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Language in macbeth

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Macbeth language - Wine Dark Sea

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bpo essay topics Today Business writing is not just a choice, it is a necessity. It is important to communicate correctly, effectively and professionally. In order to be a good business communicator, you need to follow a few guidelines and put in a lot of practice. Effective writing involves Knowing your audience The message that needs to be conveyed The purpose of the communication What details to include How to present it in the best possible manner The order and language, organization of matter. Business Writing Fundamentals.

Purpose: Inform, respond or persuade Audience: who is my reader- my manager, a customer or a subordinate? Tone: selecting an appropriate tone to suit the designated audience Style: informal, formal, friendly, terse or authoritative Mechanics: identifying the writing elements format, structure and tone and define, the appropriate grammar skills Organization: plan, generate ideas, organize information, draft, revise and refine the content. Essay Writing - Steps. Steps to developing an in macbeth, essay: 1. Narrow the topic - identify how you plan to woolworths analysis, treat the language in macbeth subject. 2. Curriculum! Choose the central theme of the topic. Language! 3. Generate ideas for species dangerous the body. 4. Make an outline. Language! 5. Why Are Dangerous To Ecosystems! Select and drop ideas as required. 6. Arrange the ideas in a sequential order. 7. Language In Macbeth! Start the Curriculum Essay essay with a punch - an interesting beginning.

8. Ensure that the body of the essay conveys the central theme. 9. Wind up to a summary or effective closure. 10. Write a first draft. 11. Proofread for spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors. 12. Revise the draft. What are some things you need to keep in mind when you write an email and make sure that it has all the points that are vital for language in macbeth complete communication? Look at the picture below to understand how the email page looks like.

There are essentially three types of business mails: Mails providing information Mails requesting information Mails requesting action. The opening salutation could start with Hior Hello followed by the. recipient's first name. Make sure names are spelled correctly and analysis, you. address your reader with the required level of formality. You could end your mail with best regards, Sincerely yours or Thank you'.

When composing an email, first start with a clear indication of what the message is in the first paragraph. Be direct and state what the mail is about. Keep to a minimum length and preferably stick to one point. The second part of the body is the core and can contain more than one paragraph. Specify all the language in macbeth information required by the reader to why are non native dangerous, initiate action. If there is a lot of information, you could chunk it down into shorter paragraphs. Using bullet points to list information may also be a good idea.

The third part of the body is the language conclusion of the mail and it involves calling for action and thanking the reader as well. The final paragraph indicates what action or response you expect from the reader. It is important to analysis, use polite expressions when requesting the reader for action / response. When asking for a response, remember to include your contact information-name, title and phone numbers as well. What are some of the points that you should remember when writing an email? Ensure the recipient's email id is language in macbeth, correct and that there are no errors. The Subject is the headline of the actual message that follows. It should grab the attention of the reader and persuade him or her to read the mail. Therefore, the subject needs to be brief, to the point, clear and as complete as possible. Make certain that any attachments that need to be included have been correctly taken from the folders or files.

Take care to address the in macbeth recipient in in macbeth the proper manner Identify your purpose clearly and double check to see that your message has all the points you needed to include. Make an appropriate closing. Check whether you have clearly stated the purpose and the required response or action you expect from your recipient. Essay The 60s Generation! Do not forget to language in macbeth, attach the necessary details for the signature, especially if the mail is a formal business email. Examples! Individual Exercises: Write an email. 1. You have to change the Credit Card details for your client. This client is being re-located to his parent's home town as he has to take care of his aged father who is an invalid. The father now lives alone as the mother has recently passed away. The details that you need to change are the residential address. In your email response to the client, acknowledge the language in macbeth personal situation he has described to you.

2. A customer has placed an why are non native species dangerous to ecosystems, order for 25 chairs which has not yet been confirmed. This confirmation has to be registered on a Log in the system. Write to the customer requesting him to in macbeth, confirm the order by registering it on the Customer Log on the website for you to be able to weimar, dispatch the chairs that were ordered. 3. A customer has received 500 monitors out of which 75 are damaged. He has written in to language in macbeth, complain and is irate. He wants a replacement or a refund. Write a mail pacifying him and offer a solution.

4. You have booked a company executive on Egypt Air and now have to cancel the booking because the meeting that he was scheduled to attend is why are non native species dangerous to ecosystems, cancelled. It is rather late and no refund can be expected. However, you would have to answer to the accounts department if you do not receive a refund. Your company uses Egypt Air for almost all its foreign travel. As regular customers, your company expects special treatment. Write a mail to the Airlines Customer Relations requesting for a refund for in macbeth the cancelled flight. For any technical queries, write to us at


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HowTo Use rsync For Transferring Files Under Linux or UNIX. H ow do you install and use rsync to synchronize files and directories from one location (or one server) to another location? A common question asked by language new sys admin. So what is unique about the rsync command? It can perform differential uploads and downloads (synchronization) of examples files across the network, transferring only in macbeth, data that has changed. The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the who is duncan in macbeth network connection. Use any one of the following commands to install rsync.

If you are using Debian or Ubuntu Linux, type the following command: # apt-get install rsync. $ sudo apt-get install rsync. If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) / CentOS 4.x or older version, type the following command: RHEL / CentOS 5.x or newer (or Fedora Linux) user type the following command: # yum install rsync. Since rsync does not provide any security while transferring data it is recommended that you use rsync over ssh session. This allows a secure remote connection.

Now let us see some examples of rsync command. --delete : delete files that dont exist on in macbeth, sender (system) -v : Verbose (try -vv for more detailed information) -e ssh options : specify the define weimar republic ssh as remote shell -a : archive mode -r : recurse into directories -z : compress file data. Task : Copy file from a local computer to a remote server. Copy file from /www/backup.tar.gz to a remote server called Please note that symbol. indicate the users home directory (/home/jerry). Task : Copy file from a remote server to a local computer. Copy file /home/jerry/webroot.txt from a remote server to a local computers /tmp directory: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete /local/webroot

Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete /local/webroot. Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote rsync server or vise-versa. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete rsync:// /home/cvs. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete /home/cvs rsync:// Task: Mirror a directory between my old and new web server/ftp. You can mirror a directory between my old ( and new web server with the command (assuming that ssh keys are set for password less authentication) $ rsync -zavrR --delete --links --rsh=ssh -l vivek /home/lighttpd. Other options rdiff and rdiff-backup. The rdiff command uses the rsync algorithm.

A utility called rdiff-backup has been created which is language in macbeth capable of maintaining a backup mirror of a file or directory over the network, on another server. rdiff-backup stores incremental rdiff deltas with the woolworths backup, with which it is possible to recreate any backup point. In Macbeth? Next time I will write about these utilities. Please note if you are using MS-Windows, try any one of the program: = Read rsync man page. The author is the creator of nixCraft and a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector. Woolworths Analysis? Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+. Share this on (or read 63 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to language in macbeth, ask.

More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs. So you can see why I need to ask for in macbeth your help. The nixCraft, takes a lot of my time and hard work to language, produce. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to resistance examples, support it with donations: I have RSYNC running to in macbeth, copy files from a mapped linux server (through a windows PC running cwrsync) to a remote linux server. Who Is? Everything works fine, but the in macbeth permissions and ownership changes. I added this line: and that seems to republic, work fine in ensuring I have chmod 0755 set for my folders and language, files. However, it keeps reverting my users:groups from myuser:nobody to woolworths analysis, 400:401. What is the code that I add to language in macbeth, rsync to have it: a) Retain the existing ownerships, or. b) Force myuser:nobody for all files and examples, folders?

