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The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay

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argument essay blog When you get into debates with friends or family members, do you tend to win or lose? The art of arguing is closely related to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions your ability to on Guy harness compelling facts, statistics, and Benefits Religions Essay, concepts that support your viewpoint on Tragedy Essay a topic. When you lose an argument, chances are you only Benefits Essay used opinion to support your position. Being able to argue in energy essays a logical and reasonable way is a great life skill. It will help you to The Many of Universal Religions stand up for what you think is right and to get others to pay attention to your reasoning. In this blog post, Ill teach you the by knowledge, secrets of a strong argumentative essay. Important Elements of an Argumentative Essay. The Many Of Universal Essay. The goal of an energy essays argumentative essay is to convince others that your opinion is valid. Usually, an argumentative essay addresses readers who hold an opposing viewpoint on a particular issue. For example, you might argue the virtues of Religions solar power to a group of city leaders invested in coal and oil.

There are four important elements to consider when constructing an argumentative essay. When selecting an issue to argue, you need to choose a topic that has more than one side. For example, there is no way you can argue on the topic of whether humans walk on two legs because its a known fact with no attached debate. However, you could argue for days about contentious topics like GMOs, gun control, and even fast food. Essay By Knowledge. For example, should the Benefits, government regulate the sale of sugary beverages? Thats certainly a question up for debate. You cant possibly argue if you dont take a stance and Ritchie's, write a compelling thesis. Imagine reading an Benefits argument about the regulation of sugary beverages that says something like, I enjoy drinking Pepsi, so Id like to be able to purchase it as I please, but the Driving Under, government should regulate it because its making me gain weight. All this does is of Universal Essay, confuse the reader.

Is the author for or against the regulation of sugary beverages? Take a stance and energy essays, stick with it. A strong stance might be, The government should regulate the purchase of sugary beverages because these drinks lead to a higher prevalence of diabetes. In this second example, its obvious which side of the argument the author is taking. #3 Your argument must be supportable. A good argument requires the use of logic and irrefutable evidence. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions. You must be able to back up your statements with facts, statistics, examples, and informed opinions from experts.

In the argument for regulating sugary beverages, the Essay, author might write something like, A study by Imperial College London found that drinking just one 12-ounce can of The Many Benefits of Universal Religions soda per day leads to a 22% increase in a persons chances of developing diabetes. An argumentative essay does not include unsubstantiated opinions. Essay. Writing I think sugary drinks should be regulated because they are unhealthy is not a valid argumentunless you support it with evidence. #4 You must refute alternate positions. The final element of a strong argumentative essay is refuting alternate positions. By addressing opposing positions, you make your argument stronger. Its best to try to address the most common opposing beliefs. For example, an opponent might say, By drinking sugary drinks, Im only The Many Benefits hurting myself, so its not the governments place to ban them. To refute this argument, the author might write something like, The American Diabetes Association reports that the cost of Driving the Influence diabetes has risen 41% in five short years, from The Many of Universal Essay, $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012. Its a social problem that decreases productivity in the workforce and the Influence Essay, costs taxpayers money. By refuting alternate opinions, you make your opponents question their own arguments, which is a powerful tactic indeed. A Real Argumentative Essay Dissected.

To help you wrap your mind around the argumentative essay, Ill dissect an example from a real argument that I found online. In a 2013 Slate article, The End of the College Essay, author Rebecca Schuman argues against the practice of Benefits of Universal Religions college teachers assigning essays to students. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge. She follows the four elements of an argumentative essay as I described above. Heres a table that breaks it down for Religions Essay, you: Now, as an Under the Influence English buff and a fierce believer in the importance of being able to communicate well through writing, Im definitely against The Many Benefits Religions Essay Schumans argument. However, she does such an amazing job writing her argumentative essay that I have to admit she makes a compelling point.

And that, my friends, is the Essay on Destruction by knowledge, mark of a successful argument! Final Thoughts on the Argumentative Essay. An argumentative essay doesnt always have to follow a traditional 5-paragraph outline structure. As long as it contains all four of the elements we discussed, you can write a compelling and The Many Benefits Religions, thorough argument. Next time you need to write an argumentative essay, simply create an outline that covers the four steps I discussed. It might look something like this: How many points and counterarguments you include will depend on several factors, including your teachers requirements, if applicable, and on Destruction, the number of excellent points you can find to support your position in the first place. When in doubt, refer to the requirements of your assignment. Also, be sure to include a good hook sentence to The Many Benefits of Universal start off your paper. Animal Is Necessary, But Should Animals?. Youll definitely lose the argument if no one wants to read your essay. Finally, an argumentative essay that is polished and edited will be better received than one that isnt.

Dont go into your next argumentative essay empty-handed. Instead, gather the The Many Benefits of Universal, supportive evidence you need to argue and Under the Influence, win. Good luck! * Cover Image Credit: Northern Mockingbird juveniles at a bird bath in Austin, Texas. Benefits. Original photo by Chiltepinster. (Creative Commons license) Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.

Strong argumentative essay can only by knowledge be achieve if you have the perfect skill on how to Benefits do it. In such a way that you can be able to show or express the things that you wanted. Essay On Guy Ritchie's. #8212; Please reply above this line #8212; ## Naomi replied, on Mar 14 @ 8:10am (PDT): ## Conversation started by Benefits of Universal Disqus, on The IMF, and Third Crisis Essay Mar 14 @ 8:09am (PDT): A NEW COMMENT WAS POSTED ON KIBIN BLOG [4] Strong argumentative essay can only be achieve if you have the. perfect skill on how to do it. In such a way that you can be able to show or express the things that you wanted. 11:08 a.m., Friday March 14. REPLY TO THYVES [7] Moderate This Comment By Email. Email address: [emailprotected] [8] | IP address: 49.145.47.241.

Reply to this email with #8220;Delete#8221;, #8220;Approve#8221;, or #8220;Spam#8221;, or moderate from the The Many Benefits Essay, DISQUS MODERATION PANEL [9]. You#8217;re receiving this message because you#8217;re signed up to receive notifications about activity on threads authored by kibin. You can unsubscribe [10] from emails about activity on threads authored by kibin by replying to this email with #8220;unsubscribe#8221; or reduce the rate with which these emails are sent by adjusting your notification settings [11]. Thank you, I#8217;m glad you found this to be helpful! The main thing in argumatative esaay to be expressive,powerful and defining your topic all the way.a controversy essay make it argumantative.thanx for sharing with us. You made me to see a big picture of writing. You#8217;re awesome.

Sweet! Happy to help. Solar Energy Essays. #128578; Keep writing. The Many Benefits Religions. I am inclined to Essay query a point raised here: you provide the of Universal, example of #8220;The End of the College Essay#8221;, which includes the refutation of opponent#8217;s views as, basically, #8220;Look at Zuckerburg, he did well for himself.#8221; However, I personally find this to is Necessary, All Testing Out on Animals? be incredibly weak as a refutation: outliers (especially extreme outliers like used here) are, by definition, not representative of the The Many Religions Essay, normal or average person. Additionally I#8217;m fairly certain this is a logical fallacy as well (anecdotal fallacy). I believe she has also used a conditional probability fallacy (also known as the inverse fallacy), and I believe a few others, just in Essay this one argument. However, I am not here trying to refute her refutation or argue against her essay: I would do that on her blog if I felt the need, and Essay, am only providing the preceding as context for on Guy Ritchie's Snatch, my issue. I am going to be sitting the GAMSAT (which contains two thirty minute timed essays, one argumentative, one personal) in a month and reading a lot about The Many Benefits Religions, essay writing, and so what I am querying is: does your refutation not need to be strong or even particularly logical? Can it even include logical fallacies and Essay Snatch, examples of Black Swan Theory?

Additionally, are these sorts of things overlooked (partially at least) in Benefits Essay timed essays due to the rushed nature? Clearly you have a critical mindset that will serve you extremely well when developing your argumentative paper for Tragedy, the GAMSAT. Of course, a strong and logical refutation would be better than a weak or illogical one (as you have pointed out here). I wouldn#8217;t bank on logical fallacies or any other weakness being overlooked due to the timed essay format. All that said, it sounds like you are going to be more than prepared to The Many Benefits of Universal tackle this. I love article!

It#8217;s really helping me write what I want but in the correct format. Thank you naomi! I was wondering if you could also help me with letter writing. My IGCSE boards are coming soon and I would like to perfect the outline of a good letter before going further. Thank you for all your help. #128578; So happy you found this article useful!

And thank you for the comment. I haven#8217;t actually covered the topic of letter writing yet on Essay Ritchie's this blog (but I will put it into my list of ideas for the future!). I did find this site which seems to have some pretty good pointers: http://www.goodletterwriting.com/formal-letters.html. Good luck with the IGCSE boards! Typically, you *won#8217;t use first-person #8220;I#8221; when writing an The Many of Universal Essay argumentative essay (unless your teacher is The IMF, Bank, Essay, asking for you to share *your opinion about an issue from a personal perspective). Of Universal Religions Essay. You can learn more about first-person and third-person academic writing in these articles: With all that I keep reading I feel more confused on the direction of forming a thesis statement and producing an argumentative essay on the use of information and communication technology in Driving Under the Influence Essay early childhood settings. I am for the use but unsure how to form the essay. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks in The Many Essay advance. The IMF, Essay. Here is The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, a thesis statement framework to help you get started: Allowing young children access to Under the Influence Essay information and communication technology offers a positive and Religions, necessary form of education in early childhood settings.

Add a sentence here that contains 2-3 reasons to support this position that you will dive into in the rest of your paper. Hello. Do you have a sample argument essays with side comments/annotations?

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The word argument can be used to designate a dispute or a fight, or it can be used more technically. The focus of this article is on understanding an argument as a collection of truth-bearers (that is, the things that bear truth and falsity, or are true and false) some of which are offered as reasons for one of them, the conclusion. This article takes propositions rather than sentences or statements or utterances to Benefits Essay, be the primary truth bearers. The reasons offered within the argument are called premises, and the proposition that the Animal is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried premises are offered for is called the conclusion.

This sense of argument diverges not only from the above sense of Benefits Essay, a dispute or fight but also from the formal logicians sense according to which an argument is merely a list of The IMF, Bank, and Third World Essay, statements, one of which is designated as the conclusion and the rest of which are designated as premises regardless of whether the premises are offered as reasons for Benefits of Universal Religions Essay believing the conclusion. Arguments, as understood in this article, are the subject of study in critical thinking and informal logic courses in which students usually learn, among other things, how to identify, reconstruct, and evaluate arguments given outside the classroom. Arguments, in this sense, are typically distinguished from both implications and inferences. Essay On Guy Ritchie's Snatch! In asserting that a proposition P implies proposition Q, one does not thereby offer P as a reason for The Many Benefits of Universal Q. The IMF, World World Crisis Essay! The proposition frogs are mammals implies that frogs are not reptiles , but it is The Many Benefits of Universal problematic to offer the former as a reason for believing the energy latter. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions! If an solar energy essays arguer offers an argument in order to persuade an audience that the The Many Benefits of Universal conclusion is true, then it is plausible to think that the arguer is inviting the audience to is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, make an inference from the arguments premises to its conclusion. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay! However, an inference is The IMF, Bank, a form of reasoning, and as such it is distinct from an argument in the sense of a collection of propositions (some of which are offered as reasons for the conclusion). One might plausibly think that a person S infers Q from The Many of Universal Essay P just in case S comes to believe Q because S believes that P is true and Essay because S believes that the truth of P justifies belief that Q. Of Universal! But this movement of mind from P to Q is energy essays something different from the argument composed of just P and Q. The characterization of argument in the first paragraph requires development since there are forms of The Many Religions, reasoning such as explanations which are not typically regarded as arguments even though (explanatory) reasons are offered for a proposition.

Two principal approaches to fine-tuning this first-step characterization of arguments are what may be called the structural and pragmatic approaches. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the The Revenger's nature of an argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In what follows, each approach is described, and criticism is briefly entertained. Along the Benefits of Universal way, distinctive features of arguments are highlighted that seemingly must be accounted for by any plausible characterization. The classification of arguments as deductive, inductive, and conductive is discussed in section 3.

1. The Structural Approach to Characterizing Arguments. Not any group of propositions qualifies as an Animal All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? argument. The starting point for structural approaches is the thesis that the premises of an argument are reasons offered in support of its conclusion (for example, Govier 2010, p.1, Bassham, G., W. Religions! Irwin, H. Nardone, J. The Revenger's Essay! Wallace 2005, p.30, Copi and Cohen 2005, p.7; for The Many of Universal Essay discussion, see Johnson 2000, p.146ff ). Accordingly, a collection of propositions lacks the structure of an argument unless there is a reasoner who puts forward some as reasons in Essay by knowledge support of one of them. Letting P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , , and C range over of Universal Essay, propositions and R over reasoners, a structural characterization of argument takes the following form. A collection of propositions, P 1 , , P n , C, is an argument if and only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward the P i as reasons in support of C. The structure of an argument is not a function of the syntactic and semantic features of the propositions that compose it. Rather, it is imposed on these propositions by the intentions of the Influence, a reasoner to use some as support for one of them. Typically in presenting an of Universal Essay argument, a reasoner will use expressions to flag the intended structural components of her argument. Typical premise indicators include: because, since, for, and as; typical conclusion indicators include therefore, thus, hence, and so. On Destruction! Note well: these expressions do not always function in these ways, and so their mere use does not necessitate the presence of an argument.

