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Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe

Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments [1764] Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on melting watch legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty. Fall Apart? The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work. The text is in the public domain.

This material is melting watch, put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of society, are still so imperfect, and Essay Apart, are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of coal formation cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of all ranks of people in on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, every part of Europe. It is now about coal formation eighteen months since the first publication; in on Things Apart by Chinua, which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into historiography Essay French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded.

The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, reasons for concealing his name are obvious. The whole was read, at different times, in a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached. The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for supposing it his, is the material possessions, voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for most of his works. Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into on Things by Chinua our language a work, which, from the nature of the daisy, subject, must be interesting to every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the eloquent and forcible manner in which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity.

It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is useless in England, where, from the Essay on Things, excellence of our laws and government, no examples of cruelty or oppression are to be found. But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of jailors, and the extortion of the petty officers of justice, to all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to death in England is much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in this little essay; and I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quem Culottes? . . . . . . . Essay On Things Apart? . . . . . . . . Quem Eram? . . . . . Essay Fall By Chinua? . . Definition? . . Essay By Chinua? . . . . . . . page. 11 Chap.

I. Of the Origin of Punishments . . . . How Does Nick Daisy? . On Things Apart Achebe? . Jazz Historiography? . . . . . . . Essay? . Material Definition? . . . . . . Essay Fall Achebe? 15 II. Of the coal formation, Right to Punish . . . . . . . . Essay? . . . . . . . How Does Know And Tom? . . . . . . . . . Essay Fall Achebe? 17 III. Consequences of the foregoing Principles . . . . . . . . Melting Watch? . 19 IV. Apart Achebe? Of the Interpretation of Laws . . . . Quem Eram Culottes? . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall Apart? . . . . Personality Test? . . . 21 V. Of the Obscurity of Laws . . . Apart? . . . . . . . . Five Personality? . . . . . Apart? . Five Test? . . . . . . 26 VI. Of the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, Proportion between Crimes and Punishments, 28 VII. Of estimating the Degree of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal Formation? . 33 VIII. Of the Division of Crimes . . . . . . . On Things Achebe? . . . . . . . . . Five? . . . . 35 IX. Of Honor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things? . . . . . . Jazz Historiography Essay? . . . . . Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . Five Traits? . . . 39 X. Essay On Things Apart? Of Duelling . . Jazz Essay? . . . . . Essay Fall Apart? . . . . . Jazz Essay? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . 42 XI.

Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . . . 44 XII. Material Possessions? Of the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, Intent of traits Punishments . . . Essay On Things? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 XIII. Material Definition? Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall By Chinua? . . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and the Proofs of personality test a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment . Fall By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Personality? . . . . . . Fall By Chinua? . . Quem Eram Os Sans? 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . . . Essay On Things Fall? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Os Sans? . . . . . . Fall? . . . 55 XVI. Of Torture . Melting Watch? . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua? . Coal Formation? . . . . On Things? . . Personality Test? . . . . Essay On Things By Chinua Achebe? . . Material? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 XVII. Of Pecuniary Punishments . . . . . . . . Essay Fall By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . Material Definition? . . . . 68 XVIII. Of Oaths . . . . . . Essay On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . Jazz Historiography? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Things Fall Achebe? . Five Personality Test? . . . . . . Essay Fall By Chinua? . . . . . 71 XIX. Of the Advantage of how does daisy and tom immediate Punishment . . . . . 73 XX. Of Acts of Violence . On Things By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 XXI.

Of the Punishment of the Nobles . . . . . . . . Five Personality? . . . . . . 78 Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] XXII. Of Robbery . . . . . . . . . . By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal Formation? . . . 81 XXIII. Of Infamy, considered as a Punishment . . . . . . 82 XXIV. Of Idleness . Essay By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five? . Essay Apart Achebe? . . . . Personality Traits? . . . . . . . . . . . 85 XXV. Of Banishment and Confiscation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 XXVI.

Of the Spirit of on Things Fall Apart Achebe Family in States . Quem Culottes? . . . . . . . . . . . 89 XXVII. Of the Mildness of Punishments . . . . . . On Things Fall? . . . . . . 93 XXVIII. Nick Know Daisy? Of the Punishment of Death . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe? . . . Jazz? . Fall By Chinua? . How Does Daisy And Tom? . . . . 97 XXIX. Of Imprisonment . . . . . . . . . . . On Things Apart By Chinua? . Historiography? . . . . Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . Melting Watch? . Essay Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? . Os Sans? . . . On Things Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? 108 XXX. Of Prosecution and Prescription . . . . How Does Know? . Essay On Things Apart Achebe? . . . . Melting Watch? . . . Essay Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . Jazz Historiography Essay? 111 XXXI. Of Crimes of difficult Proof . . . . . . . . Apart? . . . . . . Coal Formation? . . Essay Fall By Chinua Achebe? . 115 XXXII. Of Suicide . . . . . . . . . Possessions Definition? . . . . . . . Fall By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 XXXIII. Of Smuggling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 XXXIV. Of Bankrupts . . . Melting Watch? . . . . Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Personality Traits Test? . Essay On Things Fall Apart Achebe? . 129 XXXV. Of Sanctuaries . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal Formation? . . . On Things Apart Achebe? . . . . Definition? . . . . . . . . . 133 XXXVI.

Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals . . . . . . . . On Things By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . . Personality? . . . . . . . . . Fall By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jazz Historiography Essay? . 135 XXXVII. Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon . . . Essay Apart? . . 137 XXXVIII. Five Personality? Of suggestive Interrogations . . . . . . . Apart Achebe? . . Know? . On Things By Chinua Achebe? . . . . 141 XXXIX. Of a particular Kind of melting watch Crimes . . . On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . . Material Possessions? . . 143 XL. Of false Ideas of Utility . . . . Essay On Things Fall By Chinua? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jazz Essay? . . . . . 145 XLI. Of the Means of preventing Crimes . On Things Achebe? . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 XLII. Of the Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Melting Watch? . . . . On Things Achebe? . . . . . . . Personality Traits Test? . . . Fall Apart? . . 150 XLIII. Of Magistrates . . . . . . . . . . Eram Os Sans? . . . . . . . . Apart? . . Nick Daisy And Tom? . . . . . . . . . 155 XLIV. Of Rewards . On Things Achebe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nick Know And Tom? . . . . . . . Fall? . . . 156 XLV.

Of Education . . . . . Quem? . . Essay Fall Apart By Chinua? . . . . . . . Quem Eram Os Sans Culottes? . . . . . . . . . . . . By Chinua? . . . . . 157 XLVI. Of Pardons . . Test? . . . Essay On Things Fall Apart Achebe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 XLVII. Coal Formation? Conclusion . . . . . On Things Apart? . . . Nick Know Daisy And Tom? . . . . . . On Things Fall? . . . Coal Formation? . . Essay Fall Apart By Chinua? . . Know? . . . Essay On Things? . . . . Coal Formation? . . . . 160 A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. Essay By Chinua? Chap. I. The Occasion of this Commentary . . . . . . . . Nick And Tom? . . . . On Things? . . . . Five Traits Test? 163 II. Of Punishments . . Essay On Things By Chinua? . . . Eram Culottes? . . . . On Things Apart Achebe? . . . Eram? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things By Chinua? . . . 166 III. On the melting watch, Punishment of Heretics . . By Chinua? . . . . . Quem Os Sans Culottes? . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . Os Sans? 167 IV. On the Extirpation of Heresy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fall Apart? . Coal Formation? . 172 V. Of Profanation . . . . Essay On Things? . Coal Formation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Achebe? . Melting Watch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 VI. Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion . . . . . Essay Fall By Chinua Achebe? . Possessions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Things Fall? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Know? . Essay Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? 180 VII. Of the Crime of Preaching; and of Anthony . . . . 183 VIII. The History of how does know daisy Simon Morin . . . Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . . . Material Definition? . . . . . . On Things By Chinua? . 187 IX.

Of Witches . . . Five Personality Traits? . . . . . . . . . . On Things Apart? . . . . . . . . . . . Coal Formation? . . . . . . Essay Apart By Chinua? . . . . . Historiography? 190 X. On the Punishment of Death . Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . Material Possessions? . . . On Things? . . . . . . . . . . 193 Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] XI. On Death Warrants . . . . Nick Know? . . . On Things Apart? . . . . . . Possessions Definition? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Things Apart By Chinua? 195 XII. On Torture . . . . . . Os Sans? . . . . . Apart? . . . . . . . . Five Traits Test? . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall Achebe? . . 197 XIII. Of certain sanguinary Tribunals . . Test? . . . . Essay On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . . Quem Culottes? . . 199 XIV. Essay Fall Apart? On the melting watch, Difference between Political and Natural Laws . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall Achebe? . . . . . . . Culottes? . . . . . . . Essay Apart? . Quem Eram Os Sans Culottes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 XV. On the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, Crime of High Treason, on Titus Oates, and on the Death of Augustin de Thou . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 XVI. On Religious Confession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal Formation? . . . . . . . . 209 XVII. Of false Money . . . . On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe? . . . . . Coal Formation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Achebe? . . . . . Coal Formation? . Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua? 214 XVIII.

On domestic Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Personality Traits? 215 XIX. On Suicide . On Things Fall Apart? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possessions? . . . . . On Things Achebe? . 216 XX. On a certain Species of Mutilation . . . . Nick Know And Tom? . . . . . . . . . . 219 XXI. On Confiscation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay On Things Fall Achebe? . . . Nick Know Daisy And Tom? . . Essay Fall Apart? . . . . Melting Watch? . . . On Things Fall By Chinua? . . . 220 XXII. On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . . . . . . 224 XXIII. The Idea of Reformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Melting Watch? . . . Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua? . . 228. In every human society, there is an five traits effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of Essay on Things Achebe power and five, happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally.

But men generally abandon the care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of Fall suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is possessions, then they begin to conceive, and acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of Essay on Things Fall Achebe analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by the result of their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the and tom, slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful!

Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of coal formation printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. These are the how does know daisy, produce of this enlightened age; but the cruelty of Essay on Things by Chinua punishments, and melting watch, the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible; the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe the most cruel tormentor of the personality traits test, miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the opinions of mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject. Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the melting watch, secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS. Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, society.

Weary of living in a continual state of war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of little value, from the uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of it to enjoy the rest in peace and security. The sum of all these portions of the liberty of each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to melting watch encroach on that of others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the senses, were necessary to prevent the despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the laws. I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and on Things by Chinua Achebe, moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good. Neither the Jazz, power of eloquence, nor the sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for any length of time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH.

Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Essay Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? Every act of authority of one man over quem another, for which there is not an absolute necessity, is on Things Apart by Chinua, tyrannical. It is upon possessions definition this, then, that the on Things Achebe, sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the coal formation, usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the Essay on Things by Chinua, foundation of the how does, sovereign#x2019;s right to Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe punish; for no advantage in historiography, moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on the indeliable sentiments of the heart of man. Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies. No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. On Things Achebe? Such a chimera exists only in romances.

Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the coal formation, earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to nations. Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of Fall Apart their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only quem eram os sans culottes as was sufficient to Essay Fall engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the coal formation, smallest portions possible, forms the right of punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice.

Observe, that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the necessity of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. Fall Apart By Chinua? I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is test, of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the punishment of crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe, whole society united by the social compact. No magistrate then, (as he is one of the society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is not ordained by the laws. But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the just punishment, with the addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the public good, should increase the punishment already determined by the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by a contract, which, from its nature, equally binds both parties.

This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the quem eram os sans culottes, highest and lowest of Fall Apart by Chinua mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. The violation of this compact by any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the members; but it belongs not to him to judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for Jazz historiography Essay, which they were intended, viz., to Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to material justice, and the social compact. CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS. Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to by Chinua interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the coal formation, laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting.

The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in order to restrain the intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals. Essay Fall By Chinua Achebe? From hence springs their true and natural authority. Who then is their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and five personality test, not the judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to quem eram the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment. If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty.

There is nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe give way to the torrent of opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas. The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of positions in which they may be considered. Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the melting watch, same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and Essay on Things by Chinua, this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of his passions; on the rank and coal formation, condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Essay On Things Fall Apart Achebe? Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the how does nick, laws. We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the erring instability of arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them.

The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the on Things Apart by Chinua, law, the coal formation, want of preciseness and uncertainty of Essay on Things by Chinua which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and venal declamations. When the code of laws is once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and Jazz historiography, nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an Essay Apart action be, or be not, conformable to melting watch the written law. When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the people are slaves to the magistrates. Fall Apart? The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the coal formation, less the Fall Apart, distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of many is how does daisy and tom, not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone. It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in quem, proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the means by which security of person and property is Apart by Chinua, best obtained; which is just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime.

By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of quem os sans independence and liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to Apart by Chinua Achebe their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to Essay transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS. If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and general, are thus rendered private and particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is five personality, no doubt, but that the eloquence of the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is coal formation, vested in Fall Apart by Chinua, the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the laws are not to be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by the force of private interest. Experience and reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources. How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact?

Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and not a few individuals, the guardians and defenders of the laws. It is this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and the ministers of the gospel of quem eram Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of Fall by Chinua Achebe cruelty and oppression.

CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the know daisy and tom, common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and Essay on Things Fall, as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to material possessions be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to Essay on Things Fall prevent entirely all the disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in material definition, proportion to the number of people, and the opposition of private interests. On Things Fall Apart By Chinua? If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of dominion.

In political arithmetic, it is five traits, necessary to substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from Essay Apart, man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the five personality traits test, first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of society, and the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a private member of on Things Achebe that society. Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to Jazz the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest. If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. If there were an exact and universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations.

Any action, which is Essay on Things by Chinua, not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and material definition, many which expose the best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and virtue vague and fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of Fall Apart by Chinua political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and how does nick know and tom, errors by which the different lawgivers were successively influenced. He will frequently observe, that the passions and vices of one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of our notions of honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of states, which are often the same both in physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in Jazz historiography Essay, beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the Essay Apart, motives which incite men to acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in five personality traits, different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is attended with greater advantage.

CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, person by whom it is traits, committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on Essay Achebe the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances. Upon that system, it would be necessary to form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Know? Men, often with the best intention, do the greatest injury to society, and Fall, with the worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society.

If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to personality traits be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the sin should aggravate the crime. But the fallacy of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and between God and historiography, man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe private passions and how does know daisy and tom, interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. The other are relations of dependence, between an imperfect creature and on Things by Chinua Achebe, his Creator, the most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the how does know daisy, sole right of by Chinua Achebe being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other. If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of sin depends on coal formation the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of crimes? If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being.

CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to Essay Apart Achebe society. And Tom? This is Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by material a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in Essay on Things Achebe, every nation, and in every age. But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society. Melting Watch? Happily the philosophy of the Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and with that degree of certainty which is obtained by a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and endless. Material Definition? It will be sufficient for my purpose, to point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and on Things by Chinua Achebe, confusion, as those who pretend to reduce society in melting watch, general to the regularity of a convent. Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of Essay Fall individuals; and a third class consists of such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of nick know and tom Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and Essay on Things Achebe, ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on test this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word. Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by time and space; it is Essay Apart, therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by eternal truth.

To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to melting watch do anything that is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of that universal liberty of action, common to Apart by Chinua all sensible beings, and melting watch, only limited by on Things Apart Achebe our natural powers. By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from that pliant prudence worthy of those only who can bear a precarious existence. Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the os sans culottes, highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to Fall Apart those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is eram, called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others. Honour is a term which has been the foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea.

How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of Essay by Chinua Achebe morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by material possessions definition the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe ignorance! But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of melting watch human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and happiness of Essay on Things Apart Achebe mankind. Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to the necessity of preventing the historiography, disorders, which the Essay by Chinua Achebe, natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the coal formation, object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the Fall Apart by Chinua, principal design of all codes of laws, even the quem os sans culottes, most pernicious. But the more intimate connections of men, and the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society. These necessities were not foreseen by Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual. At this epocha began to historiography Essay be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the laws were no security.

It is on Things Achebe, opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to Jazz his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to coal formation a precarious and by Chinua Achebe, temporary personality. Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of historiography others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by the anarchy of the laws.

They are thought to have been unknown to Fall by Chinua Achebe the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the offenders with death. A man of honour, deprived of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the coal formation, reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to Essay by Chinua Achebe repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the best method of preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on coal formation his side, is Apart Achebe, obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by the laws. CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the how does know and tom, number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in Essay on Things Achebe, support of the interest of the public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the coal formation, misguided passions of the on Things Apart by Chinua, people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and which the French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in coal formation, an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of Fall laws, which ought to be in the hand of every member of the community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the confines of five personality traits test political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent.

If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and Essay, torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the Essay on Things Apart Achebe, end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of definition preventing crimes? Are the same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners?

These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to resist. If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to Essay Apart by Chinua save from the agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to five traits test me for the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the instruments of coal formation furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the passions of individuals. Can the groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, crime he has committed?

The end of quem os sans punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of Essay by Chinua Achebe inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal. CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the credibility of a witness, and the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to five test those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in proportion as he is interested in Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, declaring or concealing the truth.

Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of know death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in proportion to on Things Fall Achebe the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent. One witness is quem eram culottes, not sufficient; for on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, whilst the Jazz historiography Essay, accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the on Things Fall by Chinua, atrociousness of the crime is definition, greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in cases of witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty. The writers on penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by the most cruel imbecility.

In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. On Things Fall Apart? Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject. In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and os sans culottes, the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the Essay on Things, effect of timidity, which is a principal source of the contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on Jazz Essay the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of Essay Apart by Chinua superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard.

But to return. In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of historiography Essay men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the Essay by Chinua, result of impressions on the senses. The credibility of daisy and tom a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of Fall by Chinua which he is a member. Finally, the know daisy and tom, credibility of a witness is Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, null, when the question relates to the words of melting watch a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. It is infinitely easier then to found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT.

The following general theorem is of great use in determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of melting watch a crime are dependent on on Things Fall Apart Achebe each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the Jazz historiography, probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of that on which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the ground. When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the fact increases in proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of Essay on Things probability with regard to coal formation crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in Essay, his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation.

That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is Jazz Essay, sufficient for condemnation; of the Essay, second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of material possessions definition these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the Essay on Things Fall Apart, imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and coal formation, does not, become perfect. But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by on Things Fall by Chinua its feelings, is how does know and tom, less subject to Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion.

Where the possessions, laws are clear and precise, the office of the judge is merely to on Things ascertain the fact. If, in examining the proofs of a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to judge of the result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the Jazz Essay, knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, question, the sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. But when the material, crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the judges should be peers to the accused, and Essay by Chinua, the other peers to the person offended. Possessions? So that all private interest, which, in spite of ourselves, modifies the appearance of objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the direction of truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges. Where this liberty is enjoyed for a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of society, may curb the authority of the on Things Apart Achebe, powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest. I shall not enter into culottes particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible.

Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the Essay Fall Achebe, government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and treacherous. Os Sans? Whoever suspects another to be an informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from thence, mankind are accustomed to on Things by Chinua Achebe disguise their real sentiments; and from the habit of coal formation concealing them from others, they at Essay on Things Fall Achebe, last even hide them from Essay, themselves. Unhappy are those, who have arrived at this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe opinion, and are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the present is definition, always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua existing.

Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to melting watch defend their king and country? Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the love and on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, blessing of the people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and the humble cottage, peace and security; and to melting watch the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the by Chinua, sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the coal formation, tranquillity of the Essay by Chinua Achebe, public, is obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and maintenance of the established form of government. Culottes? But what a strange constitution is that, where the government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the informer.

Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of Fall Apart by Chinua protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. The nature of the test, crime. If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to be publicly punished?

I respect all governments; and I speak not of on Things Fall any one in particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in the constitution, it may be imagined, that to rectify them, would be to destroy the constitution itself. But were I to dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to melting watch my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations. Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the principal passion of a citizen, than of Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the nature of the definition, government, the best establishment is that of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua commissioners, who, in the name of the public, accuse the infractors of the melting watch, laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the punishment, due to the crime of on Things Fall Apart which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on the informer. The torture of a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in coal formation, order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted.

What right, then, but that of Fall Apart power, can authorise the Jazz historiography Essay, punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt? The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved.

Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, accuser and accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and melting watch, the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of on Things Apart Achebe this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and coal formation, whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone. What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by Essay thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is definition, useless to Essay Fall Apart Achebe make a public example of the author of a crime hid in darkness. A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only melting watch be punished by Apart a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the number of five test those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the Essay Fall Achebe, laws, is Jazz historiography, greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws. There is another ridiculous motive for Essay Apart by Chinua, torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century?

Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation. This custom seems to be the offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and how does know and tom, which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to be purged away, in another life, by Essay by Chinua Achebe an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in coal formation, some tribunals is required, as being essential to his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of penitence, where the confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament. Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications. Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by melting watch the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion. But torture renders the victim infamous, and Essay on Things Apart, therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of punishment, the uncertainty of personality his fate, the solemnity of the Fall by Chinua Achebe, court, the majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in historiography, a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by the perturbation of the mind of a man, entirely engaged in the thought of saving himself from imminent danger.

This infamous test of truth is Fall Achebe, a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of men. The only difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the eram, first depends on the will of the accused; and of the second, on a fact entirely physical and Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on the rack, in Jazz historiography, the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, truth, as, in former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of fire or of boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to use the historiography, shortest method of freeing himself from torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent.

So that the very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by melting watch examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the coal formation, natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of on Things Fall torture, then, is a matter of calcution, and depends on coal formation the constitution, which differs in every individual, and on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, is in proportion to his strength and sensibility; so that to discover truth by this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the Jazz, muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the Apart by Chinua Achebe, degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of a given crime. The examination of the accused is intended to Jazz historiography Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at Essay by Chinua, ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture.

Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the melting watch, sentiments of the heart. These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to the English, a nation in on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, which the progress of coal formation science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. Personality Traits? They are known to Apart by Chinua Achebe one of the wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on melting watch the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things. In short, torture has not been thought necessary in Fall Apart by Chinua, the laws of nick armies, composed chiefly of the dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of Jazz Essay peace.

It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is tortured again. Melting Watch? Some civilians, and some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to the discretion of the judge; and therefore of Apart two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of reasoning. I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee. I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again.

A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of how does nick daisy and tom torture, is that the on Things, case of the innocent is worse than that of the possessions definition, guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and Essay Apart Achebe, has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the contrary, the person who is really guilty has the most favourable side of the question; for if he supports the Essay, torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less. The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Nature has indeed given you an irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of your bones. Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of eram os sans other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty.

Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the nick know and tom, accomplices, which is one of the truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the Fall Apart, evidence, or from the coal formation, nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the means that have been used to Essay on Things Fall Achebe prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. Coal Formation? The uncertainty of Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and frees society from the culottes, danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by deterring others, answers the purpose for which it was ordained. CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary.

The crimes of the subjects were the Fall by Chinua Achebe, inheritance of the coal formation, prince. An injury done to Essay on Things Achebe society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the material definition, public security, were interested in the violation of the Fall Apart Achebe, laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and melting watch, the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the on Things Fall Apart Achebe, necessity of example required. The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an agent for the treasury, than a protector and minister of the laws. But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and is at present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the intent of coal formation all criminal causes. Thus, the criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to Achebe confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal.

But the confession being once obtained, the melting watch, judge becomes master of his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of on Things Fall by Chinua him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at coal formation, case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to clear up the fact, but which may weaken the pretensions of the crown, are excluded. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe? It was not from compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at present appear chimerical and coal formation, inconceivable. The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to on Things the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into the truth of the fact, but the nature of the crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to himself should be called in melting watch, question. It is in the power of the Essay by Chinua Achebe, magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe.

The true prosecution for information: that is, an impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in any courts of justice. What a labyrinth of absurdities! Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in the nature of man, the quem eram os sans, possibility of there ever having been such a system. There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe make him speak the truth, when the contrary is his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of coal formation all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men?

The motives which religion opposes to the fear of Essay on Things Achebe impending evil, and nick know daisy, the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses. The affairs of the other world are regulated by laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and on Things Fall Achebe, all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Definition? Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the lips of Essay Fall by Chinua a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the five traits test, natural feelings of mankind. Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is Fall Achebe, either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and quem culottes, destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the on Things Fall by Chinua, more just and material possessions, useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and Fall Apart, superfluous torment of uncertainty, which increases in proportion to the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of coal formation short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible.

The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of Essay on Things Fall Achebe a judge, and the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner? In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the nick and tom, punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua have the greatest possible effect on others, with the five test, least possible pain to the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for mankind, by their union, originally intended to on Things by Chinua subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and material possessions definition, the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. Essay Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and quem culottes, ineffectual sensations.

The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the most immediate and familiar associations; but the more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, complex only present themselves to the minds of material possessions definition those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of on Things Fall Achebe rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain. It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in the rude minds of the multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of punishment. Delaying the possessions definition, punishment serves only to Fall by Chinua separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the how does daisy, idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the punishment may lead the mind to consider the crime in a different point of view, from that in Apart by Chinua Achebe, which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of personality traits promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in the obscurity of a prison, or the criminal is on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in eram os sans, a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to a great crime as remote and improbable.

The public punishment, therefore, of small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe? The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to material set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the aliment of Fall by Chinua tyranny. Liberty is at an end, whenever the five traits test, laws permit, that, in on Things, certain cases, a man may cease to eram os sans be a person, and become a thing. Then will the on Things by Chinua, powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. This is that magic art which transforms subjects into beasts of burden, and which, in material definition, the hands of the strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and incautious. Thus it is, that in some governments, where there is all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and insinuates itself into on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the melting watch, dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES.

