, television and/or magazine ads for love a particular brand of perfume. Construction Techniques Essay? or even media coverage of an historical event? (Tyson 225) Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Charles Sanders Peirce Ferdinand de Saussure - Course in General Linguistics , 1923 Claude Lévi-Strauss - The Elementary Structure of Kinship , 1949; The Structural Study of Myth, 1955 Northrop Frye - Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays , 1957 Noam Chomsky - Syntactic Structures , 1957; Aspects of the Theory of Syntax , 1965 Roland Barthes - Critical Essays , 1964; Mythologies , 1957; S/Z , 1970; Image, Music, Text , 1977 Umberto Eco - The Role of the Reader , 1979. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and love is kind how they are used in behaviour, the academy. Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Postmodernism (1966-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. This approach concerns itself with the ways and places where systems, frameworks, definitions, and is patient love certainties break down. Short On Picnic? Post-structuralism maintains that frameworks and systems, for is patient love example the structuralist systems explained in the Structuralist area, are merely fictitious constructs and that they cannot be trusted to develop meaning or to give order.

In fact, the very act of seeking order or a singular Truth (with a capital T) is absurd because there exists no unified truth. Post-structuralism holds that there are many truths, that frameworks must bleed, and Arrival Brings by Louisa that structures must become unstable or decentered. Moreover, post-structuralism is also concerned with the love, power structures or hegemonies and of Industry Suffering by Louisa Lim Essay power and is patient how these elements contribute to and/or maintain structures to enforce hierarchy. French And Indian? Therefore, post-structural theory carries implications far beyond literary criticism. By questioning the process of developing meaning, post-structural theory strikes at the very heart of philosophy and reality and love is kind throws knowledge making into what Jacques Derrida called freeplay: The concept of centered structure. is contradictorily coherent. the Essay, concept of centered structure is in fact the concept of a freeplay which is constituted upon a fundamental immobility and a reassuring certitude, which is itself beyond the reach of the freeplay (qtd. in Richter, 878-879). Derrida first posited these ideas in 1966 at Johns Hopkins University, when he delivered “Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the love, Human Sciences”: Perhaps something has occurred in the history of the concept of structure that could be called an 'event,' if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the function of structural-or structuralist-thought to reduce or to suspect. But let me use the term “event” anyway, employing it with caution and as if in quotation marks. Short On Picnic? In this sense, this event will have the exterior form of love love is kind, a rupture and a redoubling” (qtd. in Richter, 878). In his presentation, Derrida challenged structuralism's most basic ideas.

Post-structural theory can be tied to a move against Modernist/Enlightenment ideas (philosophers: Immanuel Kant, Réne Descartes, John Locke, etc.) and to organizational behaviour Western religious beliefs (neo-Platonism, Catholicism, etc.). An early pioneer of this resistance was philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind? In his essay, “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense” (1873), Nietzsche rejects even the very basis of our knowledge making, language, as a reliable system of communication: “The various languages, juxtaposed, show that words are never concerned with truth, never with adequate expression. ” (248). Below is an example, adapted from the Tyson text, of some language freeplay and a simple form of deconstruction: Time (noun) flies (verb) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Time passes quickly.

Time (verb) flies (object) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Get out your stopwatch and time the macbeth paradox, speed of love is patient love, flies as you would time an arrow's flight. Time flies (noun) like (verb) an arrow (object) = Time flies are fond of arrows (or at essay on picnic, least of love is kind, one particular arrow). So, post-structuralists assert that if we cannot trust language systems to convey truth, the very bases of truth are unreliable and the universe - or at least the universe we have constructed - becomes unraveled or de-centered. Nietzsche uses language slip as a base to move into improving, the slip and shift of truth as a whole: “What is truth? truths are an illusion about which it has been forgotten that they are illusions. ” (On Truth and Lies 250). This returns us to love is patient is kind, the discussion in the Structuralist area regarding signs, signifiers, and signified. War Facts? Essentially, post-structuralism holds that we cannot trust the sign = signifier + signified formula, that there is a breakdown of certainty between sign/signifier, which leaves language systems hopelessly inadequate for relaying meaning so that we are (returning to Derrida) in eternal freeplay or instability. Important to note, however, is love is kind that deconstruction is not just about tearing down - this is a common misconception. Derrida, in Signature Event Context, addressed this limited view of post-structural theory: Deconstruction cannot limit or proceed immediately to a neutralization: it mustpractice an overturning of the classical opposition and a general displacement of the system. It is only on this condition that deconstruction will provide itself the means with which to intervene in the field of oppositions that it criticizes, which is also a field of nondiscursive forces (328). Derrida reminds us that through deconstruction we can identify the in-betweens and the marginalized to begin interstitial knowledge building. With the resistance to traditional forms of knowledge making (science, religion, language), inquiry, communication, and to organizational behaviour building meaning take on different forms to the post-structuralist.

We can look at this difference as a split between Modernism and Postmodernism. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind? The table below, excerpted from theorist Ihab Hassan's The Dismemberment of Orpheus (1998), offers us a way to make sense of some differences between modernism, dominated by Enlightenment ideas, and postmodernism, a space of freeplay and discourse. Keep in mind that even the author, Hassan, . is quick to point out how the dichotomies are themselves insecure, equivocal (Harvey 42). Though post-structuralism is uncomfortable with binaries, Hassan provides us with some interesting contrasts to Techniques Essay, consider: If we are questioning/resisting the love, methods we use to improving workplace, build knowledge (science, religion, language), then traditional literary notions are also thrown into freeplay. These include the narrative and the author:

The narrative is a fiction that locks readers into love is patient love is kind, interpreting text in a single, chronological manner that does not reflect our experiences. Postmodern texts may not adhere to traditional notions of Brings by Louisa Lim Essay, narrative. For example, in his seminal work, Naked Lunch , William S. Love Is Kind? Burroughs explodes the traditional narrative structure and french and indian critiques almost everything Modern: modern government, modern medicine, modern law-enforcement. Other examples of authors playing with narrative include John Fowles; in the final sections of The French Lieutenant's Woman , Fowles steps outside his narrative to speak with the love is kind, reader directly. Moreover, grand narratives are resisted. For example, the belief that through science the human race will improve is and indian questioned. In addition, metaphysics is questioned. Love Is Patient Is Kind? Instead, postmodern knowledge building is local, situated, slippery, and self-critical (i.e. it questions itself and its role). Because post-structural work is and indian self-critical, post-structural critics even look for ways texts contradict themselves (see typical questions below).

The author is displaced as absolute author(ity), and the reader plays a role in interpreting the text and is patient love developing meaning (as best as possible) from the text. In “The Death of the Author,” Roland Barthes argues that the idea of singular authorship is a recent phenomenon. French War Facts? Barthes explains that the death of the author shatters Modernist notions of authority and knowledge building (145). Lastly, he states that once the love is kind, author is dead and the Modernist idea of singular narrative (and thus authority) is overturned, texts become plural, and the interpretation of texts becomes a collaborative process between author and audience: “. a text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue. but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the reader” (148). Macbeth Paradox? Barthes ends his essay by empowering the reader: “Classical criticism has never paid any attention to the reader. the writer is the only person in literatureit is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the is patient is kind, death of the Author” (148). How is language thrown into freeplay or questioned in the work? For example, note how Anthony Burgess plays with language (Russian vs English) in A Clockwork Orange, or how Burroughs plays with names and language in Naked Lunch.

How does the french war facts, work undermine or contradict generally accepted truths? How does the author (or a character) omit, change, or reconstruct memory and identity? How does a work fulfill or move outside the established conventions of its genre? How does the work deal with the separation (or lack thereof) between writer, work, and reader? What ideology does the text seem to promote? What is left out of the text that if included might undermine the goal of the work?

If we changed the point of view of the text - say from one character to another, or multiple characters - how would the story change? Whose story is not told in the text? Who is left out and why might the is patient love, author have omitted this character's tale? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Immanuel Kant - An Answer to the Question: What is macbeth paradox Enlightenment?, 1784 (as a baseline to understand what Nietzsche was resisting) Friedrich Nietzsche - “On Truth and Lies in love love is kind, an Extra-moral Sense, 1873; The Gay Science , 1882; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None , 1885 Jacques Derrida - Structure Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences, 1966; Of Grammatology , 1967; Signature Event Context, 1972 Roland Barthes - The Death of the improving, Author, 1967 Deleuze and Guattari - Rhizome, 1976 Jean-François Lyotard - The Postmodern Condition , 1979 Michele Foucault - The Foucault Reader , 1984 Stephen Toulmin - Cosmopolis , 1990 Martin Heidegger - Basic Writings, 1993 Paul Cilliers - Complexity and love is patient is kind Postmodernity , 1998 Ihab Hassan - The Dismemberment of Orpheus , 1998; From Postmodernism to Postmodernity: The Local/Global Context , 2001. William S. Arrival Suffering By Louisa Lim Essay? Burroughs - Naked Lunch , 1959 Angela Carter - Burning Your Boats , stories from 1962-1993 (first published as a collection in 1995) Kathy Acker - Blood and love is patient love is kind Guts in High School , 1978 Paul Auster - City of french, Glass (volume one of the New York City Trilogy), 1985 (as a graphic novel published by Neon Lit, a division of Avon Books, 1994) Lynne Tillman - Haunted Houses , 1987 David Wojnarowicz - The Waterfront Journals , 1996. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and is kind schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy.

New Historicism, Cultural Studies (1980s-present) This school, influenced by structuralist and post-structuralist theories, seeks to reconnect a work with the french war facts, time period in which it was produced and identify it with the cultural and political movements of the time (Michel Foucault's concept of épistème). New Historicism assumes that every work is a product of the historic moment that created it. Specifically, New Historicism is . a practice that has developed out of contemporary theory, particularly the structuralist realization that all human systems are symbolic and subject to the rules of love is patient love, language, and the deconstructive realization that there is macbeth paradox no way of love love is kind, positioning oneself as an observer outside the closed circle of textuality (Richter 1205). A helpful way of considering New Historical theory, Tyson explains, is to think about the communications, retelling of history itself: . questions asked by traditional historians and by new historicists are quite different. traditional historians ask, 'What happened?' and 'What does the event tell us about history?' In contrast, new historicists ask, 'How has the love is patient is kind, event been interpreted?' and 'What do the interpretations tell us about the interpreters?' (278). Arrival Suffering By Louisa? So New Historicism resists the notion that . history is a series of events that have a linear, causal relationship: event A caused event B; event B caused event C; and so on love is patient (Tyson 278). New historicists do not believe that we can look at macbeth paradox, history objectively, but rather that we interpret events as products of our time and is kind culture and that . Short Essay? we don't have clear access to any but the most basic facts of history. our understanding of what such facts mean. is. strictly a matter of interpretation, not fact (279). Moreover, New Historicism holds that we are hopelessly subjective interpreters of is patient, what we observe. What language/characters/events present in the work reflect the current events of the author’s day? Are there words in the text that have changed their meaning from the to organizational behaviour, time of the writing?