Different accounts of the Benefits of Universal Essay nature of the intended support offered by the premises for the conclusion in an argument generate different structural characterizations of arguments (for discussion see Hitchcock 2007). Plausibly, if a reasoner R puts forward premises in support of a conclusion C, then (i)-(iii) obtain. Solar Essays! (i) The premises represent Rs reasons for believing that the conclusion is true and The Many of Universal Religions Essay R thinks that her belief in the truth of the Essay premises is justified. The Many Of Universal! (ii) R believes that the premises make C more probable than not. (iii) (a) R believes that the premises are independent of C ( that is, R thinks that her reasons for the premises do not include belief that C is true), and solar energy essays (b) R believes that the premises are relevant to establishing that C is true. Benefits Religions Essay! If we judge that a reasoner R presents an argument as defined above, then by the lights of (i)-(iii) we believe that R believes that the The Revenger's Essay premises justify belief in the truth of the conclusion. In what immediately follows, examples are given to explicate (i)-(iii). A: John is an only child. B: John is not an only child; he said that Mary is his sister. If B presents an argument, then the following obtain. (i) B believes that the premise ( that is, Mary is Johns sister ) is true, B thinks this belief is justified, and the premise is Bs reason for maintaining the conclusion. (ii) B believes that John said that Mary is his sister makes it more likely than not that John is not an only child , and (iii) B thinks that that John said that Mary is The Many Essay his sister is both independent of the proposition that Mary is Johns sister and relevant to confirming it.

A: The Democrats and Republicans dont seem willing to compromise. B: If the Democrats and All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Republicans are not willing to compromise, then the of Universal Religions Essay U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff. Bs assertion of a conditional does not require that B believe either the antecedent or consequent. Therefore, it is The Revenger's Tragedy unlikely that B puts forward the Democrats and Republicans are not willing to compromise as a reason in support of the U.S. will go over the fiscal cliff , because it is unlikely that B believes either proposition. Hence, it is Benefits Religions Essay unlikely that Bs response to A has the structure of an argument, because (i) is Essay not satisfied. A: Doctor B, what is the reason for my uncles muscular weakness?

B: The results of the test are in. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay! Even though few syphilis patients get paresis, we suspect that the reason for your uncles paresis is the syphilis he suffered from energy essays 10 years ago. Dr. B offers reasons that explain why As uncle has paresis. It is unreasonable to think that B believes that the uncles being a syphilis victim makes it more likely than not that he has paresis, since B admits that having syphilis does not make it more likely than not that someone has (or will have) paresis. So, Bs response does not contain an argument, because (ii) is not satisfied. A: I dont think that Bill will be at the party tonight. B: Bill will be at the party, because Bill will be at the party. Suppose that B believes that Bill will be at Benefits of Universal Essay the party. Trivially, the truth of this proposition makes it more likely than not that he will be at the party.

Nevertheless, B is not presenting an on Guy argument. Bs response does not have the structure of an argument, because (iiia) is not satisfied. Clearly, B does not offer a reason for Bill will be at the party that is independent of this. Of Universal Religions! Perhaps, Bs response is intended to communicate her confidence that Bill will be at the party. By (iiia), a reasoner R puts forward [1] Sasha Obama has a sibling in support of [2] Sasha is not an only child only if Rs reasons for believing [1] do not include Rs belief that [2] is true. If R puts forward [1] in support of [2] and, say, erroneously believes that the former is independent of the latter, then Rs argument would be defective by of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on, virtue of being circular.

Regarding (iiib), that Obama is U.S. Essay! President entails that the earth is the third planet from the sun or it isnt , but it is plausible to suppose that the The Revenger's Essay former does not support the Benefits Religions Essay latter because it is irrelevant to showing that the earth is the third planet from the Essay Snatch sun or it isnt is true. Premises offered in Benefits support of Under, a conclusion are either linked or convergent. This difference marks a structural distinction between arguments. [1] Tom is The Many Benefits Religions happy only if he is on Destruction playing guitar. [2] Tom is not playing guitar. Suppose that a reasoner R offers [1] and [2] as reasons in support of [3]. The argument is The Many presented in what is Driving Under called standard form ; the premises are listed first and a solid line separates them from the conclusion, which is Benefits of Universal Religions Essay prefaced by on Guy Snatch, ? . This symbol means therefore.

Premises [1] and [2] are linked because they do not support the conclusion independently of one another, that is, they support the conclusion jointly. It is unreasonable to think that R offers [1] and [2] individually, as opposed to collectively, as reasons for [3]. The following representation of the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay argument depicts the linkage of the premises. Combining [1] and [2] with the plus sign and underscoring them indicates that they are linked . The arrow indicates that they are offered in support of [3]. To see a display of convergent premises, consider the Driving the Influence following.

[1] Tom said that he didnt go to Samanthas party. [2] No one at Samanthas party saw Tom there. ? [3] Tom did not attend Samanthas party. These premises are con vergent , because each is a reason that supports [3] independently of the other. The below diagram represents this.

An extended argument is an argument with at The Many Benefits Religions Essay least one premise that a reasoner attempts to support explicitly. Extended arguments are more structurally complex than ones that are not extended. The Revenger's Tragedy Essay! Consider the following. The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. The keys are not in the kitchen. I did not find the keys in the kitchen.

So, the keys must be in the bedroom. Lets look there! The argument in Benefits of Universal Essay standard form may be portrayed as follows: [1] I just searched the kitchen and I did not find the keys. ? [2] The keys are not in the kitchen. [3] The keys are either in the kitchen or the bedroom. ? [4] The keys are in the bedroom. Note that although the keys being in Essay on Guy Ritchie's the bedroom is a reason for the imperative, Lets look there! (given the desirability of finding the keys), this proposition is The Many Benefits of Universal Essay not truth apt and so is not a component of the argument.

An enthymeme is an argument which is presented with at least one component that is Tragedy suppressed. A: I dont know what to believe regarding the morality of abortion. B: You should believe that abortion is immoral. Youre a Catholic. That B puts forward [1] A is a Catholic in support of [2] A should believe that abortion is immoral suggests that B implicitly puts forward [3] all Catholics should believe that abortion is immoral in support of [2]. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay! Proposition [3] may plausibly be regarded as a suppressed premise of Driving, Bs argument. Note that [2] and [3] are linked.

A premise that is suppressed is never a reason for a conclusion independent of another explicitly offered for The Many Essay that conclusion. There are two main criticisms of structural characterizations of arguments. One criticism is that they are too weak because they turn non-arguments such as explanations into arguments. A: Why did this metal expand? B: It was heated and all metals expand when heated. B offers explanatory reasons for the explanandum (what is explained): this metal expanded . It is plausible to see B offering these explanatory reasons in support of the explanandum. The reasons B offers jointly support the truth of the explanandum, and thereby show that the World and Third World Crisis Essay expansion of the metal was to be expected. It is in this way that Bs reasons enable A to understand why the metal expanded. The second criticism is that structural characterizations are too strong.

They rule out as arguments what intuitively seem to be arguments. A: Kelly maintains that no explanation is an argument. I dont know what to believe. B: Neither do I. One reason for The Many her view may be that the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion. But I am not sure that this is the primary function of arguments. We should investigate this further. B offers a reason, [1] the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion , for Tragedy Essay the thesis [2] no explanation is an argument . Religions Essay! Since B asserts neither [1] nor [2], B does not put forward [1] in support of [2]. Hence, by by knowledge, the above account, Bs reasoning does not qualify as an argument. A contrary view is that arguments can be used in ways other than showing that their conclusions are true.

For example, arguments can be constructed for purposes of of Universal Religions, inquiry and as such can be used to investigate a hypothesis by seeing what reasons might be given to support a given proposition (see Meiland 1989 and Johnson and Blair 2006, p.10). Such arguments are sometimes referred to as exploratory arguments. Essay! On this approach, it is plausible to think that B constructs an exploratory argument [exercise for the reader: identify Bs suppressed premise]. Briefly, in defense of the of Universal Essay structuralist account of arguments one response to the first criticism is to bite the bullet and on Guy Snatch follow those who think that at least some explanations qualify as arguments (see Thomas 1986 who argues that all explanations are arguments). Given that there are exploratory arguments, the second criticism motivates either liberalizing the concept of support that premises may provide for a conclusion (so that, for example, B may be understood as offering [1] in The Many of Universal support of Tragedy Essay, [2]) or dropping the notion of support all together in the structural characterization of arguments (for example, a collection of propositions is an Benefits Religions Essay argument if and Essay by knowledge only if a reasoner offers some as reasons for one of them. See Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010, p.3). 2. The Pragmatic Approach to Characterizing Arguments. The pragmatic approach is motivated by the view that the nature of an of Universal Religions Essay argument cannot be completely captured in terms of its structure. In contrast to structural definitions of arguments, pragmatic definitions appeal to the function of arguments. Essay! Different accounts of the purposes arguments serve generate different pragmatic definitions of arguments.

The following pragmatic definition appeals to the use of The Many Benefits Religions Essay, arguments as tools of rational persuasion (for definitions of argument that make such an appeal, see Johnson 2000, p. 168; Walton 1996, p. 18ff; Hitchcock 2007, p.105ff) A collection of propositions is an argument if and Under Essay only if there is a reasoner R who puts forward some of them (the premises) as reasons in support of one of them (the conclusion) in order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of the conclusion. One advantage of this definition over the previously given structural one is that it offers an explanation why arguments have the Benefits of Universal Religions Essay structure they do. The IMF, World Bank, And Third Debt Essay! In order to rationally persuade an audience of the truth of The Many Religions, a proposition, one must offer reasons in support of that proposition. The appeal to rational persuasion is necessary to distinguish arguments from other forms of persuasion such as threats. One question that arises is: What obligations does a reasoner incur by virtue of offering supporting reasons for a conclusion in order to rationally persuade an audience of the conclusion?

One might think that such a reasoner should be open to criticisms and obligated to the Influence, respond to them persuasively (See Johnson 2000 p.144 et al , for development of this idea). By appealing to the aims that arguments serve, pragmatic definitions highlight the The Many of Universal Essay acts of presenting an argument in addition to the arguments themselves. The field of argumentation, an interdisciplinary field that includes rhetoric, informal logic, psychology, and cognitive science, highlights acts of presenting arguments and their contexts as topics for investigation that inform our understanding of arguments (see Houtlosser 2001 for discussion of the different perspectives of argument offered by different fields). For example, the acts of explaining and arguingin sense highlighted herehave different aims. Whereas the act of explaining is designed to increase the audiences comprehension, the act of arguing is aimed at enhancing the acceptability of a standpoint. Essay! This difference in aim makes sense of the fact that in presenting an argument the reasoner believes that her standpoint is not yet acceptable to her audience, but in presenting an explanation the reasoner knows or believes that the explanandum is already accepted by her audience (See van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992, p.29, and Snoeck Henkemans 2001, p.232). These observations about the The Many Benefits Essay acts of The IMF, World Bank, and Third World Debt Crisis Essay, explaining and arguing motivate the above pragmatic definition of an argument and suggest that arguments and explanations are distinct things. It is generally accepted that the same line of reasoning can function as an explanation in one dialogical context and as an argument in another (see Groarke and Tindale 2004, p. 23ff for an example and discussion). Eemeren van, Grootendorst, and Snoeck Henkemans 2002 delivers a substantive account of how the evaluation of various types of arguments turns on considerations pertaining to The Many, the dialogical contexts within which they are presented and discussed. Note that, since the pragmatic definition appeals to the structure of propositions in characterizing arguments, it inherits the criticisms of structural definitions.

In addition, the question arises whether it captures the variety of purposes arguments may serve. It has been urged that arguments can aim at engendering any one of Testing but Should All Testing be Carried, a full range of attitudes towards their conclusions (for example, Pinto 1991). For example, a reasoner can offer premises for a conclusion C in order to get her audience to withhold assent from C, suspect that C is true, believe that is merely possible that C is true, or to be afraid that C is Benefits of Universal Religions true. The thought here is The Revenger's Essay that these are alternatives to convincing an audience of the truth of C. A proponent of a pragmatic definition of argument may grant that there are uses of arguments not accounted for by her definition, and propose that the definition is stipulative. The Many Benefits Religions Essay! But then a case needs to be made why theorizing about arguments from a pragmatic approach should be anchored to such a definition when it does not reflect all legitimate uses of arguments. Another line of criticism of the pragmatic approach is its rejecting that arguments themselves have a function (Goodwin 2007) and arguing that the function of solar essays, persuasion should be assigned to the dialogical contexts in which arguments take place (Doury 2011). 3. Deductive, Inductive, and Conductive Arguments. Arguments are commonly classified as deductive or inductive (for example, Copi, I. and C. Cohen 2005, Sinnott-Armstrong and Fogelin 2010). The Many! A deductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as valid.

For a valid argument, it is not possible for the premises to be true with the conclusion false. That is, necessarily if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true. Thus we may say that the truth of the premises in a valid argument guarantees that the Animal is Necessary, but Should of Pharmaceuticals Out on Animals? conclusion is also true. The following is an Religions example of a valid argument: Tom is happy only if the Tigers win , the Tigers lost; therefore, Tom is Driving Under the Influence definitely not happy. A step-by-step derivation of the conclusion of a valid argument from its premises is called a proof . In the context of a proof, the given premises of an argument may be viewed as initial premises.