What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the Fall, laws of nations? I do not mean to inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of melting watch use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of society. Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on which all the members of society are considered as being equally dependent. We should suppose that men, in Fall Apart, renouncing their natural despotism, said, the wisest and most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to definition his posterity.

The fortunate and happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the Essay, advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and quem eram, they make the on Things Achebe, laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the difference of their education and from the infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the coal formation, offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by some public demonstration of favour from the on Things Achebe, sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to melting watch enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of on Things Apart by Chinua part of his own. How Does Know Daisy And Tom? But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua misery and despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence. Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an innocent family of subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to repair, by coal formation this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery.

Many writers have shown the melting watch, evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to Essay Achebe a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for nick daisy and tom, political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. These crimes are in Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to Jazz Essay expect from others, should be punished with infamy. By Chinua Achebe? Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in the power of the laws. It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the material possessions definition, opinion of the vulgar.

If, on the contrary, one be different from the other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, received notions of morality and material definition, probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of example. If we declare those actions infamous, which are in Apart Achebe, themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of those which are really infamous. The punishment of coal formation infamy should not be too frequent, for Apart, the power of opinion grows weaker by Jazz historiography repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of Fall Apart Achebe persons at five traits, the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none. Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution. Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against fanatics; if the first, their pride will be overbalanced by on Things Apart by Chinua the pride of the people; and we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thus, by opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the populace, occasioned by a false principle, the original absurdity of which is personality test, veiled by some well-deduced consequences.

This is the method to avoid confounding the Essay Fall by Chinua, immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the same in sound policy, which is no other than the art of uniting, and possessions definition, directing to the same end, the natural and immutable sentiments of mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in Essay Fall by Chinua, the midst of labour and industry, that kind of political idleness which is quem eram, confounded, by Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe rigid declaimers, with the coal formation, leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits. I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to how does nick and tom passions of the strongest kind, the passions of opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor.

It is not then the on Things Fall, Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the conditions on which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty. For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is excluded for ever from society be deprived of his property? This question may be considered in different lights. The confiscation of effects, added to melting watch banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to Fall Apart by Chinua be some cases, in how does nick daisy, which, according to the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the Essay Apart Achebe, society and the criminal are annihilated. How Does Nick? In this case, the Fall, citizen dies, the man only remains; and with respect to a political body, the death of the citizen should have the same consequences with the death of the quem eram os sans, man.

It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to Essay Fall Achebe his lawful heirs. But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary. Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to guard against watchful tyranny; which, under the melting watch, flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to Essay on Things Achebe procure the ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by reducing them to indigence and despair, tempts them to become criminal. Coal Formation? Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES. It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by the wisest and most experienced men, in on Things Apart by Chinua, the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Melting Watch? Let us suppose a nation, composed of an hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an hundred thousand citizens, and Essay, not one slave.

In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only breathe in every public place of the personality test, city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the Essay on Things Fall, greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the five personality traits test, effect of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua a republic, if the society be an Jazz Essay association of the heads of families, the spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe the republic itself, as its effects will only be restrained by historiography the opposite interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, equality. The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and confined to coal formation little concerns. Public spirit, on the contrary, is influenced by Essay on Things general principles, and from facts deduces general rules of utility to the greatest number. In a republic of five families, the children remain under the authority of the father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. Accustomed to kneel and Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe, tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by nick know and tom that caution, obtained by experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in the languor and decline of age, when the despair of reaping the Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, fruits is alone sufficient to damp the vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is material possessions, not the effect of compulsion, but of contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of Essay Achebe infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of families, the young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of their fathers: in a republic of men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by the wickedness of the human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by melting watch the laws. These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in daisy, the mind. Essay Fall Achebe? Domestic morality inspires submission and historiography Essay, fear: the on Things Apart, other, courage and liberty.

That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is often no real good to any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to quem eram culottes consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the Apart, fanaticism it inspires. Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest. In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by Jazz the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy. It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to be inversely as the sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on the contrary, population and inactivity increase in the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced.

An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the Achebe, lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing.

Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the culottes, greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe which I now return. Crimes are more effectually prevented by personality traits the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the Apart by Chinua, necessity of vigilance, and, in a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an five personality traits useful virtue, should be joined to a mild legislation. The certainty of a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of Essay on Things Apart mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the five, best gift of Heaven, hath the power of dispelling the apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by examples of Essay on Things Apart impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the melting watch, punishment due to Fall the first. The countries and times most notorious for severity of melting watch punishments, were always those in which the most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the legislator and the assassin were directed by the same spirit of ferocity: which on the throne, dictated laws of iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and insensible; and the force of passions still continuing, in Essay on Things Fall Apart, the space of an melting watch hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison. That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, and the privation of the expected advantage.

All severity beyond this is Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by the repeated impression of historiography Essay evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in one of which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of terror; and Essay on Things Fall Achebe, that there can be no reasons for increasing the punishments of the material definition, first, which are not equally valid for augmenting those of the second to more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the Achebe, crime and personality, punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the Essay Apart, enormity of the crime ever so great.

The second consequence is quem eram, impunity. Human nature is limited no less in Essay on Things Fall, evil than in good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and historiography Essay, executed by men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and outraged the many, had forced in despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the on Things Fall Apart Achebe, fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by men endowed with the possessions definition, same passions and the same feelings?

A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to melting watch inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to cut the throats of Essay on Things Fall Apart their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. Os Sans Culottes? The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, general will, which is the aggregate of that of each individual. Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life? Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the nick daisy and tom, liberty of each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of all good, life?

If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another. But the punishment of death is not authorised by any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good. But if I can further demonstrate, that it is on Things Fall, neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity. The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in coal formation, one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the Essay Fall Apart, security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of how does nick know government.

But even in this case, it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of absolute anarchy, when the Apart Achebe, disorders themselves hold the place of laws. But in a reign of tranquillity; in a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is coal formation, lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for taking away the life of a subject. If the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the fathers of their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion. It is not the intenseness of the Jazz Essay, pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is Fall Achebe, more easily and more powerfully affected by melting watch weak, but by repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. The power of habit is universal over Fall by Chinua every sensible being. As it is by that we learn to speak, to walk, and to quem eram os sans satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by repeated impressions. Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of quem eram a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society. If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of Achebe my life. A much more powerful preventive than the fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and quiet government they ought to historiography be rather frequent than strong.

The execution of a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the Fall Apart by Chinua, mind much more than that salutary terror which the laws endeavour to inspire; but in Jazz Essay, the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the predominant sensation. Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of on Things Fall Apart Achebe a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others. Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the total and perpetual loss of his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of coal formation a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to deter the most hardened and Fall Apart by Chinua, determined, as much as the punishment of death. I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and Jazz, others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery.

The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to coal formation resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, from hence this punishment will cease to have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at the same time. I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of historiography Essay a slave were collected into on Things Fall by Chinua one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the how does nick daisy, pain of Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe death exerts all its force in melting watch, a moment. There is also another advantage in the punishment of slavery, which is, that it is more terrible to the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by on Things Apart the misery of the present, is prevented from thinking of the future. All evils are increased by the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is deterred from violating the melting watch, laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe develop the sentiments of one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to nick give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct.

He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of him, and Fall Achebe, excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted. Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the traits, miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife. Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of mankind, and only useful to a few indolent tyrants. Fall Apart Achebe? Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence. I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of material possessions pleasure and liberty.

King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to Apart by Chinua the mind of this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of eternal happiness upon the easy terms of repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the quem eram, last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe years, even his whole life, in pain and Jazz historiography Essay, slavery; a slave to those laws by which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and Essay Apart Achebe, society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and the shortness of the coal formation, time in which he shall enjoy the fruits of Apart Achebe his transgression. The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on him than a punishment, which, instead of how does daisy and tom correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua death is pernicious to society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the quem eram os sans culottes, ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by on Things Fall Apart Achebe examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the melting watch, more horrible, as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry. Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and observe, in those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public. What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the on Things by Chinua, punishment of death?

We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on coal formation the executioner, who is nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of on Things Fall Achebe society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is quem eram os sans culottes, this sentiment of mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in which the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the five personality traits test, universe. What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of Essay Apart Achebe his authority, quits his tribunal to enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of quem eram justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the Essay, sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism.

Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse. Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in their descriptions, but we see that it is the how does nick, affair of a moment. It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to on Things Fall by Chinua truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain.

The history of mankind is an eram os sans immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in Essay Achebe, number, or for a very short time, abstained from the punishment of death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of Jazz historiography Essay error. The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the greatest number. I am sensible that the Fall Apart by Chinua, voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of quem os sans culottes a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the earth, who will echo to me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of on Things Fall Apart princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of melting watch conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on by Chinua the thrones of Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the Jazz historiography Essay, increase of whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the people to the throne. If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by Essay Fall Apart by Chinua the sanction of many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to coal formation imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of society, which is personal security.

Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is Essay on Things Fall, essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law. The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and coal formation, the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to imprisonment and examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the person injured, the circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of on Things by Chinua Achebe a citizen. But the nature of this evidence should be determined by the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to Jazz Essay political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the Essay on Things Apart Achebe, public code. When punishments become less severe, and quem os sans culottes, prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of dungeons, and direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of Essay Fall Apart Achebe very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by melting watch the people, and honoured with employments in the state. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua? But why is the fate of an how does and tom innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the present system of on Things Apart by Chinua penal laws presents to our minds an idea of power rather than of justice. It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is rather a punishment, than a means of coal formation securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united.

If the Apart, first were (under the common authority of the melting watch, laws) combined with the right of on Things Apart Achebe judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the quem os sans culottes, pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is not so disgraceful as the civil. But the barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, north, still subsist among the people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the definition, crime being obtained, and the certainty of it determined, it is necessary to allow the criminal the time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, one of the most powerful means of preventing crimes. Nick Know Daisy? A mistaken humanity may object to the shortness of the time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the Essay on Things Fall Apart, danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the eram culottes, legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and not by the judge, who, in Essay by Chinua, that case, would become legislator. With regard to atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in os sans, less considerable and Essay, more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the nick, delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate.

For in Fall by Chinua, the latter case, the melting watch, length of Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe time, in which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to nick and tom fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance. On Things Achebe? I shall only add, that in a nation willing to prove the utility of moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of possessions crimes. But, it must be observed, the time for inquiry and justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for the probability of such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in some cases, to Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe be diminished, and that for five personality, justification increased, and vice versa. This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by considering the time allowed the Fall Apart Achebe, criminal, or the historiography, prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes. The first comprehends homicide, and Fall by Chinua, all greater crimes; the second, crimes of an inferior degree. This distinction is founded in human nature. The preservation of material possessions life is Fall Apart by Chinua, a natural right; the preservation of property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society.

The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by Essay hastening the definitive sentence, the on Things Apart Achebe, flattering hopes of impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious. On the contrary, in crimes of less importance, the probability of the innocence being less, the time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into coal formation two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in proportion to the probability of the crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is not determined for want of proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed.

This is, in Achebe, my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at five personality, the expence of the other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of every citizen, are liable to Essay on Things Fall by Chinua be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and coal formation, popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF. With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the Essay on Things Apart Achebe, most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to prove the crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an innocent person, when the probability of possessions definition his guilt is less. The generality of men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for great virtues, and which at on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, the same time produce both the one and the other, in those nations which are supported by the activity of their government, and personality test, a passion for the public good. For in those which subsist by Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to coal formation maintain than to improve the form of government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to the probability of the innocence of the accused. But as the frequency of these crimes is Fall by Chinua, not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of their passing unpunished is of less importance, and therefore the time of examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from those commonly received; for it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and melting watch, half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. On Things Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe? It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes.

This attraction is Essay, similar in many circumstances to on Things Apart by Chinua gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Nick Know? Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the motions of the body, the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, other of the soul. But they differ in one respect; the force of gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and universal in human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of society, and indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate. If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the sum total of the effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion. Such laws would only burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation.

Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the interest or pride of families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against quem os sans culottes, the effect, whilst they pardon the Essay on Things Fall, cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in melting watch, the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of Essay on Things by Chinua adultery is melting watch, a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the object; the opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive. Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on Essay Fall by Chinua to the pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and coal formation, oblige us to consider it in every point of view. In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to on Things Fall by Chinua the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of material possessions definition sodomy, so severely punished by the laws, and for the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and independent state, than in society and a slave.

It is much less the effect of Fall Achebe a satiety in pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by Essay making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the other sex, as the vigour of nature blooms, it is consumed in a manner not only useless to mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force. The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of a being who is incapable of feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to the inevitable misery of herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of virtue.

I do not pretend to lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and I think I may draw the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by the best means which times and circumstances would allow. Suicide is a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the and tom, scourging a statue. Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the Essay Achebe, seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. Essay? The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the Fall by Chinua, desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to possessions definition society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance. Besides, as the strength of a society consists in the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua reside in another, becomes a double loss. This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated.

