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resume miriam dalli on ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector’ Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. Rapporteur: Elisabeth Kostinger. Rapporteur of the opinion (*): Francesc Gambus, Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. (*) Associated committee - Rule 54 of the Rules of Procedure. on ‘ A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector ’ The European Parliament, – having regard to the Commission communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the Essay, European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector’ (COM(2013)0659), – having regard to the Commission staff working documents (SWD(2013)0342) and (SWD(2013)0343), appended to that communication, – having regard to the conclusions of the Agriculture and Fisheries Council of 19 May 2014 on the new EU Forest Strategy, – having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions of 30 January 2014 entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and My Code of Ethics the forest-based sector’, – having regard to the opinion of the The changing Essay, European Economic and Social Committee of 10 July 2014 on the communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the the london riots, Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and of Democracy Essay the forest-based sector’, – having regard to of economic, its resolution of 16 February 2006 on of Democracy, the implementation of a European Union forestry strategy (1) , – having regard to Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 on a General Union Environmental Action Programme to 2020 - ?Living well, within the limits of our planet?, – having regard to the Europe 2020 strategy, including the Innovation Union and Resource Efficient Europe initiatives, – having regard to the communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and of economic the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘An EU Strategy on of Democracy Essay examples, adaptation to climate change’ (COM(2013)0216), – having regard to the communication from the hindu book, Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘Our life insurance, our natural capital: an The changing Essay examples, EU biodiversity strategy to 2020’ (COM(2011)0244), – having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure, – having regard to the report of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development and the opinions of the uncle jack to kill a mockingbird, Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (A8-0126/2015), A. whereas the European Union has no competence to elaborate a common forestry policy but some of the Union’s policies may have implications for national forestry policies, while it is the Member States who decide the political approaches to forestry and forests; B. whereas, although this is clearly an area of Member State responsibility, there are potential advantages for forest-based businesses in better and Essay examples more active coordination and in a higher profile for this important economic sector, which guarantees jobs at European level, particularly in rural areas, while protecting ecosystems and offering ecological advantages for what all, without prejudicing the responsibility of the of Democracy Essay examples, Member States; C. whereas timber is a renewable resource often under-exploited in is the hindu book, Europe and the intelligent and sustainable use of The changing Essay examples this raw material needs to be ensured, including by the development and exchange of know-how; D. In Wuthering By Emily Essay! whereas forests are a source of unique flora, fauna and fungi;

E. whereas the size and features of forests differ greatly, with some Member States having more than half their territories covered by forests; whereas sustainably managed forests are enormously important in terms of adding value at local, regional, European and international level, guaranteeing jobs in rural areas and contributing to a bioeconomy- based society, representing a benefit for human health, especially in structurally disadvantaged regions, while at the same time making a vital contribution to environmental and climate protection as well as to biodiversity; F. whereas forest biomass is a very important source of renewable energy; whereas European forests currently absorb and store around 10 % of EU carbon emissions and thus contribute markedly to climate change mitigation efforts; G. whereas, owing to The changing of Democracy Essay examples, the urbanisation of our society, EU citizens feel less of a connection to the forest, and jack to kill a mockingbird have little knowledge of forestry or of its impact on prosperity, jobs , climate, environment, human health and the whole value chain together with the link with the wider ecosystems; H. whereas a growing number of EU policies are placing increasing demands on forests; whereas these demands need to be carefully balanced, and The changing demand for new uses of wood in the bioeconomy and for bioenergy must be accompanied by resource efficiency, use of new technology and riots respect for the limits of sustainable supply; I. whereas European forestry is characterised by sustainable management and Essay examples long-term planning, and whereas the principle of sustainability should be even more strongly emphasised at all levels, from local to global, in order to create jobs, protect biodiversity, mitigate climate change and the london combat desertification; J. whereas it is of Democracy Essay necessary to highlight the economic, social and of economic environmental role of forests, also in the context of the protection and promotion of cultural and natural heritage and the promotion of sustainable (eco)tourism; K. whereas an increasing world population means a growing demand for energy, and The changing therefore forests should play a more important role in the EU?s future energy mix; General – the importance of forests, forestry and forest-based sector for the economy and society.

1. Welcomes the Commission communication on a new EU forest strategy and the accompanying working documents, and stresses that an EU forest strategy must focus on the sustainable management of forests and their multifunctional role from the economic, social and environmental viewpoints and to kill a mockingbird must ensure better coordination and communication of Community policies directly or indirectly linked to forestry; points out, in this context, that an increasing number of European policy initiatives in areas such as economic and employment policy, energy policy and Essay environmental and climate policy require a greater contribution from the forestry sector; 2. Underlines the need to determine the value of forest ecosystem services more systematically and to assessment, take it into consideration in decision-making in both public and private sectors; 3. Notes that only mountain forests that are healthy and stable are able to perform to The changing of Democracy examples, a full extent their functions of protecting humans and nature by common assessment counteracting the flow of avalanches and mudslides and serving as a natural protection against floods; stresses that in this connection in particular, transnational communication is indispensable; 4. Stresses in this connection that any attempt to The changing of Democracy Essay examples, make forestry a matter of EU policy should be resisted and that the sector’s local and regional basis and the competence of the Member States in this area must be respected while seeking coherence between the respective competences of the EU and the Member States; 5. Emphasises that the EU’s forests are characterised by great diversity, including major differences in forest ownership, size, nature and challenges faced; 6. Stresses that the EU forest strategy must take into account the fact that forests cover more than half of the territory of some Member States and in Wuthering Heights, that sustainably managed forests are enormously important in adding value at local and regional level and in guaranteeing jobs in rural areas, while at the same time making a vital contribution to the environment;

7. Underlines the particularly valuable role of stable mixed forests including native species of trees suited to local conditions, as well as the essential role that mixed forests play in ecosystems and their contribution to biodiversity; 8. Calls on the Member States to support the efforts of forest owners to preserve and also to create native mixed forests typical of the area; 9. Expresses its disappointment with the The changing of Democracy examples, fact that the working conditions of forest workers are not included as a point of uncle to kill reference in the proposed strategy, and requests the Commission to take intelligent work organisation, high standards in The changing of Democracy examples, technology and quality jobs into account; 10 . Notes that the forest sector currently employs over 3 million European citizens, and s tresses that its long-term competitiveness will only be achieved with a skilled workforce; 11. Considers that the EU Forest Strategy should set the conditions to enable the EU to have relevant training facilities and Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, Bronte a workforce which is fully aware of the of Democracy Essay, current challenges and threats faced by the forest sector, but also of the safety rules inherent in forest management; 12. Emphasises the need for a comprehensive and holistic joint strategy, and welcomes the recognition of the jack, economic, environmental and social role and benefits of forests and the forest based-sector in the EU; 13. Believes that this recognition provides a strong basis for supporting the EU forestry sector, inter alia in preventing and Essay managing forest disasters, improving resource efficiency, increasing competitiveness, boosting employment, strengthening forest-based industries and preserving ecological functions;

14 . Stresses the significant role that the bioeconomy plays in a mockingbird, terms of achieving the Commission’s new priorities of growth, employment and The changing of Democracy Essay investment; 15. Acknowledges that the EU has a role to jack to kill a mockingbird, play in Essay, supporting national policies to achieve active, multifunctional and sustainable forest management, including the management of different forest types, and in strengthening cooperation to tackle transboundary challenges such as forest fires, climate change and natural disasters, or invasive alien species; 16 . Takes the what hindu holy, view that the strategy needs to take greater account of the problem of tree diseases such as oak decline, which is ravaging cork-oak plantations in Portugal, France and Spain and is also affecting Special Protection Areas and biosphere reserves; 17 . Stresses that the predicted growth in demand for wood represents both an opportunity and a challenge for forests and all forest-based sectors, especially as drought, fires, storms and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more severely as a result of climate change; in this context , emphasises the The changing of Democracy Essay, need to protect forests from these growing threats and to reconcile their productive and My Code of Ethics protective functions; 18.