The propositions produced at the steps leading to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, the conclusion are called derived premises. Each step in is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals Out on the derivation is justified by a principle of inference. Whether the derived premises are components of The Many Benefits of Universal Essay, a valid argument is a difficult question that is beyond the Testing is Necessary, Out on scope of this article. An inductive argument is an argument that an arguer puts forward as inductively strong . In an inductive argument, the premises are intended only to be so strong that, if they were true, then it would be unlikely , although possible, that the conclusion is Benefits of Universal false. If the truth of the Tragedy Essay premises makes it unlikely (but not impossible) that the Benefits Religions Essay conclusion is false, then we may say that the argument is The Revenger's Essay inductively strong.

The following is an example of an inductively strong argument: 97% of the Republicans in town Z voted for McX, Jones is a Republican in town Z; therefore, Jones voted for McX . In an argument like this, an arguer often will conclude Jones probably voted for McX instead of Jones voted for McX, because they are signaling with the word probably that they intend to present an argument that is inductively strong but not valid. In order to evaluate an argument it is important to determine whether or not it is deductive or inductive. It is The Many Religions Essay inappropriate to criticize an inductively strong argument for being invalid. Based on the above characterizations, whether an argument is deductive or inductive turns on whether the arguer intends the argument to be valid or merely inductively strong, respectively. Sometimes the presence of The Revenger's Tragedy, certain expressions such as definitely and probably in the above two arguments indicate the relevant intensions of the arguer. Benefits Of Universal Essay! Charity dictates that an solar energy essays invalid argument which is inductively strong be evaluated as an inductive argument unless there is clear evidence to the contrary. Conductive arguments have been put forward as a third category of arguments (for example, Govier 2010).

A conductive argument is an argument whose premises are convergent; the premises count separately in of Universal Essay support of the conclusion. If one or more premises were removed from the argument, the degree of by knowledge, support offered by the remaining premises would stay the Benefits of Universal same. The previously given example of an argument with convergent premises is a conductive argument. The Revenger's Tragedy Essay! The following is another example of a conductive argument. It most likely wont rain tomorrow.

The sky is red tonight. Also, the weather channel reported a 30% chance of The Many of Universal Religions Essay, rain for tomorrow. The primary rationale for Driving distinguishing conductive arguments from deductive and inductive ones is as follows. First, the premises of conductive arguments are always convergent, but the premises of deductive and The Many inductive arguments are never convergent. Ritchie's! Second, the evaluation of arguments with convergent premises requires not only that each premise be evaluated individually as support for The Many Benefits Religions the conclusion, but also the degree to which the premises support the conclusion collectively must be determined. This second consideration mitigates against treating conductive arguments merely as a collection of subarguments, each of which is deductive or inductive. The basic idea is that the support that the convergent premises taken together provide the conclusion must be considered in the evaluation of a conductive argument. With respect to the above conductive argument, the sky is red tonight and the weather channel reported a 30% chance of rain for but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? tomorrow are offered together as (convergent) reasons for It most likely wont rain tomorrow . Perhaps, collectively, but not individually, these reasons would persuade an addressee that it most likely wont rain tomorrow. A group of propositions constitutes an argument only if some are offered as reasons for one of them. Two approaches to identifying the definitive characteristics of arguments are the structural and pragmatic approaches.

On both approaches, whether an act of offering reasons for a proposition P yields an argument depends on what the The Many Benefits of Universal reasoner believes regarding both the truth of the reasons and the relationship between the reasons and P. A typical use of an argument is to rationally persuade its audience of the truth of the conclusion. To be effective in realizing this aim, the reasoner must think that there is real potential in the relevant context for her audience to be rationally persuaded of the conclusion by means of the offered premises. What, exactly, this presupposes about the audience depends on what the argument is and the context in Essay on Destruction which it is given. Benefits Essay! An argument may be classified as deductive, inductive, or conductive. Its classification into one of these categories is a prerequisite for its proper evaluation.

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AUR#774 Oct 14 Genocide: Most Heinous Crime Of Stalin; Stop The Genocide In Darfur Now. An International Newsletter, The Latest, Up-To-Date. In-Depth Ukrainian News, Analysis and Commentary. Ukrainian History, Culture, Arts, Business, Religion, Sports, Government, and Politics, in Ukraine and Around the World. Benefits Of Universal Religions. OCTOBER 13 , 2006 a very large program to commemorate the Tragedy victims. of famine and political repression. Benefits. nations to declare the Holodomor (induced famine, death for millions, genocide) in Soviet Ukraine in 1932-1933, the most heinous crime of. Stalin and his Communist regime, officially as GENOCIDE. IN LIGHT OF THE UN CONVENTION OF 1948. By Roman Serbyn. [2] WAS THE 1933 HOLODOMOR AN ACT OF GENOCIDE? By Stanislav Kulchytsky.

Mr. E. Morgan Williams, Publisher and Editor. WASHINGTON, D.C., SATURDAY, OCTOBER 14, 2006. Clicking on the title of Essay any article takes you directly to the article. Return to the Index by clicking on Return to Index at the end of each article. The Many Benefits Of Universal. Ukrainian News Agency, Kyiv, Ukraine, Friday, October 13, 2006. By Roman Serbyn, Professor-Emeritus of History, University of Quebec. The Ukrainian Quarterly, Volume LXII, Number 2. Taras Hunczak, Editor. A Journal of Ukrainian International Affairs Since 1944. Ukrainian Congress Committee of America (UCCA) New York, New York, Summer 2006. By Knowledge. Article re-published with permission by the.

Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article 1. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. By Stanislav Kulchytsky, Deputy Director, Institute of History of the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The Day Weekly Digest in English, in three parts, #29, #30, #31. Kyiv, Ukraine, Tuesday, Part I, September 26, 2006; Part II, Tuesday, October 3, 2006; Part III, Tuesday, October 10, 2006. Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article 2. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. Daria Hluschenko, Ukrainian News Agency, Thursday, August 24, 2006. Interfax-Ukraine news agency, Kiev, in Russian, 26 Sep 06. BBC Monitoring Service, United Kingdom, Tuesday, Sep 26, 2006. [Holodomor: Induced starvation, death for millions, genocide of 1932-1933 ] By Nick Wadhams, Associated Press Writer. United Nations, New York, NY, Wednesday, Sep 20, 2006.

Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article 7. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. 1. UKRAINE PRESIDENT YUSHCHENKO LAYS OUT LARGE PROGRAM. TO COMMEMORATE VICTIMS OF FAMINE POLITICAL REPRESSION. Ukrainian News Agency, Kyiv, Ukraine, Friday, October 13, 2006. KYIV President Viktor Yuschenko has set up an organizing committee to. Essay On Guy Snatch. prepare for and hold a Memorial Day in honor of victims of famine and. political repression and appointed the Presidential Secretariat#8217;s first. deputy head Ivan Vasiunyk and Deputy Prime Minister Dmytro Tabachnyk. The Many Essay. as the co-chairmen of the Bank, World Debt committee.

This is stated in the presidential decree No. 868/2006 of October 12, a text. of which Ukrainian News obtained. The Memorial Day will be commemorated. on November 25. The organizing committee is to approve a plan of measures. to be implemented on that day within one week. [1] The presidential decree declares a minute of silence to Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, be observed at. 16:00 on November 25 in remembrance of people who died as a result of. famine and political repression. [2] Yuschenko states in the decree that flags should fly at half-mast on. that day as a sign of mourning and that entertainment events as well as. entertainment programs on radio and television should be restricted on that. [3] Yuschenko directs the Crimean Council of Ministers, the Kyiv municipal. administration, and the Sevastopol municipal administration to law wreaths. at monuments to victims of famine and political repression and their places. of burial, honor the memories of The Revenger's Essay such people with a minute of silence, light. candles, and organize mourning events and evenings of requiems. [4] Yuschenko also directs the Cabinet of Ministers and the Kyiv municipal. administration to accelerate allocation of land in The Many of Universal Kyiv for a memorial to. victims of famine. [5] Separately, he directs the Cabinet of Ministers to make provisions in. the state budget for 2007 for World expenditures on construction of such a. memorial as well as on researching the history of famines at the National. [6] Yuschenko also directs the Benefits Foreign Affairs Ministry to be more active in. seeking international recognition of the 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine as an. act of genocide against the Ukrainian people. [7] Moreover, he directs the Foreign Affairs Ministry to on Guy Snatch, study the. possibility of erecting a monument to this famine in other countries. [8] According to The Many Benefits Religions, the decree, the ministry is to organize memorial days in. honors of victims of Essay on Destruction by knowledge famine and Religions, political repression at Driving Under the Influence Essay, Ukrainian embassies. in other countries and involve foreign diplomats in Ukraine in such events.

As Ukrainian News earlier reported, between 3 million and 7 million people. died in the 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine, according to various estimates. [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] 2. THE UKRAINIAN FAMINE OF 1932-1933 AS GENOCIDE IN. LIGHT OF THE UN CONVENTION OF 1948. By Roman Serbyn, Professor-Emeritus of History, University of Quebec. The Ukrainian Quarterly, Volume LXII, Number 2. Taras Hunczak, Editor. A Journal of of Universal Religions Ukrainian International Affairs Since 1944.

Ukrainian Congress Committee of America (UCCA) New York, New York, Summer 2006. Article re-published with permission by the. Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article 1. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. THE STATE OF THE QUESTION. Serious scholars and respectable politicians no longer challenge the. historicity of the Ukrainian famine of 1932-1933. What is still disputed is. the cause of death and the number of Essay on Destruction victims. Of Universal Religions. Some influential Western. historians blame climatic conditions, administrative mismanagement and. peasant attitudes for bringing about the famine, and deny or minimize the. moral responsibility of energy Stalin and his regime for voluntarily starving. millions of The Many Benefits of Universal innocent people or at least knowingly pursuing policies which. they knew would result in Under the Influence Essay such human losses. [1] Proponents of the view that the cause of the Religions monstrous loss of on Destruction by knowledge life was the. criminal activity of the Soviet regime continue to disagree on the nature of. the crime and the identity of the victims.

In other words, there is no. agreement on whether the The Many Benefits Religions Essay famine in Ukraine should be classified as genocide, and if so, if its victims were targeted as peasants or as Ukrainians. The. And Third Crisis. issue has both a theoretical and a political dimension. It still elicits the. most partisan feelings among both politicians and of Universal Religions Essay, academics. Driving The Influence. The Ukrainian famine is not recognized as genocide by The Many of Universal Religions Essay the United Nations. In.

November 2003, the UN General Assembly commemorated the 70th anniversary. declared that #8220;the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in solar energy Ukraine#8221; took seven to 10. million of innocent lives, and explained that they were victims of The Many Religions Essay #8220;the. cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime.#8221; What had happened was called #8220;a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people,#8221; but there was no allusion to genocide. Testing Is Necessary, All Testing Out On. The declaration erroneously. attributed the cause of the famine to of Universal Essay, #8220;civil war and forced. collectivization#8221; and misleadingly merged the on Guy Ritchie's Snatch Ukrainian catastrophe with. the #8220;millions of Russians, Kazaks and representatives of other nationalities. who died of starvation in the Volga river region, North Caucasus, Kazakhstan. and in other parts of the The Many Religions former Soviet Union.#8221; The Ukrainian delegation agreed to Essay on Destruction, this watered-down version out of fear. that the Russians would block a more strongly worded declaration. [2] Ambassador Valeriy Kuchinsky of the Ukrainian Mission to the UN later stated. that it was, nevertheless, #8220;an official document of the General Assembly,#8221; whose importance resided in the fact that #8220;for the first time in the history. of the UN, Holodomor was officially recognized as a national tragedy of the. Ukrainian people, caused by The Many Benefits of Universal the cruel actions and policies of the Influence a totalitarian. The precedent allowed the Ukrainian Ambassador to return to the famine two. years later, during the General Assembly discussion of the resolution on the. International Holocaust day. Kuchynsky reiterated: #8220;We believe that it is. high time that the international community recognized that crime as an act. of genocide against the Ukrainian nation.#8221; [4] There is The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, no unanimity on the famine among Ukrainian historians.

Some, like. Valeriy Soldatenko of the Institute of Political and Ethnic Studies, continue to Debt Crisis Essay, reject the notion of a man-made famine in Ukraine. Others, like. Yuri Shapoval of the same institution, blame the communists for the crime. and consider it genocide in accordance with the 1948 UN Convention. Stanislav Kulchytsky of the Institute of History of the National Academy of. Sciences of Ukraine maintains that the famine was genocide and that. Ukrainians must ensure that the international community officially. recognizes it as #8220;an act that falls under the The Many Benefits of Universal Essay UN Convention on Essay Ritchie's Snatch the. Of Universal Religions. Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.#8221; At the same time, he. claims that, #8220;in reality, this famine cannot be classified as genocide as. Essay. defined in the Convention.#8221; [5] Kulchytsky draws a sharp distinction between the Ukrainian famine, on the. one hand, and the Jewish Holocaust and Armenian massacres, on the other. starved to death, let alone to the international community, that people died. in 1933 in the USSR as a result of Benefits of Universal Religions their national affiliation, i.e., in the. same way that Armenians died in the Ottoman Empire in 1915, or Jews in the. European countries that were occupied by the Influence Essay Hitler#8217;s Reich.#8221; Convinced that the Religions Ukrainian famine cannot satisfy the criteria set by the. UN Genocide Convention, he comes to a rather surprising conclusion: #8220;And. there is no need to prove this, because the mechanism of the Soviet genocide. was different.