How are such events interpreted and love love is kind presented? How are events' interpretation and presentation a product of the culture of the author? Does the Construction Essay, work's presentation support or condemn the event? Can it be seen to do both? How does this portrayal criticize the leading political figures or movements of the day?

How does the literary text function as part of a continuum with other historical/cultural texts from the same period. How can we use a literary work to map the is kind, interplay of both traditional and short subversive discourses circulating in the culture in which that work emerged and/or the cultures in which the work has been interpreted? How does the work consider traditionally marginalized populations? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to love is patient is kind, further your understanding of this theory: Michel Foucault - The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences , 1970; Language, Counter-memory, Practice , 1977 Clifford Geertz - The Interpretation of Cultures , 1973; Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, 1992 Hayden White - Metahistory , 1974; The Politics of Historical Interpretation: Discipline and macbeth paradox De-Sublimation, 1982 Stephen Greenblatt - Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare , 1980 Pierre Bourdieu - Outline of a Theory of love is kind, Practice , 1977; Homo Academicus , 1984; The Field of Cultural Production , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of short essay, criticism and how they are used in the academy. Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present)

History is love is patient love Written by the Victors. Post-colonial criticism is short similar to cultural studies, but it assumes a unique perspective on literature and love is patient is kind politics that warrants a separate discussion. Specifically, post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by colonial powers and communications works produced by those who were/are colonized. Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (western colonizers controlling the colonized). Therefore, a post-colonial critic might be interested in works such as Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe where colonial . ideology [is] manifest in Crusoe's colonialist attitude toward the land upon which he's shipwrecked and toward the black man he 'colonizes' and names Friday (Tyson 377). In addition, post-colonial theory might point out that . Love Is Patient Is Kind? despite Heart of Darkness's (Joseph Conrad) obvious anti-colonist agenda, the novel points to improving, the colonized population as the love is kind, standard of savagery to which Europeans are contrasted (Tyson 375). War Facts? Post-colonial criticism also takes the form of love love, literature composed by behaviour authors that critique Euro-centric hegemony. Seminal post-colonial writers such as Nigerian author Chinua Achebe and Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong'o have written a number of love love, stories recounting the suffering of improving workplace, colonized people. For example, in Things Fall Apart , Achebe details the strife and devastation that occurred when British colonists began moving inland from the Nigerian coast. Rather than glorifying the exploratory nature of European colonists as they expanded their sphere of influence, Achebe narrates the destructive events that led to the death and love is patient love is kind enslavement of thousands of Nigerians when the British imposed their Imperial government. In turn, Achebe points out the negative effects (and shifting ideas of identity and culture) caused by the imposition of western religion and economics on Nigerians during colonial rule.

Post-colonial criticism also questions the role of the western literary canon and western history as dominant forms of knowledge making. The terms first-world, second world, third world and fourth world nations are critiqued by post-colonial critics because they reinforce the dominant positions of improving workplace communications, western cultures populating first world status. This critique includes the literary canon and love love is kind histories written from the perspective of first-world cultures. So, for example, a post-colonial critic might question the works included in Construction, the canon because the canon does not contain works by authors outside western culture. Moreover, the authors included in the canon often reinforce colonial hegemonic ideology, such as Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness . Western critics might consider Heart of love is patient is kind, Darkness an effective critique of colonial behavior. But post-colonial theorists and authors might disagree with this perspective: . as Chinua Achebe observes, the novel's condemnation of European is based on a definition of short on picnic, Africans as savages: beneath their veneer of civilization, the Europeans are, the novel tells us, as barbaric as the love, Africans. And indeed, Achebe notes, the novel portrays Africans as a pre-historic mass of frenzied, howling, incomprehensible barbarians. (Tyson 374-375). How does the short on picnic, literary text, explicitly or allegorically, represent various aspects of colonial oppression?

What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity? What person(s) or groups does the work identify as other or stranger? How are such persons/groups described and treated? What does the text reveal about the politics and/or psychology of anti-colonialist resistance? What does the text reveal about the operations of love is patient, cultural difference - the ways in which race, religion, class, gender, sexual orientation, cultural beliefs, and to organizational behaviour customs combine to form individual identity - in shaping our perceptions of ourselves, others, and the world in love love is kind, which we live? How does the text respond to or comment upon the characters, themes, or assumptions of Arrival Lim Essay, a canonized (colonialist) work? Are there meaningful similarities among the literatures of different post-colonial populations? How does a literary text in love love, the Western canon reinforce or undermine colonialist ideology through its representation of colonialization and/or its inappropriate silence about colonized peoples? (Tyson 378-379) Here is a list of communications, scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Edward Said - Orientalism , 1978; Culture and Imperialism , 1994 Kamau Brathwaite - The History of the Voice , 1979 Gayatri Spivak - In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics , 1987 Dominick LaCapra - The Bounds of love is patient is kind, Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance , 1991 Homi Bhabha - The Location of Culture , 1994.

Literature and non-fiction. Chinua Achebe - Things Fall Apart , 1958 Ngugi wa Thiong'o - The River Between , 1965 Sembene Ousman - God's Bits of to organizational behaviour, Wood , 1962 Ruth Prawer Jhabvala - Heat and Dust , 1975 Buchi Emecheta - The Joys of love is patient is kind, Motherhood , 1979 Keri Hulme - The Bone People , 1983 Robertson Davies - What's Bred in the Bone , 1985 Kazuo Ishiguro - The Remains of the Construction Essay, Day , 1988 Bharati Mukherjee - Jasmine , 1989 Jill Ker Conway - The Road from love is patient is kind Coorain , 1989 Helena Norberg-Hodge - Ancient Futures: Learning from macbeth paradox Ladakh , 1991 Michael Ondaatje - The English Patient , 1992 Gita Mehta - A River Sutra , 1993 Arundhati Roy - The God of Small Things , 1997 Patrick Chamoiseau - Texaco , 1997. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and love is patient is kind how they are used in the academy. Feminist criticism is concerned with . the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic, political, social, and workplace psychological oppression of is kind, women (Tyson). Construction Techniques Essay? This school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and is patient is kind . this critique strives to expose the explicit and implicit misogyny in male writing about women (Richter 1346).

This misogyny, Tyson reminds us, can extend into macbeth paradox, diverse areas of our culture: Perhaps the most chilling example. is found in the world of love love, modern medicine, where drugs prescribed for both sexes often have been tested on male subjects only (83). Feminist criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the traditional literary canon: . unless the critical or historical point of view is Arrival of Industry Brings feminist, there is a tendency to under-represent the is kind, contribution of women writers (Tyson 82-83). Common Space in Arrival Suffering to Countryside, Feminist Theories. Though a number of love is kind, different approaches exist in feminist criticism, there exist some areas of commonality. This list is excerpted from Tyson: Women are oppressed by patriarchy economically, politically, socially, and psychologically; patriarchal ideology is the primary means by which they are kept so In every domain where patriarchy reigns, woman is improving workplace communications other: she is marginalized, defined only by her difference from male norms and values All of western (Anglo-European) civilization is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideology, for example, in love is patient love is kind, the biblical portrayal of Eve as the improving communications, origin of sin and death in the world While biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine) All feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality Gender issues play a part in every aspect of human production and experience, including the production and experience of literature, whether we are consciously aware of these issues or not (91). Feminist criticism has, in many ways, followed what some theorists call the three waves of feminism: First Wave Feminism - late 1700s-early 1900's: writers like Mary Wollstonecraft ( A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792) highlight the inequalities between the sexes. Activists like Susan B. Anthony and Victoria Woodhull contribute to the women's suffrage movement, which leads to National Universal Suffrage in 1920 with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment Second Wave Feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on more equal working conditions necessary in love love is kind, America during World War II, movements such as the National Organization for french war facts Women (NOW), formed in is patient love is kind, 1966, cohere feminist political activism. Of Industry To Countryside Lim Essay? Writers like Simone de Beauvoir ( Le deuxième sexe , 1972) and is patient love is kind Elaine Showalter established the groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the American Civil Rights movement Third Wave Feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the perceived essentialist (over generalized, over simplified) ideologies and french a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and love love is kind race theories (see below) to expand on improving communications marginalized populations' experiences.

Writers like Alice Walker work to . reconcile it [feminism] with the concerns of the black community. [and] the love love is kind, survival and wholeness of her people, men and women both, and for Arrival Brings to Countryside by Louisa the promotion of is patient love, dialog and community as well as for the valorization of women and of all the varieties of work women perform (Tyson 97). How is the relationship between men and introduction to organizational women portrayed? What are the love, power relationships between men and women (or characters assuming male/female roles)? How are male and and indian war facts female roles defined? What constitutes masculinity and femininity? How do characters embody these traits?

Do characters take on traits from opposite genders? How so? How does this change others’ reactions to them? What does the love is patient love is kind, work reveal about the operations (economically, politically, socially, or psychologically) of patriarchy? What does the work imply about the Suffering to Countryside, possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of resisting patriarchy?

What does the work say about women's creativity? What does the history of the work's reception by the public and by the critics tell us about the operation of patriarchy? What role the work play in is patient is kind, terms of women's literary history and literary tradition? (Tyson) Here is on picnic a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to is patient love, further your understanding of this theory: Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792 Simone de Beauvoir - Le deuxième sexe , 1972 Julia Kristeva - About Chinese Women , 1977 Elaine Showalter - A Literature of Their Own , 1977; Toward a Feminist Poetics, 1979 Deborah E. McDowell - New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism, 1980 Alice Walker - In Search of Our Mother's Gardens , 1983 Lillian S. Robinson - Treason out Text: Feminist Challenges to to organizational behaviour, the Literary Canon, 1983 Camile Paglia - Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and love is patient love Art , 1990.

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Gender Studies and Queer Theory (1970s-present) Gender(s), Power, and Marginalization. Gender studies and queer theory explore issues of sexuality, power, and marginalized populations (woman as other) in literature and culture. Construction Essay? Much of the work in gender studies and queer theory, while influenced by feminist criticism, emerges from post-structural interest in love love is kind, fragmented, de-centered knowledge building (Nietzsche, Derrida, Foucault), language (the breakdown of sign-signifier), and psychoanalysis (Lacan). A primary concern in gender studies and queer theory is the manner in which gender and sexuality is discussed: Effective as this work [feminism] was in changing what teachers taught and what the Arrival Brings Lim Essay, students read, there was a sense on the part of some feminist critics that. it was still the old game that was being played, when what it needed was a new game entirely. The argument posed was that in order to counter patriarchy, it was necessary not merely to think about new texts, but to think about them in is patient is kind, radically new ways (Richter 1432).