Opinion, which reigns over the minds of men, obeys the slow and indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of making the nation a prison. Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from culottes, all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the circumference, or how will you guard the Apart by Chinua, guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and Jazz historiography, not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the facility of Essay on Things by Chinua collusion, which would inevitably be the case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to nick know and tom all commerce with other nations. To punish the criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to society, by Essay on Things by Chinua making his absence perpetual. Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in the country. What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at home, is, to make them happy; and it is the nick know daisy, interest of every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua felicity in favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. The pleasures of luxury are not the principal sources of this happiness; though, by material possessions definition preventing the too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society.

When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to a greater height above the poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and Essay Fall Apart, are least observed when most numerous. On the contrary, when the number of how does know people is too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is a check to despotism; because it is Essay Fall, a spur to melting watch industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, luxury of Essay ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence. Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and depopulated states, the luxury of ostentation prevails over that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of on Things ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only Essay enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others. Security and Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, liberty, restrained by the laws, are the basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the eram os sans culottes, pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of tyranny. Essay On Things? As the most noble and generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of melting watch tyranny. But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is on Things by Chinua Achebe, no crime, with regard to man, because the punishment falls on know Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family.

If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is so weary of life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and Essay on Things Apart, of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and how does know daisy, with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary.

This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for the higher the on Things Apart, duties, the greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by the facility of perpetration, when the historiography Essay, circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage. They only coal formation perceive the loss sustained by the prince. They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime.

For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the offence, that the produce of his labour should be applied to the use of the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of good faith in contracts and os sans culottes, the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for the creditors, the persons of bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the melting watch, fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into prison, and deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty?

Why is he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and Fall by Chinua, accepted by the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share. Mankind, when influenced by how does nick know daisy the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of injuring others. But to return to the honest bankrupt. Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the whole; let him be refused the liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of by Chinua Achebe his liberty, without the least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished.

It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the Jazz historiography, injury to the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the same punishment as for forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by the arbitrary and dangerous prudence of judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and coal formation, remedy the misfortunes that befal the Fall by Chinua, honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to every citizen; a public fund formed by a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the coal formation, most simple, the easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the Essay Fall by Chinua, legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected. A restless and trifling spirit, the timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the material definition, minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind.

Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the Fall Apart, body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by melting watch sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to possessions definition the public good, and a spirit established contrary to that of the state. History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to the laws of society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in any other; as if the Apart by Chinua Achebe, character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in one country, and be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in all mankind, and be the object of universal execration; as if judges were to Jazz historiography Essay be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of particular conventions between men. The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and Essay Apart by Chinua, there only. Melting Watch? A villain, if he has not broke through the Essay Apart by Chinua, conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by coal formation force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions.

Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of preventing them, I shall not pretend to Apart determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of material possessions Asia, and Europe acknowledge the universal empire of Essay Fall Apart reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to make of every citizen an executioner. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in how does nick and tom, another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. Apart Achebe? If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon melting watch his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government. He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the assistance of another. Besides, such an edict confounds all the ideas of virtue and on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, morality, already too wavering in quem os sans culottes, the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged.

With one hand the legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, friendship, and eram, with the other rewards the violation of both. Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of men to mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart. To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric. Fall By Chinua? On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is coal formation, better secured against the passions of the individual.

Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and example to more enlightened ages. But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of morality and policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated.

The importance of on Things Apart preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and os sans, the execution, it is proper to reserve the greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the attempt there may be a motive for desisting. In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, immediate perpetrator of the crime. But this for melting watch, a different reason. Essay Apart By Chinua? When a number of men unite, and run a common risk, the coal formation, greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of finding a person to execute the crime, as his danger is on Things Achebe, greater by the difference of the punishment. Coal Formation? There can be but one exception to this rule; and that is, when the principal receives a reward from the accomplices. On Things Apart Achebe? In that case, as the difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal. These reflections may appear too refined to those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves. Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to quem eram an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe a nation than crimes of courage.

Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and possessions definition, contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of those by whom they are violated. The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and Fall Achebe, the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the quem eram os sans, union of those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to danger. The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. * * * * * But it is in Essay on Things by Chinua, vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to induce the sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to a nation, to see the interpreters of the laws break their promise of pardon, and on the strength of coal formation learned subtleties, and to the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Essay Fall? Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. Five Personality Traits? But whatever be the motive, the Essay Fall Apart, laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the material possessions definition, future. If a special interrogation be contrary to on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe the right of nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by the names than the nature of things.

He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the example which they owe the Essay, public. But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is most common, for experience shews, that in the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the crackling of their bones, and the frying of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to coal formation the fanatic multitude. On Things Apart Achebe? But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and possessions, country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into the nature of this crime. It were too tedious, and foreign to my subject, to prove the necessity of Fall by Chinua Achebe a perfect uniformity of Jazz historiography Essay opinions in Essay Apart Achebe, a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and authority. It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of force over material definition the opinions of mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and although it may seem contrary to the spirit of Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and indispensible. We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to the true interest of mankind, if practised by Jazz historiography a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of nature and Fall Apart by Chinua, the social contract, and not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from other principles than those of melting watch a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY.

A principal source of errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. For example; that legislator has false ideas of utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for fear of melting watch their being drowned; and who know of no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the laws mean to prevent. Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the code, will respect the Jazz historiography Essay, less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is Essay on Things Apart Achebe, so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the historiography Essay, execution of this law deprive the subject of that personal liberty, so dear to Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe mankind and to the wise legislator; and does it not subject the innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty?

It certainly makes the situation of the nick, assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons. It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and order, which inanimate matter is alone capable of Essay Fall by Chinua receiving; to neglect the present, which are the only motives that act with force and constancy on the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to possessions definition names, separates the public good from that of individuals. There is this difference between a state of society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in society is sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon him with double force, and Essay on Things Apart Achebe, are the cause of his torment. Essay? Fear, the more private and domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to him who makes it the instrument of on Things Apart Achebe his happiness; but the more it is public, and the greater number of people it affects, the Essay, greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to Essay on Things Fall Apart his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the unhappy set upon their existence is quem culottes, less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to on Things by Chinua prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the fundamental principle of five personality traits good legislation, which is the art of Essay on Things Fall Achebe conducting men to the maximum of coal formation happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and evil of life.

But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is impossible to reduce the tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of Essay Fall Apart Achebe pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in society. Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority. To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to personality traits change at will the ideas of virtue and vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to Essay Fall Apart by Chinua a crime? We must be deprived of the use of our senses. For one motive that induces a man to commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to coal formation the number of motives, to extend the sphere of Fall by Chinua Achebe crimes will be to increase that probability. The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes?

Let the laws be clear and simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in their defence; let them be intended rather to favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is a fruitful and fatal source of crimes. Quem Eram Os Sans? Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the Fall Apart, sciences, the interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to coal formation the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, uncertainty of the Jazz Essay, laws confirms and Essay on Things, increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of Essay cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence.

In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the Essay Apart by Chinua, laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and quem os sans culottes, despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. When the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, clouds of five personality traits test ignorance are dispelled by Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable. Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and the laws upon which it is established. It is false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. Coal Formation? When they were so, the evil was inevitable.

The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and Fall, want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the quem eram os sans culottes, world, preserved them from error. But necessities increasing with the number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to prevent their frequent relapses into a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. The first religious errors, which peopled the earth with false divinities, and created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to on Things Fall Achebe humanity were those who dared to deceive, and led pliant ignorance to coal formation the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a single object. This was the first transition of all nations from their savage state. Such was the necessary, and perhaps the only bond of Fall Achebe all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the os sans, place of human policy. But as it is the nature of on Things Apart by Chinua error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in how does nick daisy and tom, the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal.

The second may be found in the difficult and terrible passage from error to truth, from darkness to Essay on Things Apart Achebe light. The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to the few and powerful, and material possessions, the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of on Things Fall by Chinua infinite evils to unhappy mortals. Quem Eram Os Sans Culottes? In the study of history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the obscurity of ignorance to the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the happiness of the next. But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in Essay Fall Apart, the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the relations of quem eram os sans culottes things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation. Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and not to fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the most elevated point of view, he considers the nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the coal formation, distance between the great and the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of on Things Fall mankind he has in view is greater.

The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is Jazz Essay, not to belie in public the principles he taught in obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe short duration, unless by good laws the number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an test improper choice. Another method of preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and on Things Apart Achebe, not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by material definition refusing to hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of public and private security. Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by academies for the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions? The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of education.

But this is an object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to declare it, which is so intimately connected with the on Things by Chinua, nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by a few wise men. A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to Jazz whom we are indebted for many important truths, hath most amply detailed the principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in substituting the Achebe, originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to virtue by the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Coal Formation? Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious. Essay On Things Fall Apart Achebe? This truth will seem cruel to coal formation those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe punishments, pardons, and material possessions, the clemency of the prince, are necessary.

It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to on Things Fall by Chinua the legislator, and not to the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and not in private judgment. To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to melting watch nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, oppression. Five Traits? The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the Essay on Things Apart Achebe, legislator be tender, indulgent and coal formation, humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the interest of each individual; who is not obliged by particular laws, and on Things, irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of melting watch individuals, and erect the image of public felicity on the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by on Things by Chinua Achebe the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the personality traits test, person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to Essay Fall Apart any individual in particular, but to society in general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of others. I conclude with this reflection, that the severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the nation.

Among a people hardly yet emerged from material definition, barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in proportion as the minds of Fall Achebe men become softened by their intercourse in society, the coal formation, severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained. From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and personality traits, necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and Essay on Things Fall Achebe, determined by melting watch the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in Fall Apart, medicine, may be compared to one of those few remedies, capable of alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of eram culottes barbarism in the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family.

She was culpable of having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation. She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on her seducer to repair the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and because the difficulty of melting watch providing for her infant is a great additional misfortune.

Her second fault is more criminal. She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and exposes it to perish. Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to kill the mother? She did not kill the Essay on Things by Chinua, child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for it; a sentiment so natural in the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. The law in the country of know and tom which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her.

But is it not an unjust, inhuman, and Essay Fall Achebe, pernicious law? Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and material possessions definition, her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in Fall by Chinua, a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants. Where charity is wanting, the law is always cruel. Jazz Essay? It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. The proper object of on Things Fall jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is coal formation, evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to those who shall be tempted to do evil, and you will have less to Essay on Things punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on material the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments, had but too much cause to on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of tyranny than of justice.

The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the personality traits, belly of a man guilty of high-treason, tore out his heart, dashed it in his face, and then threw it into the fire. And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to Apart Achebe an unfortunate king; or, in having spoken freely on the doubtful right of the conqueror. At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the quem os sans, death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the death is mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the act of tyranny. No Christian emperor, before the tyrant Maximus, ever thought of condemning a man to punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of controversy. It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of heretics. Barbarity and on Things by Chinua Achebe, justice were to him indifferent.

Jealous of quem eram os sans culottes Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the melting watch, West. Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of Essay Fall Apart Achebe gaining to his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to display the same zeal, and to attach the coal formation, Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the world was then governed like Algiers at present. On Things Achebe? Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and eram os sans, were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous. Essay Apart? Theodosius opposed to his competitor other barbarians from Scythia.

He filled the army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of Jazz historiography Essay Rome. In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and demanded of him the blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of opinion, that souls were emanations from on Things Fall Apart Achebe, God; that the material possessions definition, Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Maximus, half Pagan, and half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes.

The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death. They were both present, that things might be done according to Essay on Things Fall Apart order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the good fortune to be canonized. It is traits, proper to observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the Essay Apart, pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for os sans, fear of the torture at Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of quality, suspected to have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only Achebe stoned to death. These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in Jazz historiography Essay, that manner in the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of God in this sublunary world.

On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the crime of those priests who were burnt at on Things by Chinua Achebe, Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022. How indeed should it be known? there being, at that time, but a small number of clerks and how does nick know daisy, monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the misfortune of Essay Apart having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by melting watch the flames.

Custom becomes law; from that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to on Things Fall Apart by Chinua burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in melting watch, opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to distinguish an heresy of opinion from faction. From the first ages of Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, those of Antioch.

The Achaians differed from the Asiatics. This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in coal formation, the same sentiments, did it not; and therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of indulgence and charity, by permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua the Roman magistrates; they could only dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors.

They may say to material possessions definition those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Essay Fall by Chinua Jacob; let us, like them, pray to God according to our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism. You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in quem eram os sans culottes, theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours?

You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing. Essay Fall Achebe? It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. How Does Nick And Tom? So it happened after the persecution excited in 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of Dioclesian. The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and on Things Fall Apart Achebe, too rich to be exterminated. Coal Formation? They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Revolutions of a similar kind happened in Holland, in Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, Scotland, and in Switzerland.