The terror by famine that Stalin unleashed on World and Third Debt Essay Ukraine and the. Religions. Kuban was an act of genocide against Ukrainian citizens, not Ukrainians.#8221; [6] Further on, I shall return to Kulchytsky#8217;s #8220;terror by famine#8221; interpretation; for now, I wish to point out that his approach cannot be. used in arguing the Ukrainian case before the Essay UN, nor is it of The Many of Universal Religions Essay much help. when debating the issue with scholars who base their rejection of of Pharmaceuticals the. Ukrainian genocide on the UN Convention. Kulchytsky quotes the UN Convention and then dismisses it without bothering. to Benefits of Universal Essay, analyze it, point by point, to see if it really covers the Ukrainian. World Bank, Debt. famine or not. Absence of such analysis is a common characteristic of.

Ukrainian scholarship, which often contents itself with simple assertions. that the Religions Essay Ukrainian famine falls within the UN criteria for genocide. Deniers of the Ukrainian genocide often rely on the UN Convention for their. main argument against the recognition of the Animal Testing but Should All Testing be Carried Out on Animals? Ukrainian famine as genocide. This approach can be illustrated by the discussion that took place at the. VII World Congress of the Benefits Religions International Committee for Central and East. European Studies held in Berlin in the summer of 2005. A special session was. organized under the Bank, Essay title #8220;Was the Famine in Benefits of Universal Essay Ukraine in 1932-1933 Genocide?#8221; Otto Luchterhadt, Professor of Law at Essay, the University of The Many Hamburg in Germany. entitled his presentation #8220;Famine in Ukraine and the Provisions of. International Law on Genocide.#8221; Luchterhand#8217;s own summary of his argument, printed in the Congress Abstracts, reads as follows: #8220;The question whether the energy Ukrainian Golodomor [sic!] was a. Religions Essay. genocide, can only be answered along with the Anti-Genocide Convention. (9.12.1948), because it exclusively offers the relevant criteria, i.e. Energy Essays. the. definition of genocide as a crime under international law. While the.

objective elements of the offense were completed without any doubt by state. terrorist measures against The Many Benefits Essay, a substantial part of the Ukrainian population. during the The Revenger's so-called Dekulakization, the subjective element was not. fulfilled, because killings, deportations, and mistreatments were not. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay. committed with the required specific #8216;intent#8217; to destroy, in whole or in. part, the Ukrainians as a national group as such. The victims of the. Driving Under Essay. Dekulakization policy were defined by a social approach, not by a national. one. So, the Golodomor-case touches on a crucial problem of The Many Benefits of Universal genocide. Animal Testing Is Necessary, But Should Of Pharmaceuticals Be Carried. definition: due to the Soviet UN-policy it doesn#8217;t protect social and. political groups.#8221; [7] Let us disregard, for the moment, the author#8217;s erroneous reading of history. (#8220;dekulakization#8221; was mostly over of Universal Religions Essay when the great famine began, and people. died from induced famine, which was not a function of Tragedy #8220;dekulakization#8221;) and. his misdirection in subject identification (victims of #8220;dekulakization#8221; instead of the famine). What is important is that Luchterhandt#8217;s denial of. the Ukrainian genocide is based on the UN document, as is the case with most. of the other scholars who reject the notion of a Ukrainian famine-genocide. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay. Andrea Graziosi, a recognized expert on the Ukrainian famine, has come to. the conclusion that the Ukrainian famine will be recognized as genocide. Of Pharmaceuticals Out On Animals?. because recently revealed documentation points to such a crime. [8] What the. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay. Italian historian does not say is whether he believes that this claim can be. made on the basis of the UN Convention. I think it can. In this paper I. shall argue the following three points: 1. Essay. The Ukrainian famine was genocide. 2. It was a genocide directed against Ukrainians.

3. The evidence meets the Religions criteria set by the 1948 United Nations. Convention on Genocide. The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was. adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into on Guy Ritchie's force on. 12 January 1951. Soviet Ukraine became a signatory of the Convention on 16. June 1949 and ratified it on 15 November 1954. Independent Ukraine continues. to respect the international Convention and has inscribed #8220;Article 442. The Many Of Universal. Genocide#8221; into its own Code of Criminal Law. The term #8220;genocide#8221; was coined in 1943 by Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) #8220;from. the ancient Greek word #8216;genos#8217; (race, tribe) and the Latin #8216;cide#8217; (killing), thus corresponding in its formation to such words as tyrannycide, homicide, infanticide, etc.#8221; [9] A Polish Jew, born in what today is Driving the Influence Essay, Lithuania, Lemkin. studied law at the University of Lviv, where he became interested in crimes. against groups and, in particular, the Armenian massacres during the First. In October 1933, as lecturer on comparative law at the Institute of.

Criminology of the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Free University of Essay by knowledge Poland and Deputy Prosecutor of the. District Court of Warsaw, he was invited to give a special report at the 5th. Conference for the Unification of Penal Law in Madrid. [10] In his report, Lemkin proposed the creation of a multilateral convention making the. extermination of human groups, which he called #8220;acts of barbarity,#8221; an. Ten years later, Lemkin wrote a seminal book on the notion of genocide. The Many Benefits Of Universal. A. short excerpt will show that the author#8217;s approach was much broader than the. one later adopted by the UN: #8220;Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the. immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings. of all members of a nation.

It is intended rather to signify a coordinated. plan of different actions aiming at Essay by knowledge, the destruction of essential foundations. of the life of Religions Essay national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups. themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be disintegration of the. political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction. of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of. the individuals belonging to such groups. Genocide is on Destruction, directed against the. national group as an entity, and the actions involved are directed against. individuals, not in Benefits of Universal their individual capacity, but as members of The Revenger's Essay the. national group.#8221; [11] Lemkin#8217;s book became a guiding light for the framers of the UN Convention. The Convention voted by the UN General Assembly contains 19 articles, dealing mainly with the problems of the prevention and The Many of Universal Religions, punishment of. genocidal activity.

Most relevant to our discussion is the preamble and the. Animal Be Carried Animals?. first two articles. The preamble acknowledges that #8220;at all periods of. history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity,#8221; while the first. The Many Of Universal Religions. article declares that genocide is Essay, a crime under international law #8220;whether. committed in Benefits Religions Essay time of peace or in time of war.#8221; The all-important definition. of genocide is solar energy, contained in Article II: #8220;In the The Many Benefits Religions Essay present Convention, genocide means any of the following. acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in Essay #8216;part#8217; a #8216;national,#8217; #8216;ethnical,#8217; racial or religious #8216;group, as such.'#8221; [12] This definition was a compromise after much discussion by the delegates of. various countries who sat on the drafting committees. Religions Essay. It satisfied few. people and continues to be criticized by legal experts, politicians and. academics. However, it remains the only legal definition sanctioned by the. UN and operative international courts. A major objection to the definition is the restricted number of recognized. genocide target groups.

Coming in the wake of the Second World War and. informed by Lemkin#8217;s work and the evidence of the Nazi concentration camps, the Animal is Necessary, of Pharmaceuticals Animals? definition would necessarily be tailored to the Jewish Holocaust. Jews. could fall into any one of the four categories: national, ethnic, racial and. religious. They did not form a political or a social group, but this was not. the reason for The Many of Universal Essay the exclusion of the two categories, which, after all, were. part of Lemkin#8217;s concern. The exclusion of the Influence social and political groups from the Convention, to which. Luchterhandt alluded, was the result of the Soviet delegation#8217;s. intervention. The implication of the The Many Essay definition#8217;s limitation to the four. categories of victims is that one cannot argue for the recognition of a. Ukrainian genocide if its victims are identified only as peasants.

Of the. four human groups listed by the Convention, it is quite clear that. Ukrainians did not become victims of the famine because of their religious. or racial traits. This leaves two categories: #8220;national#8221; and #8220;ethnic(al).#8221; There has always been a certain ambiguity about the distinction between the. two groups labeled as #8220;nation#8221; and #8220;ethnic(al)#8221; by the Convention. William. Schabas, internationally recognized legal expert on genocide, believes that. all four categories overlap, since originally they were meant to protect. minorities. Under. He argues that #8220;national minorities#8221; is the more common. expression in Central and The Many, Eastern Europe, while #8220;ethnic minorities#8221; prevails. in on Guy the West. [13] But if both terms designate the same group then there is. redundancy, which Schabas fails to note. A more meaningful interpretation of #8220;national group#8221; was given in a recent. case cited by the author. #8220;According to the International Criminal Tribunal. for Rwanda, the term #8216;national group#8217; refers to #8216;a collection of people who. are perceived to share a legal bond based on common citizenship, coupled. with reciprocity of rights and duties#8217;.#8221;[14] What we have here is a #8220;civic nation#8221; formed by all the citizens of a given. state, regardless of their ethnic, racial or other differentiation, as. opposed to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, #8220;ethnic nation,#8221; or members of an ethnic community often divided. by solar essays state borders.

Such a clarification of the terms #8220;national#8221; and. #8220;ethnical#8221; in reference to #8220;groups#8221; used would remove any ambiguity or. redundancy in the Convention. It would also help the The Many Benefits Religions Essay understanding of the. Relevant to this discussion is The IMF, Bank, and Third Debt Crisis Essay, a statement made in 1992 by a Commission of. Experts, applying the Genocide Convention to Yugoslavia: #8220;a given group can. The Many Benefits Religions. be defined on the basis of its regional existence #8230; all Bosnians in. Sarajevo, irrespective of ethnicity or religion, could constitute a. protected group.#8221; [15] The #8220;regional#8221; group is thus analogous to the civic. destroy a human group identified by one of the four traits mentioned above. When applying this notion to the Ukrainian case, certain aspects of the. question of intent as used by the Convention should be taken into. Essay. consideration.

First, it is Benefits, not an easy task to document intent, for as Leo. Kuper pointedly remarked, #8220;governments hardly declare and document genocidal. And Third Debt. plans in the manner of the Nazis.#8221; [16] However, documents which directly. reveal Stalin#8217;s intent do exist, and The Many Benefits Religions, there is also circumstantial evidence. which can be used. [17] Secondly, contrary to frequently erroneous claims, the Convention does not. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge. limit the notion of genocide to an intention to destroy the whole group; it. is sufficient that the desire to eliminate concern only a part of the group. This implies that there is the possibility of The Many Benefits of Universal selection on the part of the. perpetrator from among the victims within the targeted group, and this. aspect must not be neglected when analyzing the Ukrainian genocide. Thirdly, the Convention (Article II) lists five ways in which the crime is. 1. Killing members of the group; 2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to the members of the. 3. Ritchie's. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life. calculated to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, bring about Tragedy Essay its physical destruction in The Many Religions Essay whole or in part; 4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. All of these acts, to a greater or lesser extent, can be documented in the. Fourthly, the Bank, World Essay Convention places no obligation on establishing the motive. behind the crime, even though the reason behind a criminal#8217;s activity can. help to The Many Benefits Religions, establish his intent. Two Canadian scholars with long experience in. genocidal studies have classified genocides in four groups according to. On Destruction By Knowledge. their motives.[18] It should be clear from examining the list that the. Ukrainian genocide fits all four categories: 1. To eliminate a real or potential threat;

2. Religions. To spread terror among real or potential enemies; 3. To acquire economic wealth; or. 4. To implement a belief, a theory or an ideology. Schabas approaches the problem somewhat differently: #8220;There is no explicit. reference to motive in The IMF, World Bank, and Third Debt Essay article II of the Genocide Convention, and the casual. reader will be excused for failing to guess that the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay words #8216;as such#8217; are. meant to express the concept.#8221; [19] Yes, to Essay on Destruction by knowledge, a certain extent. With the help of a criminal ideology, perpetrators. of genocide can transform a targeted group into an object of blind hate, which then in itself becomes a motive for the destruction of members of that. group. In other words, members of The Many Essay a group #8220;X#8221; are singled out for. destruction because they are members of that group. But the underlying. motives which brought about the hatred do not disappear they are only. pushed into the background. STALIN#8217;S DIRECTIVE OF 22 JANUARY 1933: the West, [22] now generally accept the fact that Stalin and his cronies. willfully starved millions of peasants to death in by knowledge 1932-1933. Ellman, who. rejects the idea of a specifically Ukrainian famine and a Ukrainian. The Many Religions Essay. genocide, admits that #8220;Stalin also used starvation in his war against the. peasants#8221; and that #8220;an unknown fraction of essays mortality in the 1931-34 Soviet. famine resulted from a conscious policy of starvation.#8221; [23] One can only speculate as to why the Amsterdam historian disregarded in his. tightly reasoned and well-argued discussion of intent in the Soviet famine a.

document which of all the known testimonies best illustrates this intent. For almost two decades now, historians have known about Stalin#8217;s secret. directive of 22 January 1933. Danilov and Zelenin, whose knowledge of Soviet. archives was second to none, considered it one of the few documents #8220;to bear. witness to Stalin#8217;s direct personal participation in the organization of. mass famine of 1932-1933.#8221;[24] The document is of particular significance for the study of the Ukrainian. genocide, and we cannot exclude the possibility that its checkered fate in. the hands of Soviet, post-Soviet and Western historians had something to Religions, do. with this connection. The document was made known to the academic world at a conference on. World And Third World Debt Crisis. collectivization, held in Moscow, on 24 October 1988. Of Universal. Iu. A. Moshkov of. Moscow State University informed the meeting that Stalin had complained of a. massive flight of World and Third World Crisis Essay peasants from Kuban and Ukraine in search of food in. various regions of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR) The General Secretary called the peasants SR agitators and Polish agents who. Religions. were going to RSFSR with the The Revenger's Essay intention of stirring up the peasants against. the Soviet power. #8220;Instead of ordering aid for the fugitives,#8221; commented.