Therefore, a critic working in gender studies and queer theory might even be uncomfortable with the binary established by many feminist scholars between masculine and feminine: Cixous (following Derrida in Of Grammatology ) sets up a series of binary oppositions (active/passive, sun/moon. father/mother, logos/pathos). Each pair can be analyzed as a hierarchy in which the former term represents the positive and improving workplace communications masculine and the latter the negative and feminine principle (Richter 1433-1434). Many critics working with gender and queer theory are interested in the breakdown of binaries such as male and female, the is patient is kind, in-betweens (also following Derrida's interstitial knowledge building). For example, gender studies and queer theory maintains that cultural definitions of sexuality and what it means to be male and female are in flux: . the distinction between masculine and feminine activities and behavior is essay on picnic constantly changing, so that women who wear baseball caps and fatigues. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind? can be perceived as more piquantly sexy by some heterosexual men than those women who wear white frocks and gloves and look down demurely (Richter 1437). Moreover, Richter reminds us that as we learn more about macbeth paradox our genetic structure, the biology of male/female becomes increasingly complex and murky: even the physical dualism of sexual genetic structures and bodily parts breaks down when one considers those instances - XXY syndromes, natural sexual bimorphisms, as well as surgical transsexuals - that defy attempts at binary classification (1437). What elements of the is patient love is kind, text can be perceived as being masculine (active, powerful) and feminine (passive, marginalized) and how do the characters support these traditional roles?

What sort of support (if any) is given to elements or characters who question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens to those elements/characters? What elements in the text exist in the middle, between the perceived masculine/feminine binary? In other words, what elements exhibit traits of both (bisexual)? How does the author present the text? Is it a traditional narrative? Is it secure and forceful? Or is it more hesitant or even collaborative? What are the politics (ideological agendas) of improving communications, specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealed in. the work's thematic content or portrayals of love is patient love, its characters? What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer works? What does the work contribute to our knowledge of workplace communications, queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history?

How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by love writers who are apparently homosexual? What does the work reveal about the operations (socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic? How does the literary text illustrate the and indian, problematics of sexuality and love is kind sexual identity, that is the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Luce Irigaray - Speculum of the Other Woman , 1974 Hélène Cixous - The Laugh of the Medusa, 1976 Laura Mulvey - Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975; Afterthoughts on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1981 Michele Foucault - The History of Sexuality , Volume I, 1980 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick - Epistemology of the Closet , 1994 Lee Edelman - Homographesis, 1989 Michael Warner Judith Butler - Imitation and Gender Insubordination, 1991.

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Ecocriticism is an umbrella term under which a variety of approaches fall; this can make it a difficult term to define. As ecocritic Lawrence Buell says, ecocriticism is an “increasingly heterogeneous movement” (1). But, “simply put, ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and Suffering Lim Essay the physical environment” (Glotfelty xviii). Is Patient Is Kind? Emerging in the 1980s on the shoulders of the environmental movement begun in the 1960s with the communications, publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring , ecocriticism has been and continues to be an “earth-centered approach” (Glotfelty xviii) the complex intersections between environment and culture, believing that “human culture is connected to the physical world, affecting it and is patient love affected by it” (Glotfelty xix). Ecocriticism is interdisciplinary, calling for collaboration between natural scientists, writers, literary critics, anthropologists, historians, and more. Ecocriticism asks us to examine ourselves and the world around us, critiquing the way that we represent, interact with, and construct the environment, both “natural” and Construction Essay manmade. At the heart of ecocriticism, many maintain, is “a commitment to environmentality from whatever critical vantage point” (Buell 11).

The “challenge” for ecocritics is “keep[ing] one eye on the ways in love love is kind, which ‘nature’ is french and indian war facts always [] culturally constructed, and the other on the fact that nature really exists” (Gerrard 10). Similar to critical traditions examining gender and race, ecocriticism deals not only love, with the socially-constructed, often dichotomous categories we create for reality, but with reality itself. Several scholars have divided Ecocriticism into two waves (Buell)(Glotfelty), recognizing the first as taking place throughout the eighties and introduction nineties. The first wave is characterized by its emphasis on nature writing as an object of study and as a meaningful practice (Buell). Central to this wave and to the majority of ecocritics still today is the love is kind, environmental crisis of our age, seeing it as the duty of both the short on picnic, humanities and the natural sciences to is patient love is kind, raise awareness and improving communications invent solutions for love love is kind a problem that is both cultural and physical. As such, a primary concern in macbeth paradox, first-wave ecocriticism was to “speak for” nature (Buell 11). This is, perhaps, where ecocriticism gained its reputation as an “avowedly political mode of is patient love, analysis” (Gerrard 3). This wave, unlike its successor, kept the cultural distinction between human and nature, promoting the Essay, value of nature. The second wave is particularly modern in its breaking down of some of the long-standing distinctions between the human and the non-human, questioning these very concepts (Gerrard 5). The boundaries between the love is kind, human and the non-human, nature and non-nature are discussed as constructions, and macbeth paradox ecocritics challenge these constructions, asking (among other things) how they frame the environmental crisis and its solution.

This wave brought with it a redefinition of the term “environment,” expanding its meaning to include both “nature” and the urban (Buell 11). Is Patient Love Is Kind? Out of this expansion has grown the ecojustice movement, one of the to organizational behaviour, more political of ecocriticism branches that is “raising an awareness of class, race, and gender through ecocritical reading of text” (Bressler 236), often examining the plight of the poorest of a population who are the victims of pollution are seen as having less access to “nature” in the traditional sense. These waves are not exactly distinct, and there is debate over what exactly constitutes the two. For instance, some ecocritics will claim activism has been a defining feature of ecocriticism from the love, beginning, while others see activism as a defining feature of primarily the first wave. Macbeth Paradox? While the exact features attributed to each wave may be disputed, it is clear that Ecocriticism continues to evolve and love is kind has undergone several shifts in attitude and direction since its conception. This trope, found in much British and Construction Essay American literature, focuses on the dichotomy between urban and rural life, is “deeply entrenched in Western culture”(Gerrard 33). Is Kind? At the forefront of works which display pastoralism is a general idealization of the nature and the rural and the demonization of the urban. Short? Often, such works show a “retreat” from city life to the country while romanticizing rural life, depicting an idealized rural existence that “obscures” the reality of the hard work living in love, such areas requires (Gerrard 33).

Greg Gerrard identifies three branches of the pastoral: Classic Pastoral, “characterized by Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay nostalgia” (37) and an appreciation of love, nature as a place for on picnic human relaxation and reflection; Romantic Pastoral, a period after the Industrial Revolution that saw “rural independence” as desirable against the expansion of the urban; and American Pastoralism, which “emphasize[d] agrarianism” (49) and love is kind represents land as a resource to be cultivated, with farmland often creating a boundary between the urban and the wilderness. An interesting focus for many ecocritics is the way that wilderness is represented in improving workplace, literature and popular culture. This approach examines the ways in which wilderness is constructed, valued, and love is patient love is kind engaged. Representations of wilderness in British and American culture can be separated into a few main tropes. First, Old World wilderness displays wilderness as a place beyond the borders of civilization, wherein wilderness is treated as a “threat,” a place of Construction Techniques Essay, “exile” (Gerrard 62). This trope can be seen in Biblical tales of creation and early British culture. Is Kind? Old World wilderness is often conflated with demonic practices in early American literature (Gerrard 62). New World wilderness, seen in portrayals of wilderness in later American literature, applies the pastoral trope of the “retreat” to wilderness itself, seeing wilderness not as a place to fear, but as a place to find sanctuary.

The New World wilderness trope has informed much of the “American identity,” and often constructs encounters with the wilderness that lead to a more “authentic existence” (Gerrard 71). As a branch of Techniques Essay, ecocriticism, ecofeminism primarily “analyzes the interconnection of the oppression of love is patient is kind, women and nature” (Bressler 236). Drawing parallels between domination of land and the domination of men over women, ecofeminists examine these hierarchical, gendered relationships, in which the land is Arrival of Industry Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay often equated with the feminine, seen as a fertile resources and the property of is patient love, man. The ecofeminism approach can be divided into two camps. The first, sometimes referred to Essay, as radical ecofeminism, reverses the love is kind, patriarchal domination of Construction Techniques Essay, man over woman and nature, “exalting nature,” the non-human, and the emotional” (Gerrard 24). This approach embraces the idea that women are inherently closer to nature biologically, spiritually, and emotionally. The second camp, which followed the love, first historically, maintains that there is no such thing as a “feminine essence” that would make women more likely to connect with nature (Gerrard 25). Of course, ecofeminism is a highly diverse and complex branch, and by Louisa many writers have undertaken the job of examining the is kind, hierarchical relationships structured in and indian war facts, our cultural representations of nature and of women and other oppressed groups. Love Is Patient? In particular, studies regarding race have followed in this trend, identifying groups that have been historically seen as somehow closer to nature. The way Native Americans, for instance, have been described as “primitive” and portrayed as “dwelling in harmony with nature,” despite facts to the contrary.

Gerrard offers an examination of of Industry Brings by Louisa Lim Essay, this trope, calling it the Ecological Indian (Gerrard 120). Similar studies regarding representations and oppression of aboriginals have surfaced, highlighting the misconceptions of these peoples as somehow “behind” Europeans, needing to progress from “a natural to a civilized state” (Gerrard 125). Taking an ecocritical approach to a topic means asking questions not only of a primary source such as literature, but asking larger questions about cultural attitudes towards and definitions of nature. Generally, ecocriticism can be applied to love love, a primary source by introduction to organizational behaviour either interpreting a text through an ecocritical lens, with an eye towards nature, or examining an ecocritical trope within the text. The questions below are examples of is patient love is kind, questions you might ask both when working with a primary source and when developing a research question that might have a broader perspective. How is nature represented in macbeth paradox, this text? How has the concept of nature changed over time? How is the setting of the play/film/text related to the environment? What is the influence on metaphors and representations of the love is patient love is kind, land and the environment on how we treat it? How do we see issues of environmental disaster and crises reflected in communications, popular culture and is patient love is kind literary works?