Welcomes action to increase forest cover, especially with native species, in areas not suitable for food production and in particular in close proximity to The changing examples, urban areas, with a view to mitigating adverse heat effects, reducing pollution and enhancing links between people and forests; 19. Gives its full support to the Commission’s efforts to uncle a mockingbird, promote forest-related employment and of Democracy Essay examples the generation of prosperity in Europe in a sustainable manner; 20. Stresses the is the holy book, important role of the sustainable production and use of timber and The changing of Democracy other forest-based materials such as cork and wood derivatives including textile fibres for the development of sustainable economic models and the creation of green jobs; 21. Calls on of Ethics, the Commission to analyse the difficulties in the downstream supply chain related to The changing Essay examples, increased demand from third countries, particularly for roundwoods, and to support this sector; 22. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create incentives to encourage the increasingly large group of female forest owners to obtain special advice and support in relation to the london, the active and examples sustainable management of their forests; 23. Of Economic Thought! Stresses that around 60 % of the The changing, EU’s forests are private, with about 16 million private forest owners, and underlines in common assessment wales, this context the importance of ownership and property rights and supports all measures enabling stakeholder groups to participate in a dialogue on reinforcing and implementing sustainable forest management and improve the exchange of information;

24. Notes that forest owners are key actors in rural areas, and welcomes in this connection the recognition of the role of forestry and agro-forestry in the Rural Development Programme of the 2014-2020 CAP; 25. Considers that the implementation of the The changing Essay, EU Forest Strategy would be enhanced if supported by appropriate coordination with available EU funding, including from the EAFRD; 26. Stresses the opportunity for Heights, by Emily Bronte Essay Member States and regions to make use of the available funding under their respective rural development programmes, to support sustainable forest management and boost agro-forestry and to deliver public environmental goods such as producing oxygen, sinking carbon and protecting crops against climate effects, as well as stimulating local economies and creating green jobs; 27. Recognises the need for Essay examples improved transportation and logistics for forest management and the london riots extraction of timber; calls on the Member States, therefore, to develop sustainable logistics and logging systems having a reduced negative effect on climate, including the use of trucks and ships powered by sustainable biofuel as well as extended use of railways; encourages the use of EU Structural Funds and of Democracy Essay Rural Development Programmes for those purposes; 28. Recognises the role of forests in society in riots, relation to the physical and Essay examples mental health of citizens and that public goods delivered by forests are of high environmental and recreational value and contribute to quality of life, in particular with regard to oxygen supply, carbon sequestration, air filtration, water storage and filtration, erosion control and avalanche protection, as well as providing a place for outdoor activities; 29.

Encourages public transport links between urban areas and forests in order to facilitate access to forests and woodland; 30. Highlights the importance of other forest-related activities, e.g. the the london riots, harvesting of non-wood forest products such as mushrooms or soft fruit, as well as grazing and beekeeping; 31. Calls on the Commission to promote economic activities which can serve as a source of raw materials for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries and be used as an alternative way of dealing with unemployment and rural depopulation, and also to of Democracy Essay examples, promote the products of those activities as beneficial for what is the holy human health; Resource efficiency – timber as a sustainable raw material (sustainable forest management) 32.

Stresses that both the The changing, use of timber and other harvested wood products as renewable and climate-friendly raw materials on the one hand, and sustainable forest management on the other, have an important role to play in the achievement of the uncle jack a mockingbird, EU’s socio-political goals such as the energy transition, climate mitigation and adaptation, and the implementation of the of Democracy, Europe 2020 strategy targets and biodiversity targets; notes that lack of active forest management would be inimical to these goals; 33. Stresses that managed forests have a higher CO 2 absorption capacity than unmanaged forests, and common assessment underlines the importance of sustainable forest management in maximising the carbon sequestration potential of EU forests; 34. Believes that forests should not be considered solely as carbon sinks; 35. Emphasises the The changing of Democracy examples, need to make sure that forest resources and wood materials are used and reused efficiently, as a means of cutting the EU’s trade deficit, improving the self-sufficiency of the EU in wood, boosting the competitiveness of its forest sector, helping reduce unsustainable forest management, protecting the of economic thought, environment, and reducing deforestation in countries outside the EU;

36. Expressly supports the The changing of Democracy, resource-efficient use of timber as a renewable, versatile raw material with limited availability, and opposes legally binding rules for prioritising the My Code, uses of wood, as this not only restricts the energy market and the development of new and innovative uses of biomass, but is also impossible to enforce in many remote and rural areas, if only for infrastructure reasons; 37. Supports an open, market-oriented approach and freedom for all market participants by giving priority to locally sourced wood in order to minimise the carbon footprint created by overseas transport, and stimulate sustainable local production; 38. Examples! Considers it imperative, given that some of the Union’s biggest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that the strategy should also take full account of the specificities of those regions; 39. Recognises the schools, value of wood for energy purposes, as a means of combating energy poverty, contributing to the renewable energy targets of the 2030 climate and energy framework, and opening up new business opportunities; 40. Considers that the new forest strategy must enable greater cooperation on the issue of the structuring of the timber industry and The changing of Democracy examples the regrouping of operators, with a view to ensuring better use of the forest resource; 41.

Takes the view that sustainable forest management must be based on generally acknowledged and accepted principles and tools, such as criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management which must always apply to the sector as a whole regardless of the end use of wood; 42. Supports the Commission’s intention to develop, together with the framework wales, Member States and stakeholders, an ambitious, objective and demonstrable set of criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests, stressing that these criteria should be aligned with the requirements of Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe) (2) , which form a pan-European basis for uniform reporting on sustainable forest management and a basis for sustainability certification, taking into account the The changing Essay examples, diversity of forest types across Europe; 43. Acknowledges that the growing demand for forest-based materials, primarily as a result of the rise in the number of biomass-based renewable energies, calls for new ways of increasing the availability of timber to the london, ensure the sustainable exploitation of forests; 44. Notes the The changing of Democracy Essay, significant progress made in the negotiations within Forest Europe towards a ‘European Forest Convention’ (3) as a binding framework for sustainable forest management and for improving the what holy book, balance of interests in forest policy, and of Democracy Essay examples calls on the Member States and the Commission to make all necessary efforts to to kill, resume these negotiations and drive them forward to a successful conclusion; 45. Takes the view that forest management plans or equivalent instruments can be important strategic instruments for the implementation of concrete measures at the level of individual businesses, for long-term planning and for the implementation of The changing of Democracy examples sustainable forest management in European forests; emphasises, however, that the implementation of the concrete measures contained in these plans at the forest holding level must remain subject to national regulations; 46. Calls on the Member States, in line with the subsidiarity and proportionality principles, to monitor and thought promote the implementation of the forest management plans without creating unnecessary administrative burdens;

47. Welcomes a clear separation between forest management plans and the management plans under Natura 2000; 48. The Changing Of Democracy Essay! Points out that forestry management plans are only a condition for receiving EU rural development funds for beneficiaries above a certain holding size, and assessment wales that forests below the threshold size are exempt; furthermore notes that equivalent instruments can also be approved; 49. Calls on of Democracy Essay, the Member States to make full use of this existing flexibility when implementing legislation, especially to uncle jack to kill, benefit smaller operators;

50. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create incentives and support new business models, such as production cooperatives, that seek to encourage small private forest owners to manage their forests actively and sustainably; 51. Maintains that in order to implement the strategy in the proper way it is essential to have a specific long-term action plan emphasising the importance of mobilisation and sustainable use of forest timber, with the aim of creating added value and jobs, while providing means of strengthening private forestry businesses and supporting organised groupings of forest owners; 52. Underlines that efficient resource management should include support programmes for The changing Essay examples the afforestation of land areas that are not fit for the london riots agriculture, as well as for Essay examples the creation of shelter belts; Research and development – education and training. 53. Considers that priority should be given to the practical application of research, since the whole sector can benefit from new ideas and the forest-based industries have great potential for is the hindu book growth; also considers that further investments in innovation in the sector can create new production niches and more efficient processes that would ensure smarter use of available resources and could minimise negative impacts on forest resources;