Moshkov, #8220;the telegram demanded that these people be apprehended at the. railway stations and sent back.#8221;[25] To my knowledge, this was the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay first public presentation of the important. document. Essay On Destruction. A participant at the conference, E. N. Oskolkov from the Rostov. Benefits Of Universal Essay. University, later used the document in his study of famine in the Northern. Caucasus, in Essay Ritchie's which the Ukrainian Kozak #8220;stanytsyi#8221; figured prominently.[26] There were no scholars from Ukraine at the Moscow conference, but they must. have read about The Many Benefits of Universal it in #8220;Istoriya SSSR.#8221;[27] In 1990, the Institute of Party History of on Destruction by knowledge Ukraine published documents of. the famine held in its own Archive. The Stalin document was probably not.

found, for it was not published. However, the collection contained a. follow-up directive from Kharkiv, the then-capital of The Many of Universal Soviet Ukraine, relaying the Kremlin directive to The Revenger's, the Ukrainian oblasts.[28] In 1993, Ukrainians organized an international conference on The Many of Universal the occasion of. the 60th anniversary of the tragedy. Ukrainian scholars made no reference to. the 22 January 1933 document, but N. Ivnitsky from the Institute of Russian. History, Russian Academy of Sciences, gave a detailed analysis of it. This historian stated that as a result of the directive 219,460 individuals. were arrested; 186,588 of them were sent back to their starving villages, and Tragedy, the others were punished in The Many Benefits other ways.[29] Oskolkov spoke about a real. #8220;people hunt#8221; in the Northern Caucasus and, in particular, the Kuban region, as a result of Stalin#8217;s directive.[30]. Significantly, no Ukrainian. participant referred to the document. The Russian participants were unhappy with the conference and, once in. Moscow, wrote a scathing report.[31] They objected to Ukrainian historians#8217; #8220;groundless insistence#8221; on Ukraine#8217;s exclusiveness during the famine, on. imagining #8220;a separate character and content of the events in that republic, distinct from other republics and regions.#8221; They liked Kulchytsky#8217;s linking the famine with grain procurement and. collectivization; they ignored James Mace#8217;s comments on the national motives. in solar essays Stalin#8217;s starvation policy; and they condemned Ivan Drach for Essay his demand. Essay On Guy. that Russia recognize its liability for the famine. The statement discussed.

at length the famine in the Kuban and Northern Caucasus, but only as proof. of Russian famine and Benefits of Universal, without a single reference to its ethnic Ukrainian. In 1994, N. A. Ivnitsky published a seminal study on collectivization from a. post-Soviet perspective, explaining in some detail Stalin#8217;s secret directive. on closing the borders around Ukraine and the Northern Caucasus. This. measure was to prevent a peasant exodus from Ukraine and Kuban to the. Russian regions of Central-Black Earth, the Volga, Moscow and solar essays, Western. oblasts, as well as to Belarus. The Many Benefits Of Universal. The scholar reiterated the Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried fact that, as a. Of Universal Religions Essay. result of that order, the OGPU arrested 219,460 persons in the first six. weeks of the order. [32] On the Driving the Influence Essay occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Bolshevik overthrow of the. Provisional Government, a group of The Many Benefits of Universal Essay French historians, many of them former. Marxists, published a book of communist crimes around the world. [33] The. book hit the French public like a bombshell, was translated into a dozen of.

languages and had a great impact on Essay on Guy intellectuals of leftist leanings. The Many Benefits. Nicolas Werth, a known expert on Soviet history, authored the part on the. Essay By Knowledge. In the chapter on #8220;the Great Famine,#8221; he presents Ivnitsky#8217;s findings on. Stalin#8217;s directive but changes the direction of the peasants#8217; migration. The. peasants from Ukraine and Kuban no longer go to the four Russian regions, but to unspecified #8220;towns#8221; towns that were not even mentioned in Stalin#8217;s. decree or Ivnitsky#8217;s rendering of it. [34] Werth made Stalin#8217;s directive a follow-up to the new law on passports, decreed on 27 December 1932. Peasants were not entitled to the passports, and The Many Essay, this was one way of preventing them from leaving the village. The two. measures were quite different. The passport law concerned the whole Soviet.

Union, and it was of a social nature to prevent peasants from moving. freely into urban centers. Stalin#8217;s directive on the border concerned only. Ukraine and the heavily Ukrainian Northern Caucasus (especially the. predominantly Ukrainian Kuban), and was thus of a national character. The immediate consequence of this misrepresentation of the important. document in Werth#8217;s work was to allow the author to Tragedy Essay, preclude its use as. evidence of Ukrainian genocide. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay. Tackling a problem that was then hotly. debated in the academic world, Werth asks: #8220;Should one see this famine as #8216;a. genocide of the on Destruction by knowledge Ukrainian people#8217;, as a number of Ukrainian historians and. researchers do today?#8221; To which he gives a somewhat evasive answer, which. #8220;It is undeniable that the Ukrainian peasantry were the principal. victims in the famine of 1932-33, and that this #8216;assault#8217; was preceded in. 1929 by The Many Benefits of Universal Essay several offensives against the Ukrainian intelligentsia, who were. accused of #8216;nationalist deviations#8217;, and then against some of the Ukrainian. Communists after 1932. It is equally undeniable that, as Andrei Sakharov. noted, Stalin suffered from #8216;Ukrainophobia#8217;.

But proportionally the famine. was just as severe in The Revenger's Tragedy Essay the Cossack territories of the Kuban and the Don and. The national character of the document is of Universal Essay, thus lost on two counts: the. flight from Ukraine to Russia was replaced by migration from village to. town, and the Ukrainian ethnicity of the Kuban Kozak population was ignored. In fairness to Werth, it should be noted that in a later publication he has. corrected the first, although not the second, point in his presentation of. Stalin#8217;s infamous directive. [36] There is also merit in Werth#8217;s situating. the famine in a broader national context. But the fact that there was a famine in Kuban, the Don and by knowledge, Kazakhstan in no. way affects the genocidal nature of the famine in Ukraine, as the author. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay. seems to imply. Werth#8217;s unfortunate mistaken interpretation of the Stalin. border directive was reproduced in all the translated versions of the #8220;Black. Book#8221; and, paradoxically, Ivnistky#8217;s correct comments on Stalin#8217;s directive. returned to Animal but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals?, his homeland in a twisted and deceptive form. [37] Stephane Courtois, the editor of the #8220;Black Book,#8221; gave the famine another. spin. In his #8220;Introduction#8221; to the publication, he begins by quoting the.

whole Article II of the UN Convention on Genocide but then reminds the. reader of the addition to the definition of genocide made by the French. criminal code: #8220;or a #8216;group that has been determined on the basis of any. other arbitrary criterion#8217; #8221; [emphasis added by Courtois]. This allows Courtois to The Many Benefits Religions, add #8220;social group#8221; to the list of targeted. populations. Inspired by Vasily Grossman#8217;s #8220;magnificent novel#8221; Forever. Flowing, Courtois compares #8220;the great famine in Ukraine in 1932-33, which. The Revenger's. resulted from the rural population#8217;s resistance to forced collectivization#8221; and in which #8220;6 million died#8221; to the Jewish Holocaust. #8220;Here, the genocide of a #8216;class#8217; may well be tantamount to the genocide of The Many Benefits Religions Essay a. #8216;race#8217; the deliberate starvation of a child of a Ukrainian kulak as a. result of the famine caused by Stalin#8217;s regime #8216;is equal to#8217; the starvation. of a Jewish child in The Revenger's Tragedy Essay the Warsaw ghetto as a result of the famine caused by. the Benefits of Universal Essay Nazi regime.#8221; [38] Courtois#8217;s analysis of the 1932-1933 famine as #8220;class. genocide#8221; is The Revenger's Essay, shared today by many scholars in Benefits of Universal the West, Ukraine and Russia. Terry Martin was the first Western scholar to draw particular attention to. Stalin#8217;s border decree of 1933, which he also published in #8220;toto.#8221; [39] The. American historian examined the Ukrainian famine in connection with the. national aspect, not only in Ukraine but also in the Northern Caucasus.

Stalin#8217;s correspondence with Kaganovich and Molotov reveals his distrust of. the Ukrainian party leaders, such as Chubar and Petrovsky, and the whole. Communist party in Ukraine, which he accused of on Guy Snatch being infiltrated by. Petlyurites and agents of Pilsudski. The general opposition in Ukraine to grain procurement was seen as directly. connected to the national question, as was the similar sabotage mentality in. the Northern Caucasus. This part of the RSFSR had a high proportion of. ethnic Ukrainians, especially the Kuban region, with its clear Ukrainian. majority. It is in this context that the historian introduces Stalin#8217;s. directive of of Universal Essay 22 January 1933. However, in spite of the on Guy Ritchie's revealing evidence about the national factor in the.

1932-1933 events, and even though he called the chapter dealing with the. famine #8220;The National Interpretation of the 1933 Famine,#8221; the author remains. far from recognizing the famine as a Ukrainian genocide. In a lecture delivered at the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute in. February 2001, Martin stated his interpretation is #8220;derived primarily from a. close analysis of Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Soviet nationalities policy,#8221; but that this did not mean. that he thought it #8220;the decisive factor in explaining the famine.#8221; #8220;On the contrary,#8221; declared the speaker, #8220;I fully accept the Under Essay standard. peasantist interpretation of the famine.#8221; The historian was convinced by the. #8220;forceful restatement of The Many Benefits Religions Essay that argument#8221; by his colleague, D#8217;Ann Penner, who. argued #8220;that the famine was the culminating act in a five-year assault on. Martin#8217;s reliance on Penner#8217;s work is Under the Influence Essay, surprising, because the latter. analyzed the Benefits Religions Essay famine in the Don and North Caucasus regions, and in her. Testing Is Necessary, Out On. otherwise excellent essay shows a curious understanding of the Religions Essay Ukrainian. population of the RSFSR.

Penner writes: #8220;The Kuban Cossacks who spoke. Ukrainian did not consider themselves Ukrainians nor did they exhibit a. desire to join a Ukrainian national movement. They treated the #8216;khokhly,#8217; one of the less derisive terms used by Cossacks. when referring to Ukrainian-speaking peasants, with as much disdain as did. the Russian-speaking Cossacks of Veshensk. [Penner#8217;s emphasis]#8221; [41] As the. title of her essay indicates, Penner sees the on Destruction famine primarily as a result. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay. of the struggle between the peasants and the Soviet state. Comparing the. Chinese and #8220;the Soviet#8221; (her words) famines, the American author writes: #8220;In both cases, the famines were immediately preceded by decisions. to change and, the decision-makers believed, to rapidly upgrade agricultural. production on a grand scale irrespective of the farming people#8217;s expressed. will.

At the most basic level, each famine was caused by the government#8217;s. Ritchie's Snatch. handling of a serious grain crisis, which itself was the result of a. predominantly unnatural disaster caused by failed innovations, short-sighted. policies and effective peasant resistance.#8221; [42] Penner mentions the Stalin border decree, not in connection with the. national question, but as a follow-up to the law on The Many of Universal passports and a way to. control popular mobility, unproductive to the state.[43] For Martin, there. was also no Ukrainian famine as such, and his perception of the event was. reflected in the title of Essay on Destruction his Harvard paper: #8220;The 1932-33 Ukrainian Terror.#8221; The evidentiary potential of the Stalin directive was not exploited to its. Stalin#8217;s directive to close the border has been slow in The Many Benefits attracting interest. among Ukrainian scholars, even those who uphold the thesis of Ukrainian. genocide and need evidential material to support their claim. On the 65th. anniversary of the famine, Ivnitsky once more spoke of the Moscow document. of 22 January 1933, and Volodymyr Serhiychuk quoted from the follow-up. Kharkiv directive to the Ukrainian regions. Regrettably, neither historian approached the blockade of the Ukrainian. On Guy Snatch. peasants from the perspective of the UN Convention on genocide. Nor was it. the approach adopted by Levko Lukyanenko and Olena Zdiochuk, who were. supposed to provide the conference with a legal analysis of the famine. [44] When, at the end of the millennium, Vasyl Marochko wrote a long essay titled. #8220;Genocide of the Ukrainian People,#8221; he quoted the definition in Article II. of the The Many Benefits Religions Convention without analyzing it, made no reference to the Stalin. directive and waffled between a national and a #8220;peasantist#8221; interpretation. of the tragedy. Marochko begins his section on The IMF, and Third Crisis Essay #8220;Terror by Benefits of Universal Religions Essay famine#8221; with this: #8220;The most pronounced indication of genocide in Ukraine is the conscious. creation of life conditions, calculated for the physical destruction of. Only in the beginning of our century did Stalin#8217;s directive receive adequate. attention in Valeriy Vasilev#8217;s thorough analysis of the Soviet authorities#8217; starvation policies.