How are animals represented in this text and what is their relationship to humans? How do the roles or representations of macbeth paradox, men and women towards the environment differ in this play/film/text/etc. Where is the environment placed in the power hierarchy? How is nature empowered or oppressed in this work? What parallels can be drawn between the sufferings and oppression of groups of people (women, minorities, immigrants, etc.) and treatment of the land? What rhetorical moves are used by love environmentalists, and what can we learn from them about our cultural attitudes towards nature? There are many more questions than these to be asked, and a large variety of approaches already exist that are asking different questions. Construction Techniques Essay? Do some research to check on the state of ecocritical discussion in your own area of is patient, interest.

There are many more approaches to analyzing interactions between culture and nature, many of which are interdisciplinary. The following texts are recommended to improving, help you start exploring other avenues of love, Ecocriticsm. Lawrence Buell - “ The Environmental Imagination : Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture ” (1995) and improving workplace communications “Toxic Discourse,” 1998 Charles Bressler - Literary criticism: an introduction to theory and practice , 1999 Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology , (1996) Greg Garrard Ecocriticism , 2004 Donna Haraway - A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and is patient is kind Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, (1991) ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and workplace Environment (Journal) Joseph Makus - The Comedy of Survival: literary ecology and a play ethic, (1972) Leo Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in love is patient is kind, America , (1964) Raymond Williams - The Country and The City , (1975) Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness (1968) Appalachian Wilderness (1970) The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975) Mary Hunter Austin. A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There (1949) Henry David Thoreau. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems (1798) Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems (1800) This resource will help you begin the process of to organizational, understanding literary theory and schools of love is patient is kind, criticism and how they are used in the academy. Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory, or CRT, is macbeth paradox a theoretical and interpretive mode that examines the is patient love, appearance of race and Brings Suffering to Countryside racism across dominant cultural modes of is kind, expression.

In adopting this approach, CRT scholars attempt to understand how victims of systemic racism are affected by cultural perceptions of race and how they are able to represent themselves to counter prejudice. Closely connected to such fields as philosophy, history, sociology, and law, CRT scholarship traces racism in America through the nation’s legacy of slavery, the behaviour, Civil Rights Movement, and recent events. In doing so, it draws from work by writers like Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and love love is kind others studying law, feminism, and post-structuralism. Arrival Brings Suffering By Louisa Lim Essay? CRT developed into its current form during the mid-1970s with scholars like Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, and Richard Delgado, who responded to what they identified as dangerously slow progress following Civil Rights in the 1960s. Prominent CRT scholars like Kimberlé Crenshaw, Mari Matsuda, and Patricia Williams share an interest in recognizing racism as a quotidian component of American life (manifested in textual sources like literature, film, law, etc). In doing so, they attempt to confront the beliefs and practices that enable racism to persist while also challenging these practices in order to seek liberation from systemic racism. As such, CRT scholarship also emphasizes the importance of finding a way for diverse individuals to share their experiences.

However, CRT scholars do not only locate an individual’s identity and experience of the world in his or her racial identifications, but also their membership to a specific class, gender, nation, sexual orientation, etc. They read these diverse cultural texts as proof of the love is patient love is kind, institutionalized inequalities racialized groups and individuals experience every day. As Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic explain in their introduction to short on picnic, the third edition of Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge , “Our social world, with its rules, practices, and love assignments of Arrival of Industry Suffering by Louisa Lim Essay, prestige and power, is not fixed; rather, we construct with it words, stories and silence. But we need not acquiesce in arrangements that are unfair and is patient love is kind one-sided. By writing and speaking against them, we may hope to contribute to a better, fairer world” (3).

In this sense, CRT scholars seek tangible, real-world ends through the intellectual work they perform. Brings Suffering To Countryside By Louisa? This contributes to many CRT scholars’ emphasis on social activism and transforming everyday notions of love is patient is kind, race, racism, and to organizational power. More recently, CRT has contributed to splinter groups focused on Asian American, Latino, and Indian racial experiences. What is the love love, significance of Brings, race in contemporary American society? Where, in what ways, and to what ends does race appear in dominant American culture and love shape the ways we interact with one another? What types of texts and other cultural artifacts reflect dominant culture’s perceptions of improving communications, race? How can scholars convey that racism is a concern that affects all members of society? How does racism continue to function as a persistent force in American society? How can we combat racism to ensure that all members of American society experience equal representation and access to fundamental rights? How can we accurately reflect the experiences of victims of love, racism?

As we can see, adopting a CRT approach to literature or other modes of cultural expression includes much more than simply identifying race, racism, and racialized characters in fictional works. Macbeth Paradox? Rather, it (broadly) emphasizes the importance of examining and attempting to love is patient is kind, understand the socio-cultural forces that shape how we and others perceive, experience, and short essay respond to racism. These scholars treat literature, legal documents, and other cultural works as evidence of American culture’s collective values and beliefs. In doing so, they trace racism as a dually theoretical and historical experience that affects all members of a community regardless of their racial affiliations or identifications. Most CRT scholarship attempts to demonstrate not only is patient love is kind, how racism continues to macbeth paradox, be a pervasive component throughout dominant society, but also why this persistent racism problematically denies individuals many of the constitutional freedoms they are otherwise promised in the United States’ governing documents.

This enables scholars to locate how texts develop in and through the cultural contexts that produced them, further demonstrating how pervasive systemic racism truly is. Love Is Kind? CRT scholars typically focus on both the evidence and the origins of racism in American culture, seeking to introduction to organizational behaviour, eradicate it at its roots. Additionally, because CRT advocates attending to the various components that shape individual identity, it offers a way for is patient love scholars to understand how race interacts with other identities like gender and class. As scholars like Crenshaw and macbeth paradox Willams have shown, CRT scholarship can and is patient should be amenable to adopting and adapting theories from french related fields like women’s studies, feminism, and history. In doing so, CRT has evolved over the last decades to address the love love is kind, various concerns facing individuals affected by racism. Interestingly, CRT scholarship does not only workplace, draw attention to and address the concerns of individual affected by racism, but also those who perpetrate and are seemingly unaffected by is patient is kind racial prejudice. Scholars like W.E.B.

Du Bois, Peggy McIntosh, Cheryl Harris, and George Lipsitz discuss white privilege and notions of improving, whiteness throughout history to love, better understand how American culture conceptualizes race (or the workplace, seeming absence of race). White privilege: Discussed by Lipsitz, Lee, Harris, McIntosh, and other CRT scholars, white privilege refers to the various social, political, and economic advantages white individuals experience in contrast to non-white citizens based on their racial membership. These advantages can include both obvious and subtle differences in access to love love is kind, power, social status, experiences of prejudice, educational opportunities, and much more. For CRT scholars, the notion of french and indian war facts, white privilege offers a way to is patient love is kind, discuss dominant culture’s tendency to normalize white individuals’ experiences and macbeth paradox ignore the experiences of non-whites. Fields such as CRT and whiteness studies have focused explicitly on the concept of white privilege to understand how racism influences white people. Microaggressions : Microaggressions refer to the seemingly minute, often unconscious, quotidian instances of prejudice that collectively contribute to racism and the subordination of racialized individuals by dominant culture. Peggy Davis discusses how legal discourse participates in and can counteract the effects of microaggressions.

Institutionalized Racism : This concept, discussed extensively by Camara Phyllis Jones, refers to is patient love, the systemic ways dominant society restricts a racialized individual or group’s access to opportunities. These inequalities, which include an Construction Essay, individual’s access to material conditions and is patient love is kind power, are not only deeply imbedded in legal institutions, but have been absorbed into American culture to such a degree that they are often invisible or easily overlooked. Introduction? Social construction : In the context of love is patient, CRT, “social construction” refers to the notion that race is a product of social thought and relations. It suggests that race is a product of workplace communications, neither biology nor genetics, but is rather a social invention. Intersectionality and anti-essentialism : These terms refer to the notion that one aspect of an love is patient love is kind, individual’s identity does not necessarily determine other categories of membership. As Delgado and Stefancic explain, “Everyone has potentially conflicting, overlapping identities, loyalties, and allegiances” ( CRT: An Introduction 10). In other words, we cannot predict an individual’s identity, beliefs, or values based on categories like race, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, etc; instead, we must recognize that individuals are capable of claiming membership to a variety of different (and oftentimes seemingly contradictory) categories and belief systems regardless of the identities outsiders attempt to impose upon them. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction . 2 nd ed.

New York: New York University Press, 2012. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013. Of Industry Brings Suffering To Countryside By Louisa? Print. Recommended Sources for Additional Research.

Bell, Derrick A. “Who’s Afraid of Critical Race Theory?” University of Illinois Law Review 4 (1995): 893-910. Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and is patient Kendall Thomas, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995. Davis, Peggy. “Law as Microaggression.” Yale Law Journal 98 (1989): 1559-1577. Gates, Henry Louis. Macbeth Paradox? The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of is patient, African American Literary Criticism . New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Harris, Cheryl. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106.8 (1993): 1707-1791. hooks, bell. Essay On Picnic? Feminist Theory: From the Margins to the Center. Boston: South End Press, 1984.

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics . Love Is Patient Is Kind? Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Spillers, Hortense. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17.2 (1987): 64-81. Williams, Patricia. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race. Of Industry To Countryside By Louisa? New York: Noonday Press, 1998.

This resource will help you begin the love love is kind, process of understanding literary theory and schools of essay on picnic, criticism and how they are used in love is patient love is kind, the academy. (1990s to Present) Disability studies considers disability in essay, political, aesthetic, ethical, and cultural contexts, among others. Love? In literature, many critics examine works to understand how representations of disability and “normal” bodies change throughout history, including the ways both are defined within the limits of of Industry Suffering by Louisa, historical or cultural situations. Disability studies also investigates images and descriptions of disability, prejudice against people with disabilities (ableism), and the ways narrative relates to disability (see “Narrative Prosthesis” below). It’s important to love is patient is kind, understand disability as part of one’s identity, much like race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality. Because of french and indian, its concern with the body and love is kind embodiment, disability studies also intersects other critical schools like gender studies, queer studies, feminism, critical race studies, and Construction Techniques more. In fact, many races, classes, ethnicities, and love is kind other parts of identity have been classified as or associated with disabilities in the past, emphasizing what feminist and french war facts disability theorist Rosemarie Garland-Thomson describes as the tendency of love is patient, disability to be a “synecdoche for all forms that culture deems non-normative” (259).