Oops. In Macbeth? Second question. Id like for duncan in macbeth all directories to language, retain their original ownership and analysis, permissions (rather than forcing the chmod). The reason is because Id like for most directories to be 0755, but need 0777 on some specific ones for a templating system and tiny_mc plug-in to work. In Macbeth? How can i retain the in macbeth original ownership and language, permissions? rather than having to go through and modify them one-by-one after the Rsync, or giving a blanket 0777 for everything?

Regardless, I dont know how to specify folder-specific privileges in woolworths analysis rsync and would prefer to just have them remain the language same as before the rsync. owever, it keeps reverting my users:groups from myuser:nobody to 400:401. You need to add myuser:nobody to weimar republic, your local server. I donat know how to specify folder-specific privileges in language rsync and would prefer to just have them remain the same as before the rsync. Make sure files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer. rsync -avr src/path /dest/path2. Can you give a help about.

I have some unix specific setup. We have the following directories on p1cpe, and p2cpe: I need them to on Talkin’ About the 60s, be available, and in sync to both systems. The originals should all be one p1cpe, so if you have to copy or do anything, those should be considered the language source. The idea is, if a developer makes changes to files on p1cpe:/opt/Apps/StaticContent, I want it also available on p2cpe, without them having to examples, modify it twice. All the work should be done as the user webdude. Language In Macbeth? You should have sudo rights to webdude on p1cpe and p2cpe. Couls you please help me on examples, that. I want to language, rsync 800Gb data over 4Mbps link. there are many folders which more than 100Gb, so it is who is in macbeth keep failing rsync. i am using even bwlimit also. i need some script which look into folders and rsync one by one folder instead of one 100Gb folder. does it make sense? any kind of language script shell or php?

hi, i hope someone could help me. I need to synchronize files between two servers like every few minues, but i need to do it automatedly using crontab. My problem is I need to use SSH with a different port, so i need to use the ssh n the rsync command line. Essay? If i put the command line into cronjob, it will prompt for password rite? then it will erroneous. Please help how to solve, as in language it will rsync successfully in cronjob. use `echo your pw | rsync -e ssh .` to automatically deliver the password to your rsync. You need to use password less login using ssh keys. hmm.. Weimar? i found the answer here. I want to mirror our web server into a backup server. How can I use the rsync? I see delete in the command line above and I dont know why?

I am also afraid to run the rsync from the language WRONG server putting useless files into our web server, so where do you run rsync from and what files do you copy to make a good mirror/backup server? This is for in case the web server goes down we can bring this one up(back up) and use it until the other one is fixed. I have setup cert on both servers so ssh-ing is no problem. Thank You Very Much! I suggest you use rsnapshot tool, which uses rsync as backup tool. rsnapshot makes hourly, daily, weekly and monthly backup. You can restore from any point like hourly or weekly as per your requirement. Thank You Very Much Vivek for quick response! I will try that. Isnt the examples r redundant in in macbeth the examples as it is weimar implied by the a option? A look at language the man page says that a is short for rlptgoD.

how to examples, do automatic backup using rsync. How to language, sync specific files (in this case *.dat) from multiple directories where directory name is woolworths different? For example, Id like to copy/sync all server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat files to language, corresponding server2:/dir2/2*/*.dat files (where 1* directory names are 101,102.. 199 and 2* are corresponding 201,202 .. Republic? 299 directories). Something like (calling rsync from server2): rsync -zrv server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat /dir2/ rsync -zrv --include=*.dat server1:/dir1/1 /dir2/ Im trying to set up a classroom, and on in macbeth, my server I have a folder with virtual machine images and Essay Generation, config files that I need to distribute to 12 classroom computers. In Macbeth? I need to make a script that anyone can run, including teachers with little computer experience. The teacher has access to the server, and the plan is who is duncan in macbeth that he/she only language in macbeth, needs to examples, run one script on the server to update all the classroom computers. Is rsync the right tool?

Yes, it is right tool to push (from server) or pull files (from clients). Hi Vivek. I need to make a script to send files between local linux computers. Is the easiest way is using rsync? Or what is in macbeth your recommend?

Use rsync (sync update files only) or scp (one time copy) to copy files between local or remote LAN / WAN sites. I am having 2 Server. 1 server contains Unix OS another Server contains Linux. I want to merge some data directories from linux PC to Unix PC. both servers contains same named directories files. So, i want to duncan in macbeth, merge all directories file without using cp -ir command, because cp -ir command with overwrite existing same named directories files,which i dont want. If Unix Server dont have rsync installed linux server having rsync, is it possible to merge all data using rsync from linux PC? try cp -ur command. -u, update copy only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing. make sure backup both directories before run any commands.

i hope, this will help you. Yes I want to become a download mirror for in macbeth several large companies who require me to woolworths analysis, use rsync all I need to language in macbeth, do is copy files from their server to a directory in mine I need some help here please. i am using suse linux server and Leadership, windows xp as client.I am having a network connection here.I need to transfer the database back file from the linux server to my windows xp client.please give some steps/command line arguments to language, transfer this. What about rsync to different port other than 22 ? We staringrting to switch from solaris to republic, RedHat. Language In Macbeth? I created RedHat intel machine for webserver.

For DocumentRoot I created directory /inet/elearning and with empty directory or with index.html (wich I transfer from sparc machine apache started and working but when I rsync all content from sparc Im getting syntax error at start saying DocumentRoot must be directory. I see problem with directory format between solaris and redhat. I use rsync syntax: /usr/bin/rsync -avzp delete -e /usr/bin/ssh [emailprotected]:inet/elearning /inet. Is any chance do reformat directory during transfer them or after? On solaris creation block is in macbeth 512, on redhat probably 4096. Any clue help may help. I have some folder in language the source machine in the format m_d_Y, now from the remote machine i need to pull only last 30 days folders using rsync. Resistance Examples? Both the source and destination are linux boxes.

Any help is appreciated. Is there an option to synchronize/backup/copy files from in macbeth one server to another every day at a certain time? Or better yet, does rsync provide on the fly replication, meaning as sson as something changes on one server, the analysis changes are replicated to a second server? No rsync is not real time server file system mirroring tool. It is perfect for making backup and other purposes.

Youve two options here for failback mirroring use DRBD (distributed storage system for the Linux which is language like RAID 1, except that it runs over About the 60s Generation a network between two servers) or use nfs / gfs2 / ofs2 with centralized storage for in macbeth cluster. This was fantastic! I have a couple of questions: 1.) Can it show the percentage completed for each file on-screen? 2.) Is there a way to dump the Curriculum results into a text file instead of in macbeth on-screen? 3.) What happens if your SSH connection is accidentally terminated in mid-process? Does the process continue without you?

1) use -v attribute along with rsync command. rsync -varpgo /usr/local/nagios/contacts.cfg [emailprotected]: 2) We can redirect the why are non native species dangerous to ecosystems output to another file adding this at the end of any command. EG: date file.txt. Thank you very much! This post along with your response on how to store results to a text file has been most useful! I am using rsync under ubuntu on my netbook to in macbeth, duplicate the in macbeth contents of my /home to an SD-Card, by. rsync -av delete /home/x/ /media/SD-Card/home.x.backup. Running this command, the program seems to do what it should.

But when I repeat the same command immediately after, the whole lot happens again! I thought the program should be done immediately as not any changes have been made. In Macbeth? What is wrong? (I dont know if it plays a role how the hard disks are formatted. The source is ext4 while the SD-Card is weimar FAT32 (or VFAT).

Could it be an language explanation that FAT cant save the weimar republic information on ownership (rights) so that on starting rsync a second time the program views all files as different and language in macbeth, does the same job as before again?) I have one clearification on working of rsyn. how data will transfor wheather bytes leval or block leval or file leval. Very helpful post. Non Native Dangerous? Thanks. Lets say we wanted to copy all of the files under our local directory, /usbdisk/ and place a copy on the machine somemachine under the remote directory /backups/. The name of the user on the remote machine is dinesh.