Surprisingly, the author took at face value Stalin#8217;s. demagogic claim that the reason for the closing of borders was to #8220;prevent. the spreading of Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? information about the famine.#8221; [46] The 70th anniversary of the famine was marked by Religions Essay scholarly conferences, a. special hearing at the Ukrainian Parliament, and a representation to the UN. General Assembly. A central aim of these events was to ascertain the. genocidal character of the on Destruction by knowledge famine. By then, Stalin#8217;s directive should have been well known in academic circle. and among interested politicians, for in 2001 the Russian Academy of. The Many Religions. Sciences published the whole text of Stalin directive. [47] That same year, Stalin#8217;s correspondence with Kaganovich came out, which helped put the. document in a more meaningful historical context. [48] Assistant Prime-Minister Dmytro Tabachnyk presented the World Bank, World Crisis Essay main report at the. Parliamentary hearing in February 2003. The historian- turned-politician. argued in the spirit of the UN Convention on genocide, showing how the. conditions in Ukraine in 1932-1933 corresponded to The Many Religions Essay, the criteria of the UN. Convention on Genocide. As one of the repressive measures, Tabachnyk.

mentioned the introduction of the passport system, which tied the peasants. to the starving villages. However, with one exception, no politician or academic at the hearing evoked. Solar. Stalin#8217;s border decree. The Many Religions. Only one Member of Parliament, the head of the. Poltava #8220;Prosvita#8221; organization, Mykola Kulchytsky, quoted Stalin#8217;s. directive and recounted an incident from the period to illustrate its. effect.[49] I was not able to obtain the dossier presented by the Ukrainian. delegation to the 5th Committee of the General Assembly of the United. Nations, but I suspect that there was no particular attention drawn to Animal is Necessary, but Should All Testing Out on, the. Of the numerous conferences held that fall in Europe and North America, let. us look at just two, one held in May at of Universal Religions, the Lviv Polytechnic University, and. the The Revenger's Tragedy other in November at Kyiv University. Not one paper at the Lviv. conference mentions Stalin#8217;s border decree. Rudolf Myrsky#8217;s paper, however, is relevant to our discussion for The Many of Universal Religions another reason. The author draws a. parallel between two genocides executed on Ukrainian soil: Stalin#8217;s #8220;class.

genocide#8221; against Ukrainian peasants and Hitler#8217;s #8220;race genocide#8221; against. the Jews of Ukraine. Echoing Courtois#8217;s quotation from Grossman#8217;s #8220;Forever Flowing#8221; Myrsky. asserts: #8220;We can say that in Holodomor and Holocaust a class genocide joins. up with a racial genocide in a fatal calculation: the death from hunger of a. Ukrainian child has the same value as death from hunger in a Warsaw ghetto.#8221; the same #8220;peasantist#8221; interpretation, which enjoys much support among. Only Shapoval discussed Stalin#8217;s borders directive at the Kyiv conference. He made it clear that the decree was to counter the flight of peasants. #8220;beyond the limits of essays Ukraine.#8221; Shapoval also quoted a Ukrainian translation. of the whole follow-up order sent the next day from The Many of Universal Religions, Kharkiv to the oblasts.

But the Ukrainian specificity of the two documents are diminished by the. Solar Energy. historian#8217;s discussion of the Benefits Religions matter in a section, which he aptly calls #8220;the. second serfdom,#8221; namely the tying down of all Soviet peasants to the land, which began with the passport decree. [51] To complete this brief overview of the Essay fate of Stalin#8217;s border decree, three. Benefits Essay. more publications should be mentioned. For the 70th anniversary of the 1933. famine, the Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of. Ukraine published a voluminous collective study under the title #8220;Famine of. 1932-1933 in Ukraine: Causes and Essay on Guy Ritchie's Snatch, Consequences.#8221; Significantly, neither #8220;Holodomor#8221; nor #8220;Genocide#8221; appear in the book#8217;s. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions. title, and of the 68 titles of sections and subsections in the book, the. term #8220;genocide#8221; is used only once in a subtitle, and in reference to. peasants, not Ukrainians: #8220;The policy of total grain confiscation in Essay the. Ukrainian village: genocide against the peasants.#8221; [52] Neither in that section, nor anywhere else in the almost 900-page opus, is. there any mention of the UN Convention on Genocide or an analysis of the. concept of genocide. As for Religions Essay Stalin#8217;s border decree, there is only discussion. of its application and and Third Essay, its effect in the sections on how peasants tried to.

save themselves from the famine and in connection with the passport system. [53] The more popular terms used in the book are #8220;holodomor#8221; and #8220;terror by. Mention should be made of the 80 documents on the famine, recently published. by Lubomyr Luciuk (Royal Military College in Kingston, Canada) and The Many Benefits Religions Essay, Shapoval. (Political and Ethnic Studies Institute, Kyiv). As the collection is. intended primarily for the academic public outside Ukraine, Shapoval. Tragedy. included a succinct introduction, in English, showing the most important. stages in the realization of Stalin#8217;s famine-genocide. The author briefly explains the border closing document and adds: #8220;appropriate instructions were issued to the transport departments of the. OGPU USSR#8221; (the precursor of the better-known NKVD).[54] Notwithstanding. on the Ukrainian genocide. Since many of the documents have already appeared in the original language. (Russian), it would have been more useful to give an English translation of. these documents. What is also baffling is the editor#8217;s failure to include. the crucial Stalin-Molotov directive of 22 January 1933. Instead, the. editors published the Religions Essay follow-up directive, sent the next day by Kharkiv to. the Ukrainian regions, which does not have the same evidentiary value in. proving Stalin#8217;s genocidal intent. [55] Ukraine#8217;s most prolific academic writer on the famine is World Bank, and Third Debt, Stanislav. Kulchytsky. His last major essay on the subject was first serialized in the.

Ukrainian, Russian and English versions of the newspaper #8220;Den,#8221; under the. title #8220;Why was Stalin Destroying Us.#8221;[56] Then the Ukrainian and Russian. versions were adapted for a bilingual book published by the Institute of. History of the National Academy of Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Sciences of Ukraine under the title. On Destruction. #8220;Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine as Genocide.#8221; [57] Kulchytsky#8217;s conceptual paradigm is the notion of #8220;terror by The Many Benefits of Universal famine,#8221; borrowed from Animal of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals?, Robert Conquest [58] and also popular with many Western. policy seeks to alarm and intimidate people, and to be effective makes. available as much information as possible. This was not characteristic of. the famine and so #8220;one cannot characterize the core of the Holodomor as. Terror was employed to force the peasants into collective farms and to. confiscate their harvest. The Many Of Universal. It was effective and achieved its goal. It also. caused some loss of life but did not result in mass extermination. Famine. came after most of the Essay Ritchie's collectivization was already accomplished and the. peasants#8217; foodstuffs confiscated. Terror was employed throughout the whole. period towards party and state cadres to intimidate them into carrying out. Stalin#8217;s genocidal policies toward the Ukrainian peasants, but these. functionaries did not die from the terror.

Terry Martin provides a good analysis of the measures taken to terrorize the. local communists in The Many of Universal Essay the Kuban.[60] Ukrainian peasants succumbed to. Essays. starvation when there was no need to scare them into the collective farms, for The Many of Universal Religions Essay most of them already were there, and when there was no need to scare. them into giving up their produce, because it had already been confiscated. The peasants died from induced hunger, not fear. The #8220;terror by famine#8221; cannot be used as a synonym for Essay on Destruction genocide, as Kulchytsky seems to The Many of Universal Essay, imply by. his usage of the terms. The Revenger's Essay. Kulchytsky set for himself the task of discovering Stalin#8217;s motives for. destroying Ukrainians.

Establishing the motive for a criminal act helps to. understand the criminal#8217;s intention to commit it, but it is Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, not a factor in. determining proof of genocide, according to the UN Convention. What the. Convention demands is proof of the intent itself. Contrary to Kulchytsky#8217;s claim, I believe that the Ukrainian famine of. 1932-1933 does fit the UN definition of genocide. The two main concerns. groups and that proof be given of the perpetrator#8217;s genocidal intent can. Animal Testing Is Necessary, But Should All Testing Animals?. be satisfied with the The Many of Universal Essay available documents, the most revealing of which is. Stalin#8217;s border decree. THE 1932-1933 FAMINE AS GENOCIDE AGAINST UKRAINIANS. the Ukrainian SSR and those in the Northern Caucasus, especially the Kuban. region.

Let us first examine the The Revenger's Tragedy Essay targeted population in the Ukrainian. Stalin complains of a massive flight of peasants from The Many of Universal, Ukraine to the near-by. But Should Of Pharmaceuticals. regions of Russia and Belarus. These people pretend to search for The Many Religions food but. in fact, he claims, are social-revolutionaries and agents of Poland who. agitate in the northern parts of the USSR against the #8220;kolkhoz#8221; system. The. Ritchie's. same thing happened the year before, but the party, state and police. authorities of Ukraine did nothing to stop it. It must not be allowed to. happen this year. Stalin then orders the party, state and police authorities of Ukraine to. prevent peasants from crossing the border between Ukraine and the rest of. the USSR. Corresponding authorities in The Many of Universal Religions Belarus and the adjoining Russian. regions must prevent peasants from Ukraine to enter their territories. Peasants guilty of disobeying the order must be arrested, counter-revolutionary elements segregated for punishment, and the others. returned to on Destruction, their villages. Stalin#8217;s decree concerned all peasants of Ukraine. But since the The Many Benefits of Universal Essay UN. Convention only recognizes national and ethnic groups, the crucial question. is whether they were targeted as peasants or Ukrainians?

We have seen that the #8220;national group#8221; in the UN Convention#8217;s has been. interpreted in the sense of #8220;civic nation#8221; and Animal Testing is Necessary, All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, even a well-defined region. In this regard, all the peasants within the Benefits Religions Essay borders of the Ukrainian SSR, whatever their ethnic origin, were part of the Ukrainian nation. According. to the 1926 census, ethnically Ukrainian peasants made up 88.5 % of the. Republic#8217;s peasant population; the Animal but Should All Testing be Carried ethnic and civic character of Ukrainian. Ethnically, Ukrainian peasants also made up 89.0 % of the Republic#8217;s. ethnically Ukrainian population and 71.8 % of the Republic#8217;s overall. population, and thus constituted the overwhelming portion of the Republic#8217;s.

population. It was this group that Stalin#8217;s border decree singled out for. partial destruction, but did he see his enemies as peasants or Ukrainians? Two months earlier, Kaganovich boasted in Rostov-on-Don that the Party had. definitively settled the question of who would defeat whom in the struggle. between the regime and its opponents. [61] Kaganovich was right regarding. the of Universal Religions peasants: by then their opposition to collectivization was broken, as. The Revenger's Tragedy. was their #8220;sabotage#8221; of The Many Benefits Essay state procurement. Ukrainian peasants as peasants were no more an obstacle to the Party#8217;s. policies or a danger to Essay Snatch, its domination than were the Russian peasants. There. was no more need to exterminate them, than to eliminate the Russian. peasants. However, Ukrainian peasants presented a more formidable threat to. Stalin#8217;s regime as Ukrainians. In 1925, Stalin lectured the Yugoslav comrades on the national question.

He. told them that the peasant question was #8220;the basis, the The Many Religions Essay quintessence of the. national question.#8221; #8220;That explains the fact,#8221; he affirmed, #8220;that the. peasantry constitutes the main army of the national movement, that there is. no powerful national movement without the peasant army.#8221; The social role of the peasantry is inexorably connected with its national. Essay By Knowledge. needs, and because of the peasants#8217; predominance in agrarian societies, the. national question becomes in of Universal Religions Essay essence a peasant question. And to be perfectly. clear, Stalin adds that the national question is #8220;not an agrarian but a. The Revenger's. peasant question, for these are two different things.#8221; [62] Stalin#8217;s separation of the peasant#8217;s economic and social functions is. noteworthy. Stalin criticized the Yugoslavs for underestimating #8220;the. inherent strength of the The Many Benefits Essay national movement,#8221; and warned them that the solar essays lack. of understanding and underestimation of the national question constituted a. Benefits Of Universal Religions. Stalin#8217;s convictions did not change in later years; he continued to be. vigilant lest the solar national movements endanger the integrity of his. multinational empire, and he had no intention of underestimating the. #8220;profoundly popular and profoundly revolutionary character of the national. movement#8221; in Soviet Ukraine, engendered by the Ukrainian national revival in. the 1920s and Benefits Religions, fanned by the Party-approved Ukrainianization. By the World Essay end of. 1932, Ukrainian peasants had been vanquished as peasants; Stalin now. intended to eliminate a part of The Many Benefits Essay them as Ukrainians. By Knowledge. Revealing evidence of Stalin#8217;s concern for the national question is provided. by Stalin#8217;s correspondence with Kaganovich in August 1932. The two agreed. that the Ukrainian party was dragging its feet on grain procurement and that. Petlyurites and agents of The Many Benefits of Universal Essay Pilsudski infiltrated the Bank, and Third Debt party.

Stalin raised the threat that unless proper measures were taken, #8220;we can. lose Ukraine#8221;; Kaganovich agreed, adding: #8220;The theory that we, Ukrainians, have unjustly suffered, fosters a solidarity and a rotten mutual guarantee. not only among the middle level cadres, but also at the top.#8221;[63] Of course, both knew that there was little threat from imaginary. #8220;Petlyurites#8221; or #8220;Pilsudski agents,#8221; who supposedly infiltrated the Party. (this was a directive for the Party on how to interpret these matters), but. there was an eventual threat from the Ukrainian national revival, whose. mainstay was the peasantry. Kremlin#8217;s 14 December 1932 analysis of the. procurement difficulties in Ukraine and the North Caucasus was blamed on. Moscow ordered Party and State authorities in of Universal Religions Essay Ukraine #8220;to pay serious. attention to the proper conduct of Ukrainianization, eliminate its. application in a mechanical way, remove Petlyurite and other. bourgeois-nationalist elements from Party and Soviet organizations.#8221; They were also ordered to #8220;carefully pick and train Ukrainian bolshevik. cadres, secure systematic party leadership and control over the process of. Ukrainianization.#8221;[64] This was a blueprint for ethnocide; it effectively. put an end to Essay Snatch, Ukrainianization in Ukraine, and even more so in the RSFSR. This document was more of a precursor for the genocidal Stalin border. directive than the passport decree. The other region closed by Stalin#8217;s 22 January 1933 directive was the North.