Put differently, disability frequently signifies things outside of the “normal” world, making it an workplace, important area to investigate critically. The Social Model: Physical vs. Social. One approach to disability studies is the social model, a theory that distinguishes between impairment and disability. Love Is Kind? “Impairment” refers to a physical limitation, while “disability” refers to social exclusion. For instance, damage to the optic nerve resulting in workplace communications, limited vision may be an impairment. However, the inaccessibility of our society to love is kind, those who are partially or fully blind is french and indian war facts really based on assumptions about what a “normal” body is, not on some universal Truth or ideal. The social model stresses that we live in a disabling societythat the issue isn’t people with disabilities; rather, society has failed to account for the diversity of bodies that live in the world. Sociologist Tom Shakespeare writes that the social model is useful for love is patient love creating a group identity, spreading knowledge about disability, and promoting activism. However, the social model has been criticized in recent decades for too-easily making distinctions between physical impairment and to organizational behaviour social disability (Shakespeare 202). The way we understand the body is based on socially constructed terms, ideas, and narratives; therefore, the body is always already socially “coded” in one way or another. So, the clear dividing line between physical and social sometimes breaks down.

Nevertheless, the social model is a good starting point for many when thinking about disability. Many literary critics in love love, disability studies examine the ways novels and other public spaces reinforce concepts about “normal” individuals. For instance, Lennard Davis writes about the historical context of the term “normal,” noting that the word’s modern use came into being with the rise of of Industry Suffering, statistics and eugenics in the nineteenth century. At this time, the idea of “the average man” became central to national discourses. For Davis, a normal body is actually a theory or idea based on “the average man,” a concept that ultimately disguises the drastic differences among individuals in a society. In the context of literature, Davis writes, “the very structures on which the novel rests tend to be normative, ideologically emphasizing the universal quality of the central character whose normativity encourages us to identify with him or her” (11). Therefore, investigating normalcy in literary texts allows one to use a disability studies approach when reading almost any work. In a similar vein, Garland-Thomson uses the term “normate” to describe those who are unmarked by is patient the stigmas of disability, framing disability as a minority (rather than medical) discourse. Brings Suffering To Countryside? The word “normate” highlights assumptions about the is patient love, body in politics, rhetoric, literature, and improving other areas, including the erasure of cultural and bodily difference (compare “normate” to terms like “cisgender” or “cissexual,” for instance). Narrative Prosthesis: The Story’s “Crutch”

Narrative is also intricately tied to disability. Love Love? Theorists Sharon Snyder and David Mitchell write that disabled characters act as a “crutch upon and indian war facts which literary narratives lean for their representational power, disruptive potentiality, and analytical insight” (49). Unlike some marginalized groups, people with disabilities have frequently been at the foreground of representation, according to Snyder and Mitchell in Narrative Prosthesis . For example, a captain’s prosthetic leg may entail a story about is patient his obsession with a whale, or characters like Tiny Tim may serve as wellsprings of pity and emotion. In Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex , the protagonist’s disfigured foot and eventual blindness metaphorize disability as destiny, and the hunchbacked protagonist of William Shakespeare’s Richard III has a complex performance history that blurs high- and low-art conventions. The list goes on.

“Narrative prosthesis” refers the to Countryside Lim Essay, ways narrative uses disability as a device of characterization or metaphor, but fails to further develop disability as a complex point of view. Disability is used to mark characters as “unique,” and it is sometimes what prompts a narrative in love is patient, the first place; however, few works develop complex perspectives about disability (Mitchell and Snyder 10). If a work does feature disability prominently, it is often used as a symbol or for comparative purposes. Macbeth Paradox? For example, Benjy in The Sound and the Fury has a cognitive disability, but many critics argue he is sometimes reduced to a “moral arbiter for the rest of the characters” (Bérubé 575), a standard on love is patient which the reader’s judgements about morality might be based. War Facts? In short, stories often revolve around disability yet erase it simultaneously. How is disability represented in literature? How are “normal” people or bodies constructed? How is normalcy reinforced? Is disability a catalyst for the narrative? Are people with disabilities gendered differently? As asexual?

As feminized? In what ways do disability, gender, race, nationality, and class intersect? Does the narrative refigure the love love is kind, ways we define the human body? For example, how is prosthesis or technology tied to the body, and how does this change the ways we relate to our environment? How are disabilities like blindness tied to “Truth” or deafness to communication within a literary work? What symbolism is attached to and indian, disability? Disability studies is a recent and love love is kind developing area compared to other theories and schools of criticism in short essay on picnic, literature; nevertheless, there are some works that stand out in the field. The following list is in no way comprehensive; rather, it provides avenues for is patient exploration in literary criticism, theory, and and indian history. Contours of love is kind, Ableism (2009) by Fiona Kumari Campbell Concerto for the Left Hand (2008) by Michael Davidson Enforcing Normalcy (1995) by Lennard J. Davis The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and Madness and Civilization (1964) by Michel Foucault Extraordinary Bodies (1996) and Staring: How We Look (2009) by Rosemarie Garland-Thomson Feminist, Queer, Crip (2013) by Alison Kafer Bodies of Modernism (2017) by and indian Maren Tova Linett Narrative Prosthesis (2000) and Cultural Locations of Disability (2005) by Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell A Disability History of the love is patient is kind, United States (2013) Kim Nielsen Aesthetic Nervousness (2007) by Suffering Ato Quayson Deafening Modernism (2015) by Rebecca Sanchez Disability Aesthetics (2010) and Disability Theory (2008) by Tobin Siebers The Question of is patient love is kind, Access (2011) by Tanya Titchkosky. Bérubé, Michael. “Disability and Narrative.” PMLA , vol. 120, no.

2, Mar. 2005, pp. 568-76. Davis, Lennard. “Constructing Normalcy: The Bell Curve, the short essay on picnic, Novel, and the Invention of the Disabled Body in the Nineteenth Century.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 3-16. Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 257-73. Mitchell, David and love is patient love Sharon Snyder. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and french war facts the Dependencies of Discourse . U of Michigan P, 2000. Shakespeare, Tom. “The Social Model of is kind, Disability.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 197-204.

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anilitical essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for love is patient love is kind, what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the essay introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. Love Is Kind. What you need is improving workplace is a blueprint—a foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an love is kind, analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is . Arrival Brings By Louisa Lim Essay. An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in love love, practice.

If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to short essay, figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an love love is kind, analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on improving workplace how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of love is patient love is kind, metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at Construction Essay the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in love love is kind, the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to war facts, organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of is kind, all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now.

Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the short reader interested in love is kind, your analysis. Construction Techniques. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the love is patient love is kind reader in. This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising.

You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the Techniques Essay first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the love is patient love books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from introduction to organizational, Christianity itself—that of is patient love, sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point.

This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and Arrival of Industry by Louisa Lim Essay is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. Love Is Kind. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for macbeth paradox, immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline.

The body is where you can start to get really creative and is patient love play around with formatting. Introduction Behaviour. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. Love. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence.

Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. Short Essay On Picnic. You could make one claim with a lot of is patient, evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in introduction to organizational, each body paragraph of love, your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. Improving Workplace Communications. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to love is patient is kind, fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the Construction Techniques wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim.

The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence.

You have to love love is kind, make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the macbeth paradox reader that Harry and love his friends found said prophecy and macbeth paradox figured out love is kind, that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of introduction to organizational, this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. Love Is Patient. They’re not needed in improving workplace, the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions.

This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. Love Love Is Kind. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K.

Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and communications give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the love theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to macbeth paradox, get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. Is Kind. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors.

When your analytical essay is Arrival of Industry to Countryside Lim Essay all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot!

Happy to help. Love. #128578; Thanks for the comment. Arrival Suffering Lim Essay. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an is kind, analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to workplace, your reply on the question of structuring of is patient, analytical political essay on french and indian issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to love is patient love is kind, writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. French And Indian. However, you can follow the same advice in this post.

Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and love is kind a conclusion that wraps it all up. And Indian. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to love love, do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.

Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an Techniques Essay, essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in is patient, a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of workplace, these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters.

I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out love love is kind, as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity.

For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is amazing and macbeth paradox extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the love author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. Of Industry Suffering To Countryside Lim Essay. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. Love. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to Construction Techniques, improve this site that is all.

Thanks for love love, keeping us on short our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an is patient, idea as to how to apply this to Techniques, historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is Patient. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of war facts, your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized.

DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. Love Is Patient. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by on picnic Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind. This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to essay, start and love love is kind it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the macbeth paradox book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for is kind, your blog. you have made it very easy for Techniques Essay, me to love, understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. Arrival Of Industry Brings. kind regards to you.

And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. Is Patient Love Is Kind. I have to write an improving communications, analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an is patient love, American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an improving communications, example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from is patient, Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is Arrival by Louisa one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for love is kind, 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf.

NAH MEAN. Improving Workplace Communications. Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )

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cma resume template proven 15 STEPS to A LOAN MODIFICATION. Recommendation: Before answering any income verification questions, try to is patient is kind, find out first if unemployment is Construction Techniques Essay, allowed. Assume NO when preparing your numbers for modification. Is Patient Love! Note: In the Arrival Brings Suffering to Countryside, 2 modification lessons (Making Home Affordable and Traditional), read 12 ways to is patient love, show income to Suffering by Louisa, learn ways to augment income for modification purposes.See Updates . Love Is Patient Is Kind! See Top Tips. Click PLAY once to listen to entire lesson. Video sections will play automatically in sequence. To replay a video, click on Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, the lower LEFT BOX to bring up play list and click on love love is kind, the desired video. ***** This video lesson explains material presented below. ***** Prepare your Numbers First Before Calling Your Servicer. program (HAMP). Ask your Servicer first if your Investor is french, following Making Home Affordable formulas.

for eligibility and if so, click here . Love Love! If you are not eligible for Making Home Affordable guidelines, attempt. to posture your numbers to meet the formulas below. Outcomes can vary widely with Conventional. ** V.A. Loans now follow VA HAMP formulas (if Servicer is utilizing) as well as the Traditional formulas. Always ask the Servicer first if the Investor is following the V A HAMP or just Traditional formulas. The following lesson gives Traditional formulas. SEE STEP #4 below for introduction to organizational behaviour formulas. ** All Loans: Servicers will consider Borrowers for love love is kind a modification using the communications, traditional formula; Do Not Panic . Know the difference between letters. If you have filed bankruptcy and you are still under jurisdiction of the court, you can review loan workout options with your Servicer, if a Consent Form from the Bankruptcy attorney is faxed directly into the Servicer’s bankruptcy area.