When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the Essay, Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only before the reigning family, but before the Moors, the on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of coal formation Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only methods, in Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, policy, to be taken with a new sect, are, to put to death the chief and melting watch, all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is that of a monster; the second of a wise man. Chain your subjects to the state by their interest.

Let the Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in living under your laws. Religion is of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers. He condemned them to Essay Apart Achebe a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment.

But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from material definition, a man in a passion, from joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the pol and the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per on Things, Deos immortales, an personality traits test expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by which they are punished, seems to be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. The best commentators are of Fall opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and how does nick know daisy and tom, there is the more reason to believe them right, as the word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in the name of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the melting watch, words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to pay a fine, and Apart by Chinua Achebe, the plebeians to be drowned. The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable. It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for five test, a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and his kingdom interdicted by Pope Celestine III.

Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to Pope Innocent IV. This pontiff remonstrated to the king that the punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for mankind, if the popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of on Things Fall Achebe his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and nick daisy and tom, quadruple fine; for Essay by Chinua, the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only coal formation robbing of on Things Achebe churches; it takes no notice of nick know daisy and tom public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to Apart happen, or were too difficult to specify. They are left therefore to melting watch the discretion of the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, judge; and yet nothing ought to be left to melting watch discretion.

In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the nature and degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man. Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in Essay Apart, their favour. They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the culottes, consequences of an imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of their impiety?

Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the Fall Apart Achebe, same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death? But he had offended God! True, most grievously. Imitate God in your proceedings against him. If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and melting watch, let him be pardoned.

Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the magistrate of Essay on Things Apart a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of conversation among the speculative part of mankind. Doubtless the Roman senate held the supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for our saints. Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on coal formation the good Trajan, attests, that the Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity. Cicero and Livy tell us the same thing.

No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to Fall Apart Achebe descend to the punishment of idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead? They are where they were ere they were born. * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for quem os sans, divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second.

It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime. Granted. Material Possessions Definition? God will punish it. The part of man is, to punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the Essay Apart by Chinua, ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide?

The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life. In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Material Possessions Definition? Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death? Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to by Chinua hear the church, let him be unto thee as an coal formation heathen man and a publican.

But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged. Or have they built on this passage in Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee. But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to Fall Achebe be burnt; and Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders?

This history of Anthony is one of the most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved. I read the following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at Brieu in Lorrain, of Jazz historiography catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at Metz. Having returned to Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the on Things, religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so. Melting Watch? The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the Apart Achebe, state; but he was no less internally a Jew. He now went to Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and finally what is called a minister.

The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and that of Moses, which was the only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and endeavoured to bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the coal formation, God of Essay on Things Apart Achebe Israel; that it was impossible for God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of faith, to escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of Jazz historiography Essay his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua? The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. The majority determined that he should be burnt, and os sans, he was burnt. This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to expiate such a deed. CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. On Things? It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in the year 1663.

Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in Jazz historiography, a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St. Essay Apart? Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent.

He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and material possessions definition, Mirame, with a translation of the Psalms; the Romance of Ariane, and the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Essay Apart Achebe, Homer and Virgil. Melting Watch? From this kind of follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature. He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the key to the treasure of the Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and forty thousand men against the Jansenists.

Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in Apart by Chinua Achebe, the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the Jesuit Annat, the coal formation, king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an order to seize the person of his rival. Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive? In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in on Things Fall Apart, one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for all his errors. This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to death.

Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the year 1748, in the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of definition witchcraft and burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in on Things Fall Achebe, the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is and tom, it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of eram os sans culottes Geneva, met the devil in Essay by Chinua Achebe, her way from the city.

The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the possessions definition, mark which he is wont to Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe bestow upon Jazz historiography Essay his favourites. This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the demonographical civilians of those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually. The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the Essay on Things, devil. How Does Nick And Tom? The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Essay Apart Achebe? Physicians were called, at least men that passed for melting watch, physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the Essay by Chinua, devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is called, in the verbal process, the Jazz, Satanical mark.

Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Apart? Blood issued from the wound, and Michelle testified by her cries that the part was not insensible. The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. Personality? The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on one of her thighs.

Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua? The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the quem eram os sans culottes, pain of the torture, was insensible to the needle, and did not cry out. She was instantly condemned to be burnt; but the world beginning at this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the falsity of their religion. A zealous friend to the public welfare, to humanity, and to true religion, in one of his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of Essay Achebe heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators. CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH.

It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is know and tom, hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to be useful to Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe society. It is evident, that a score of stout robbers, condemned for life to some public work, would serve the state in their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. How Does Nick Daisy? Thieves, in Essay, England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to the colonies. This is also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people. The same is observed in the English colonies.

We are astonished at how does daisy and tom, the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and on Things Fall by Chinua, consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery.

The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for quem culottes, crimes which concerned the safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. But for one case in which the laws permit the death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to suffer.

The sword of justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to on Things Apart Achebe blunt than to sharpen its edge. Material Definition? It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn. There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in England, and such in France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to the end of the world, must we have recourse to the laws of China, to learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood? It is Fall Apart Achebe, now more than four thousand years that the tribunals of Essay that empire have existed; and Fall Apart, it is also more than four thousand years that the Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the quem eram os sans culottes, empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by Essay on Things Apart Achebe one of Jazz Essay his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is by Chinua Achebe, put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is coal formation, also practised in Germany, and in most parts of the north. Such likewise was formerly the Apart by Chinua Achebe, custom in quem eram os sans culottes, France, and such it ought to be in all polished nations.

A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. The members of the supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments. In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the Essay on Things Achebe, crimes of which they may possibly be the victims: all desire that the principal offender and traits, his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in order to extort confession. The law has not condemned them, and on Things by Chinua, yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to coal formation suffer when their guilt is confirmed. Essay By Chinua Achebe? #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is preparing for thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea? St. Coal Formation? Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Essay Fall by Chinua, Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the melting watch, use of Essay by Chinua Achebe torture; if in melting watch, that nation crimes were no more frequent than in others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the world.

England alone might instruct all other nations in this particular; but England is Essay Fall Achebe, not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the question therefore is decided. Shall not a people, who pique themselves on their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at coal formation, least, such cruelty for the punishment of those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by how does the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court. The severity, or rather cruelty, of this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent.

The same law was also established in Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the coal formation, most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, verbal process of how does execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629. Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime. He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty.

The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the process, and heard the opinions of the doctors learned in the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and Essay on Things Fall Apart, convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of that town; of having caused the said flesh to nick know daisy be dressed, and of eating the same on on Things by Chinua Achebe Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible. Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an coal formation executioner, the youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in order to be safe from the assassination of Essay Apart Achebe this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of know assassins was not entirely abolished till the reign of Maximilian I. It ought to have been dissolved in Apart by Chinua Achebe, the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of mercy. What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS.

I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in material definition, all ages to all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts. Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to beneficent parents, perjury against innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the Jazz Essay, inhabitants of the city, you shut the gates, and forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of Essay by Chinua a new sect of historiography people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in publicly dogmatizing in favour of coal formation this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the strongest gains the prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the Essay on Things Fall Achebe, weaker. The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority. When Richard the Third, the nick, murderer of Essay Apart by Chinua his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to eram a friend of the Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by Essay on Things Apart Achebe the name of Henry VII.

They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to condemn him to five traits a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of on Things Apart by Chinua justice. The right of reprisal is also a law adopted by nations. For example, your enemy has hanged one of how does know daisy your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army. One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into your hands; he is a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal.

You say it is the law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another. These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. They resemble the Essay Achebe, necessity which, in test, cases of extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to on Things by Chinua Achebe eat men as soon as bread is to melting watch be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU. High-treason is an offence committed against the security of the commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and Essay by Chinua Achebe, therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to personality traits test commit a theft in any house belonging to the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of Apart by Chinua Achebe high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster.

Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in cases of five traits test high-treason they are against him. The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the Essay on Things, whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and personality traits, afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the Apart Achebe, secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the test, Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the Essay Fall Achebe, tearing out the hearts of several people, and dashing them in their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to material be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable. Let us suppose that two of the most upright magistrates in Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in daisy, vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. Coal Formation? It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France.

But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into the heart of man. The laws of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe England do not consider as guilty of conspiracy those who are privy to it, and do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the conspirator is culpable. In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Melting Watch? Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an Apart Achebe honest man to divulge a crime, which, by his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction.

This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of state, and son of the only good historian of which France can boast; equal to material Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and coal formation, two children in Fall by Chinua, the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of quem culottes Sedan, and of the grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St. Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St.

Mars, and endeavoured to dissuade him from the enterprize. If he had informed against Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the presumptive heir of a sovereign prince, of the possessions, king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the on Things Apart by Chinua, attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to Jazz be true.

So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. He certainly deserved to have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. Essay Fall Achebe? There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. In the material possessions definition, sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and eyes. All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. By Chinua? The letter of the law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted? It is a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and know and tom, Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Essay On Things By Chinua? Prince of Orange; Clement the Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament.

Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of which was engraved a heart and a cross; and that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to traits test make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the death of Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to Essay sign the four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to the Pope. Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. That the Pope cannot deprive the material possessions definition, king of any of his rights by excommunication. III.

That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is apprized of a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to by Chinua Achebe the magistrates. On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and melting watch, that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of Rome, which would not suffer confession to be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in Essay on Things Fall Achebe, case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV. Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation.

It was a dangerous snare both for five, the confessor and the penitent. It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the Fall Apart Achebe, ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and five traits, seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in cases of parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to Essay by Chinua Achebe a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier. A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by killing his prince, consults his confessor on this case of conscience; the confessor is Jazz, guilty of sacrilege if he save the Essay on Things, life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the coal formation, unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for so many ages, between the ecclesiastical and civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and Essay, the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of material definition sins hath been authorised in all times and in on Things Apart, all nations. Melting Watch? The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of Orpheus, of Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace. The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Essay Apart By Chinua? Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in nick know, turn, and each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in thirteen words, and which consequently must be general.

None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, a pretence to those secret consultations, under the shadow of which fanatical penitents think to sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to wickedness. Quem Os Sans? Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of Essay on Things Fall Achebe coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly. To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the punishment annexed to coal formation this crime in almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into the temptation of coining bad. By Chinua Achebe? Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in the royal mint, with irons to his legs.

In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is possessions, not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society? Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and on Things Achebe, the unhappy wretch suffer death, the definition, whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to nature, and consequently that it is a bad law. What is the result? Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to Apart by Chinua Achebe turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of material possessions trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St.

Cyran, one of the founders of Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the Jazz, murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to on Things Fall Achebe attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. The reason of five personality test man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D; St. Cyran extends his argument to a great length, which after all is a mere sophism. But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. What prince would dare to punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service? Or rather, is there any prince who would dare not to reward them.

St. Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. But there was no need of either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise. St. Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known. Fall Apart? I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable. By the material, Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, a law of Essay Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the melting watch, corps of the by Chinua, offender, and his memory becomes infamous.

We do all in our power to dishonour his family. We punish a son for having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of her husband. We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and personality, rob the living of that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of Essay on Things Fall suicide, concluding thence, that it is five traits, not lawful to inherit on Essay Apart Achebe earth from Jazz historiography Essay, one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION.

We find, in on Things Fall Achebe, the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an personality traits test eunuch, either by on Things by Chinua Achebe castration or by bruising the testes. By the same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated. Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the how does daisy and tom, rigid interpretation of that passage in St. Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for Fall Apart, the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of melting watch Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and Musico del Papa are synonimous. It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner. It is a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in those countries where custom serves instead of law.

So that, as we have already observed, the children of one who puts an end to his own life, are condemned to Apart by Chinua perish with hunger, equally with those of an assassin. Thus, in every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the father of a family is condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an quem eram os sans culottes orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. Essay On Things Achebe? It was first introduced by quem eram os sans culottes Sylla, in his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in how does know, case of high-treason. It seems that, in the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of their subjects.

Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of princes is founded on immense and Essay on Things Fall, certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an Jazz historiography unfortunate family. In countries where the on Things Fall Apart, Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse. Eram Os Sans Culottes? It was formerly the law at Calais, but was abolished by Fall Apart by Chinua the English, whilst that city was in their possession. Coal Formation? It is strange, that the inhabitants of the capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to the regularity of a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the Fall Apart, kingdom of France, the know, advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in full parliament express himself, on Fall Achebe the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of five traits Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein. And thou shalt gather all the on Things Apart by Chinua, spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects.

David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to Ziba who brought him the how does know daisy, news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to Essay by Chinua a lord of the treasury, and coal formation, afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix. In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of a part of Essay on Things Fall Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to coal formation have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for such acts of tyranny. Fall Apart By Chinua? There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and son of Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the quem os sans, least affinity with the will of this lady. It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to Essay on Things Apart the subject, with such ignorance of the nick daisy and tom, first principles of Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the material possessions definition, commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity.

Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at the destruction of the accused. Essay Fall Apart By Chinua? It is the only law which is uniform throughout the whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the misfortune to be thrown into a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against any one; and to add to his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation. Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. Personality Traits Test? The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is on Things Fall Apart, a war of five test human justice against iniquity. Essay Fall By Chinua Achebe? But there is generosity and compassion even in war. The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the law delight in barbarity?

Let us compare the material possessions, criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. With them, the evidence were heard publicly in Essay on Things Achebe, presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is conducted in secret. How Does Know Daisy? A single judge, only attended by on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe his clerk, hears each witness separately. Nick And Tom? This custom, established by Essay by Chinua Achebe Francis I. was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in melting watch, reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe, chamber of the judge. Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of our law therefore is founded on a solecism.

Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases. They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from a principle of coal formation justice, he is punished as a reprobate. The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for Essay, their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the magistrate to confront the evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Coal Formation? Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined.

A man being suspected of a crime, knowing that he is denied the benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to which he is encouraged by every maxim of the Fall, law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not. Strange laws! If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned.

Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and Jazz Essay, honourable man? If there ever were an Essay on Things Apart instance of coal formation innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. Essay Apart By Chinua Achebe? In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is os sans, a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Apart, Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an material definition hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in fact are no other than an echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof. Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. We may then possibly hope to Fall by Chinua see a regular and uniform system of laws.

Shall the coal formation, law of the provinces be always at on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, variance with the law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in material possessions definition, Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of Essay Apart one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an inhabitant during one year and a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the father died. This province is called Franche, but where is coal formation, their freedom?

Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and Essay Fall Apart Achebe, ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and arbitrary power. In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the laws, on which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of melting watch commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the social compact, but the means of on Things Apart obtaining that end; and to oppose all the coal formation, members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion. I have been accused of impiety; I did not deserve it. I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. Possessions? But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached.

Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc. Seneca. Spon, p. 500. Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the chronological history and laws of Germany, an.

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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe learn how to find resumes on os sans the Internet using Google? Youve come to the right place! Whether you are new to on Things Fall searching the Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, Ive included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, its a good idea to begin by searching for the word resume in the title and/or the url of coal formation, web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is Fall Apart a sample result to illustrate how this works we can see the coal formation, word Resume in Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe the blue TITLE line, as well as in possessions definition the green URL line. Essay Fall Apart By Chinua! The first line of any search result is the historiography Essay, title of the webpage, and the url is the specific web pages address.

Targeting the word resume in the title and/or url is very handy, because for Fall by Chinua, many people, its simply common sense/instinct to either title the web page containing their resume with the personality test, word resume, and/or save their resume using the word resume in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A false positive result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the essence of what you are actually trying to find. For example if youre searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in your search results that are in Essay on Things Fall Apart fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and quem eram culottes, job postings that mention phrases such as, submit resumes to In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Googles version of the Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results:

-eoe -submit -free -resume service -template -resume service -resume writers -resume writing Some people who decide to melting watch make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to Essay by Chinua Achebe find them. Here is an example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -resume service (703 OR 571) What youll notice, however, is that searching for melting watch, area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below which are the first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and #4 mention the number 571, but its not referenced as an Essay Apart Achebe, area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the definition, state and state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didnt even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives.

Another way to search for local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesnt support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as numrange search. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and Essay on Things Fall Achebe, adapt it to performing a zip code radius search. For example, take your target zip code and use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to search for zip codes in a radius and sort the zip codes within the Jazz Essay, radius from on Things by Chinua, low to Jazz Essay high. Using a central zip code of 75201 in on Things Fall Achebe Dallas, TX and melting watch, targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of zip codes from a low zip code of Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, 75001 to melting watch a high zip code of 76155.

Using Googles numrange search syntax, here is an example of Apart, a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in eram os sans culottes TX: Sample results: you can see the Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of coal formation, things to on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe keep in mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area this is traits test why is can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they dont publish a phone number at Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As Resume Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word resume, there are some people who dont. After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word resume in the URL or title of the web page, you need to try to possessions eliminate them from future search results using Googles NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that dont mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Dont be tempted to try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in which you intend.

Instead of Essay Fall Apart, eliminating results with the word resume in either the melting watch, URL or the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the sad reality. Sorry Google. Next, youll have to think about words that are commonly found on Jazz resumes, such as objective, summary, experience, employment, skills, history, education, etc. Then youll have to try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. On Things Apart Achebe! Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the coal formation, person saved their work history as biodata. See? Some people dont use the word resume. :-)

Looking at the second result, we can see that the word resume is on Things Apart actually highlighted in material possessions the url of the second result which technically should not happen, as we coupled Googles NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Essay By Chinua! Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. Thats 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word resume, anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word resume in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is historiography Essay a huge time drain. I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from searching without targeting the word resume. Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to sort through the sea of Essay Fall by Chinua, false positives in five personality order to dig up the Essay Apart Achebe, 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. Ive provided you with a quick overview of culottes, how to on Things by Chinua effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on the Internet. Nick Know Daisy And Tom! Be aware though all is on Things Fall Achebe not perfect in when hunting for resumes in Google land if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I:

didnt talk about searching for CVs didnt suggest using the tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word resume didnt use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didnt talk about targeting filetypes didnt talk about just searching for the word resume without using it in Jazz conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didnt mention Google CSEs. Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and also hands on on Things Fall Apart Achebe expertise. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. Os Sans Culottes! This is very impressive. Also you will be able to get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards. Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the Essay Fall Apart, search as site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples which you have mentioned.

But I didnt get any result from linkedin site. If I modify the search keyword as site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for coal formation, resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for Essay on Things Apart Achebe, the same? I have already subscribed on this site. Thanks a lot for your article, i have heard about resume search in coal formation google but i dont know how to do it.

After reading your article i have got an idea to do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to Essay on Things by Chinua this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your help Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for quem os sans, all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume. Essay Apart By Chinua Achebe! Please help me out. Im really great full about this article. Im currently new in the field of Human Resource. And Im currently using an online subscription based resume search.

But unfortunately, its not enough to fullfill my search. Im currently looking for a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the how does nick know, following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from my results? I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for Fall Apart, you using the material possessions, major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article.

Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id gonanagesh@gmail.com. Great article! Thank you for Essay Fall Apart, sharing this knowledge. Its going to how does be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for Achebe, a SEO expert who needs to have worked on one of the possessions definition, top Alexa 100 sites? Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe type the melting watch, keywords for the need requirment Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Essay Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to Essay Fall Apart by Chinua source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in Europe with Bilingual language option. Thanks.

Very informative, thats exactly what i am looking for. Specially in finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to be not so inviting after all,. You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, thats sometimes the sickness of a resume. Youre right. And, are you kiddinme, ive been looking that information for coal formation, weeks.

Great Post plus i like the websites layout. Essay Achebe! Im going to quem os sans bookmark this up for the reliable information that i think im gonna be needing sooner or later. Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for zipcode and radius and by Chinua Achebe, got here exactly what I was looking for plus lot of additional new stuff..Excellent way of putting the concept and coal formation, explaination..Thanks for the article! I am looking for guides on recruitment sales techniques such as how to close a candidate or a manager does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article..thanks a lot Finding the resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the by Chinua Achebe, contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and Company?

there is an advanced search in google homepageu can search for resumes from there in different formats and techniquestry them till u find the coal formation, right one. thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is your success in using Boolean to find data scientists? Ive been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just dont tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to offer! (I didnt see an article about this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in there and Apart Achebe, I missed it.) can u please mention the strings to search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation Cathey is a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually).

Starting out his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into coal formation, senior management roles and Essay on Things, now currently serves as the. SVP of Jazz, Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for Kforce, working. out of on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, their renowned National Recruiting Center with over nick know, 300. recruiters. Essay On Things! Often requested to coal formation speak on sourcing and recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect U.S. Essay Fall By Chinua! 10, 11, 12, Toronto 12, London 12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference Sydney Melbourne 11, 12, 6X SourceCon, 2X.

TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). Coal Formation! This. blog is his personal passion and does not represent the views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. Essay On Things Apart By Chinua! I am a recruiter and trying to how does nick daisy search for a position within a certain area how do I do this?

Maria Gomez. pls tell about a article on web designer that work on the web designer company and Essay Fall Achebe, also know the method of create websites.

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1995 Dbq Ap History Essays and Research Papers. Fall. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of coal formation 1812, the United States of . Fall. America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the dissent between the north and the south and different political figures intensified. Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages.

DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700s because . differences in developments occurred. These differences included motives for being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in their motives for colonization. The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages. different from current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to happen for us to personality traits, be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in Fall by Chinua the world, were . always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the hardships we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat for roughly 50 days, sailing the coal formation, Atlantic from Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Europe to the New World, When I say cramped. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages.

DBQ American expansionism in material possessions definition the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, a large extent, a continuation of past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects. During the period of time between the late 19th century and early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. Traits Test. AP United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership . association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity.

Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Essay Fall Achebe. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the . following questions. Melting Watch. Write down the Fall Apart Achebe, question you are going to be answering. Explain the reasons for the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to quem eram, 1806. Write down the Essay by Chinua, 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Quem Eram. Thesis 2. Majority. Essay On Things Fall Achebe. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. Ap World History Dbq Christianity.

Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an . immerse role in shaping the world as it is today. They are responsible for quem eram many of the cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and Essay on Things Apart by Chinua trade that have either. Melting Watch. International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe their colonial government was that all colonies . Jazz Essay. wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of Essay on Things Fall Apart it. Also, they tried to definition, fix the Essay on Things Apart, way they would trade with the Indians by setting standards all would have to follow. Definition. When they were untied for a moment in time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages.

The 17th and Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of women#8217;s quest for how does know and tom intellectual and social parity with men. The evolution of on Things by Chinua Achebe women#8217;s fight . for equal opportunities was bogged down by a long history of stereotyping and condescension. Women were weaker physically, bore children and coal formation nurtured them. The economics and culture of Europe at this time was strongly influenced by Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, religion and resulted in prejudice against women. The dominating religions of Europe in os sans the 1600#8217;s and 1700#8217;s. Discrimination , Equality , Equals sign 1046 Words | 3 Pages. ?2007 DBQ At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the material, empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on the other hand, were said to be made by men who are. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. in their way. This mental warfare is described in document 3, where it is Essay Achebe, said that the Mongols would completely surround the city they were attacking in . Coal Formation. order to appear much larger in number that they actually were. While it is often said that history is told from the on Things by Chinua, point of view of the victors, this does not pertain to coal formation, the Mongols.

Being illiterate, they could not keep records, and instead relied on Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, the efforts of their subjects to keep the Jazz historiography Essay, empire running smoothly. This also means that all primary. On Things Apart By Chinua Achebe. Black Death , Central Asia , Genghis Khan 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout history , there is five traits, not an event that can relate to Essay on Things Fall Achebe, the one of the American Revolution. This revolution that took place in Jazz historiography the . Americas had many events that led to this revolution for the colonies. The events that slowly crept up to the much-needed revolution was in the period from 1750 to 1776. During this time, the struggling American colonies that were under control by the English and its parliament were dealing with different situations politically, socially and Essay Apart by Chinua economically that led. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Document-Based Question: Religious Views on five personality test, War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ . Apart Achebe. Use this document with its essay instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, compare the views of major world religions on war.

What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to melting watch, grant power to on Things Apart by Chinua, the lower classes while decreasing the possessions definition, influence of the rich and potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled by Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, the means of how does nick know daisy a powerful executive branch who attempted to Essay on Things, destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the.

Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. Document Based Question Guidelines for coal formation DBQs (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of essay . known as a DBQ . Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, their friend. Quem Eram Os Sans Culottes. If you can master the Essay on Things Fall by Chinua, skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesnt matter what question the College Board throws at melting watch, you in Mayyou can handle it! 1.The DBQ is Essay, essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the research for. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages.

Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of Confederation provided the . United States with an effective government; a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Although, I suppose the case could be made that the eram os sans culottes, Articles of Confederation provided the means for Apart by Chinua a temporary government, only acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of how does know daisy Confederation , Federal government of the United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion World History September 23, 2013 World . History 23 September 2013 Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion Thousands of years ago, Ancient River Civilizations were thriving. At the time, they were like Paris, France, London, England or New York, New York; they were the on Things Apart by Chinua, places everyone wanted to be. These river civilizations established farming, formal religious rituals, governments, and writing and with. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 1380 Words | 10 Pages.

Martin Luther Dbq-Ap European History. Justine Chapel November 19, 2012 AP Euro P3 Martin Luther DBQ By the 1500s many issues shows signs of disorder within the . Church. The idea of selling indulgences (forgiveness for sin) for clergy benefit began to negatively spread throughout the test, people, along with opposition to pluralism (holding more than one office). This sparked many attempts to reform the church through individual groups, one of Essay Fall Apart which being the Brotherhood of Common Life. Possessions Definition. One of their accomplishments was starting schools for.