Caucasus Territory, but the main target was its Kuban region. The directive. even begins with the notification about The Many Benefits of Universal Religions peasant exodus from #8220;Kuban and. Ukraine.#8221; What did the two targeted areas Ukraine, a union republic, and. Kuban, a neighboring region of the RSFSR have in common? They were.

important grain-producing regions. That is true, but so was the Central-Black Earth region, which was not. singled out. There was a more important consideration at that time for. Stalin and Kaganovich: the Ukrainianization program was transforming in a. dangerous way the overwhelmingly Ukrainian peasant population of Ukraine. At that time, there were some eight million ethnic Ukrainians living outside. the Ukrainian SSR, mostly in the regions of the RSFSR, contiguous with. Ukraine. The North Caucasus had about three million Ukrainians, and Driving Under the Influence, almost. half of them lived in the Kuban region, where it constituted about two. thirds of the population.

Also significant was the fact that about Benefits Essay one-half million of the Kuban. Ukrainians were not of traditional peasants stock but descendants of. Ukrainian Zaporozhian Kozaks, people with a military history and democratic. traditions. It was in these regions that most of the starvation outside. Ukraine took place. (Kazakhstan is a separate case.) The Ukrainianization of the Ukrainian #8220;colonies#8221; in the RSFSR, and. especially of the Kuban, had already added fuel to what Martin calls the.

Piedmontist principle of border disputes between the Ukrainian SSR and. Moscow. The peasant/Kozak population could prove to be a disruptive force. In its 14 December 1932 decision, Moscow took to task the party and state. authorities of the North Caucasus Territory: #8220;#8230; the flippancy in Animal Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on carrying. out unbolshevik #8216;Ukrainianization#8217; of almost half of the districts of North. Caucasus, which did not come from the cultural interests of the of Universal population, and which was carried out with a complete absence of controls on the part of. regional organs over the Ukrainianization of the schools and the press, gave. the enemies of the Soviet power legal cover for organizing opposition by. kulaks, [former] officers, returning Cossack emigrants, members of the Kuban. Rada [analogous to the Ukrainian Central Rada of 1917-1918], etc.#8221; [65] The prescribed punishment was harsh: #8220;Immediately change the clerical work. of the Soviet and Driving Under, cooperative organs and all the newspapers and journals in. the #8216;Ukrainianized#8217; districts of North Caucasus from the Ukrainian language. to the Russian language, as the more understandable to the Kuban population, and also prepare the transfer of teaching in schools into the Russian. language.#8221; The local authorities were further warned to immediately verify. and improve the composition of school personnel in the #8220;Ukrainianized#8221; The foregoing examination of Stalin#8217;s twin targets should be sufficient to. show that their common characteristic was their national or ethnic identity. The nexus joining the Ukrainian national group in the Ukrainian SSR (whether. taken in its civic or ethnic sense) and the Ukrainian ethnic group in of Universal Religions Kuban. was their Ukrainianness. The Revenger's Tragedy. The requirement of the The Many of Universal UN Convention on Genocide is thus satisfied: Ukrainian peasants in Essay on Guy Snatch Ukraine and in the RSFSR were being destroyed in their. capacity as Ukrainians; their agrarian role was secondary.

Peasants were the. most numerous part of the Ukrainian national/ethnic group, consisting also. of intellectuals, state and party functionaries, and workers; and it was. this group that Stalin#8217;s regime decided, in the language of the UN. Of Universal Essay. Convention, #8220;to destroy in part.#8221; The non-peasant Ukrainians did not die from Essay Ritchie's, starvation, but they were. definitely victims of the same genocidal intent. The intent was not to. destroy the whole Ukrainian nation (nor is total destruction of The Many of Universal Religions Essay a specified. group a condition for the recognition of Tragedy genocide by the UN Convention). most dynamic element of the Ukrainian national group so as to The Many Benefits of Universal Essay, cripple the. Ukrainian nation and reduce Ukrainians to what Stalin liked to call #8220;cogs#8221; in the great state mechanism.

Stalin#8217;s genocidal intent should be sufficiently clear from the various. documents originated by him or signed by others on his orders or in. anticipation of such. Schabas insists that the #8220;genocidaire#8221; must have. knowledge of the consequences of his act. [67] Stalin was privy to all the important documentation of the Tragedy Soviet state, cognizant of, and personally responsible for, all the Benefits policies, which. resulted in the death of millions of innocent people. The regime#8217;s public. denial of the famine and its rejection of foreign aid cannot be interpreted. in any other way than as a flaunting admission of its intent to starve the. population to death. The most heinous crime of Stalin and his Communist regime is now quite. conceptualization. This question of the Ukrainian genocide is a case in. Solar Energy. point. We need a breakdown by nationality of the Religions Essay population that died from. the famine in the RSFSR to see how many of the victims were ethnic. There is no systematic study to shows the forms and the degree of. discriminatory practices of the Stalinist regime in its policies towards. different localities and Animal is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, nationalities in the ethnically mixed regions with. regards to the procurement quotas, the implementation of Moscow orders. The national composition of of Universal Religions command structure and the cadres that carried. out food confiscation and distribution must also be examined in a more. systematic way. There was some internal aid to some of the hungry. population, but the economic and other reasons behind the regime#8217;s help. While the very existence of the famine was vehemently denied and foreign. efforts to organize famine relief were rejected, some foreign aid did get. through to the German and Jewish communities, but this aspect of the Soviet. policies is generally ignored in the literature on the famine, possibly. because it has not been sufficiently explored and documented. This. Ritchie's. additional research will give us a more complete knowledge and a better. understanding of the Ukrainian famine and help establish its genocidal.

NOTE: Roman Serbyn is Benefits Religions, Professor-Emeritus of History at University of. Quebec and the author of numerous articles on The Revenger's Tragedy Ukrainian history and. nationalities problems in The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Ukraine in the 19th and 20th centuries. He is. also the editor or co-editor of Bank, Crisis a number of books, inclusing #8220;Federalisme. [2] Ukrainian Weekly, 16 November 2003. [3] Kuchynsky at the UN discussion of Holocaust Day, 1 November 2005. [5] Stanislav V. Benefits Religions. Kulchytsky, #8220;Holod 1932-1933 rr. v Ukrayini yak henotsyd#8221; (Kyiv, 2005), pp. The Revenger's Tragedy Essay. 3, 21. [6] This is the #8220;Den#8221; version (24 November 2005). In the book version (p. 85), #8220;not Ukrainians#8221; was dropped. [7] ICCEES VII World Congress Abstracts, #8220;Europe Our Common Home?#8221; (Berlin, 25-30 July 2005), pp.

247-248. Benefits Essay. The importance of the intent as. defined by the convention is shown in and Third World Michael Ellman, #8220;The Role of. Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931-1934,#8221; #8220;Europa-Asia Studies,#8221; vol. 57, no. The Many Of Universal Religions. 6 (September 2005), pp. 823-841. Essay On Guy. (Emphasis added by author.) [9] Raphael Lemkin, #8220;Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation Analysis of Government Proposals for of Universal Religions Redress#8221; (Washington, D.C.: [10] #8220;Les actes constituant un danger general (interetatique) consideres. comme delites du droit des gens,#8221; #8220;Librarie de la cour d#8217;appel et de l#8217;order. des advocates#8221; (Paris, 1933). [12] Emphasis added by is Necessary, but Should Animals? author. [13] William A. Schabas, #8220;Genocide in The Many International Law. Essays. The Crime of. Crimes#8221; (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), Chapter 3. [16] Leo Kuper, #8220;Genocide. Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century#8221; (Penguin, 1981), p. The Many Benefits Religions. 35. [17] On circumstantial evidence, see Ellman, pp.

829-830. [18] Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn, #8220;The History and Sociology of. [19] Schabas, p. 245. [20] Most active in the field have been Ukrainian historians: Stanislav. Kulchytsky, Yuri Shapoval, Valeriy Vasilev, Volodymyr Serhiychuk and World Bank, and Third Crisis, a few. others. See also #8220;Holod 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukraini: prychyny ta naslidky#8221; (Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 2003). [21] V. P. Danilov and I. E. The Many. Zelenin, #8220;Orhanizovannyi golod: k 70-letiiu. obshchkrestianskoi trahedii,#8221; #8220;Otechestvennaya istoriya,#8221; no. 5 (2004). [22] Among the most recent publications: Vernichtung durch Hunger: #8220;Der. Holodomor in der Ukraine und der UdSSR.#8221; (A special issue of Osteuropa). December 2004; #8220;La morte della terra: La grande #8220;carestia#8221; in Ucraina nel.

1932-1933. Atti del Convegno Vicenza, 16-188 ottobre 2003#8243; (Roma : Viella, 2004); Robert Conquest, #8220;Raccolto di dolore#8221; (Italian edition of Harvest of. Sorrow) (Roma : Liberal edizioni, 2004). [23] Ellman, p. 835. [24] Danilov and Zelenin, p. 107. [25] #8220;Dyskusiyi i obsuzhdeniya. Kollektivizatsiya: uroki, sushchnost, posledsviya,#8221; #8220;Istoriya SSSR,#8221; no. 3 (1989), p. 46. The telegram is wrongly. Driving Under The Influence Essay. dated here as 23 January instead of of 22 January. [26] E. H. Oskolkov, #8220;Golod 1932/1933,#8221; in #8220;Khlebozagotovki i golod. 1932-1933 goda v Severno-Kavkazkom krae (Rostov-na-Donu, 1991),#8221; [27] #8220;Kollektivizatsiia: istoky, sushchnosst, posledstviia.

Beseda za. [28] #8220;Dyrektyvnyi lyst TsK KP(b0U ta Radnarkomu USRR vsim obkomam. ochyma istorykiv, movoiu dokumentiv#8221; (Kyiv, 1990), pp. 341-342. [29] #8220;Holodomor 1932-1933 rr. v Ukraini: prychyny i naslidky. Mizhnarodna. naukova konferentsiia.#8221; Kyiv, 9-10 veresnia 1993. Materialy. (Kyiv, 1995), [31] #8220;O golode 1932-1933 godov i eho otsenka na Ukraine,#8221; #8220;Otechestvennaya. istoriya,#8221; no. 6. (1994), pp. 256-262. (Signed: I. E. Zelenin, N. A. Ivnitskiy, V. V. Kondrashin, E. The Many Religions. N. Oskolkov.) [32] N. A. Ivnitskiy, #8220;Kollektivizatsiia i raskulachyvanie (nachala 30-kh. godov)#8221; (Moskva, 1994), p. 204. (Reedited in 1996.)

[33] Nicolas Werth, #8220;Un Etat contre son peuple. Violence, repression, terreurs en Union sovietique,#8221; in Stephane Courtois et al. (eds.), Le livre. noir du communisme. #8220;Crimes, terreur, repression#8221; (Paris: 1997), p. 183. For. Essay Snatch. convenience, all references here are to the English edition: #8220;The Black Book. of The Many Benefits Religions Essay Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression#8221; (Cambridge, Massachusetts: [36] #8220;Le pouvoir sovietique et la paysannerie dans les rapports de la police. politique (1930-1934),#8221; #8220;Bulletin de l#8217;IHTP,#8221; nos. 81-82 (December 2003). [37] Nikolia Vert, #8220;Gosudarstvo protiv svoego naroda. Nasilie, repressii i. terror v Sovetskom Soiuze,#8221; in Stefan Kurtua et al., #8220;Chernaia kniga. komunizma. Prestupleniia terror i repressi.#8221; (Moskva: Tri Veka Istoriyi, [38] Courtois, #8220;Introduction.

The Crimes of Communism#8221; in #8220;The Black. [39] Terry Martin, #8220;The Affirmative Action Empire. Essay. Nations and The Many Benefits, Nationalism. in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939#8243; (Ithaca and London, 2001). See Chapter 7: #8220;The National Interpretation of the 1933 Famine#8221;; the translation is on pp. [40] Terry Martin, #8220;The 1932-1933 Ukrainian Terror: New Documentation on. Surveillance and the Thought Process of Stalin,#8221; in #8220;Famine-Genocide in. Ukraine 1932-1933#8243; (Toronto, 2003), p. 98.

The Ukrainian version, Teri. Martyn, #8220;Pro kozhnoho z nas dumaye Stalin #8230; ,#8221; #8220;Krytyka#8221; (December. Essay On Guy. [41] D#8217;Ann Penner, #8220;The Agrarian Strike of The Many of Universal Religions Essay 1932-1933#8221; (Kennan Institute for. World And Third Debt Crisis Essay. Advanced Russian Studies, Occasional Papers #269) (March 1998), p. 23. [44] M. P. Kots (ed.), #8220;Holod-henotsyd 1933 roku v Ukrayini: istoryko-politychnyi analiz sotsialno-demohrafichnyky ta. moralno-psykholohichnykh naslidkiv. Mizhnarodna naukovo-teoretychna. konferentsiya.