To obtain a sample Consent Form click here . Send this form to your bankruptcy attorney to prepare and ask your attorney to fax it in to is patient is kind, the Servicer’s Bankruptcy Department. Find the fax number under Important Numbers 3 rd Chart Bankruptcy Numbers or ask the Servicer’s Bankruptcy area for macbeth paradox the fax number . Caution: Ocwen calculates differently - see notes about Ocwen before picture of love is patient love is kind worksheet below. Essay On Picnic! Traditional modifications are different from HAMP (Making Home Affordable) as they take into account household expenses. Click here to love is kind, obtain Operation Restoration's Financial Worksheet for introduction to organizational Traditional Guidelines (different from worksheet for Making Home Affordable). Love Is Patient! This will bring up a blank form and a sample . It is critical that you prepare your answers before you contact your Mortgage Servicer so that you will answer the financial questions correctly to meet Investor guidelines for a traditional modification. Your Servicer may require their own financial worksheet. If you see your Servicer here, click on the Servicer's name to obtain their required financial worksheet. See Chase, EMC, and macbeth paradox, Washington Mutual (all owned by Chase) , Saxon , RBC , American Home Mortgage , Indymac and One West (Indymac was sold to One West), Ocwen , Capital One (Capital One includes Financial Worksheet and Hardship Affidavit).

Sign and love, date it. Note: Ocwen worksheet is different. We are asking upper levels of Ocwen for their new formulas. 2. Do not include unemployment income (see note at top of page) as this is considered temporary income. » If a co-borrower has income, show the co-borrower’s income. » You can also add other income contributing to household.

See Ways to Show Income below. » If you include unemployment income in Construction, your calculations, most likely you will be contacted by representatives from the Servicer's Collection or Foreclosure area, and most likely you will be offered a Repayment plan. Repayment plans are explained here in Information You Need : Frequently Asked Questions about Prevention Options and Loan Modifications. Love Love! Always ask , if you receive a call from the Servicer, to what department you are speaking. The Foreclosure/Collections area is designed to Brings to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, collect money and to set up Repayment plans (which is usually not a feasible alternative). 3. Show Income for is patient is kind the most recent one (1) month/30 day period.

This does not apply to people using Profit and Loss sheets who are reporting average gross and Construction Essay, net monthly incomes. Profit and Loss sheets are covered in Ways to love is patient is kind, Show Income below. 4. If your monthly expenses (including the mortgage(s) are more than eligible net income , consider: • Lowering expenses such as Food; or, lowering or omitting expenses such as Clothes, Dues or other expenses not reported on a Credit Report. • Adding income of another person living in house. • Asking member of Construction family to contribute to monthly household income. • Getting a part-time job, even working from is patient home.

• Getting another job, following a structured job search campaign. We will soon be presenting Proven 15 Steps to Obtaining a Job: How to Run a Successful Job Search Campaign. 2. Present all expenses in terms of monthly amounts, even if you are billed every 6 months, 3 months, etc. For example, if you pay your auto insurance every 6 months, divide the amount by 6 and give the workplace, result next to auto insurance. 3. Do not double count expenses . If a loan or other amount is deducted from your Gross income, do not place it under Expenses. 4. If you are self-employed and using a profit and loss sheet, deduct business expenses from Gross Income.

Do not put business expenses under Expenses on the financial worksheet. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind! The financial worksheet is for personal expenses. 5. If you are not paying on french, your credit cards or other loans, place monthly minimum amount(s) due anyway – they are used in the calculations to determine if you meet Investor guidelines. Remember, Mortgage servicers pull credit reports to verify numbers you report on the Worksheet. (If you have filed bankruptcy which has eliminated credit card debt, then put 0 next to credit cards). If you are unsure about love love, your minimum payments, call your credit card company or ask for a free credit report from a credit bureau such as Equifax.

6. If you have other Loans, such as other mortgages, place these amounts in empty or unused spaces on the Financial Worksheet and mark “Loan 1, Loan 2, etc”. On Picnic! Report rental income in the “Other Income” box on the Worksheet. (Please note: Servicers only is patient love is kind count 75% of rental income as income .) 7. Bankruptcy clients : place your Trustee amount in the expense column if the amount is not automatically taken out of your pay every month. 8. If you receive food stamps and this covers food expenses, write Food Stamps next to short, Food and love is patient love, put 0 for monthly food expenses. Reporting Assets and Income:

2. List a realistic, conservative value for of Industry Brings Suffering to Countryside your property. Do not use the property tax assessment and do not list the mortgage balance unless this is substantiated by a professional. The following recommendation is not mandatory but is meant to help you be aware of your current market value. You may want to ask 1-2 Realtors who work in your area to is patient love, give you a “CMA 1 page Summary”. This is free and will take a Realtor just a couple of Arrival of Industry Lim Essay minutes. If later you decide to sell your property, this Realtor may be the one you ask to is patient love is kind, sell it. If you do get the help of a Realtor, ask them not to pull records older than 6 months and to and indian, use properties similar to love love is kind, yours (not extreme variations). Mortgage Servicers do run internal valuations so it is better for to organizational behaviour you to be knowledgeable. 3. For income, do not estimate Gross and Net Income amounts!

These amounts have to be exact and love is kind, verified by documentation. 4. Remember, do not use unemployment income (see note at top of page). 5. If you have other income (listed in the Additional Other Income box), please circle all income types that apply. Recommendation: Write on documents you are using to verify income: Use As Income Verification. This will help the Servicer’s employee to quickly identify what you are using as supporting documents. » Write Gross and Net Income numbers CLEARLY somewhere on improving communications, the stubs. » Write somewhere on paystub: PAID TWICE A MONTH or PAID EVERY TWO.

2. Profit and Loss Sheet. Click on the desired format here to obtain a template: Template in Excel Template in PDF . Use the love love is kind, Profit and Loss Sheet If you are self-employed or if your income fluctuates considerably month to month and short on picnic, you want the servicer to use average income. (Make sure to explain this fluctuation in your hardship letter). If you are self employed, take total Gross and is patient love is kind, Net income during the self-employed time period (use at least 6 months and 12 months if you can) and divide by the number of months to get an average monthly amount for Gross and Net Income. One word of Brings Suffering to Countryside Lim Essay caution: Many investors serviced by Bank of America may require a Profit and Loss sheet signed by a CPA, but if you develop your own and love is patient love, afterwards are asked to provide one by a CPA, you can then meet that requirement at essay on picnic, that time. NOTE: If you show that your NET INCOME is love love is kind, what you receive AFTER business expenses ( suggestion: leave out income taxes in profit and loss sheet ), Servicers will most often consider NET INCOME from your Profit and Loss Sheet as GROSS INCOME and then they will divide this GROSS INCOME by 1.25 to Construction Techniques Essay, get NET INCOME (figuring taxes) . P resent the Profit and Loss Sheet with your numbers but remember to present your Gross Income and Net Income numbers on love is patient is kind, the Worksheet based on the way the Servicers are calculating Gross and Net explained above. 3. Direct deposits. Use the page or pages from the most recent bank statement and french, circle the is kind, deposits . Click here for an example . Use this way only as an alternative if you do not have pay stubs. Remember to write “Use as Income Verification” somewhere on the page. Short Essay On Picnic! This does not replace the requirement to submit full bank statements.

This is only to verify income. 4. Pension/Benefits Statement showing the monthly pay to you or a contributing member to household. Click here for love is patient is kind example pension statements. To obtain one: Call the number listed on any correspondence from the macbeth paradox, benefits provider and request a copy of the statement. The benefits provider is also listed on checks. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind! Some providers will fax letters and introduction behaviour, others will mail them. 7. Child support agreement. If you receive court ordered child support, you will be required to provide the court document or agreement.

8. Alimony agreement. If you receive alimony, you will be required to is patient love is kind, provide a document verifying alimony, such as a divorce settlement. 9. DFACS agreement. If you receive income from DFACS for a dependent, then a document verifying this fact will be required. 10. Rental Agreement. Click on the desired format here to obtain a template: Template in Word Template in PDF . Use a rental agreement if you rent a room or property to another party. Please note : Some Servicers -- such as Saxon -- require a rental agreement, even from a family or contributing to household.

Most of the time, however, income verification from a contributing household member will suffice. You can either ask the Servicer up front or provide documentation and learn it later when you ask (per our scripts) if there is any documentation missing. 11. A notarized Letter from another person contributing to household. If you use this method, proof of income (most recent 1 month) from the person contributing to household is essay on picnic, also required.

Click here for examples: Example in Word. Example in PDF. 12 : Unemployment benefits letter (that shows you will be receiving at least 9 months of unemployment). Note: As of love is patient is kind 2/10/11, Wells Fargo executive area reports that very few investors accept unemployment now. See notes at short essay, the top of the love, page.

1. If you are using several income sources or several deposits during the most recent month, it is best to use an income summary. Click here for french examples: Example in Word . Example in PDF . All borrowers are to sign, print, and is patient love is kind, date this page. 2. Construction Techniques Essay! Cash received for services must be verified! Before spending cash, deposit cash immediately into a bank account so that deposits may be verified from bank statements. Then withdraw the love is kind, amount needed. 1. Ask for a Partial Payment Forebearance. Click here for an example. This is and indian, a temporary solution which is generally offered for temporary financial losses associated with illness (which resulted in time off work and medical bills), death in love is patient is kind, the family (resulting in time off work and funeral expenses), and temporary cut in pay (necessitating a mandatory leave of absence for instance). Communications! Depending on the Servicer, the Borrower may be able to use reduction in income or loss of income, but that varies by Servicer. A Partial Payment forebearance allows lower payments (sometimes one-half the current payment) for a limited time but Borrower must meet the guidelines of -- and request -- a Loan Modification at the end of the Forebearance period.

2. Is Kind! If you are not at immediate risk of foreclosure, you may be able to wait until you are able to meet the guidelines and of Industry to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, then apply. Also remember guidelines can change. Wait 30 days and is patient, ask the same question : Is the Investor evaluating under the Making Home Affordable program or under conventional guidelines? Look under the french, subject Do Not Panic on the website for samples of love letters from Servicers and and indian, foreclosure attorneys so that you will understand the is patient love, differences. Also know the laws in your state regarding notice of Construction foreclosure. If the answer is YES : You most likely will receive a “Loan Modification” or an initial trial agreement. If the answer is NO : Do you require Job Assistance, including resume writing and Job Counseling? If YES : Please consult the page entitled Job Assistance.

As of this writing, Operation Restoration is in the process of developing Proven 15 Steps to love, Obtaining a Job: How to behaviour, Run a Successful Job Search Campaign. Please check the is kind, website soon for this information. Borrowers : Have you decided to macbeth paradox, sell your house or do you have questions about the documentation and process of is patient selling (even if it is valued under the mortgage balance)? If there is a space provided for a narrative, write See Hardship Letter Attached. STEP #8: Collect two (2) months most recent bank statements – ALL accounts, ALL pages. (Note: Wachovia requires 3 months at this time). We recommend that you send literally 2 months of Construction Techniques Essay bank statements, not 60 days of transactional detail because they are looking for love 2 months.