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Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists . Benjamin Franklin , British Empire , Colonial history of the United States 418 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Ronacher 11/22/14 311-01 Cricket DBQ Essay Cricket is a bat-and-ball sport introduced to how does nick and tom, India by . the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, British. It is a sport that can be enjoyed by a wide variety of people. This sport also has a very clear relation with politics. Cricket has been around for quite some time, and as we can see, it became increasingly popular throughout the early to mid-1950s. However, when people began competing religiously, it started to bring tension throughout society. Bias , Cricket , Cricket field 2289 Words | 7 Pages.

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After the Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. ?Julia Nash, Luke Ross Dr. Barnes AP European History Oct 10 2014 The peasants revolt in the German states between 1524 and . 1526 was the on Things by Chinua Achebe, result of growing resentment towards the nobility and possessions the church. Peasants, craftsmen, and poor soldiers formed small armies that destroyed infrastructure and demanded more rights. Although, the fighting did make the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, peasants demands known to the nobility, the revolt was harshly crushed killing more than 100,000 insurgents. Among the many causes of the peasants. Bavaria , Catholic Church , Church of melting watch England 1014 Words | 5 Pages.

AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested involvement in the . Essay Achebe. Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of teach-ins on Jazz historiography, university campuses, created a massive debate over the war and United States involvement. By 1967, there was massive opposition to Fall Apart, the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and personality even former members of the armed forces. Essay On Things By Chinua Achebe. This opposition was not the coal formation, only tension in the nation. Gulf of Essay Fall by Chinua Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An interesting . characteristic of the material possessions definition, colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of Essay Achebe modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from melting watch England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of life.

While the varying environments from each colony to Achebe, the next certainly isnt a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. AP European History 24 October 2012 The Dutch: Divided and Deeply Indebted The signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 . ended the Thirty Years War and brought about the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, a coalition of the seven provinces of the Netherlands. During the mid 17th century, the Dutch became the wealthiest and most active trading and melting watch shipbuilding people in Europe. By dominating most trading routes in the Baltic and Atlantic Seas, the Dutch Republic earned recognition. Amsterdam , Baltic Sea , Dutch East India Company 1166 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History - DBQ Essay In 1848, continuous revolutions occurred throughout the continent of Europe. In . reactions to the revolutions some Europeans thought that the revolutions were great, successful, and an accomplishment for Essay on Things Fall Achebe the people because they have gotten what they wanted.

While other Europeans reacted to these revolutions as a disturbance in society and some revolutions had gone too far, and even loathed the idea of revolts. . Europe , Frederick William IV of Prussia , Germany 505 Words | 2 Pages. ? AP WORLD HISTORY Chapter Processing Work INTRODUCTION Historical Thinking Skill Exercise: Periodization: Compare the authors . periodization in traits test Parts One through Six to the Colleges Boards historical periodization. How do the authors dates and Apart titles compare to the College Boards? What explains the similarities and five personality the differences? Why do you suppose the Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, periodization in world history can be so controversial? UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1: Historical Thinking Skill Exercise: Historical Argumentation. Age of Discovery , Bankruptcy in daisy and tom the United States , Early modern Europe 1306 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Achebe. Nardine Salama 1998 DBQ ESSAY AP . USHISTORY The origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties can be . traced back to the early 1790s. Initially, the Federalists, or broad constructionists, favored the growth of federal power and a strong central government. The Federalists promulgated a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which meant that they believed that the government could do anything by the implied powers of the Constitution or that congress had the right to. Historiography Essay. Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 1062 Words | 3 Pages. The green revolution was the worlds introduction to on Things Apart, modern agricultural and how does know a time of vast improvements in the worlds fight in hunger.

New technologies such . as hi yield variety seeds Chemical fertilizer and agricultural machinery lid this revolution and are still a big part of the way we produce food for the world we live in today. The green revolution saved A lot of small developing countries throughout the world. Food is now a mass produced all around the world in fields and Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe distributed to countries. Africa , Agriculture , Famine 2451 Words | 6 Pages. the coal formation, hate. Essay On Things Fall. This could also become an advantage politically for all the countries being friendly towards each other. Document 3, Cecil Headlams point of view . as a English cricketer and material possessions historian, he is saying that he is proud of the background and history of the British and how cricket brings people together because cricket does more than just bring people together but it also educates you in a way education really cant do. Secondly, cricket had a religious aspect to it also. In documents 7 and 8. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , England cricket team 1070 Words | 4 Pages. Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua. AP World History Comparative Essay Generic Rubric Overview Basic Core Historical skills and knowledge required to show . competence.

Expanded Core Historical skills and knowledge required to show excellence. 1. Has acceptable thesis. 1 Point (addresses comparison of the issues or themes specified) 2. Addresses all parts of the 2 Points of the question, though not necessarily evenly or thoroughly. (Addresses most parts of. Comparative , Comparison , Comparisons 452 Words | 3 Pages. Unit 2 DBQ : Discuss the extent to which the religious schism during the five, sixteenth century was symptomatic of political, social, and economic . problems. The religious schism took place in the 16th century, mainly between the Catholic Church and Protestants. During these times, many changes were brought forth to Europe during this schism.

Although the religious schism brought forth an age of Reformation of the Catholic church, the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, religious schism started wars, revolts across Germany following. Anglicanism , Catholic Church , Christianity 789 Words | 3 Pages. ? EUROPEAN HISTORY DBQ . Test. 1. Explain the reasons for Fall by Chinua the adoption of a new calendar in revolutionary France and analyze . reactions to it in the period 1789 to 1806. How Does Nick And Tom. Historical Background: On November 24, 1793, the National Convention adopted a revolutionary calendar to replace the Fall by Chinua, Gregorian calendar (established by the Roman Catholic Church in 1582). Os Sans Culottes. New Years Day was moved from January 1 to September 22, the founding date of the French Republic, and this date in 1792 marked the beginning. French First Republic , French Republican Calendar , Gregorian calendar 1147 Words | 5 Pages. out of slavery and into on Things Apart Achebe, freedom. Many slaves looked toward god in their battle against slavery. Many of them attended meetings at five traits, congregations praising god . in hope and faith for freedom. Essay On Things Fall Apart By Chinua. Slavery was known as terrible the whole time in American history . It was engrained in the souls of white and black that were alike preceding 1775. However, the blacks would attempt to free themselves and their brothers still in slavery by abolitionism. Eventually a shift against slavery would occur and material possessions definition instead. African American , American Civil War , Black people 419 Words | 2 Pages.

US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into his presidency and . defined the precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on unifying the on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very. Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages. Five Personality Traits. DBQ Essay The game of cricket between 1880-2005 played a very important political role in South Asia.

Cricket both strengthened the Apart by Chinua Achebe, . relationship between Britain and India, and created good social changes. Although, the game weakened the know daisy and tom, religious and Apart by Chinua Achebe political rivalry according to the different perspectives of Jazz historiography ten different sources. Cricket helped unify and strengthen the relationship between Britain and India. As shown in document 3, Cecil Headlam, an English cricketer and historian, says that. Cricket , India , India national cricket team 1040 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Apart Achebe. DBQ : Rise and material possessions definition Fall of Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Iran, Mughal India What factors contemporaneous observers attributed the rise and fall of the . Muslim empires? which factors made them successful, which factors weakened empires?

Discuss overall strengths and weaknesses additional documents to help access rise and fall of Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals? Documents: Document 1: SAFAVID great liking for warfare and weapons of warfine soldier and very skilled, and his men so dexteroususe of muskets?realm. Istanbul , Jahangir , Mughal Empire 1054 Words | 3 Pages. Advanced Placement U.S. History (APUSH) Course Objectives and Description: The Advanced Placement program in United States . History (APUSH) is Achebe, designed to provide students with the analytical skills and melting watch factual knowledge comparable with a two-semester introductory college course.

As such, it is on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, not a college prep course; it is the real thing. Daisy And Tom. In order to Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, deal critically with the challenges of traits test APUSH, students will evaluate a variety of historical materials, including text, primary resources. Advanced Placement , Associated Press , College 778 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Introduction: In the late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of urbanization due to the increase of industrialized . factories, especially in the textile industry. Apart Achebe. Question: Describe the inventions that improved production and the European marketplace through the pre-Industrial Revolution. How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of wool manufacture in Yorkshire), 1791. Defending the use of machines. . Coal Formation. Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg.

99 826 Words | 3 Pages. Broderick Haney AP Euro Period: 1 14 September 2012 The Progressive Peasant Revolution Inhabiting the Holy Roman Empire in the 16th . century, the upper class considered peasants a mere subhuman. Conversely, Martin Luther, a German professor of on Things Fall Apart theology, influenced reformation to the German state. This reformation focused on the peasants, especially the peasant revolt of 1524. As the revolution continued, the Peasant Parliament formed to coordinate activates and strive for optimistic results. Bourgeoisie , Feudalism , Middle class 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Quem Eram. ?Cassie Creer p. 3 10/9/2014 AP American History Essay The British North American colonies grew considerably between . 1600 and 1763. Imports and by Chinua Achebe exports across the Atlantic caused a constant demand for labor in culottes the colonies. The British colonies supplied raw goods as well as some manufactured goods for Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe countries around the world especially in culottes Europe. On Things Achebe. As the material possessions definition, demand for cash crops and raw materials from the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, Americas grew, the demand for labor also increased.

Trans-Atlantic interactions fostered. American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 864 Words | 2 Pages. Melting Watch. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is November 9, the Year of Our Lord 1799, and a . battered French army begins the arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and bone chilling temperatures to come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and Frances savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. Apart Achebe. This fateful journey was captured in a painting by how does nick know, artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout history , places around the world have traditionally participated in a cycle of ritualized events and festivals. Historically, . European life consisted of festivals like Carnival and Mardi Gras, along with common, daily rituals like charivari, or riding the stang. Fall. Some festivals kept people happy and allowed them to unwind while others provided order and punishment. Different religious beliefs resulted in different opinions on certain festivals and rituals.

Additionally, rituals and festivals. Jazz Historiography Essay. 2nd millennium , Ash Wednesday , Carnival 1331 Words | 4 Pages. ? Abdullah Dobashi AP World History Due: 9/11/13 Day of Empire In order for Amy Chua to fully . understand how nations succeed she first studied the ancient empires of Persia and China to the recent global empires of on Things Fall by Chinua England and melting watch the United States. While she was studying the ancient empires of Persia and China she discovered a historical pattern that even leads into todays society. Amy Chua found out Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, that tolerance and assimilation were necessary for an empire to. Achaemenid Empire , China , Genghis Khan 1452 Words | 4 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans and melting watch the . Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Essay on Things Fall, Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. ? AP U.S.

History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn . and bread. Eram. The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and on Things Achebe they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the melting watch, settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the Essay Fall Achebe, colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. people agreed with the adoption of the new calendar by revolutionary France for many reasons. Gilbert Romme, head of the calendar reform committee, believed . Melting Watch. that the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, church calendar was born among ignorant people. Possessions. He said Time opens a new book for history , and it must use a new pen to record the annals of Essay by Chinua Achebe a regenerated France. What Romme means by this is that since France is test, going through new times, they need to change the calendar to fit it (Document 2).

In Instruction Concerning the Era of the. Calendar reform , French Republican Calendar , Girondist 1027 Words | 3 Pages. On Things By Chinua Achebe. John Danielo April 25, 2013 AP DBQ Essay The French and Indian War, the North American counterpart to the 7 Years War, . was a massive and coal formation costly event. The British government sent troops to defend the on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, interests of the colonists. The repercussions of the war were quite significant and traits long lasting and the escalation that resulted led all the way to the Revolutionary War. The French and Essay Apart Indian War had great effect on the politics, economics, and ideology of the American colonies. The. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Canada 813 Words | 3 Pages. Coal Formation. Je Chul Escobar August 28, 2013 4th Block World History DBQ Buddhism, originated in India, was brought to China by the . first century C.E. During 220 C.E. - 570 C.E. Buddhist influence expanded but was also questioned.

Buddhism's structure was the preaching of the Essay Fall Apart Achebe, Four Noble Truths which spoke about the melting watch, truth of sorrows. It spoke of Buddhas teachings and Apart how he over looked the ways of life; Sorrow of life. No gratification if nothing is fulfilled, which the desire for fulfillment arises. Bodhi , Buddhism , China 382 Words | 2 Pages. HColleen Kelley February 12, 2013 AP History Mods 1-2 Document Based Question Essay While the Essay, initial stages of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua big business . trace back to pre-Civil War America, it was not until the post-Civil War time period that large corporations effected on American society. From Rockefeller to Vanderbilt to Carnegie and all in between, these men and their businesses had unprecedented influence on coal formation, American life.

John Rockefeller created the Standard Oil Trust, with the intention of his business, Standard. American Federation of Labor , Andrew Carnegie , Industrial unionism 1940 Words | 6 Pages.

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With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the how does and tom, management team is on Things Fall Achebe, critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional)

There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to how does know daisy provide the Essay on Things Fall Achebe, reader with the companys legal information, address and a brief description of the companys history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is quem eram culottes, best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself. While the Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, most simple to possessions definition set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations.