Notice we added the -z argument so all data will be compressed over the network. We could use the language in macbeth following line: I found this article very useful especially for beginners. I will try to contribute as more as possible, so it would be helpful for others Very Nice Article Can You please give more details about delete option ? When Shall I use this option ? This is exactly what I am after. Havent set the second server up yet but will try this between centos5 and why are non native, vista for now. I hope this is gonna be good enough to get rid of the in macbeth useless Plesk backup tool. Next step will be to learn about load balancing so the 2 servers can be used simultaneously instead of the live/backup setup. This is a fantastic explanation of rSync and all its idiosyncrasies.

I had been putting off syncing my sites across to define weimar republic, another server, until I came across this. Previously, I just used LFTP (another great tool, but more difficult to automate, or use with cron). How to use rsync with a username and in macbeth, password that is supplied by the remote server ? I have a tar file which I need to upload to a remote server. The remote server has provided me with IP address, a username and a password. How do I use rsync with the username and password to upload the who is file on language in macbeth, remote server ?? I am doing a rsync between two servers. I have put the script in on Talkin’ Generation crontab file so that it runs automatically everyday at night. But the problem is language in macbeth that rsync stops once it encounters a large file. Resistance Examples? But, surprisingly, If I execute the language in macbeth same script from the CLI, it works perfectly right. Only, when it happens in the background via rsync, it gets stuck. Please advise what could be the issue.

Do settings need to be changed somewhere. Thanks in advance. i think you need -P option for resuming of file / folder #128521; i have downloaded a file in one account and want to copy the woolworths file to the other account in language the same machine,i have tried to copy using scp and resistance examples, cp command but without success,it keeps prompting for language password.please help. I am pretty sure you have your directories round the wrong way in your examples about synchronize a local directory with a remote directory and vice versa! I am totally fresher in Unix, and I want to Leadership, cut the log files from language server1 and paste them to define weimar republic, server2. I am very much confused on the command part. Below are my understanding , Please suggest. 1.) Create public key through ssh-keygen -t rsa 2.) Copy the public key to Server2 If yes, then where exactly I have to copy the key?

3.) write command in Server1 scp -C $file Path$ [emailprotected]:/path$ I want to cut the file from server1, what is the exact command for language in macbeth that? from where I can get the info regarding public_key_username as you used it in SSH example. 4.) You must have SSH running on Server2 to weimar, make this work. 5.) write cron job to make it automatic. Require guidance on language, same. Thanks in advance.

Can anyone assure me that the rsync delete delete-after parameter deletes files. only on the DESTINATION (target) that NO file deletion occurs on Curriculum Essay, the SOURCE? I am copying a 2gb single file over 2MB link, If copy is fail and I want to in macbeth, start the copy again from where it left then what is the option I need. Thank you thank you thank you #128512; keep this alive. which protocol version rsync support ? Hi Vivek, Friends, Is there any way to exclude any directory from to ecosystems sync at language either end ? How it is better than unison ? thanks. that was helpful. I am trying to use r sync to sync up files between 4 servers . The issue is all the servers would be master servers and dangerous to ecosystems, files can come on any of the server at anytime . Can i use rsync in this case ? what i am scacred of is what if the file tranfer is still going through one server and another file in the same time comes on that server . Thanks so much for this intro. In Macbeth? Ive been meaning to start using rsync for ages, this got me straight in. i have rsync errror in my downloading system.the network ip address is to be changed.

so how to configure new static ip address in species to ecosystems rsync. Im not sure if Im simply misreading the in macbeth Task titles, but it seems youve got the Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory and weimar, Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory mixed up. To say Synchronize X with Y implies X is the destination and Y is the source; X is the thing being acted upon, Y is in macbeth what is being used to act. Leadership? However, this is definitely NOT what is shown in the example command. Rsyncs first directory argument is the source, the second argument is the language destination. I would like to do a schedule backup using cron job in Ubuntu. If I use rsync -ave ssh [emailprotected]_ip:/var/mail/ /tmp/backup_location/, it will need to enter remote host password. So how can I use above command accompanied by remote host password. Thank you for why are non native species dangerous your help. Hi!

Did you find how to do it? Have to do exactly the same. I think you must change these with each other: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry delete /local/webroot Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry delete /local/webroot. the format is rsync source dest.

You can remove spaces, replace spaces with underscore, Uppercase/lowercase filename, add a prefix/suffix, remove/replace strings and also catalog files by adding an incremental number to language, the file name. In my scenario i want to take back up through rsync only changed files in remote system. lets say in who is in macbeth my 1st system my folder is pasha and in my 2nd system folder is kalyan , when i synchronise both the folders i get complete backup , Then i added some files in language in macbeth pasha and again synchronise with the remote system kalyan. At this time i need only examples, changed file in in macbeth a separate folder in resistance remote system kalyan.

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Examine the ways in which Shakespeare uses language in Macbeth

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resume paper to language in macbeth use Im Chanpory, and this is my site on how to live and work better as a designer. You should follow me on Twitter here. For more, check out the archives. The 7 deadly sins of resume design. So youve labored with sweat and tears writing your resume, and now youre all set to turn it into a magnificently designed creation.

Unfortunately, with the freedom of modern computers and fancy software, comes huge opportunities for abuse. When it comes to resumes, both non-designers and resistance, professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. Here are the language in macbeth, 7 deadly sins of resume design and how to repent: Take a tour of any office supply store and youll see shelves of extravagant resume papers featuring special linen and parchment finishes. Avoid these like dog poop on a New York summer sidewalk. Theyre too expensive and dont make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and get paper with a plain smooth finish. Woolworths! It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board.

An ever so slight hint of language, cream is fine. Itll make your resume easier on the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in in macbeth Natural White with a Super Smooth finish. Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. The default typeface in Microsoft Word is Times New Roman, and thus its the default for most resumes. Its a tragedy, because Timess letterspacing and language in macbeth, wordspacing is wretched in Word.

The result is an why are non native species to ecosystems, unharmonious mess. To repent: Choose a different typeface. I wont go into explaining x-heights or the difference between Humanist Sans and Geometric Sans. If youve got money to spare, pick any of the typefaces in FontShops professional collection, and youll be a step above Times New Roman. If youre cheap, use Matthew Carters Georgia. Its free and already installed on your computer. If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. Language In Macbeth! If you need more guidance, check out Before Afters tutorial on to ecosystems picking typefaces.

Designers fresh out of language in macbeth, school love teeny tiny type. The belief is that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for more white space on the resume. Its a shame. For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in non native to ecosystems hiring positions wont have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for language in macbeth, sans-serifed type and on Talkin’ the 60s, 10 points for serifed type. Anything smaller, and your resume is at risk of being shredded. Designers also love grey type.

On an inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of noise. In Macbeth! If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and non native to ecosystems, unfaxable. But wait, should you really be using inkjet to language in macbeth print your resume? To repent: Use a laser printer and print in 100% black for Curriculum Essay, ultimate clarity. If you do go grey, dont go lighter than 75% black. You may be tempted to in macbeth add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and hearts. Perhaps, you want to use an illustration of non native species to ecosystems, a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you. This is great if you want to look like a box of crayons melted on your resume. Otherwise, dont try to be cute.

To repent: Add some character by in macbeth setting your name slightly larger, or in a different weight as the same typeface as the rest of your resume. Use color, but very sparingly, if at weimar all. No more than one color in addition to black. If you live in the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. In Europe, its 210 x 297mm. In Macbeth! Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. When it doesnt fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to the standard paper size of your geographic location. Its easier to resistance examples print and package. In an attempt to stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format.

This is more annoying than innovative. To repent: Keep to a portrait format. The first person who sees your resume is usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of in macbeth, resumes daily. Too much variation from the norm makes it harder for them to make a quick assessment of you. Define Republic! If you want to stand out, write a good cover letter instead. So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the resume format should match the job/industry you are applying to.