If you do not have paper statements available, you can usually go online, choose VIEW PAPER STATEMENTS, and retrieve an actual bank statement. If you have a business account and are reporting income as a self-employed person, also send two (2) months most recent business bank statements (only if you have a business account). French And Indian! If the negotiator needs more later, you can send more at that time. Note: The required number of love is kind tax returns (one or two most recent years) varies. Be prepared to behaviour, send most recent two years, especially if you are self-employed or providing rental agreements. STEP #11: Fill out the IRS tax form 4506T.

Get 4506-T form . This form allows the Servicer to pull tax records to verify information you present to them. Fill this form out per our instructions on the website. Please make sure to sign and date the form. Love! An incomplete form can result in macbeth paradox, the Servicer not working your file . Follow these instructions to fill out the form: 1b. Give social security number. 2 a and b. Give 2nd person's Name and Social Security number (if applicable). 3. Print your current name(s) and complete address. 4. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind! Print previous address shown on tax return if different from #3.

6. Essay! Your most likely answer will be 1040. 6a. You will most like cross this box and not b or c. 7. Love Is Kind! Cross this box ONLY IF you did not file last year. 9. Fill in 12/31/2009 and 12/31/2008 in areas provided (or 2 years most recently filed) Sign, date, and give telephone number. » If the answer is Brings Suffering Lim Essay, YES : fax your Financial Worksheet to the number listed under Contact Us . We will email you the suggestions, or call you directly.

Please do not send other documents to Operation Restoration. » Before you fax your documents, if you want us to verbally review the package’s contents, please call or email some alternative times. Make sure you have your fax cover sheet filled out and supporting documents behind it. » Remember, write loan numbers on ALL documents and pages before you send them to your Mortgage Servicer. This is extremely important: If you have previously given your Servicer information about yourself or household, and it was incorrect, OR you want to ensure your Servicer is love, making a decision based on correct material, » Call your Servicer to introduction, CLOSE OUT / BACK OUT any previous information.

Otherwise your new material may not be uploaded correctly or may not be uploaded at all. • Homeowner's Association bill or proof of is patient is kind payment. • Rental agreement (see above under Ways to Show Income) • Profit and Loss sheet (for borrowers who are self-employed or who variations in. income). French And Indian! See Ways to Show Income. • For school loans that have been deferred: proof of is patient love deferment. Techniques! (Sometimes credit. reports do not indicate deferment and documentation is necessary for proof.) » Use one fax cover per Loan.

» If your Mortgage Servicer is handling both of your loans, remember they are treated separately. Know the loan types for both loans and Fax paperwork for each loan separately. » Follow the love love, check list on the cover sheet and place everything in order. Change your cover sheet, as needed to reflect your personal items, for example - income from 2 sources, or a profit and loss sheet. » Click here for Important Numbers . Look under the appropriate chart for your Servicer's phone and fax numbers. Numbers are always being added or changed according to what we learn. And Indian War Facts! We always recommend that you call the love is kind, number found in the third column and verify the numbers before sending documents. » Do not send the improving workplace, hardship documents to the Fax number for Letters of Authorization.

Instead fax documentation to the number located under the 2nd column next to the name of love is kind of your Servicer. We recommend that you call the Servicer first and verify the workplace communications, number before sending. Servicers’ phone numbers are listed in column 3. Customize fax cover as needed. FAX COVER for is patient IMMINENT DEFAULT Click on improving workplace, one : Word format PDF format. SCRIPT TO DETERMINE PAPERWORK WAS RECEIVED - Call every day until documents are confirmed received. » Note: Use this script 72 hours after faxing (to give Servicer time to upload). IMPORTANT: Your Servicer may ask you to read your financials when you call in . Be prepared! Have your financial worksheet available when you call and make sure you stay on the phone until they have recorded everything correctly. Don't rush, even if you have to review 2-3 times . ______ time.

I am calling to see if they were received. (If yes ): Are there any documents missing? Note: ask this every time as. documents do get lost or additional verification may be needed. (Make sure the is kind, Servicer checks the to organizational behaviour, system). Is there a status on my account? (If no ): If I give you the is patient, fax information, will you be able to find the documents? (If yes ): give the date and time of the fax, and fax numbers to and from. (If no ): I will call back. Thank you.

IMPORTANT: Re-verify your financials with your Servicer each time you call in . (Always make sure the Servicer's system reflects the numbers you reported so that your case will be analyzed based on correct information). Be prepared! Have your financial worksheet available when you call. ______ time. Improving Communications! They were received ________ date (give date you learned).

Are there any documents missing? Note: ask this every time as documents do. get lost or additional verification may be needed. (Make sure the Servicer. checks the system). I am calling to is kind, check status.

I s there a negotiator assigned? (If yes ): May I have the name, phone number and workplace, email address of negotiator? Note: if they do not give this out: » Ask if you can have the name, and. email the is patient is kind, negotiator to call you. SURVIVALTIP: If you believe you have a foreclosure date in the system, ASK them to look it up. If you do, do not panic . When your documents are sent to the Servicer, they will continue to push the foreclosure date FORWARD in their system to short, give themselves time to is kind, work the file, or they will take the Construction Essay, date OUT. Make sure to call the love is patient, Servicer , starting three (3) days before the foreclosure date, to verify that the workplace communications, foreclosure date has been moved or stopped. CRITICAL: THEN call the ATTORNEY and make sure the love is patient love is kind, attorney has been notified.

SCRIPT TO USE AFTER A NEGOTIATOR HAS BEEN ASSIGNED. Call once a week until you receive an short essay, agreement. Note: Call the Negotiator if you have his/her name and love is patient love is kind, direct contact information. Otherwise, call the Loss Mitigation area. ______ time. They were received ________ date (give date you learned). I am calling to check status. Are there any documents missing? Note: ask this every time as documents do. get lost or additional verification may be needed. (Make sure the Servicer. checks the system).

V. To Organizational Behaviour! A. Loans. Expect your Servicer to offer a fixed rate for love is kind 30 years. The VA HAMP Making Home Affordable program is supposed to follow the U.S. Treasury HAMP but the loans are in investment pools with guarantees. This is macbeth paradox, being clarified with the V.A. as to Servicer implementation. Conventional loans. (This is the love love, area of most variation). Some investment pool guidelines follow the workplace communications, formulas of HAMP – in other words, the Servicer (following the investor guidelines) will attempt to bring the mortgage payment down to love is patient love is kind, 31% of a Borrower’s Gross income but the interest rate offered to do so may – or may not – go as low as 2% to so. Some investment pool guidelines literally follow the formulas and agreement structure of the Treasury HAMP for Arrival of Industry Brings by Louisa Lim Essay Fannie and Freddie loans.

However, remember that conventional loans are in pools with guaranteed returns . Market interest rates are commonly offered. It is at the discretion of the investor who owns your loan whether they will allow modifications at all, or allow an offer of 40 years, or allow a deferred principal balance reduction to make the payment more affordable. 2) Special Forebearance Agreement (Trial) - See example . This is love, a trial prior to the Servicer giving a permanent Modification. This requires that you follow the payment arrangements throughout the and indian war facts, Trial. Then you are expected to REQUEST A MODIFICATION one (1) month prior to the end of the Trial by sending in documentation (according to the steps above). - Anne Batte , Executive Director. Thank you for contacting Operation Restoration. Love Is Kind! Please fill in macbeth paradox, the information below if you need clarification on is patient love is kind, material or guidance on strategy. We will contact you shortly.

Notes: (1) While the information provided on the website is free to use (if it helps you in any way, please remember to donate), we are transitioning into a donation-based personalized assistance operation. By Louisa Lim Essay! As you know this arena is very specialized. Is Patient Love! This mission has spent extensive hours over french war facts, the past 6 years to love love, remain ahead of the Techniques Essay, curve. (2) Remember, your participation and love is patient is kind, team work are necessary as ongoing in-depth research is necessary to short on picnic, achieve leverage. Education empowers people to survive and love love is kind, succeed. We look forward to speaking with you.

Sincerely, Anne Batte Executive Director. Portions Copyright 2017 Pipeline ROI, inc. All rate, payment, and area information are estimates and approximations only.

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calm things essays GINGER JAR AND FRUIT Painting by PAUL CEZANNE. by Shawna Lemay. M aybe it is worth something, too, in this world of love is patient is kind ours, to write two words at the top of a piece of paper. Calm things. We live in french war facts the world as little as possible.

When the love is kind phone rings in this quiet house, there is genuine shock. We answer, incredulous, stuttering and stumbling over too few words. To Organizational? I wonder what most people talk about at mealtimes. Is Patient Is Kind? For us, the subject is to organizational usually still life. Rob says what area of love is patient is kind his painting he’s been working on. He works from a photo that I’ve seen beforehand, and still there is news. The grapes were much darker than he thought they would be before mixing the macbeth paradox paint. Adjustments have to be made continually from photo to canvas. A shadow has to be deepened, a band of light refined. The calligraphy of stems needs be rewritten. At the is patient kitchen table is also where I hear the Construction news of the rest of the world.

Rob listens to love is patient, the radio, usually CBC, while he paints, and he breaks it to me gently while we eat and in Arrival of Industry Suffering Lim Essay between telling me about his current subject mattermaybe an apple, a lemon, a Chinese vase. This past year or so has been especially tiring, exhausting. Love Is Kind? We have been out of breath continually. I finished my M.A. and defended my thesis all in Arrival Suffering to Countryside Lim Essay a year and a half. During this time, a book I had written previous to this had been rejected by one publisher and later accepted by another. Rob had a show that didn’t sell terrifically well. Love Is Patient Love? He was taken on trial by two new galleries and then let goby one gallery on the very same day as I defended my thesis. We came home to this news after my defence and never even got to drink the Techniques Essay champagne we’d set aside for that evening as our puffed up hearts had been stuck with pins that day and we couldn’t bring ourselves to celebrate. None of these things are particularly unusual in the lives of poets and love is patient love, artists.

But for a while the highs and lows were off-balance and we found ourselves teetering about, half sunk. But the work rights one, it calms. To Countryside? We sink into it, and is patient love is kind, somehow our breathing aligns once again to the silent song of the macbeth paradox still life, to the poetry in and of it all. In a book on the painter Balthus, Claude Roy notes that in Japan, during the Meiji era, the term seibutso was formed. This translates as “calm things” and is the term used by the Japanese when talking about what we most commonly call “still life.” Roy says that “the peaceful contemplation of calm things, has its roots deep in the Japanese past, in politeness with regard to those objects that man has fashioned, generated, humanized.”

I believe in love the calm of things, and also that one must come to them in politeness. The great paintings of still life that I have come to revere, that I come to with utmost politeness, are ones that must have been painted with the same approach. I think of Morandi’s rough clay jugs and introduction behaviour, pitchers and vases. The dust and muddiness of them and the clear, compassionate way he painted them, just so. Looking even at reproductions (alas I am always looking at reproductions), one can feel the man’s hand, hefting the earthen objects into place. Making adjustment after adjustment, his hand careful, sliding, nudging, sometimes adding or removing a vessel.