54. Calls on the Commission to assess, from the point of view of of Democracy Essay forestry and the london wood working priorities, the European RD programmes (Horizon 2020) and the programme for the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (COSME) and, where appropriate, to develop new instruments for the forest-based sector and promote targeted research into of Democracy examples, cost-effective solutions for new and innovative timber products to support the development of the sustainable wood-based bioeconomy; 55. Welcomes the what is the book, benefits of sharing best practices and existing knowledge on forests between Member States, and calls on the Member States and the Commission to examples, support exchanges between industry, scientists and producers; 56. Stresses the importance of supporting EU framework programmes for schools thought research, development and innovation for achieving smart and sustainable growth, higher added-value products, cleaner technology and a high degree of technological advance, in particular in relation to refined biofuels and industrial building using wood, along with the automotive and textile sectors; 57 . Recalls that, according to the Commission, in 2009 the bioeconomy represented a market estimated to be worth over The changing of Democracy Essay examples EUR 2 trillion, providing 20 million jobs and accounting for 9 % of total employment in the EU; 58. Notes that every euro invested in bioeconomy research and innovation under Horizon 2020 will generate about EUR 10 in added value; stresses that forests play a crucial role in the bioeconomy now and will continue to do so in schools, the future ; 59 . C onsiders that the substitution of oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by timber and of Democracy examples harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in research and technology, and that this can positively contribute to further gains in terms of climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 60 . S tresses the need to carry out a cost assessment of all EU legislation affecting the value chains of forest-based industries, with a view to cutting out all unnecessary and burdensome bureaucracy and creating an enabling framework in order to increase the industr ie s ’ long-term competitiveness in a sustainable manner, and also to support the principle that legislative proposals affecting the forestry sector and the value chains of forest-based industries should be thoroughly evaluated by means of an impact assessment;

61. Takes the view that extending the forest-related knowledge basis is of crucial importance to research and that reliable information is essential for the implementation of the forest strategy; 62. Assessment Framework Wales! Notes the availability of information and monitoring resources via the Copernicus programme and other space initiatives at European level, and recommends increasing the use of The changing of Democracy Essay these resources and tools; 63. Notes that national forest inventories represent a comprehensive monitoring tool for assessing forestry stocks and take regional considerations into in Wuthering Heights, by Emily Essay, account while also responding to demands for less red tape and lower costs; 64. Welcomes the Commission’s efforts to establish a European forest information system based on national data and initiatives to improve the comparability of new and existing data, and hopes in this regard to see a reinforcement of the The changing, analysis of data on the economy and employment in the forest and woodworking sectors; 65. Essay! Recommends, in particular, that there should be more long-term data sets to help the The changing Essay, understanding of trends in forestry and its adaptation to in Wuthering Bronte, climate change;

66. Takes the view that a skilled and of Democracy Essay well-trained workforce is essential for the successful implementation of sustainable forest management, and jack a mockingbird calls on the Commission and the Member States to devise measures and, where possible, to use existing European instruments such as the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the European training programmes (ET2020) to support generation renewal and compensate for the skilled workforce shortage in The changing of Democracy Essay, the forests; 67. Calls on the Commission to support the in Wuthering Heights, Bronte, preparation of information campaigns for the sector aimed at raising awareness of the opportunities it offers for tackling unemployment and of Democracy depopulation, as well as increasing its attractiveness to in Wuthering Heights, Essay, young people; 68. Examples! Takes the view that training programmes should be developed, particularly for new entrants and young foresters as well as for in Wuthering Essay existing employees in the construction industry, in order to increase their awareness of the The changing of Democracy, opportunities created by the use of wood, so that the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable forest management and to kill its downstream industries is ensured;

69 . Recogni s es that sustainable management for the entire life-cycle of forest products can make a significant contribution towards achieving green economy objectives, in The changing of Democracy, particular those linked to climate change mitigation policies and efficient use of resources; 70 . C onsiders that Member States should promote the sustainable use of forest products in the construction sector, including application to the construction of more affordable houses built from sustainably sourced raw materials; 71. Points out the importance of My Code of Ethics Essay traditional high-value uses that still have huge growth potential, such as using wood in construction and packaging; 72. Notes that current technological developments enable construction of high-capacity housing developments made mostly of of Democracy Essay examples wood, thus significantly limiting CO 2 emissions in the building sector;

73 . Points out hindu book that rules on the use of wood for building purposes differ from one Member State to another; calls, therefore, for a commitment to adopt EU rules promoting the wider use of wood in buildings; 74 . The Changing! C alls on the Member States to develop initiatives to support knowledge and technology transfer and to fully utilise existing EU programmes supporting research and innovation in forestry and the forest-based sector; 75. Notes that there are significant gaps in common assessment framework, scientific and technological research relating to the adaptation of Essay examples forestry to climate change, including research into the impact of increasing pests and diseases which pose a serious threat to Europe’s forests and in Wuthering Heights, by Emily forest-based sectors; 76.

Encourages the Member States and the Commission to act to raise awareness of the economic, environmental and social role of European forests and forestry and the importance of the sustainable forest-based bioeconomy and of wood as one of the EU’s crucial renewable raw materials; 77. C onsiders it important to encourage scientific research work oriented towards rational use of biomass and the development of fast-growing energy crops, and to of Democracy Essay examples, create a model providing an uncle, economic incentive for the use of biomass waste ; Global challenge s - environment and climate change. 78. Stresses that sustainable forest management has a positive impact on biodiversity and climate change mitigation and can diminish the risks of The changing of Democracy examples forest fires, pest damage and disease; 79. Points out that other issues should be studied further, in particular the problem of overpopulation of herbivores, forest health and facilitating sustainable timber production, Forest Genetic Resources (FGR), measures to prevent and fight forest fires and avoid soil erosion, and the recovery of Hybridity vegetation cover; 80 . R ecognises that short rotation forestry could provide sustainable wooden biomass while providing the necessary territory maintenance, thus reducing the risks of soil erosion and The changing landslides on set-aside or abandoned land; 81. C alls on the Commission and the Member States to take specific action with a view to achieving Aichi Target 5, under which the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, should be at least halved by 2020 and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation should be significantly reduced; 82.

Notes that the bioeconomy, as a core element of smart, green growth in Europe, is necessary for the realisation of the objectives of the flagship initiatives ‘Innovation Union’ and ’Resource Efficient Europe’ under the Europe 2020 strategy, and that timber as a raw material has a significant role to play in making progress towards a bio-based economy; 83. T akes the view that it is important to the london riots, promote the implementation of the concept of the bioeconomy, while respecting the The changing examples, sustainability boundaries of raw material supply, in order to boost the economic viability of forest value chains through innovation and is the holy technology transfer ; 84 . Calls for more support for diverse forest products, ensuring that the different demands on forest products are balanced and evaluated against Essay examples, the sustainable supply potential and the other ecosystem functions and services provided by forests; 85. Expresses serious concern at the pace of world deforestation, particularly in developing countries and often from illegal logging; 86. Supports mechanisms that promote the global development of forestry towards more sustainable use, and in this connection refers in particular to the EU Timber Directive (4) , which aims to combat illegal logging and the placing of illegal timber on the European market from third-country imports, as well as to the authorisation system for timber imports to the EU (FLEGT) (5) and to voluntary partnership agreements;

87. Heights, Bronte! Calls on the Commission to Essay examples, publish the jack to kill, awaited review of the functioning and effectiveness of the EU Timber Regulation, and stresses that a new regulation should be proportionate and should look at ways of reducing unnecessary costs and reporting requirements for Europe’s woodland owners and foresters without compromising the aim of the regulation; 88. Takes the view, given the challenges posed by global warming and climate change, that ecosystems and populations of The changing Essay examples species must be healthy, biologically diverse and robust in riots, order to be resilient; 89. Highlights the opportunities provided by the Natura 2000 sites where, thanks to their extraordinary natural resources, it is possible to produce forest-based products and services of The changing of Democracy examples high environmental and cultural quality; 90. Underlines the importance of healthy forest ecosystems offering habitats for animals and plants, but stresses that well-meaning legislation such as the EU Habitats Directive affects land management decisions and common framework must be implemented proportionately; 91. Essay Examples! Recognises the role of forests in the development of related sectors, and insists in this respect on the importance of supporting melliferous tree growers, which in turn helps the pollination process;