It also comes down to the personal opinion of the person doing the hiring. I had a resume designed and language, two people were interviewing me. One person really liked it and the other didntBut most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. I would say have common sense and duncan, keep it simple and not over done. You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and talent. Good Luck Cheers. All the comments are great. However, I have to say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of my resume at the beginning of the interview. Frankly, I have come to view that as a test of your organizational skills. I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the door very, very quickly.

hello just asking, what should be the best paper size for resume/cv in philippines. is it short or long bond paper. Language In Macbeth! waiting for reply..thanks^^ To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. , A very useful Design Refresher Think I need to change some of my fonts around now !! More work Dont forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to be an escort)! HR people basically dont give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. And most of them just scan it to duncan in macbeth make sure you fit the job requirements. Language! So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts. Most HR people wouldnt know a font if it jumped out define weimar, of the PC and bit them. Youre probably going to be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in which case you ought to make sure the in macbeth, file will transmit OK and be clear enough to copy. Many companies just ask you to paste a text version of your resume into why are non native species, an online application, which is in macbeth, a dead give-away that they couldnt care less how pretty it looks. Just make sure you leave out the silly dingbats.

I have found in About Generation my 10 years in the professional design world that HR are the in macbeth, non educated gate keepers of the employment world. Go get real employees opinions on duncan said workers within HRmost cringe at the notion of going through HR. Really, what do people in HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and in macbeth, and broken well but not unless youre an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Number one advice is just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the plague. Wow, tough crowd. This is a perfect list of rules for design begginers.

Of course designers and talented creative types may be able to make an impact by cleverly breaking some of these rules but youre probably going to have to define use some software other than Word to in macbeth pull that off. Resistance! If youre using Word this is your bible with one addition NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory. @James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! Im in language in macbeth a similar role as the owner of a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for duncan in macbeth, designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable. In Macbeth! My alltime favorite was one in Comic Sans (no joke!!). I think the key point is that design must always help achieve the duncan in macbeth, goal. Language! The goal for a resume is to get an Curriculum, interview.

To that end, a resumes design must help communicate the message/content of the resume effectively. Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to be conservative with it in language in macbeth my opinion: whats clever, creative, and the best resume Ive seen to one person might just be tacky and overdone to another. OK. On Talkin’ Generation! this entire 7 deadly sins is bullcrap. Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the rules, you can break the rules. There is language in macbeth, nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. After all, they are coming to us to be creative.

It lets me see how well they understand how to sell themselves. Leadership! I hate to language say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the cream of the crap not the cream of the define republic, crop. I think its just a matte of time until the resume gets replaced. Sort of old fashion. I think you are all missing a very important piecewho is the language in macbeth, audience? All of duncan in macbeth, these concerns are dependent on the type of language in macbeth, job you are applying to who is duncan (i.e. your audience). No matter what you are designing, this is the language, #1 variable to why are non native dangerous consider. What is important when applying to a creative job, is very different than what is important in the financial world, for expample. Thanks for language in macbeth, the tip on Georgia font I had Garamond originally, and it looked terrible when converted to PDF. Essay About The 60s Generation! Just tried out Georgia and loved it!

When we go to interviews, its nice to bring a copy of language, our resume along. Thats why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesnt mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. In addition, someone or someones just may pop in on the interview out of resistance, interest. I was once take directly from the interview with HR straight to the manager to interview with her immediately because HR thought Id be a good fit. Im glad I had another copy of my resume on in macbeth hand. Its just good form to bring extra copies of analysis, a resume. PS Speaking of bad font; whats up with the font on language this page?! Its super bold and narrow and hard to read!

Maybe try Georgia instead ;) Im personally a huge fan of define weimar republic, Palatino Linotype. (or its cousin Book Antiqua) Its a nice serif font thats easy to read and scan down through, its nicely formed and spaced and its ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you dont have it you can download it free. Somebody up there also made the point of language in macbeth, trying to mimic the style and branding of the company you are submitting to. Non Native Dangerous To Ecosystems! If possible you should always do that. One idea is to send the cv/resume in language a nice folder the who is duncan, same colour as the companys branding, to use similar coloured paper or to use the language in macbeth, same fonts. If youre sending off internationally always look up the proper resume and cover letter format for the country you are sending to. Weimar! For example many countries in mainland Europe also expect you to embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the page.

Be sure to use the correct spelling also. True its best not to entrust your spelling and grammar to a machine, but, if youre applying from in macbeth, one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language e.g. Examples! British English v US English. Ive found, actually, that many computers, for example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the default language regardless of where they were being sold to. So be sure and check that your computer and language in macbeth, word processor are set to the right language for your country before you send your resume to anybody! This is examples, so good to in macbeth know and follow I totally agree with kathy, but when you havent met the contact person the non native to ecosystems, question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the point that you go on and brand yourself and make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to gain a remarkable first impression. It also dependent on language in macbeth the culture of the company youre entering and the position youre applying for and how old are you and your experience

your CV is your spirit and vision, at species the end.. and if you get your CV to a company where they dont like it, dont worry your CV has probably landed in the wrong place and your spirit and vision doesnt suite the company youre applying for. I truly think design is essential, in order to stand out but design alone doesnt make the CV standout its the content and language, experience and the way you brand yourself. Wow. According to your article, Ive committed 3 sins: gray text, weird paper size and horizontal format. You probably should also add an 8th sin for duncan, kicks that Ive also committed: folding. Now, taken that Ive broken lots of your rules in language in macbeth resume design why is it that Ive been working for my company for 3 years and 10 months thanks to my poorly designed resume? There has to be something wrong. A graphic designers resume should reflect his or her craft. It should have hints of their style and should totally have an experience to go along with it. Designing out Curriculum, of the box is always favored and is always put on top of the pile if executed properly. You should never confine yourself to designing freely. Your resume is in macbeth, another piece of your portfolio one which your future employer will keep.

I dont believe filenames have been mentioned here. When sending a resume electronically, the filename resume.doc is the the 60s, kiss of language, death. Be sure to change the filename to reflect your own name. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s! In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format otherwise, you risk incompatibility. Language! Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and both multi-column and fancy fonts/paper will be puked out rather than scanned in. Examples! When sending electronically, the plainer, the better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. These days, virtually no one is language, worth a two-pager. The point is to get IN the Essay the 60s Generation, door for an interview you can elaborate later, during the language in macbeth, interview.

Hi, you guys would be surprised to on Talkin’ About know that most Turkish companies require your resume to have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in language my photo. It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the resume screams prejudice. Im not Turkish(I worked and will work in Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to analysis Turkish companies they add a photo. By the way, I know for in macbeth, a fact that some American companies ask for photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends whove applied to American companies). I wish I could get some points on who is how to add your photo in your resume and not feel like a complete jackass. Language! :P. As an engineer and why are non native species, industrial designer who needs to walk a fine line between logical and artzy-fartzy, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the suggestions above. I have been using Tahoma for years and language in macbeth, have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for the last dozen yearsI am 5 for Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, 5.

Tahoma kerns nice and tight and 10pt leave plenty of white space. If you know how, typesetting your documents in language TeX can really improve the font appearance through proper use of species to ecosystems, ligatures and a line-break algorithm that evaluates the appearance of the language, entire paragraph rather than that of the individual line. It can produce PostScript or PDF files for electronic usage. Failing that, it may be possible to use the on Talkin’ About the 60s, Computer Modern fonts for which the program is configured in other programs like Word, and I expect these would still be a cut above Microsofts pet fonts. I think everyone should come out of the dark ages. We now have the facility of in macbeth, computers and resistance, graphicswhy not use them within reason. / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of reading and the content.not crossing a prospect off because of the font used.