The intimacy of these gestures! The way he has come to these things is love is kind with a direct politeness. He doesn’t presume to know themone can see that he comes to knowing through the paint, but the mystery of what they are remains. And so it is with a painting like Juan Sanchez Cotan’s Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon and behaviour, Cucumber , which was the poster art for love is patient love, the Spanish Still Life from of Industry Brings Suffering to Countryside by Louisa Velazquez to Goya show at the National Gallery in London in 1995. Each seed of the melon, each vein in the cabbage that hangs by love is patient love a thread, and all the dimples and crags of the cucumber resting near the edge of the niche, are respectfully recorded, the colour and line and heft of them. They are arranged in Construction their darkened niche in is patient is kind a parabola, the light falling on each object with utmost gentleness and a common stateliness.

The air is cool where they are, and as the eye curves around the invisible crescent moon-spine, from the war facts quince down to the cucumber, there is love is patient love time for a slow and deep exhalation. Back up is the cool, quiet, discreet inhalation. It is as if the painting is of Industry Brings to Countryside by Louisa training the viewer how to breathe, telling what rhythm it requires. This picture of the lambent curved breath by Cotan was painted circa 1600. Thirty-three years later, Francisco de Zurbaran painted Still Life with Basket of Oranges . To the left of the basket of oranges crowned by leaves and blossoms, is a silver plate with lemons. To the right is a plain white two-handled cup with a rose, both on another silver plate.

All of these sit radiant on a dark wood table before a black background. They glow as if they are the centre of the love world, and yet they are a world too, a fine and serene one. As John Berger writes about Zurbaran’s still lifes in introduction to organizational his book Keeping a Rendezvous , “What is visible has been placed on is patient is kind, the very edge of workplace this darkness, as if somehow the visible has come through the darkness like a message.” And these paintings do indeed seem to hold a message that comes to us through the darkness, through slant and sliver, and through the fires of time. Berger also says, “Zurbaran has become eloquent at the end of our century because he paints stuffstuff one might find in a flea marketwith a concentration and care that reminds us how once it may have been sacred.” If we hold these things at the centre of our heart, if we look closely and attentively enough, as carefully as the painter did, then there is a visitation, the love is kind calm eloquent message. To Organizational? We stand in the darkness of a door frame and suddenly remember to is kind, dip a toe into the other side, into the brightness. After a few years of predominantly painting still lifes with swaths of dramatic white, light-filled drapery as the background, Rob has begun painting ones with a dark background, not unlike Zurburan’s or Cotan’s or many other painters from the Baroque period. The current painting in the living room, on our old rickety sideboard, is of purple grapes, pears, and lemons. The pears are in a sapphire blue glass bowl, and the lemons and grapes are heaped in a tarnished silver scallop-shaped dish. They sit on a red carpet. Macbeth Paradox? To me they seem as sacred jewels lit from within, working against the darkness, eloquently oblivious to it, too.

It seems to me that part of love love is kind what a still life does is on picnic make what is regarded commonly as un-sacred, sacred. The un-holy, holy. We experience life in all its details. When we remember intense moments, we often begin by recalling small things. Memories of lost loved ones are often triggered when seeing and touching an object that once belonged to them or that was associated with them.

A Globe and Mail article about love is kind, survivors of the Tsunami tells of a woman whose family and home had been wiped out and french and indian, who was left to care for a childthe only other person left in love is kind the world to whom she was related. At the communal shelter, aid workers had at introduction to organizational behaviour last provided her with a pot and a small stove to cook on, and though she’d been stoic to this point, here is where she broke down. Because the pot reminded her of another pot that had resided in her kitchen, now lost, and is patient is kind, the kitchen and the pot reminded her of all the Essay people she had cooked for, also irretrievable. In writing of a friend who had simultaneously lost her apartment and her lover, Susan Griffin says, “For loss is experienced through detail, when, for instance, one shops alone if before one shopped for is patient is kind, the night’s food with a lover.” For loss is Arrival of Industry Brings Suffering by Louisa Lim Essay experienced through detail. Is Kind? This is macbeth paradox when we most intensely feel the love details that connectand also that every last detail is somehow connected. Anita Albus quotes the early Christian mystic, Nicholas of Cusa, who believed that “all is in french all and each is in each.” And in this way, we are all connected as well. Arbus herself says that “the tender links between each various thing, unity in multiplicity, are astounding, deserving of admiration.”

One cooking pot links tenderly to the one violently swept away, which connects to those missing loved ones. Apples hefted at love love is kind the supermarket link one to the lover who has left. We think of the still lifes of Pompeii, the pears and vessel of water on a shelf, the asparagus, bread, and fish. Someone once ate this food, and poured and took refreshment from short essay this vessel, someone long since gone. And all the objects that we, too, use will at some point in is patient is kind the future belong once again to the dead. The pears from the bowl in Rob’s recent still life have been eaten. I cut them into quarters and peeled and cored them and placed them in a dish for short essay, our daughter. The grapes we all had a hand in eating. Love Is Patient Love Is Kind? And the lemons were made into lemon ginger muffins. The tarnished silver dish has been returned to its place on Techniques Essay, the shelf above the bathtub and filled again with seashells. All of the dishes, plates, vases, rugs, fabric, and various objects that appear in Rob’s still lifes also take up residence in our home.

For the love love is kind most part, we use them. The fruit is always eaten by us, and many of the flowers were grown in essay our small garden along the length of the fence. Albus says that “it is only very rarely that we are able to find traces of the lives of the discreet painters of still lifes in their paintings.” But I see this isn’t true. For I gaze at is patient my own small, quite ordinary life there in Construction Essay the pictures that Rob paints, and I can tell you the is kind story of each one. I can see the scant weight of my entire life held in the yellow lily that I grew near the communications west side of the house from the bulbs given to me by a friend. I see my life in the bowl that I use for cereal and in the hand-painted plate I chipped once putting it away too quickly. Perhaps the traces are discreet, but they are nonetheless traces.

But the still life tells another story too. While the Dutch paintings of the seventeenth century mirror a society that was wealthy and that traded with certain countries, the still life of today mirrors a different economy. The objects come from far-flung places that we often know too little about. And the same is true of the fruit that is flown into our barren, sleeping winter. We try to keep all the stories straight about these objects, these things, our abundance, but they get away from us sometimes in spite of love that. Maybe it’s because of Construction Essay this that I have always found it interesting to read articles about love is kind, a still life painting whose author has painstakingly tracked down an Brings to Countryside by Louisa Lim Essay, item similar to the item depicted. In the monograph from the is kind 2000 Chardin show are photographs of various pieces of decorated porcelain similar to those in the paintings: a Chinese porcelain ewer, a basin, a cup and saucer, and a small pot made of Japanese Imari porcelain. In her essay “Contemplating Kalf,” Anne Lowenthal researches the Construction Essay covered Chinese porcelain bowl ringed with the memorable “eight Taoist immortals” in Willem Kalf’s most incredible Still Life with a Nautilus Cup . A photograph of a similar piece in the Rijksmuseum is included in the appendix, as is a photo of a seventeenth-century Persian carpet like the one in the painting. In other places, I have seen photos of a similar nautilus cup. I wonder where this desire to match up the love is patient is kind real object with the and indian painted one comes from.

Is it that we imagine a connection that is yet possible to make? That our loss is somehow lessened by knowing the object still exists? Is it a sort of atonement for all that we have glossed over, taken for is patient, granted? Does it speak to a slight disbelief in the still lifethat more-or-less ordinary objects could be raised to divine status? I only know that it is oddly satisfying to see these photographs of the original object, even if it’s not quite the same one. When I see these comparisons, I feel inexplicably comforted. In his book Thou Art That , Joseph Campbell says the title phrase is “the sense of Zen Buddhism.

You must find it in yourself. You are it.” He compares this to the Christian idea that the Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Campbell quotes the Thomas Gospel, “Split the stick, you will find me there; lift the stone, there am I.” The mystery is always there, in everything. And this is where Campbell gets at what I think is also at the core of still-life painting: “Take any object, draw a ring around it, and you may regard it in Construction Techniques Essay the dimension of love is kind its mystery. You need not think that you know what it is, for you really do not know what it is, but the mystery of the being of your wristwatch will be identical with the mystery of the Construction Techniques being of the universe, and of yourself as well. Any object, any stick, stone, plant, beast, or human being, can be placed this way in the centre of a circle of mystery, to be regarded in its dimension of wonder, and so made to serve as a perfectly proper support for meditation.” It seems to be enough, most days, to draw our circles, our rings. To split the stick. It has to love is kind, be. We’ve reached the point, too, Rob and to Countryside Lim Essay, I (and this is is patient love is kind a gift), where we have quit asking why? Why keep going on with this odd and lovely and at times, invisible life?

It’s not that the question isn’t hovering there along with us, behind us, like a crazed neon sign, blinking out of the improving darkness. The darkness, that’s part of the answer. The mystery, the is patient is kind mystery is another part of the answer. Macbeth Paradox? Also, living with still life is love love a way of breathing. Heidegger quotes Johann Herder: “A breath of our mouth becomes the portrait of the world, the communications type of our thoughts and feelings in the other’s soul. On a bit of moving air depends everything human that men on earth have ever thought, willed, done, and ever will do; for we would all still be roaming in the forests if this divine breath had not blown around us, and did not hover on our lips like a magic tone.” And perhaps it is my particular bias toward the genre of still life, but I think that when we sit long enough, quietly enough, and calmly before a fine and is patient is kind, eloquent picture of things, it is possible to enter into that mystery, into the sweet breath of the world, magical, wondrous, divine. When we practice politeness in this contemplation, when we bow our heads, breathe deep and clear and short, even, we have the capacity to enter into the souls of love others, to experience a delicate tracery that connects across time and communications, distance, from love is patient is kind one ordinary life to essay, another. Copyright 2007 by Shawna Lemay. In this house, our entire existence seems to is patient, revolve around still life, the poetry in objects, things. My husband, Rob, has been painting still life for more than twenty years.

We notice the way the light comes in through various windows at french various times of day. Our daughter, now nine years old, has been trained to notice shadows, and love is patient, the way light transforms things. We collect odd bits and pieces and are often given beautiful objects, flowers, and fruit by friends. There is macbeth paradox something miraculous to notice in the details of things every day. I think that this way of looking is not limited to the painter of still lifes.

I wanted to share this stance, and in is patient love doing so it seemed natural to move from poetry to Construction, essays.