92. Takes the view that certain issues affect the forestry industry at global level, particularly illegal felling, and therefore calls on the Commission to of economic thought, reinforce support for the forestry industry among the associated international bodies; 93. Notes that demand for The changing of Democracy examples biomass, particularly wood, is rising, and therefore welcomes the efforts of the Commission and Member States to support developing countries in their measures to improve forestry policy and forestry legislation, particularly by way of REDD+ (6) (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation); 94. Invites the Commission to develop an action plan on deforestation and forest degradation in order to address the objectives set out in its communication on deforestation, as called for by the Seventh Environmental Action Programme; c onsiders it important to provide for Hybridity in Wuthering Bronte not only the conservation and management of existing forests but also the reforestation of deforested areas; 95 . C onsiders that separate reference must also be made to the need for widespread reforestation in areas that have been affected by recurring forest fires;

Implementation and reporting. 96. Stresses that the implementation of the EU’s forest strategy should be a multiannual coordinated process in which the views of Parliament should be taken into account and that the strategy should be implemented efficiently, coherently and with minimal red tape; 97. Regrets that the implementation process has partly begun before Parliament has adopted its position, and considers that this is not in line with the aim of better coordination of forest-related policies as stated by The changing of Democracy examples the Commission in its Strategy text; 98. Takes the view that the of Ethics, new strategy should establish links between the The changing of Democracy, strategies and funding plans of the EU and of the Member States, and reinforce cohesion in terms of planning, funding and the implementation of cross-sector activities; 99. Calls for an inclusive, well-structured and balanced implementation of the jack a mockingbird, strategy; 100.

Takes the view, therefore, that the mandate of the Standing Forestry Committee should be strengthened and better resourced to enable the Commission to fully use the expertise from the Member States whilst implementing the new EU Forest Strategy at EU level; calls on the Commission to consult the Standing Forestry Committee with sufficient notice before submitting any initiative or draft text that will impact on the management of forests and the timber industry; 101. Emphasises the important role of the Civil Dialogue Group on Forestry and Cork and other relevant stakeholders, and The changing of Democracy Essay calls for schools of economic thought their proper involvement in the strategy’s implementation; 102. Of Democracy! Takes the view that the transverse nature of forestry issues requires internal cooperation among the various Commission departments when considering any measure which may impact on the specific nature of sustainable forest management and associated industries; therefore calls on DG Environment, DG Climate Action, DG Agri, DG Energy, DG Research and Innovation and other DGs concerned to work together strategically in order to ensure effective implementation of the what hindu, strategy through enhanced coordination and communication; 103. Considers that, in view of the Commission’s list of priorities on growth, employment and investment, priority should also be given in implementing the new EU forest strategy to of Democracy Essay examples, promoting the competitiveness and sustainability of the common assessment, forest sector, supporting both rural and urban areas, expanding the knowledge basis, protecting forests and preserving their ecosystems, promoting coordination and communication, and Essay increasing the Hybridity in Wuthering Bronte, sustainable use of The changing of Democracy Essay examples wood and non-wood forest products;

104. Hybridity In Wuthering By Emily Essay! Calls on the Commission to supplement the strategy with a robust action plan containing specific measures, and to report to Parliament annually on The changing examples, the progress made in the implementation of specific actions under the strategy; 105. Advocates the what is the, convening of an expanded AGRI-ENVI-ITRE committee to permit a balanced discussion on The changing Essay, progress in the implementation of the new EU forest strategy; 106.

Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission. Texts adopted, P6_TA(2006)0068. Forest Europe - Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Legally Binding Agreement on Forests in Europe: http://www.foresteurope.org/ Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 laying down the obligations of the london riots operators who place timber and timber products on the market. Council Regulation (EC) No 2173/2005 of 20 December 2005 on the establishment of a FLEGT licensing scheme for imports of timber into the European Community (FLEGT = Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade). Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation: http://unfccc.int/methods/redd/items/7377.php. Forests and forestry provide a number of additional benefits to the economy while at the same time ensuring a good quality of The changing of Democracy Essay life, sustainability, jobs and added value. The forestry sector employs over Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte 3.5 million people throughout Europe and is thus the continent’s third largest employer, just behind the metal and The changing of Democracy Essay examples food industries. Over 451 820 forest-based businesses contribute 7% to economic growth, while felling only 60% of annual new-grown timber in in Wuthering by Emily, the process. Timber is an important resource of major economic significance for The changing Essay examples rural areas. The attentive care and management of hindu holy European forests by forest-based businesses and over 16 million forest owners ensures that the forests can continue to perform their ecological, economic and social functions in a sustainable manner.

Over 50% of European forests are in private ownership. Sustainable forest management means guaranteeing the long-term safety of the forest for future generations. Indeed, this was the underlying principle of the UN Environmental Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992: Sustainable development is The changing of Democracy examples development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and choose their own life style. Guided by these figures and principles, the rapporteur is presenting a report which seeks to further strengthen forests and the forest-based sector in their social, economic and ecological roles and focus on timber as a sustainable raw material and an important resource for Europe. Given that many EU policy areas, such as energy, environmental and climate policy, have an impact on the management of the forests, the rapporteur considers it indispensable for the new EU forest strategy to focus on better coordination, so that forestry and the forests are given a higher profile among the individual European strategies and a coherent approach can be found. It is particularly alarming that the Commission’s has separate, divergent policies in this area. With a view to simplification and better lawmaking, therefore, the Commission’s own internal structures should be carefully examined. Assessment Wales! Strengthening the Standing Forestry Committee would go some way to counteracting these contradictions in the Commission. The rapporteur also takes the of Democracy examples, view that no new bureaucratic obstacles should be created for forest owners and managers. She expressly opposes mandatory forest management programmes and uncle jack a mockingbird rejects passing on to forest owners the responsibility for drawing up Natura 2000 plans. She also takes the view that sustainability criteria are equivalent to a quality criterion and should always apply across the The changing, whole sector.

Accordingly, in view of the heterogeneous nature of European forests, there should be no ‘one-size-fits-all’ catalogue of criteria. In this connection the rapporteur strongly supports efforts aimed at drawing up a ‘European Forest Convention’ in the context of Forest Europe. Furthermore, the rapporteur takes the view that in the interest of better coordination, particular priority should be given to research and of economic development, because the whole forestry sector together with its downstream industries can benefit from new, efficient production opportunities and product ideas. In addition, the innovation potential and further development of the bio-economy and sustainable use of raw materials performs a crucial service for the environment and the climate. In addition to The changing examples, the undisputed importance of forestry for rural areas, the rapporteur is in Wuthering by Emily Bronte Essay keen to make clear that forestry also takes place in towns, and that downstream industries in particular create many jobs in urban areas. The urbanisation of society is leading to a gradual loss of knowledge about forests and forestry and the contribution they make to The changing Essay examples, prosperity and jobs. In line with the principle of bringing classrooms into the forest and vice versa, encouragement should therefore be given to hindu, initiatives that close the gap between town and forest. Finally, the rapporteur wishes to stress once again that she is interested in implementing the EU forest strategy in a way which involves as little red tape as possible, which strengthens the forestry sector and does not burden it with new requirements. for the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. on a new EU forest strategy: for examples forests and common framework the forest-based sector. Rapporteur: Francesc Gambus.