Lets move into the 21st century people. As a recent job seeker I found this very useful. Language! though of course we call them CVs in the Uk, the weimar, tips are all good. Better equipped to avoid the pitfalls now, although I dont agree 100% with all the points it is none the less a useful read. Thanks again. Pat.

I think it would be best to send a virus to HR because all in all they never call anyone back. Most of HR have no clue about anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all. I would rather just meet someone who works at the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.

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A MiddleWeb Classic: Exploring Rubrics! A little history: This article first appeared on the MiddleWeb site (with permission from the language in macbeth, author) in 1997, in the early years of rubrics in the classroom. In 1999, Heidi Andrade provided several additional rubrics which were added to this post. More than 15 years after this material first appeared at MiddleWeb and long after its original link was functional, it continues to be one of the most sought-after MiddleWeb resources. For that reason, we#8217;ve reposted it here and redirected the original link to this new page. At the end of woolworths analysis, this post, we#8217;ve also included links to several rubrics associated with inference, independent writing, and literary conversation.

Please note that the portion of this post which was published at Educational Leadership can also be accessed at the ASCD site (4/20/14). Language? Also see her Educational Leadership article (February 2000), #8220;Using Rubrics to Promote Thinking Learning#8221; for suggestions on designing instructional rubrics. Today, Dr. Andrade is an education associate dean at the University of Albany (SUNY) and continues to be a leader in the field of formative/classsroom assessment and examples, rubrics. In a more recent Educational Leadership article (January 2008), she emphasizes that #8220;Rubrics can be a powerful self-assessment toolif teachers disconnect them from grades and give students time and support to revise their work.#8221; For more contemporary resources, including Common Core perspectives, be sure to visit our MiddleWeb resource roundup: All About Rubrics. originally published in Educational Leadership, 54(4) Heidi Goodrich 1996. Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the same instant appeal (#8220;Yes, this is in macbeth, what I need!#8221;) followed closely by panic (#8220;Good grief, how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?#8221;). When you learn what rubrics doand whyyou can create and use them to support and define, assess student learning without losing your sanity. A rubric is in macbeth, a scoring tool that lists the criteria for a piece of work, or #8220;what counts#8221; (for example, purpose, organization, details, voice, and mechanics are often what count in a piece of writing); it also articulates gradations of quality for each criterion, from examples excellent to language poor. The term defies a dictionary definition, but it seems to have established itself, so I continue to who is use it. The example in Figure 1 (adapted from Perkins et al 1994) lists the criteria and language in macbeth, gradations of quality for verbal, written, or graphic reports on student inventions for instance, inventions designed to ease the Westward journey for 19th century pioneers for instance, or to solve a local environmental problem, or to represent an who is, imaginary culture and language in macbeth, its inhabitants, or anything else students might invent.

This rubric lists the criteria in the column on the left: The report must explain (1) the purposes of the invention, (2) the features or parts of the invention and how they help it serve its purposes, (3) the pros and examples, cons of the design, and (4) how the language, design connects to other things past, present, and future. The rubric could easily include criteria related to presentation style and Essay, effectiveness, the mechanics of written pieces, and language in macbeth, the quality of the invention itself. The four columns to on Talkin’ the 60s Generation the right of the criteria describe varying degrees of quality, from language in macbeth excellent to poor. As concisely as possible, these columns explain what makes a good piece of work good and a bad one bad. Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for in macbeth, many reasons. First, they are powerful tools for in macbeth, both teaching and assessment. Rubrics can improve student performance, as well as monitor it, by define weimar republic, making teachers#8217; expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations. The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning.

Thus, the most common argument for using rubrics is they help define #8220;quality.#8221; One student actually didn#8217;t like rubrics for this very reason: #8220;If you get something wrong,#8221; she said, #8220;your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to in macbeth do!#8221; (Marcus 1995). A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the quality of their own and others#8217; work. When rubrics are used to guide self- and peer-assessment, students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another#8217;s work. Leadership Essay? Repeated practice with peer-assessment, and especially self-assessment, increases students#8217; sense of language in macbeth, responsibility for their own work and cuts down on the number of #8220;Am I done yet?#8221; questions. Third, rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self- and peer-assessed according to a rubric, they have little left to say about it. When they do have something to say, they can often simply circle an item in Curriculum Leadership the rubric, rather than struggling to explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to language in macbeth suggest in terms of improvements. Curriculum? Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement. Fourth, teachers appreciate rubrics because their #8220;accordion#8221; nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes.

The examples here have three or four gradations of quality, but there is no reason they can#8217;t be #8220;stretched#8221; to reflect the work of both gifted students and in macbeth, those with learning disabilities. Finally, rubrics are easy to use and to weimar republic explain. Christine Hall, a fourth grade teacher, reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics: Students were able to articulate what they had learned, and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics. During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose, and how they were used in class. In Macbeth? The reaction of parents was very encouraging. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful.

How Do You Create Rubrics? Rubrics are becoming increasingly popular with educators moving toward more authentic, performance- based assessments. Recent publications contain some rubrics (Brewer 1996; Marzano et al 1993). Chances are, however, that you will have to develop a few of your own rubrics to reflect your own curriculum and teaching style. Essay On Talkin’ About? To boost the learning leverage of rubrics, the in macbeth, rubric design process should engage students in the following steps: 1. Look at woolworths analysis models: Show students examples of good and not-so-good work. Language In Macbeth? Identify the characteristics that make the define republic, good ones good and the bad ones bad. 2. List criteria: Use the discussion of models to begin a list of what counts in language quality work.

3. Articulate gradations of quality: Describe the Essay on Talkin’ Generation, best and worst levels of quality, then fill in the middle levels based on your knowledge of common problems and the discussion of not-so-good work. 4. Practice on models: Have students use the language, rubrics to evaluate the models you gave them in Step 1. Woolworths Analysis? 5. Use self- and peer-assessment: Give students their assignment. As they work, stop them occasionally for self- and peer-assessment. 6. Revise: Always give students time to revise their work based on the feedback they get in language Step 5. 7. Use teacher assessment: Use the same rubric students used to assess their work yourself. Step 1 may be necessary only when you are asking students to engage in a task with which they are unfamiliar.

Steps 3 and 4 are useful but time-consuming; you can do these on Curriculum Essay, your own, especially when you#8217;ve been using rubrics for a while. Language? A class experienced in rubric-based assessment can streamline the process so that it begins with listing criteria, after which the teacher writes out the gradations of quality, checks them with the students, makes revisions, then uses the rubric for self-, peer-, and on Talkin’ the 60s Generation, teacher assessment. Ann Tanona, a second grade teacher, went through the seven-step process with her students. In Macbeth? The result was a rubric for assessing videotaped Reading Rainbow -style #8220;book talks#8221; (fig. 2). Tips on designing rubrics. Ann#8217;s rubric is powerful because it articulates the characteristics of a good #8220;book talk#8221; in students#8217; own words.

It also demonstrates some of the difficulties of designing a good rubric. Perhaps the most common challenge is define weimar, avoiding unclear language, such as #8220;creative beginning.#8221; If a rubric is to language in macbeth teach as well as evaluate, terms like these must be defined for students. Admittedly, creative is a difficult word to define. Essay On Talkin’ About The 60s Generation? Ann handled this problem by having a discussion of what the term #8220;creative beginning#8221; meant in the book talks. Patricia Crosby and Pamela Heinz, both seventh grade teachers, solved the same problem in a rubric for in macbeth, oral presentations by actually listing ways in which students could meet the criterion (fig. 3). This approach provides valuable information to students on woolworths, how to begin a talk and avoids the need to define elusive terms like creative. A second challenge in rubric design is avoiding unnecessarily negative language. Language? The excerpt from the woolworths, rubric in Figure 3 avoids words like boring by language in macbeth, describing what was done during a so-so beginning to a talk and implicitly comparing it with the highest level of quality. Curriculum Leadership? Thus, students know exactly what they did wrong and how they can do better next time, not just that the language in macbeth, opening to their talk was boring. Articulating gradations of quality is Curriculum Essay, often a challenge.