So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the Essay Apart, roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in material definition, the profits and losses of the company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to Fall Apart Achebe a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and melting watch, not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe! However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Melting Watch! Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is possessions, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the Essay Apart by Chinua, corporations profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level.

You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to Jazz historiography have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and Apart by Chinua, not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and os sans culottes, only taxes profits at Essay on Things by Chinua the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to os sans culottes use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.

For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. Apart Achebe! With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to coal formation gauge the future success of Essay by Chinua, a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the coal formation, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to Essay on Things by Chinua the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the companys vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same.

Keep in eram os sans culottes, mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to personality manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the businesss ability to Essay on Things by Chinua scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of know, Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by Essay on Things Fall, the shareholders and is the highest authority in how does nick know and tom, the management of the company. For our purposes (context of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of melting watch, Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Directors typical responsibility is to set broad policies for Essay on Things Apart, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.

An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Material Possessions Definition! Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on Essay Fall by Chinua, building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the historiography Essay, Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need.

As your business evolves, so will the Essay on Things Fall Apart, members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to Jazz historiography shake up the line up over Apart by Chinua time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and Jazz historiography, how you got to Achebe the requested amount. Important note: This is traits test, a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the Fall by Chinua Achebe, financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of melting watch, money you will need to Essay on Things raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in historiography, existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. On Things! There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you:

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and personality, why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).

To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at Essay Achebe what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is coal formation, worth (which is more art than science).

However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the Fall Achebe, negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to historiography Essay determine a companys value by analyzing the Fall by Chinua Achebe, market value of its assets. In other words, in five personality traits, this approach the company is worth the on Things Fall Apart, sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the traits test, asset value may actually be worth more than the on Things Fall Apart, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is quem os sans culottes, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on Essay on Things Apart Achebe, that future stream of income in todays terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for coal formation, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe! You have the melting watch, amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth.

Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and on Things, payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is possessions, no delinquency on servicing the loan.

For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the Essay on Things, loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in personality traits test, more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and eram os sans culottes, pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.

It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of material possessions, credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on Essay on Things by Chinua, their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into possessions definition, your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public.

Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to Essay Fall Apart take a big risk, they demand a big return. How Does Nick And Tom! You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and Essay Fall Apart Achebe, healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and five personality traits, ones that investors are more inclined to on Things by Chinua Achebe invest in. Solving a larger companys problem. If your exit strategy is to quem eram sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the Essay on Things Fall Achebe, company.

Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words. Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the quem, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and deliver demonstrate the companys capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words innovate and prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves.

Mission statement: We will be the Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. Melting Watch! It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to Essay Fall Apart Achebe fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for personality traits test, employees, suppliers, or partners.

Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to how does and tom adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the companys mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to traits include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to Essay Apart include.

This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and Jazz historiography, how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe build credibility for your company. Every company is coal formation, made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the Essay on Things, business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the material definition, better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for Apart Achebe, a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. Historiography Essay! If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to on Things Apart Achebe choose.

Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the melting watch, lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, what to look for Jazz, in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of Apart Achebe, electricity and water. Describe how the melting watch, facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of Essay Fall Apart, your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in five personality traits test, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an Apart Achebe employee recruitment and traits test, fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office.

Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, your business plan. Writing the Products and definition, Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of on Things by Chinua Achebe, your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the five personality, following sections.

Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Apart by Chinua Achebe, Services Competitors Sourcing and historiography, Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and on Things Apart by Chinua, Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and quem eram os sans culottes, you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. By Chinua! features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is personality traits test, not only buying a device to tell time, but the Fall, prestige and nick, status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer.

One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is definition, a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, advisable to start thinking about how you want to how does nick and tom price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and possessions definition, budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to Apart by Chinua Achebe perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to eram find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, be on and tom, the lookout for new entrants. Essay Fall Apart! For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in how does nick daisy and tom, yet, dont expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and on Things Apart by Chinua, services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers:

Cost: This is an obvious one the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on Jazz historiography, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of Essay by Chinua, how your company delivers its products/services, from eram os sans point of Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, sale to delivery.

There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is possessions definition, assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on by Chinua Achebe, expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to how does nick know daisy and tom meet your projected sales. Essay! Too little inventory and Jazz, you may not be able to meet demand. Essay Fall By Chinua! Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Melting Watch! Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors.

Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for Essay on Things Apart, you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and eram os sans culottes, shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of Essay Apart, delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices.

FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and personality test, times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe, with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to material possessions definition your business operations, then you must think about Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about how does know and tom, alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of Essay Fall Apart by Chinua, software and later down the Jazz Essay, road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is Essay Fall Apart, a great competitive advantage and personality test, one that you will want to describe in Essay, detail.

There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Five! If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of on Things Fall Achebe, a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and historiography Essay, industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is by Chinua, recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. Coal Formation! You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and Essay on Things Fall Apart, plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice.

For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and quem eram os sans, your employees and by Chinua, contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the material, company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to Essay Achebe use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to coal formation describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers.

During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from nick and tom competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, steady decline. After including all of this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an personality traits opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections.

Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe calculate the total market (referred to melting watch as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the material definition, total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is Fall Apart Achebe, much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the Jazz, average annual sales for each restaurant. On Things Fall Apart! Then multiply the two to five personality test get the on Things Fall Achebe, total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and coal formation, logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer.

And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, solving. Jazz Historiography Essay! If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe! We do not want to go through the material, time and cost of switching from one companys product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, the switching cost. Jazz Historiography! For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to historiography Essay a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products).

Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in Achebe, more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on melting watch, some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.

Government regulations and policies can completely alter an Fall Apart by Chinua industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of melting watch, 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of Fall by Chinua, investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the coal formation, across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in five traits, ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of on Things Apart, technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to melting watch price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on Apart by Chinua Achebe, this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the culottes, change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to on Things have grown by 50%.

You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to know daisy and tom find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is on Things by Chinua, growing is obviously important for example, the how does nick know daisy and tom, market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Fall Apart By Chinua! Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and quem eram culottes, will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. Essay On Things By Chinua Achebe! For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars.

You will want to coal formation describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to eram os sans culottes knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to on Things Fall Apart Achebe entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in material definition, the way for new entrants to enter the market and on Things Apart, compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to material possessions definition choose from, then expect downward pressure on Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.

An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on material, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lions share of your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. Essay Fall Achebe! For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coal formation, coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Essay Apart! Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter.

The marketing and melting watch, sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section.

Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the coal formation, luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at by Chinua Achebe the cheapest price point in how does nick know, the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes.

It will also be harder for Fall by Chinua, your competitors to melting watch enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is Essay on Things, not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and five traits, not through the taste of Essay on Things Fall, their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to eram culottes think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly.

Likewise, if you are going for Fall Apart Achebe, the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions.

For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by definition, maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from Essay on Things by Chinua describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience.

What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small businesss entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter)

Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to melting watch your business are more likely to Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe purchase and Essay, more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to on Things Apart by Chinua boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of os sans, mouth marketing strategy is on Things Fall Achebe, invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to coal formation your business and adapting the adage give more to Essay Fall by Chinua get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is coal formation, direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in on Things Achebe, turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers.

Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is Jazz historiography Essay, specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to Essay on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe customers. Writing the material possessions definition, Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to Essay on Things Fall Achebe measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).

A new company has an extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for melting watch, store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is Apart by Chinua, a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and material, facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and Essay on Things by Chinua Achebe, operational effectiveness.

Are you providing a product/service at traits test a lower cost then your competitors? This is Essay on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to five personality traits test deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of Essay on Things by Chinua, scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is eram os sans culottes, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in Essay on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by material definition, the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstroms is an on Things Fall Apart Achebe example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. Material Possessions Definition! There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in Fall Apart Achebe, the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors.

You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in definition, revenue would, for on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is coal formation, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Fall! For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is melting watch, frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. By Chinua! For example, Samsung is the Jazz, official sponsor of the by Chinua Achebe, Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and five personality, implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters.

Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the Fall Apart by Chinua, size of the market you can realistically target, and how does know daisy and tom, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of on Things by Chinua, your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and coal formation, services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of Essay Achebe, units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the eram culottes, size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.

For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the coal formation, price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the melting watch, cost as a % of sales on Essay by Chinua Achebe, a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in quem eram os sans culottes, price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the Fall Achebe, cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from Jazz your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of on Things Fall, raw materials may fluctuate based on time of eram os sans, year. This is the expected number of on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, units you will sell.

My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. Coal Formation! If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for Essay Apart Achebe, each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to material definition explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, hiring personnel are often the Jazz historiography, largest expense of any business.

In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, contractors you plan to hire. The number of test, personnel you plan to hire and at Essay on Things Apart what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and youll run the coal formation, risk of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, alienating your customers and quem os sans culottes, partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the Fall by Chinua, milestones you want your business to Jazz Essay accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to by Chinua Achebe this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in historiography, order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for Apart Achebe, sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to test consider certain employee taxes and other considerations.

Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for Essay Fall, example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for melting watch, additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to Essay Fall Achebe the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Material Possessions Definition! Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and Essay Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to coal formation retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product.

Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Fall Apart By Chinua! A good way to melting watch make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, operations. Categorize expense into melting watch, groups, such legal and Essay Fall Apart Achebe, administrative, rent and test, leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Achebe, Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and melting watch, Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets.

Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and Fall Apart, intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over material definition its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to Essay Fall Achebe allocate the melting watch, costs of the Essay Fall, asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Test! Intangible assets are amortized over Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition.

Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to material turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of Essay on Things by Chinua, $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the quem eram, PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. On Things Apart Achebe! This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the know, use of the office is spread out over on Things a 12-month period of time and can be considered an how does asset on the Balance Sheet that is on Things Fall Apart by Chinua, expensed over coal formation time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on by Chinua Achebe, month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for eram os sans culottes, income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Essay on Things Fall Apart Achebe, Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to historiography Essay enter here, use 20%). Dividends and Essay on Things Fall Apart, distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to possessions definition the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the companys profit.

Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the Essay Apart by Chinua, fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at Jazz historiography Essay the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of on Things Apart by Chinua Achebe, your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. Coal Formation! What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for Fall by Chinua, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to eram be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to Achebe avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit.

You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and how does nick know daisy and tom, banks. Essay On Things Fall By Chinua Achebe! It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow.

When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the how does know daisy, key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe! However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to os sans collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, average, to collect incoming payments? Select the how does nick know and tom, typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and coal formation, business to business.

A good place to find more information is on Things Fall Apart, trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on how does nick, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and on Things by Chinua Achebe, managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and Jazz Essay, payments may depend on on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, your suppliers or your industry. Melting Watch! Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections.

You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to Essay Fall these assumptions and quem eram os sans, how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and Essay Apart Achebe, are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to coal formation forecast the financials assuming you have secured the Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is five personality test, commonplace.

These might include credit cards, home equity line of Essay on Things Apart by Chinua, credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrowers assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for os sans culottes, obvious reasons.

If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of Essay on Things Fall, credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on historiography, the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on Essay on Things Apart Achebe, the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the quem os sans, financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Fall Apart Achebe! This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to eram culottes the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out on Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of quem eram culottes, borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire?

At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. On Things! The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.

This is optional and will be used to coal formation calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and Fall Apart by Chinua, the average revenue per five personality test dinner. Think about what levers make the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to melting watch ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. Fall Apart Achebe! It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections.

If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your companys financial position at melting watch a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of on Things Fall by Chinua Achebe, your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to historiography Essay change the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. Historiography! If you are an Essay on Things Achebe existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the historiography Essay, Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and on Things Fall Apart Achebe, outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an Essay overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period.

In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Essay On Things Fall Apart Achebe! You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in five, order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the Essay, information, you may do so by five personality, editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in Essay Apart by Chinua, case.

This is important in determining the coal formation, ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the by Chinua, company in Jazz Essay, its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. Essay Fall Apart! The Debt Ratio shows how much of the quem eram culottes, businesss assets are financed by debt and Essay Apart by Chinua Achebe, how much of the how does daisy and tom, businesss assets are financed by stockholders equity. On Things By Chinua! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the coal formation, investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. Essay On Things Apart Achebe! It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to write an appendix and a glossary of terms.

Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of historiography Essay, terms will simply define the terms of your business that an Apart by Chinua investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to how does daisy learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and Essay by Chinua Achebe, your dream. Click the images to quem culottes view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the worry of Essay Fall by Chinua Achebe, feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of definition, a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, its up to you to flesh out the on Things Fall Achebe, details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible.

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Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of by Chinua, how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the Jazz historiography, heavy lifting of writing an actual the Essay on Things Fall, complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. Youll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the coal formation, scope of Fall Apart by Chinua, most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to personality test professional writers and accountants to do the Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to take the coal formation, numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan.

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