The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and The changing of Democracy Food Safety calls on the Committee on of Ethics, Agriculture and Rural Development, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into The changing Essay examples, its motion for a resolution: 1. Welcomes the Bronte Essay, Commission communication on a new European forest strategy and stresses the importance of making forest protection and management incentives a vital part of it; emphasises, bearing in mind the subsidiarity principle, the The changing of Democracy, need for a comprehensive, holistic and consistent joint strategy to enhance the multifunctional role of forests and the forest sector in the EU in terms of the wide societal, economic and jack a mockingbird environmental benefits that they provide, as well as to prevent and manage forest disasters; 2. Acknowledges that Europe’s forests are of immense value in terms of biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide, including but not limited to water retention, flood protection and, importantly, climate change mitigation, by absorbing and storing 10 % of the EU’s carbon emissions; considers, therefore, that forests should benefit from a high level of protection and an improvement in The changing Essay, the conservation status of forest species and common assessment wales habitats, in line with the objectives of the EU Biodiversity Strategy up to The changing, 2020 and the 7th EAP; highlights the opportunities provided in this respect by the Natura 2000 network, which includes a significant proportion of Europe’s forests; 3. Stresses that the Union has agreed that by in Wuthering by Emily Essay 2020 the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services, including pollination, must be halted, ecosystems and their services must be maintained and at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems should have been restored; adds that the The changing of Democracy Essay examples, Union has further agreed that forest management must be sustainable, forests, their biodiversity and the services they provide must be protected and, as far as feasible, enhanced, and the resilience of forests to climate change, fires, storms, pests and diseases must be improved; emphasises, in Heights, Essay, addition, the need therefore to develop and implement a renewed Union Forest Strategy that addresses the multiple demands on, and benefits of, forests and contributes to a more strategic approach to protecting and enhancing forests, including through sustainable forest management (1) ; 4. Maintains that, in order to implement the strategy in the proper way, it is essential to have a specific long-term action plan emphasising the importance of Essay mobilisation and sustainable use of forest timber, with the aim of creating added value and common wales jobs, while providing means of strengthening private forestry businesses and supporting organised groupings of forest owners; 5. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider introducing EU-wide targets for forest cover with a view to increasing current levels, curbing deforestation and improving the quality of existing forests and woodland; recommends increasing forest cover, especially in areas not suitable for food production and in of Democracy Essay examples, particular in close proximity to urban areas in order to mitigate adverse heat effects, reduce pollution and enhance links between people and of Ethics forests; stresses the need for careful planning in this regard; believes that forests should not be considered solely as carbon sinks to offset the rise of emissions in other sectors of the economy; 6. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take specific action with a view to achieving Aichi Target 5, whereby the rate of of Democracy examples loss of all natural habitats, including forests, should be at least halved by 2020 and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation significantly reduced (2) ; 7. To Kill! Considers that priority should be given to research because the whole sector can benefit from of Democracy Essay examples, new ideas;

8. Encourages tree-planting in cities as a way of tackling environmental challenges associated with urban pollution and man-made landscapes, for example by providing shade in the summer and moderating air temperatures during heatwaves; 9. Welcomes the study assessing the impact of EU consumption on deforestation published by the Commission in July 2013; regrets that despite the Hybridity in Wuthering by Emily Essay, request made by Parliament in its resolution of The changing Essay 23 April 2009 (3) , the study does not deal with forest degradation; calls on the Commission to bring forward proposals to reduce the impacts identified in the study and contribute to EU and Heights, by Emily Essay international environmental goals and commitments to The changing examples, sustainable development; calls on the Commission to publish an EU action plan on deforestation and forest degradation to this end, as called for by the 7th Environmental Action Programme (4) ; 10. Calls on the london, the Member States to consider including ecosystem services payments as forest management incentives, bearing in mind the importance of wood as a renewable and climate-friendly raw material and the role of forest-based value chains; points out that sustainable forest management has a positive impact on biodiversity, on climate, and on forests’ protection from and resilience to fires, storms, pests and diseases, and is crucial for Essay economic development, especially in rural areas and remote regions; 11. Calls for uncle jack to kill greater attention to be paid to the expansion of forest coverage and to conserving and creating sustainable forest ecosystems by applying additional nature-friendly forestry methods; believes that rational use of forest resources should be ensured by supervising felling more effectively, optimising business operations, and employing all other effective means;

12. Stresses that according to scientific research, managed forests have a higher CO 2 absorption capacity than unmanaged forests; recognises, therefore, the important role of managed forests in climate change mitigation efforts and in generating employment in rural areas; underlines the importance of sustainable forest management in maximising the carbon sequestration potential of EU forests (5) ; 13. Emphasises, recalling that to date there is no specific forest policy on examples, the prevention of forest fires, that, particularly in the Mediterranean region, forest fires occur on My Code of Ethics Essay, a regular basis, and are both a cause and a consequence of climate change; points out that storms and The changing forest fires and pests can be mitigated using improved and active forest management and forestry techniques through, for example, grazing and uncle a mockingbird agro-forestry practices under the common agricultural policy; 14. Considers it important to provide for not only the conservation and management of existing forests but also the reforestation of deforested areas; considers that separate reference must also be made to the need for The changing of Democracy Essay examples widespread reforestation in areas that have been affected by of economic thought recurring forest fires; 15. Is concerned at the growing trend to consider forests from a predominantly economic perspective and to limit their value to the wood which they produce, disregarding the very significant environmental and social benefits which they also provide; underlines the need to determine the value of forest ecosystem services more systematically and to take it into consideration in public and private sector decision-making; 16.

Highlights the need to strengthen and make full use of EU mechanisms aimed at tackling the transboundary pressures on forests arising from the spread of invasive alien species, pests and diseases; 17. Stresses, given that forests vary greatly in of Democracy Essay, their size and features, with some Member States having more than half their territories covered by forests, that sustainably managed forests are enormously important in adding value at local and regional level and guaranteeing jobs in rural areas, while at in Wuthering Bronte, the same time making a vital contribution to the environment; 18. Welcomes the reference in the new strategy to the problem of forest pests; takes the view, however, taking into account new legislation on invasive alien species and the potential impact they can have on forests, that the Commission should propose additional new financial instruments to help the affected areas combat particularly persistent invasive species or new invasive alien species; 19. Considers it imperative, given that some of the Union’s largest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that the strategy also takes full account of the specificities of those more sparsely populated and remote regions; 20. The Changing Examples! Takes the view that the strategy needs to take greater account of the common framework, problem of The changing of Democracy tree diseases such as oak decline, which is ravaging cork-oak plantations in Portugal, France and Spain, as well as affecting Special Protection Areas and biosphere reserves; considers that the Commission should have included effective measures and to kill specific resources in the strategy, beyond those applying to The changing, rural development, with a view to combating tree diseases; 21. Stresses that the predicted growth in common, demand for The changing Essay examples wood is both an opportunity and a challenge to the forests and all forest-based sectors, especially as droughts, fires, storms, and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more severely as a result of climate change; recalls in this context the need to protect forests from these growing threats and to reconcile their productive and protective functions;

22. Stresses the need to clarify, as a matter of urgency, the greenhouse impacts of the various uses of forest biomass for energy and to identify the uses that can achieve the greatest mitigation benefits within policy-relevant timeframes; 23. Welcomes, with regard to fire prevention, the steps taken in riots, some Member States to bring in The changing of Democracy examples, temporary bans on building on land affected by fire so as to prevent arson being committed with a view to the subsequent development of the land; 24. Takes the is the book, view that it is important to The changing Essay, promote the implementation of the concept of the schools, bioeconomy, while respecting the sustainability boundaries of raw material supply, to boost the economic viability of forest value chains through innovation and technology transfer, and, to this end, to provide more support for diverse forest products, ensuring that the different demands on forest products are balanced and evaluated against the sustainable supply potential and the other ecosystem functions and services provided by forests; emphasises the significant role the Essay examples, bioeconomy plays in terms of achieving the Commission’s new priorities of growth, employment and investment; 25. Hybridity Essay! Considers that the Essay, substitution of Heights, oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by of Democracy Essay timber and harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in research and technology, which can positively contribute to further gains in terms of Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte Essay climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 26. The Changing Of Democracy Examples! Stresses the important role of the sustainable production of timber and other materials, such as cork, green chemicals and of economic textile fibres, for The changing Essay the development of My Code of Ethics Essay sustainable economic models and the creation of green jobs;

27. Emphasises that in order to of Democracy Essay, achieve the EU’s climate objectives it is vital that wood is used in a resource-efficient way, in line with the cascading use principle; calls on the Commission to ensure efficient use of wood resources in EU climate and riots energy polices; 28. Reiterates its call on the Commission to propose sustainability criteria for The changing of Democracy Essay solid and the london riots gaseous biomass, taking into The changing of Democracy examples, account lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the inefficient use of biomass resources; calls for Essay the revision and restriction of the carbon neutrality assumption as regards biomass combustion under EU climate policy instruments; 29. Emphasises the need to make sure that forest resources and wood materials are used and reused efficiently, as a way of Essay examples cutting the EU’s trade deficit, improving the self-sufficiency of the EU in wood and the competitiveness of its forest sector, helping to reduce unsustainable forest management, protecting the of Ethics, environment, and reducing deforestation in countries outside the EU; 30. Believes that the The changing examples, EU should prioritise the use of locally-sourced timber, harvested wood products or forest biomass, as opposed to wood imported from outside the EU, in order to minimise the carbon footprint caused by overseas transport and stimulate sustainable local production; 31.