It helps if you spend a lot of time thinking about criteria and how best to chunk them before going on to define the levels of quality. You might also try a clever technique I have borrowed from a fifth grade teacher in Gloucester, Massachusetts. She describes gradations of quality as: #8220;Yes,#8221; #8220;Yes but,#8221; #8220;No but,#8221; and language, #8220;No.#8221; For example, Figure 4 shows part of a rubric for evaluating a scrapbook that documents a story. This approach tends to work well, as long as you aren#8217;t too rigid about it. Rigidity can have amusing results: One student wrote out the lowest level of quality for the criterion, #8220;Is it anachronism free?#8221; this way: #8220;No, I did not remember to not use anachronism#8221;! What to Do Once You#8217;ve Created Rubrics. Creating rubrics is the hard part using them is define republic, relatively easy. Once you#8217;ve created a rubric, give copies to students and ask them to assess their own progress on a task or project. Language In Macbeth? Their assessments should not count toward a grade. Who Is? The point is for the rubric to help students learn more and produce better final products, so including self-assessments in grades is unnecessary and language, can compromise students#8217; honesty.

Always give students time to revise their work after assessing themselves, then have them assess one another#8217;s work. Peer-assessment takes some getting used to. Emphasize the fact that peer-assessment, like self-assessment, is intended to help everyone do better work. You may also need to hold students accountable for Essay, their assessments of a classmate#8217;s work by having them sign off on the rubric they use. Language In Macbeth? You can then see how fair and who is in macbeth, accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence that supports their opinions when their assess-ments don#8217;t match yours. Again, giving time for revision after peer-assessment is crucial. Parents can use rubrics to help their children with their homework. Finally, when you assess student work, use the same rubric that was used for self- and peer-assessment.

When you hand the marked rubric back with the students#8217; work, they#8217;ll know what they did well and what they need to work on in the language, future. Grading (if you must) is also relatively easy with rubrics. A piece of work that reflects the highest level of quality for each criterion obviously deserves an A, one that consistently falls in the lowest level is a D or F, and so on. Because one piece of work rarely falls in only one level of quality, many teachers average out the levels of quality, either formally or informally. Rubrics can also be included in weimar republic portfolios. In Macbeth? However you use them, the idea is to support and to evaluate student learning. Students, as well as teachers, should respond to the use of rubrics by thinking, #8220;Yes, this is what I need!#8221; Brewer, R. (1996). Exemplars: A Teacher#8217;s Solution . Woolworths Analysis? Underhill, VT: Exemplars. In Macbeth? Marcus, J. (1995). #8220;Data on the Impact of Alternative Assessment on Students.#8221; Unpublished manuscript. The Education Cooperative, Wellesley, MA. Marzano, R., D. Pickering, and J. McTighe (1993).

Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Perkins, D., H. Goodrich, S. Tishman, and J. Mirman Owen (1994). Thinking Connections: Learning to Think and Thinking to Learn . Who Is? Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. from Heidi Goodrich Andrade. In Macbeth? (See download links at end of large rubrics) Persuasive Essay Prompt and Rubric The State of California has a law that all students must be educated until they are 16 years old. This law passed after some debate. Some people thought it was a good law, some didn#8217;t. Put yourself in these lawmakers#8217; shoes and argue either for or against this law. In a 5-paragraph essay, be sure to:

#8212; form an opinion on this issue and why are non native, support it with strong arguments and relevant information. #8212; use your knowledge of democracy to explain how having or not having such a law would affect a democratic society like ours. Language In Macbeth? A more generic version of the rubric above appears in republic this EL article. In Macbeth? Autobiographical Event Essay Prompt and Rubric Write about an event in your life that taught you something or made you grow as a person. Essay On Talkin’ About Generation? Tell the story in a way that will let your readers enter into language in macbeth it and woolworths, understand what it meant to you. RUBRIC FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EVENT ESSAY.

More Classic Resources about Rubrics. from language Earlier Versions of the MiddleWeb Site. Here are some other popular materials about rubrics salvaged from our archives. Essay On Talkin’ About The 60s? These rubrics resources are not connected to the work of Heidi Andrade. Most were contributed by teachers. MiddleWeb is all about the middle grades, with great 4-8 resources, book reviews, and guest posts by educators who support the success of language, young adolescents.

And be sure to non native subscribe to MiddleWeb SmartBrief for the latest middle grades news commentary from around the USA.

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Results of President Obamas Race to the Top. FALL 2015 / VOL. 15, NO. 4. William Howell of the University of Chicago talks with Marty West about the Every Student Succeeds Act and language federal education policy in the Obama administration on resistance the EdNext podcast. Caught between extraordinary public expectations and relatively modest constitutional authority, U.S. presidents historically have fashioned all sorts of mechanismsexecutive orders, proclamations, memorandaby which to language move their objectives forward. Under President Barack Obamas administration, presidential entrepreneurialism has continued unabated. Like his predecessors, Obama has sought to harness and who is duncan in macbeth consolidate his influence outside of Congress.

He also has made contributions of in macbeth his own to the arsenal of administrative policy devices. The most creative, perhaps, is his Race to woolworths analysis the Top initiative, which attempted to spur wide-ranging reforms in in macbeth education, a policy domain in which past presidents exercised very little independent authority. This study examines the weimar republic effects of Obamas Race to the Top on education policymaking around the country. In doing so, it does not assess the efficacy of the particular policies promoted by the initiative, nor does it investigate how Race to the Top altered practices within schools or districts. Rather, the focus is the education policymaking process itself; the adoption of language education policies is the resistance examples outcome of interest.

No single test provides incontrovertible evidence about in macbeth, its causal effects. The overall findings, however, indicate that Race to republic the Top had a meaningful impact on the production of in macbeth education policy across the United States. In its aftermath, all states experienced a marked surge in the adoption of education policies. This surge does not appear to be a statistical aberration or an extension of past policy trends. Legislators from all states reported that Race to the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. The patterns of policy adoptions and woolworths legislator responses, moreover, correspond with states experiences in the Race to the Top competitions. In the main, the evidence suggests that by strategically deploying funds to cash-strapped states and massively increasing the public profile of a controversial set of education policies, the president managed to stimulate reforms that had stalled in state legislatures, stood no chance of enactment in Congress, and could not be accomplished via unilateral action. Asking States to Compete. On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law the American Recovery and language Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), legislation that was designed to stimulate the economy; support job creation; and invest in define critical sectors, including education, in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Roughly $100 billion of the ARRA was allocated for language education, with $4.35 billion set aside for Essay the 60s the establishment of Race to the Top, a competitive grant program designed to encourage states to support education innovation.

From the outset, the president saw Race to language in macbeth the Top as a way to induce state-level policymaking that aligned with his education objectives on college readiness, the creation of new data systems, teacher effectiveness, and persistently low-performing schools. As he noted in his July 2009 speech announcing the initiative, Obama intended to incentivize excellence and define spur reform and launch a race to language the top in Americas public schools. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) exercised considerable discretion over the design and operation of the woolworths Race to the Top competition. Language In Macbeth. Within a handful of broad priorities identified by woolworths, Congress in ARRA, the in macbeth Obama administration chose which specific policies would be rewarded, and by Essay on Talkin’ the 60s, how much; how many states would receive financial rewards, and in what amount; and what kinds of in macbeth oversight mechanisms would be used to ensure compliance. Subsequent to the ARRAs enactment, Congress did not issue any binding requirements for the design or administration of the program. From an woolworths, operational standpoint, Race to the Top was nearly entirely the handiwork of ED. Race to the Top comprised three distinct phases of language competition.

Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 included specific education-policy priorities on which each applicant would be evaluated. Who Is. States were asked to describe their current status and outline their future goals in meeting the criteria in each of these categories. The education policy priorities spanned six major scoring categories and one competitive preference category (see Table 1). To assist states in writing their applications, ED offered technical assistance workshops, webinars, and training materials. Additionally, nonprofit organizations such as the language in macbeth National Council on Teacher Quality published reports intended to help states maximize their likelihood of winning an About the 60s, award. In Macbeth. Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty shrouded some components of the competition, including the exact grading procedures, number of possible winners, total allocated prize amount per winning state, and the 60s prize allocation mechanism and timeline. When all was said and done, 40 states and the District of Columbia submitted applications to Phase 1 of the in macbeth competition. Finalists and winners were announced in March 2010. Phase 1 winners Tennessee and Delaware were awarded roughly $500 million and $120 million, respectively, which amounted to 10 percent and 5.7 percent of the two respective states budgets for K?12 education for non native species to ecosystems a single year. Figure 1 identifies all winners and award amounts.

Thirty-five states and the District of Columbia submitted applications to Phase 2 of the language in macbeth competition in who is in macbeth June 2010. Ten winners were each awarded prizes between $75 million and $700 million in Phase 2. Having exhausted the ARRA funds, the president in 2011 sought additional support for the competition. That spring, Congress allotted funds to language in macbeth support a third phase, in which only losing finalists from Phase 2 could participate. A significantly higher percentage of participating states won in Phase 3, although the amounts of these grants were considerably smaller than those from Phases 1 and 2. On December 23, 2011, ED announced Phase 3 winners, which received prizes ranging from $17 million to $43 million.

States that won Race to the Top grants were subject to Essay on Talkin’ About the 60s Generation a nontrivial monitoring process, complete with annual performance reports, accountability protocols, and site visits. After receiving an award letter, a state could immediately withdraw up to 12.5 percent of language in macbeth its overall award. The remaining balance of funds, however, was available to winning states only after ED received and approved a final scope of duncan work from the states participating local education agencies. Each winning states drawdown of funds, then, depended upon its ability to language meet the specific goals and timelines outlined in its scope of work. In its public rhetoric, the Obama administration emphasized its intention to on Talkin’ Generation use Race to the Top to stimulate new education-policy activity. How would we know if it succeeded? To identify the effects of Race to the Top on state-level policymaking, ideally one would take advantage of in macbeth plausibly random variation in either eligibility or participation. Unfortunately, neither of these strategies is possible, as all states were allowed to enter the competition and woolworths participation was entirely voluntary. Language. To discern Race to the Tops policy consequences, therefore, I exploit other kinds of comparisons between policy changes in the 19 winning states and the District of Columbia, the 28 losers, and the 4 that did not participate; commitments that different states made in their applications and subsequent policymaking activities; and changes in policymaking at different intervals of the competitions. Policy Adoptions. Perhaps the Leadership Essay most telling piece of evidence related to the effect of Race to the Top is the number of relevant education reforms adopted as state policy in the aftermath of the competitions announcement.

To determine that number, my research team and in macbeth I documented trends in define actual policy enactments across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. We tracked numerous policies that clearly fit the various criteria laid out under Race to the Top, and covered such topics as charter schools, data management, intervention into in macbeth low-performing schools, and the use of test scores for school personnel policy, as well as three additional control policiesincreased high-school graduation requirements, the establishment of 3rd-grade test-based promotion policies, and woolworths analysis tax credits to support private-school scholarshipsthat were similar to Race to the Top policies but were neither mentioned nor rewarded under the language program (see sidebar, opposite page, for specific policies tracked for define republic Race to the Top applications and state adoptions). Across all 50 states and the District of Columbia, we examined whether a state legislature, governor, school board, professional standards board, or any other governing body with statewide authority had enacted a qualifying policy each year between 2001 and 2014. Policies that were merely proposed or out for language in macbeth comment did not qualify. Essay. We also examined whether each state in language in macbeth its written application claimed to have already enacted each policy or expressed its clear intention to do so, as well as the number of points the woolworths application received in the scoring process. Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, I think Race to the Top was our driving force to get us all honest and fair, and willing to negotiate. These data reveal that the Race to the Top competitions did not reward states exclusively on the basis of what they had already done. Race to the Top, in this sense, did not function as an award ceremony for states past accomplishments. Rather, both states past accomplishments and their stated commitments to adopt new policies informed the scores they receivedand hence their chances of language in macbeth winning federal funding.

We also found that states around the country enacted a subset of these reform policies at a much higher rate in the aftermath of Race to on Talkin’ About Generation the Top than previously. Between 2001 and 2008, states on average enacted about 10 percent of in macbeth reform policies. Between 2009 and 2014, however, they had enacted 68 percent. Species. And during this later period, adoption rates increased every single year. At the rate established by preexisting trends, it would have taken states multiple decades to accomplish what, in the aftermath of the competitions, was accomplished in in macbeth less than five years. Policy Adoptions in Winning, Losing, and Nonapplying States.

The surge of legislative activity was not limited to states that were awarded Race to the Top funding. Figure 2 illustrates the policy adoption activity of three groups of why are non native species to ecosystems states: those that won in one of the three phases of competition; those that applied in at least one phase but never won; and those that never applied. In nearly every year between 2001 and 2008, policy adoption rates in these groups were both low and essentially indistinguishable from one another. In the aftermath of in macbeth Race to the Tops announcement, however, adoption rates for define all three groups increased dramatically. By 2014, winning states had adopted, on average, 88 percent of the policies, compared to 68 percent among losing states, and 56 percent among states that never applied. Regression analyses that account for previous policy adoptions and other state characteristics show that winning states were 37 percentage points more likely to have enacted a Race to the Top policy after the competitions than nonapplicant states. While losing states were also more likely than nonapplicants to have adopted such policies, the estimated effects for language winning states are roughly twice as large. Anecdotal media reports, as well as interviews conducted by my research team, suggest that the process of resistance examples applying to the competitions by language in macbeth, itself generated some momentum behind policy reform. Such momentum, along with the woolworths analysis increased attention given to language Race to republic the Top policies, may explain why those states that did not even apply to the competition nonetheless began to enact these policies at higher rates. Winning states were also more likely to have adopted one of the control policies, which is not altogether surprising, given the complementarities between Race to the Top policies and the chosen control policies. Still, the language in macbeth estimated relationship between winning and the adoption of Race to the Top policies is more than twice as large as that between winning and the adoption of control policies.

My results also suggest that both winning and losing states were especially likely to adopt policies about which they made clear commitments in their Race to Essay on Talkin’ the 60s Generation the Top applications. Though the effects are not always statistically significant, winning states appear 21 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy about which they made a promise than one about which they did not; put differently, they were 36 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy about which they made an explicit commitment than were nonapplying states, which, for in macbeth obvious reasons, made no promises at all. Losing states, meanwhile, were 31 percentage points more likely to adopt a policy on which they had made a promise than on a policy on which they had not. Closer examination of define weimar winning, losing, and nonapplying states illuminates how Race to in macbeth the Top influenced policymaking in all states, regardless of their status. One winning state, Illinois, submitted applications in all three phases before finally winning. Its biggest policy accomplishments, however, happened well before it received any funds from ED. The rapid enactment of Race to woolworths analysis the Top policies in Illinois reflected a concerted effort by the state government to language strengthen its application in each competition. Before the state even submitted its Phase 1 application, Illinois enacted the Performance Evaluation Reform Act (PERA), a law that significantly changed teacher and why are to ecosystems principal evaluation practices. After losing in Phase 1, Illinois went on to adopt several other Race to the Top policies prior to language submitting Phase 2 and Phase 3 applications.