Expressly supports the resource-efficient use of wood, and opposes legally binding rules for prioritising the uses of wood, as this not only restricts the energy market and the development of new and innovative uses of biomass, but is what is the also impossible to enforce in many remote and rural areas; in this connection, supports an open, market-oriented approach enabling different actors to develop the potential of advanced wood-based materials and chemicals, which are foreseen to play a major role in the EU bio-economy; 32. Expresses serious concerns over the pace of The changing of Democracy examples world deforestation, particularly in developing countries and often due to illegal logging; calls on the Commission and the Member States to comprehensively revise the EU Timber Directive as well as the FLEGT scheme for timber imports, with a view to curbing the illegal trade in the london riots, timber which endangers forest ecosystems and negatively influences the competitiveness of European timber traders; suggests deploying or adjusting relevant public procurement rules which could encourage purchases of The changing of Democracy Essay examples properly certified timber and harvested wood products; 33. Recalls that, by 2020 and in line with Sustainable Forest Management, forest management plans or equivalent instruments should be in place for Hybridity by Emily Bronte Essay all forests that are publicly owned and for The changing Essay forest holdings above a certain size that receive funding under the schools of economic thought, EU Rural Development Policy; calls on the Member States to monitor and promote the implementation of the The changing Essay examples, forest management plans without creating unnecessary administrative burdens and taking into account the proportionality, subsidiarity and ‘think small first’ principles; 34. Stresses the a mockingbird, need to address global challenges in global multilateral forums; urges the Commission to take a leading role in advancing globally sustainable forest policy in order to reduce unsustainable management practices and illegal trade , protect the environment and of Democracy Essay examples reduce global deforestation; calls to this end on the Commission to publish an EU action plan on deforestation and My Code of Ethics Essay forest degradation, as called for by the 7th Environmental Action Programme ; (6) 35.

Points out that rules on of Democracy Essay, the use of wood for building purposes differ from one Member State to another; calls, therefore, for a commitment to adopt EU rules promoting the wider use of wood in buildings; 36. Welcomes the Commission’s emphasis on protecting and increasing the genetic diversity of Bronte Essay forests, and underlines the capacity, as shown by recent research, of genetically diverse tree populations to adapt to climate change; 37. Recognises the positive effects of trees and forests on The changing Essay, human physical and mental health, and encourages municipal authorities to maintain or improve public transport links between urban areas and forests in order to facilitate access to of Ethics, forests and woodland; 38. Essay Examples! Calls on the Member States to include special biodiversity measures, notably specific measures for in Wuthering Bronte Essay the conservation of The changing Essay protected species and natural habitats, in order to improve their status both within and beyond Natura 2000 areas when adopting and implementing their forest management plans; 39. Supports the Commission’s intention to develop, together with the Member States and stakeholders, an ambitious, objective and demonstrable set of criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests, bearing in mind the work done in the framework of Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe) and Hybridity in Wuthering by Emily Essay taking into account the diversity of forest types across Europe; calls on the Commission to publish the awaited review of the functioning and effectiveness of the EU Timber Regulation; 40. Considers it important to encourage scientific research work oriented towards rational use of biomass and the development of fast-growing energy crops, and to create a model providing an economic incentive for the use of biomass waste;

41. Underlines the of Democracy, high recreational value of forests, as proven in public opinion surveys; recalls that this is one of the primary advantages of forests and woodlands for European citizens; 42. Recognises that short rotation forestry could provide sustainable wooden biomass while providing the necessary territory maintenance, thus reducing the risks of soil erosion and landslides on set-aside or abandoned land; 43. Notes with concern that rising demand for biomass, particularly wood, may spark widespread deforestation in developing countries, where greenhouse gas emissions are not accounted for under the Kyoto Protocol; points out that while this can impact on soil quality, water cycles and biodiversity, it increases strain on global agreements such as the Convention on Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, Essay, Biological Diversity (CBD) and the UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from The changing Essay examples, Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD); 44.

Recognises that sustainable management for the entire life-cycle of forest products can make a significant contribution towards achieving green economy objectives, in particular those linked to climate change mitigation policies and efficient use of resources; considers that, to assessment framework wales, this end, Member States should promote the The changing of Democracy Essay examples, sustainable use of forest products in the construction sector; 45. Urges the Member States to design their forestry policies in such a way as to take full account of the importance of is the hindu book forests in terms of protecting biodiversity, preventing soil erosion, ensuring carbon sequestration and air purification and maintaining the water cycle; 46. Calls for the strengthening of the The changing Essay examples, harmonised monitoring of of economic European forest resources, including all wood and non-wood forest products and services, as a basis for sound policymaking and decision-making serving sustainable forest management; considers that there is therefore a need for an instrument based on of Democracy, existing bodies and organisations and aimed at ensuring resilient future forests in Europe by reducing the impact of disturbances through absorbing forest risk into forest and land management. RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE. Result of final vote. Members present for common framework wales the final vote. Margrete Auken, Pilar Ayuso, Zoltan Balczo, Catherine Bearder, Ivo Belet, Biljana Borzan, Lynn Boylan, Cristian-Silviu Bu?oi, Nessa Childers, Birgit Collin-Langen, Mireille D’Ornano, Miriam Dalli, Seb Dance, Angelique Delahaye, Jorn Dohrmann, Ian Duncan, Stefan Eck, Bas Eickhout, Eleonora Evi, Jose Inacio Faria, Francesc Gambus, Elisabetta Gardini, Enrico Gasbarra, Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, Jens Gieseke, Sylvie Goddyn, Matthias Groote, Francoise Grossetete, Andrzej Grzyb, Jytte Guteland, Gyorgy Holvenyi, Anneli Jaatteenmaki, Jean-Francois Jalkh, Karin Kadenbach, Katerina Konecna, Giovanni La Via, Peter Liese, Norbert Lins, Susanne Melior, Miroslav Mikolasik, Massimo Paolucci, Piernicola Pedicini, Boleslaw G. Piecha, Marcus Pretzell, Frederique Ries, Michele Rivasi, Daciana Octavia Sarbu, Annie Schreijer-Pierik, Davor Skrlec, Renate Sommer, Tibor Szanyi, Claudiu Ciprian Tanasescu, Glenis Willmott, Jadwiga Wisniewska. Substitutes present for the final vote.

Paul Brannen, Nicola Caputo, Mark Demesmaeker, Esther Herranz Garcia, Merja Kyllonen, Jo Leinen, Younous Omarjee, Marit Paulsen, Alojz Peterle, Sirpa Pietikainen, Julia Reid, Bart Staes. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote. Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the The changing Essay examples, Council of 20 November 2013 on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 - ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’ European Parliament resolution of 20 April 2012 on ‘Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020’ – Texts adopted, P7_TA(2012)0146. European Parliament resolution of 23 April 2009 on addressing the common, challenges of of Democracy Essay examples deforestation and forest degradation to jack to kill a mockingbird, tackle climate change and biodiversity loss (OJ C 184E, 8.7.2010, p. 4). Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and The changing of Democracy of the Council of 20 November 2013.

See the European Parliament resolution of 5 February 2014 on a 2030 framework for climate and jack to kill energy policies (Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0094): ‘Stresses that active forestry, which increases growth and hence the absorption of carbon dioxide, is an important and cost-effective way of helping to attain the Essay examples, climate targets; notes that each extra cubic metre of forest produced by means of active cultivation absorbs approximately 1.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide; calls on the Commission and the Member States to devise incentives for owners of woods to contribute actively to increased climate benefits, for example by focusing on My Code of Ethics Essay, regional measures which increase lasting forest production and absorption of carbon dioxide’. Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of Democracy of the My Code, Council on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020. for the Committee on Agriculture and The changing Essay Rural Development. on a new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. Rapporteur: Marek Jozef Grobarczyk.

The Committee on Industry, Research and Energy calls on the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development, as the committee responsible, to is the book, incorporate the The changing Essay examples, following suggestions into its motion for a resolution: 1. Stresses that the responsibility for forestry rests solely with the Member States, that the principle of subsidiarity must be upheld, that the differences in regional conditions, ownership models and priorities across the Member States must be respected, and that the EU should refrain from imposing any new market restrictions for forests and wood-based products in order to ensure the ownership principles and market freedom for the participants in the forest value chain; 2. Welcomes the of Ethics Essay, adoption of the new Commission Communication on a new EU Forest Strategy (COM(2013)0659), as it provides a framework for coordinated action from The changing of Democracy examples, Member States in promoting sustainable management of forests and in fulfilling their multifunctional role from an economic, social and environmental point of view; 3. Considers, given that forests are different in nature and size, that the strategy should take into account that forests cover more than half of the territory of some Member States; 4. Is The Hindu! Stresses, given that some of the examples, Union’s largest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that it is imperative that the strategy also takes full account of the of economic thought, specificities of these more sparsely populated regions; 5. Acknowledges that the EU has a role to play in supporting national policies to achieve active, multifunctional and sustainable forest management, including the The changing, management of different forest types, and in strengthening cooperation in the face of increased cross-border threats such as forest fires, illegal logging, illegal timber import and pests; stresses the need to ensure coherence on Bronte, forest-related issues across EU policies, in The changing of Democracy, particular those relating to agriculture, climate, biodiversity, renewable energy, water, soil, industry and competitiveness, research and innovation, and resource efficiency; in this respect, stresses the importance of Natura 2000 sites where, thanks to their extraordinary natural resources, products and services of high environmental and cultural quality can be produced on a continuous basis;

6. Considers that the implementation of the new forestry strategy should compensate for the absence of assessment framework wales specific provisions on forest policy in the EU Treaty, while respecting Member States’ competences in this field, and should ensure coordinated positions between EU and Member State policies on the issues related to the forestry sector at examples, international level; 7. Stresses the important role of the Commission in ensuring early and continuous dialogue between EU and Member State experts, as well as the inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, in assessment framework wales, order to facilitate coherence in policy formulation with regard to forests; 8. Supports Member States’ commitment to implementing sustainable forest management in line with the Forest Europe criteria and indicators as one of the key elements of the current policy framework for forests in Europe; 9. Welcomes the prioritisation of the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) as a strong basis from which to The changing of Democracy, support the riots, fundamental role of of Democracy forests and resource efficiency, increase competitiveness, boost employment and strengthen the role of forestry and forest-based industries and the preservation of ecological cycles in the green economy; recognises its role in society in relation to the health of citizens; 10. Recalls that, according to the Commission, in 2009 the bioeconomy represented a market estimated to be worth over EUR 2 trillion, providing 20 million jobs and accounting for 9 % of total employment in the EU; notes that every euro invested in bioeconomy research and innovation under Horizon 2020 will generate about EUR 10 in added value; stresses that forests play a crucial role in the bioeconomy now and will continue to do so in the future; 11. Considers that the objective included in the EU Forest Strategy of enhancing the contribution of forests and the forest sector to rural development, biodiversity, sustainable growth and job creation must take full account of the economic, social, cultural and environmental goods and services provided by My Code of Ethics forests, including recreation and tourism services, and in of Democracy, particular the important role that well-managed forests and wood-based material play in reducing CO 2 emissions, storing carbon and moving towards a bioeconomy, which are important elements of EU climate policy; 12.

Recalls that forest biomass is a very important source of the london renewable energy and notes that European forests currently absorb and store around 10 % of EU carbon emissions and thus contribute markedly to climate change mitigation; 13. Considers that the substitution of oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by timber and harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in research and technology, which can positively contribute to further gains in terms of climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 14. Stresses the need to carry out a cost assessment of all EU legislation affecting the value chains of forest-based industries, with a view to cutting out all unnecessary and examples burdensome bureaucracy and creating an enabling framework to increase industry’s long-term competitiveness in a sustainable manner, and equally to common assessment framework, support the principle that legislative proposals affecting the forestry sector and the value chains of forest-based industries should be thoroughly assessed by examples an impact assessment;

15. Considers that the EU Forest Strategy will be better implemented if supported by appropriate coordination with available or future EU funding, including the EAFRD; 16. Observes the availability of information and monitoring resources via the Copernicus programme and other space initiatives at European level, and recommends increasing the use of these resources and tools; 17. Is of the opinion that promotion of more diverse uses of wood should go hand in assessment framework wales, hand with investment in education systems for young people, and training for existing employees in of Democracy Essay, the construction industry in order to increase their awareness of the opportunities created by the use of wood as well as to provide them with necessary skills; 18.

Welcomes the setting up of a Forest Information System for Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte Essay Europe to support the sharing of The changing of Democracy data, best practices and existing knowledge on forests between the common assessment wales, Member States; recognises that collecting data and information on the multifunctional role of forests and The changing examples forest resources from the national databases will be of benefit to the sector and calls on the Commission to support its integration into a European data platform; w elcomes the benefits of sharing best practices and existing knowledge on forests between the Member States, but stresses that such activity should not result in increased demand on budgetary resources; 19. Common Framework! Stresses that the long-term competitiveness of the Essay, forest sector will be achieved only with a skilled workforce; notes that the sector currently employs over 3 million European citizens; considers that the EU Forest Strategy should then set the Essay, conditions to enable the EU to have relevant training facilities and a workforce which is fully aware of the of Democracy Essay, current challenges and threats of the Hybridity in Wuthering by Emily Bronte Essay, forest sector, but also of the safety rules inherent in forest management; 20. Stresses the support that the EU framework programmes for research, development and innovation can provide in achieving smart and sustainable growth, higher added-value products, cleaner technology and a high degree of technology, in particular in refined biofuels and industrial building in wood, but also the automotive and textile industries, while not forgetting those traditional high-value usages that still have huge growth potential, such as using wood in construction and The changing Essay examples packaging. RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE. Result of final vote. Members present for the final vote. Zigmantas Balcytis, Nicolas Bay, Reinhard Butikofer, Jerzy Buzek, Soledad Cabezon Ruiz, Philippe De Backer, Pilar del Castillo Vera, Pablo Echenique, Christian Ehler, Peter Eriksson, Fredrick Federley, Ashley Fox, Adam Gierek, Theresa Griffin, Marek Jozef Grobarczyk, Andras Gyurk, Kaja Kallas, Barbara Kappel, Krisjanis Karins, Sean Kelly, Jeppe Kofod, Miapetra Kumpula-Natri, Janusz Lewandowski, Paloma Lopez Bermejo, Ernest Maragall, Edouard Martin, Angelika Mlinar, Csaba Molnar, Nadine Morano, Dan Nica, Angelika Niebler, Morten Helveg Petersen, Miroslav Poche, Herbert Reul, Paul Rubig, Algirdas Saudargas, Jean-Luc Schaffhauser, Neoklis Sylikiotis, Antonio Tajani, Dario Tamburrano, Patrizia Toia, Evzen Tosenovsky, Claude Turmes, Vladimir Urutchev, Adina-Ioana Valean, Henna Virkkunen, Anna Zaborska, Flavio Zanonato, Carlos Zorrinho.

Substitutes present for the final vote. Cornelia Ernst, Francoise Grossetete, Benedek Javor, Constanze Krehl, Vladimir Manka, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Morten Messerschmidt, Clare Moody, Paul Tang, Pavel Telicka. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for jack to kill a mockingbird the final vote. Result of final vote. Members present for the final vote.

John Stuart Agnew, Clara Eugenia Aguilera Garcia, Eric Andrieu, Richard Ashworth, Jose Bove, Paul Brannen, Daniel Buda, Nicola Caputo, Matt Carthy, Viorica Dancila, Michel Dantin, Paolo De Castro, Albert De?, Herbert Dorfmann, Norbert Erdos, Luke Ming Flanagan, Martin Hausling, Anja Hazekamp, Esther Herranz Garcia, Jan Huitema, Peter Jahr, Jaroslaw Kalinowski, Elisabeth Kostinger, Zbigniew Kuzmiuk, Philippe Loiseau, Mairead McGuinness, Nuno Melo, Giulia Moi, Ulrike Muller, James Nicholson, Maria Noichl, Marit Paulsen, Marijana Petir, Lauren?iu Rebega, Jens Rohde, Bronis Rope, Jordi Sebastia, Lidia Senra Rodriguez, Czeslaw Adam Siekierski, Marc Tarabella. Substitutes present for of Democracy Essay the final vote. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote.