The competition served as a clear catalyst for education reform in the state. As Illinois state senator Kimberly Lightford noted, Its not that weve never wanted to do it before. I think Race to the Top was our driving force to get us all honest and Essay About Generation fair, and willing to negotiate at in macbeth the table. Whereas persistence eventually paid off for Illinois, Californias applications never resulted in Race to the Top funding. Define Weimar. As in Illinois, lawmakers in California adopted several significant education reforms in an effort to solidify their chances of language winning an award. Prior to the first-round deadline, the Essay on Talkin’ the 60s director of federal policy for Democrats for language in macbeth Education Reform noted that in California, theres been more state legislation [around education reform] in the last eight months than there was in the entire seven or eight years of No Child Left Behind, in terms of laws passed. California was not selected as a Phase 1 or Phase 2 winner, and a change in the governors mansion prior to why are species dangerous Phase 3 meant the state would not compete in the last competition. While the state never did receive any funding, California did not revoke any of the language in macbeth policies it had enacted during its failed bids. Although Alaska did not participate in Race to the Top, the state adopted policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to Essay the Top priorities. Governor Sean Parnell acknowledged the importance of keeping pace with other states.

What about the four states that never applied for Race to the Top funding? By jump-starting education policy reform in language some states, the competition may have influenced policy deliberations in others. Alaska provides a case in point. When Race to the Top was first announced, Alaskas education commissioner, Larry LeDoux, cited concerns about federal government power and the programs urban focus as reasons not to apply. Still, in examples the years that followed, Alaska adopted a batch of in macbeth policies that either perfectly or nearly perfectly aligned with Race to the Top priorities. One of the most consequential concerned the duncan in macbeth states teacher-evaluation system.

In 2012, the Alaska Department of Education approved changes that required that 20 percent of a teachers assessment be based on data from at least one standardized test, a percentage that would increase to 50 by the 2018?19 school year. In defending the rule, Governor Sean Parnell recognized the language in macbeth importance of keeping pace with other states policy achievements: Nearly 20 states in Curriculum Leadership the nation now weight at least 33 percent, and many 50 percent, of the performance evaluation based on language in macbeth student academic progress. I would like Alaska to lead in this, not bring up the rear with 20 percent of an evaluation focused on student improvement. Those 20 states that had made the woolworths analysis changes, it bears emphasizing, had participated in Race to the Top. Policymaker Perspectives. To further assess the language influence of Race to the Top on state policymaking, I consulted state legislators. Embedded in a nationally representative survey of state legislators conducted in the spring of 2014 was a question about the importance of Race to the Top for the education policy deliberations within their states. Roughly one-third of legislators reported that Race to define the Top had either a massive or big impact on education policymaking in their state.

Another 49 percent reported that it had a minor impact, whereas just 19 percent claimed that it had no impact at all. Lawmakers responses mirror my finding that Race to the Top influenced policymaking in all states, with the greatest impact on winning states. Winners were fully 36 percentage points more likely to say that Race to the Top had a massive or big impact than losers, who, in turn, were 12 percentage points more likely than legislators in states that never applied to say as much. If these reports are to be believed, Race to the Top did not merely reward winning states for their independent policy achievements. Rather, the competitions meaningfully influenced education policymaking within their states. Even legislators from nonapplying states recognized the relevance of Race to the Top for their education policymaking deliberations. Language. Indeed, a majority of legislators from states that never applied nonetheless reported that the competitions had some influence over policymaking within their states. About Generation. Although dosages vary, all states appear to in macbeth have been treated by the Race to Essay on Talkin’ the 60s the Top policy intervention. From Policy to Practice.

None of the preceding analyses speak to the translation of policy enactments into real-world outcomes. For all sorts of reasons, the possibility that Race to in macbeth the Top influenced the define republic production of language education policy around the country does not mean that it changed goings-on within schools and districts. Still, preliminary evidence suggests that Race to the Top can count more than just policy enactments on analysis its list of accomplishments. As Education Next has reported elsewhere (see States Raise Proficiency Standards in language in macbeth Math and non native to ecosystems Reading, features, Summer 2015), states introduced more rigorous standards for student academic proficiency in the aftermath of Race to the Top. Moreover, they did so in ways that reflected their experiences in language the competition itself.

Figure 3a tracks over a 10-year period the why are non native dangerous average rigor of standards in states that eventually won Race to the Top, states that applied but never won, and language states that never applied. Throughout this period, eventual winners and losers looked better than nonapplicants. Before the competition, though, winners and loser looked indistinguishable from one another. Between 2003 and 2009, the duncan in macbeth rigor of their state standards declined at nearly identical rates and to identical levels. Language In Macbeth. In the aftermath of Race to Leadership the Top, however, winning states rebounded dramatically, reaching unprecedented heights within just two years. While losing states showed some improvement, the reversal was not nearly as dramatic.

Nonapplying states, meanwhile, maintained their relatively low standards. The impact of Race to the Top on language charter schools, which constituted a less significant portion of the competition, is not nearly so apparent. Essay On Talkin’ The 60s. In winning states, higher percentages of public school students attend charter schools than in either losing or non-applying states. But as Figure 3b shows, post-Race to the Top gains appear indistinguishable from the projections of previous trends. Language. While Race to the Top may have helped sustain previous gains, it seems unlikely. Between 2003 and 2013, the three groups of states showed nearly constant gains in Essay charter school enrollments. Conclusions and Implications. With Race to the Top, the language in macbeth Obama administration sought to examples remake education policy around the nation. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that it met with a fair bit of success.

In the aftermath, states adopted at unprecedented rates policies that were explicitly rewarded under the competitions. States that participated in the competitions were especially likely to adopt Race to the Top policies, particularly those on which they made explicit policy commitments in their applications. These patterns of policy adoptions and language in macbeth endorsements, moreover, were confirmed by a nationally representative sample of state legislators who were asked to assess the resistance impact of Race to the Top on education policymaking in their respective states. Differences in the policy actions of winning, losing, and nonapplying states, however, do not adequately characterize the depth or breadth of the presidents influence. In the aftermath of Race to the Top, all states experienced a marked surge in language the adoption of education policies.

And legislators from woolworths analysis all states reported that Race to the Top affected policy deliberations within their states. While it is possible that Race to language in macbeth the Top appeared on the scene at a time when states were already poised to enact widespread policy reforms, several facts suggest that the initiative is at non native species dangerous least partially responsible for the rising rate of policy adoption from language 2009 onward. First, winning states distinguished themselves from losing and nonapplying states more by the enactment of Race to the Top policies than by other related education reforms. Second, at least in 2009 and 2010, Race to the Top did not coincide with any other major policy initiative that could plausibly explain the patterns of policy activities documented in this paper. (Obamas selective provision of waivers to No Child Left Behind, a possible confounder, did not begin until later.) Finally, state legislators own testimony confirms the central role that the Essay competitions played in the adoption of state policies between 2009 and 2014, either by directly changing the incentives of policymakers within applying states or by generating cross-state pressures in nonapplying states. The surge of post-2009 policy activity constitutes a major accomplishment for the Obama administration.

With a relatively small amount of money, little formal constitutional authority in education, and without the power to unilaterally impose his will upon state governments, President Obama managed to jump-start policy processes that had languished for years in in macbeth state governments around the woolworths analysis country. When it comes to domestic policymaking, past presidents often accomplished a lot less with a lot more. William G. Howell is professor of American politics at the University of Chicago. The Hoover Institution at Stanford University - Ideas Defining a Free Society. Harvard Kennedy School Program on Educational Policy and Governance. Thomas Fordham Institute - Advancing Educational Excellence and Education Reform. education next daily email alert. education next posts a big story.

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