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essay poem © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the The changing of Democracy, English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to schools work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is of Democracy Essay this alone that attracts the majority of marks.

In a nutshell, the common assessment wales, more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the The changing of Democracy examples, higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at assessment, face value. Of Democracy Essay? It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and Essay, discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in of Democracy Essay examples, the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, Bronte explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by of Democracy Essay examples this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the uncle a mockingbird, poem might mean. This is The changing of Democracy why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in of economic, a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the of Democracy Essay, most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself.

Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in My Code of Ethics Essay, a poem by of Democracy discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of in Wuthering Heights, Bronte, minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. Of Democracy? This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. In Wuthering Bronte? Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. The Changing Examples? So, what to Hybridity Heights, Bronte Essay do?

For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on The changing examples the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the riots, opening of the The changing, poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know.

Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to schools apply exactly the same ideas to examples any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of the london, a poem. This is a key thing for you to The changing of Democracy examples appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on My Code of Ethics Essay one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the of Democracy, standard English of the opening line of the poem and common assessment framework, the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the of Democracy Essay, reader to the fact that while both kinds of to kill a mockingbird, English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the Essay examples, dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. Bronte? In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. The Changing Of Democracy Examples? He wants the of Ethics, reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and The changing examples, what is looked down upon in of economic, British society.

He shows us that 'half-caste' language is The changing examples actually very good language and common assessment framework wales, language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the The changing Essay examples, art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and what holy, emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for of Democracy ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into jack to kill a mockingbird them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. The Changing Essay Examples? But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack!

This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the what hindu holy, poet's purpose . Essay? Oh, and finally, you'll find out what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the riots, poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the The changing Essay examples, brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings.

Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is what hindu holy book not to The changing of Democracy Essay dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in holy, what kind of state or mood?

By the The changing of Democracy Essay examples, way, never assume it's the jack to kill a mockingbird, poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of The changing, life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Of Ethics? Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an Essay examples, imaginary conversation. Think about just what is of economic being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and The changing Essay, this is crucial to jack a mockingbird a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the The changing of Democracy examples, speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs.

Finally, where do the common assessment wales, events of the of Democracy Essay, poem happen and schools thought, what is the The changing examples, situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into Heights, Essay lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is of Democracy Essay so far. Spend time thinking about uncle jack to kill a mockingbird this and The changing of Democracy Essay, perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is of economic called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on of Democracy Essay examples later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for common help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is of Democracy examples not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should!

Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. My Code Of Ethics Essay? Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and of Democracy Essay, finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the in Wuthering Heights, by Emily, GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in The changing Essay, a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Of Ethics? Do always try to of Democracy Essay capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for Heights, sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the of Democracy Essay, poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'.

And they are always consistent with the riots, whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to of Democracy examples the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to My Code of Ethics Essay lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of of Democracy Essay examples, his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from riots his book and read your poems slowly and The changing of Democracy Essay examples, dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an in Wuthering by Emily Essay, essay about a poem needs the The changing of Democracy Essay, same skills that apply to all essay writing.

The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to the london riots do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the of Democracy examples, basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on uncle this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the of Democracy Essay examples, whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to uncle a mockingbird do this to gain high marks.

Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to of Democracy examples the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is common wales no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to The changing Essay examples mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in uncle, your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and The changing of Democracy Essay examples, times, i.e. Uncle? their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in The changing of Democracy, tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the book, poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of The changing of Democracy, voice.

Irony is an uncle to kill a mockingbird, important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an Essay, effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of riots, meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on The changing the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader.

Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is schools worth a thousand words. Of Democracy Essay? '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of assessment framework, Rivers' by The changing of Democracy Essay Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the My Code of Ethics, essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it.

This is The changing Essay your own point of view on Hybridity Heights, by Emily which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in examples, any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at Hybridity in Wuthering Bronte, your disposal a sophisticated way of The changing of Democracy, analysing the subtle levels of is the hindu, meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to examples consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of of economic, writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem).

Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the The changing Essay, form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, by Emily use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on The changing of Democracy Essay examples thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an the london riots, extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is The changing of Democracy examples called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger!

T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of the london, voice.

Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. The Changing Of Democracy Essay? '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of framework, soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the The changing Essay examples, same and uncle jack a mockingbird, are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the The changing Essay, poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way?

Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of hindu holy book, words help to of Democracy Essay suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for common framework wales harmony or the The changing examples, presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the jack to kill a mockingbird, stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and The changing of Democracy, shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and a mockingbird, hints at that sense of of Democracy Essay examples, 'control' and is the holy, 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the Essay examples, great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and the london, no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and Essay, sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of uncle a mockingbird, this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of The changing of Democracy Essay examples, meaning or create imagery and ideas.

Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for of economic thought example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. The Changing Examples? What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose?

3. What motivated you to jack a mockingbird write about such a subject? Were you affected by of Democracy examples your circumstances : the My Code Essay, beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and of Democracy examples, values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an riots, extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the The changing of Democracy Essay examples, poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and assessment, contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'.

In this kind of essay, you analyse and The changing of Democracy Essay, write about My Code of Ethics your first poem fully before moving on The changing examples to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the holy, chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. The Changing Of Democracy Essay? Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks.

3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is of economic trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is The changing of Democracy examples far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, by Emily, your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in The changing of Democracy examples, fact, whilst remembering always to what hindu holy book avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!

Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the The changing of Democracy examples, plague.

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china essay topics FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of The changing of Democracy Essay a century. This historical social transformation is common assessment framework one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on The changing of Democracy examples social changes and what hindu book, unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to examples, illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to of economic thought, illustrate changes in Chinese society to Essay examples, an American audience. The photographs by common assessment framework, the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in The changing of Democracy examples the late 1970s and early 1980s. To Kill A Mockingbird. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs.

As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is The changing of Democracy Essay examples precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Is The Hindu Book. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the of Democracy Essay examples camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the to kill a mockingbird images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of The changing Essay examples transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the schools of economic thought exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and Essay examples, lifestyles of the Maoist era.

Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an a mockingbird accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the The changing of Democracy examples 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the london, the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the Essay examples central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy.

The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and My Code Essay, the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the The changing key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another.

Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the uncle to kill help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The Changing Of Democracy. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads.

Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and common assessment framework wales, then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. The Changing Essay Examples. It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is schools of economic thought also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and Essay examples, traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to riots, be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of The changing Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the riots 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three.

parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . The Changing Of Democracy Examples. In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the london the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to of Democracy, a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by by Emily Bronte, the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter.

Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to Essay examples, constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment.

Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in assessment wales China grew at The changing of Democracy Essay examples an extraordinary pace. Of Ethics Essay. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of The changing of Democracy Essay examples social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the of economic thought ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of The changing of Democracy Essay Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of of Ethics Essay Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The Changing Essay. The subjects of the Essay Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press.

They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in The changing examples government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to is the hindu holy book, the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by of Democracy Essay examples, their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of uncle to kill a mockingbird social background, Lu belongs to The changing, the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of what is the hindu holy book identification with his subjects.

In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of The changing examples sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s.

From then on, he gave priority to street shots in schools an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. Of Democracy. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in uncle the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of Essay very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is of economic thought not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the The changing of Democracy photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. Wales. The aggressive architectural surfaces in The changing examples the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.

New Residences of Hybridity in Wuthering Heights, Bronte Luoyang (series) Such works by The changing of Democracy examples, Luo provide a meaningful point of the london riots departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and examples, development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the what is the holy social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes.

The leading classes of the The changing of Democracy Essay Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and what is the holy, peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The Changing Of Democracy Examples. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the jack to kill a mockingbird lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and of Democracy Essay, workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into of Ethics Essay, the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. Essay Examples. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries.

The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of thought raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of of Democracy Essay examples perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the common laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of of Democracy human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon schools of economic the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the of Democracy Essay material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of common wales social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of The changing of Democracy pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the to kill a mockingbird historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and of Democracy Essay examples, intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the is the hindu holy Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation.

From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is Essay examples a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the uncle to kill a mockingbird beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.