Kyiv, 28 lystopada 1998#8243; (Kyiv, 2000) ; see Ivnitskiy, p. 113; Serhiychuk, p. 125; Lukyanenko, pp. 240-247; Zdioruk, pp. 248-252. [45] #8220;Holodomory v Ukrayini 1921-1923, 1932-1933, 1946-1947: Zlochyny. Benefits Religions Essay. [46] Valeriy Vasilev, #8220;Tsina holodnoho khliba: polityka kerivnytstva SRSR i. USRR v 1932-1933 rr.,#8221; in solar #8220;Komandyry velykoho holodu: Poyizdky V. [47] #8220;Tragediya sovetskoi derevni. Collectivizatsia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i material,#8221; vol. 3 (Moskva: ROSSPEN, 2001), pp. The Many Benefits. 634-635. [48] #8220;Stalin i Kaganovich Perepiska. 1931-1936#8221; (Moskva: ROSSPEN, 2001). By Knowledge. [49] #8220;Ukrayina. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions. Parlametski slukhannya shchodo vshanuvannya pamyati zhertv. holodomoru 1932-1933 rokiv. 12 lyutoho 2003 roku#8221; (Kyiv, 2003); see.

Tabachnyk, pp. 12-24; Kulchytsky, pp. 68-70. [50] Rudolf Ia. Myrsky, #8220;Holodomor i Kholokost v Ukrayini yak. [51] Yuri Shapoval, #8220;Holod 1932-1933 rokiv: Kreml i politychne kerivnytstvo. USRR,#8221; in #8220;Try holodomory v Ukrayini v XXst.: pohlyad iz sohodennya. Materialy mizhnarodnoyi naukovoyi konferentsiyi#8221; (Kyiv, 2003), pp. World Bank, And Third World Crisis. 43-45, [52] #8220;Polityka totalnoho vyluchennya khliba v ukrayinskomu seli: henotsyd. proty selyan,#8221; in II NANU.

Holod 1932-1933 rokiv v Ukrayini: prychyny ta. naslidky (Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 2003), p. 440. [53] Ibid., pp. 551, 632-633. [54] Shapoval (ed.), #8220;The Famine-Genocide of 1932-1933 in Ukraine.#8221; [55] Ibid., pp. 282-283. [56] #8220;Chomu Stalin nas nyshchyv,#8221; #8220;Den#8221; (25 October, 8 November and 22. November 2005) ; rendered into English as #8220;Why Did Stalin Exterminate. [57] Stanislav V. Kulchytsky, #8220;Holod 1932-1933 rr. v Ukrayini yak henotsyd#8221; (Kyiv: II NANU, 2005). The book#8217;s relation to the Den articles is not. mentioned, nor is the reader informed that changes (some of them quite. important) had been made in the book version. [58] Conquest, #8220;Harvest of Sorrow. Soviet Collectivization and the Terror.

Famine#8221; (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). [59] Egbert Jahn, #8220;On the Phenomonology of Mass Extermination in Europe. Europe: Old Lands, New Worlds#8221; (Bonn, 2005), p. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay. 212. [60] Martin, #8220;The Affirmative Action Empire,#8221; pp. 300-301. [61] #8220;Komandyry velykoho holodu,#8221; p. 49. [62] J. V. Stalin, #8220;Concerning the National Question in Essay on Destruction Yugoslavia,#8221; in. #8220;Works,#8221; vol. 7 (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954), [63] #8220;Stalin i Kaganovich Perepiska#8221;; see Stalin, p. The Many. 274; Kaganovich, p. [64] #8220;Tragedia Sovetskoi Derevni,: T. 3., p. Tragedy Essay. 577. [65] #8220;Tragediya sovetskoi derevni,#8221; pp. 576-577. [67] Schabas, p. 207. Taras Hunczak, Editor, Ukrainian Quarterly. A Journal of Ukrainian International Affairs Since 1944. Ukrainian Congress Committee of America (UCCA) New York, New York, September 2006.

NEW YORK The new Summer 2006 issue of The Ukrainian Quarterly. is now available. The English-language scholarly journal includes such. interesting articles as: [1] OUN-Between Collaboration and Confrontation with Nazi Germany; [2] The Political Prisoner#8217;s Dilemma: Evidence from the Great Terror in. the Soviet Union; [3] The Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 as Genocide in the Light of the. UN Convention of 1948; and, [4] The Emergence of State Polity and Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, National Aspirations in Ukraine Two Coins or Two Sides of The IMF, World Bank, World Crisis One Coin? The Ukrainian Quarterly is the only English language journal which, for. over Benefits of Universal Religions Essay five decades, has followed events in one of Europe#8217;s largest. Crisis. Your subscription will allow you to read timely and insightful articles. by distinguished writers. Religions Essay. Follow events in Ukraine as they unfold. Explore the complex history of Ukraine! To purchase a copy of this The Ukrainian Quarterly, please send check. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge. or money order in the amount of $8USD to: The Ukrainian Quarterly,

203 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10003. E-mail: uq@ucca.org. Subscription: Yearly $30.00; Single Copy $8.00. Tel: 212.228.4840; Fax 212 254 4721. [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] 3. Of Universal Essay. WAS THE 1933 HOLODOMOR AN ACT OF GENOCIDE? By Stanislav Kulchytsky, Deputy Director, Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

The Day Weekly Digest in English, in three parts, #29, #30, #31. Kyiv, Ukraine, Tuesday, Part I, September 26, 2006; Part II, Tuesday, October 3, 2006; Part III, Tuesday, October 10, 2006. Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. On Nov.

10, 2003, the energy 58th UN General Assembly Session officially adopted. the Joint Statement on the Holodomor-the Great Famine of 1932-1933 in. Ukraine. Due to the Russian Federation#8217;s inflexible stand, the level of the. document was lowered from a UN resolution to a joint statement, and the term. #8220;genocide#8221; was excluded from the title. In view of Religions Essay Russia#8217;s position, the US House of Representatives and the Senate. Essay By Knowledge. also left out this key term from their statements on the 70th anniversary of. the Holodomor in Ukraine. However, in a joint bill passed in February 2005, both houses of the US.

Congress allowed the Ukrainian community to erect a memorial in the District. of Columbia #8220;in order to The Many Religions, honor the victims of the famine-genocide.#8221; In this document the US Congress emphasizes that in 1998 it set up a. commission to investigate the The Revenger's Essay 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine and after. Benefits Essay. analyzing its report, acknowledged that Stalin and his circle had employed. genocide as a weapon against Ukraine. Under The Influence Essay. The Nov. 4, 2005, Ukase of the President of Ukraine #8220;On Commemorating the. Victims and Those Who Suffered from the Holodomors in Ukraine,#8221; established. an organizing committee headed by the prime minister of Ukraine, whose task. is to implement a number of measures commemorating the 75th anniversary of. the Holodomor of Essay 1932-1933. As President Yushchenko declared, the committee#8217;s main task is to #8220;implement. additional measures pertaining to the international community#8217;s recognition. of the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine as an act of genocide against the. Why is qualifying the on Destruction by knowledge Holodomor of 1933 as an act of genocide so important?

What kind of Benefits Religions hidden obstacles are we finding on the way to recognizing this. tragedy as a genocide? Why do so many people both in our country and abroad refuse to believe that. the Soviet government in Stalin#8217;s time was capable of destroying people? Do. historians have facts at Essay on Guy, their disposal that can prove that the Benefits of Universal Essay 1933. Holodomor was an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people? In October and November of 2005, The Day carried a series of six of Essay my. articles entitled #8220;Why did Stalin exterminate the Ukrainians?#8221; Without. repeating myself, I am seeking an Benefits of Universal, answer to these questions in a new series. Solar Energy Essays. The Holodomor of 1932-1933 left unhealed wounds on The Many Benefits of Universal Essay the body of the. Ukrainian nation. Energy Essays. If one imagines the total number of the population as a. diagram based on birth years, the result would be an age-based pyramid, with. children born in the first years at the bottom and long-lived people at the. Dents in this pyramid are caused by unnatural population losses. The dent. made by the Holodomor is the deepest and in of Universal Religions Essay an increasingly smoother. appearance is repeated in every succeeding generation. Today no grandsons. and great-grandsons of those whose lives were cut short in the early 1930s.

The current generation of Ukrainian citizens remembers its grandfathers and. great-grandfathers who perished during the famine. But for The Revenger's Tragedy many the cause of. those deaths by starvation in 1932-1933 has not been determined. Some people. try to learn why. Others have no memories and there are a lot of people. The 70th anniversary of the Holodomor has become an The Many Essay, event of world. significance. On Nov. 10, 2003, the UN General Assembly issued a joint. statement by 36 countries expressing sympathy with the Ukrainian people. On Oct. 22, the U.S.

House of Representatives adopted House Resolution 356. #8220;Expressing the sense of the World World Crisis House of The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Representatives regarding the man-made. famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932-1933#8243; in which the nature of the. tragedy was clearly defined: #8220;#8230;this man-made famine was designed and. implemented by the Soviet regime as a deliberate act of terror and mass. Essay By Knowledge. murder against the Ukrainian people#8230;#8221; Yet neither the joint statement of 36 countries nor the The Many Benefits Religions US Congress. resolution contained the key point: recognition of the energy essays 1932-1933 famine as. an act of genocide. Genocide is a category of international law. The UN Convention on the. Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, signed on Dec. 9, 1948, reads that the international community undertakes to bring to justice. persons committing genocide #8220;whether they are constitutionally responsible. rulers, public officials or private individuals.#8221; Former Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic was prosecuted on the basis of The Many of Universal Religions Essay this. convention. We do not have to bring to Animal is Necessary, of Pharmaceuticals Out on Animals?, justice those who were responsible. for the genocidal famine because they are all dead. The important thing is. to know why.

Our society and the rest of the of Universal Religions Essay world must know what really. happened in those years. Essays. With this in mind, the president of Ukraine signed an edict on Nov. 4, 2005, establishing the Organizing Committee for the Preparation and Implementation. of Measures in Conjunction with the 75th Anniversary of the Holodomor. The. committee must organize its activities so that the UN will recognize the. Holodomor as an act of genocide in 2008. The Many Benefits Essay. Do we stand a chance of getting the international community to do this? The task of this article is to assess the actual situation. Ritchie's Snatch. We have about. two years to convince the international (and Ukrainian) community.

the international community i.e., parliaments in The Many of Universal Religions Essay other countries. The. Essay On Destruction. final verdict is returned by the United Nations. Qualifying a crime as an. act of genocide is of Universal Religions Essay, a serious matter, and the international community. approaches it with a sense of special responsibility. The recognition of the Driving Essay 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine as an act of genocide. cannot entail any concrete actions on the part of the UN Security Council. An entire lifetime separates us from that tragedy, but this circumstance is. of little help in the successful resolution of this problem. History is firmly connected to politics and is thus often politicized. Nor. is the famine issue an exception.

It has to be depoliticized, made. absolutely clear, and convincingly substantiated. In the of Universal Religions Essay first place, it must be explained to the international community why. the nation against whom that weapon of genocidal famine was employed has not. demonstrated any clear-cut and unanimous desire to regard this crime as an. act aimed at terminating its existence in an organizational, i.e., state, It must also be explained why several convocations of parliament formed by. that nation during the course of free elections failed to examine the. question of the famine-genocide. Energy Essays. Is it because the dent from this genocide. touched not only the Benefits of Universal Essay physical body of the Ukrainian people but also its. We are a postgenocidal society, said the World and Third Crisis Essay late Prof. James Mace, former staff. director of the U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine (1932-1933). A. postgenocidal society is not cognizant of the violence that was carried out.

against it. Complicating this issue is the fact that the Benefits of Universal Religions victim of this. violence is a generation that no longer exists. Ukrainian scholars and those engaged in regional historical studies have. succeeded in conveying to their people the outward image of the by knowledge Holodomor. This has been done in breathtaking detail. However, they may not have been as convincing in revealing the logic of. events that were unfolding in Benefits of Universal Religions Essay the countryside from the beginning of the. all-out collectivization of agriculture. Collectivization itself probably ought to be viewed on a broader scale, as. an element in the creation of the Bolshevik socioeconomic system that ran. counter to the interests of the Bank, World Crisis overwhelming majority of the population; in. other words, it was inherently artificial and could emerge only within the. force field of The Many Religions Essay a terrorist dictatorship.

The final task is crucial in The Revenger's determining the genocidal nature of famines in. Ukraine and the Kuban region. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay. It is necessary to Under Essay, prove why the Kremlin found. the regions most densely populated by Ukrainians especially dangerous, so. that it employed famine as the most severe form of terror against them. Without a doubt, the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions famine of 1932-1933 swept over Essay most Soviet regions. Researchers also agree that the degree of famine in two Ukrainian regions. was the of Universal Essay highest (with the exception of Kazakhstan, but more on this later). Debt. In order to recognize the The Many Essay famines there as an act of genocide, it is. necessary to explain how they differed from the others.

This article does not claim to solve the problem of the famine-genocide. It. simply raises questions relating to the recognition of the 1932-1933 famine. in Animal is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? Ukraine as an act of genocide. It should be noted that foreign. researchers have accomplished more to this end than we have. One of the main problems is to heal the Ukrainian people#8217;s historical. awareness. The need has been realized on the governmental level. A Ukrainian.

Institute of National Memory is in the process of being organized and is. meant to Benefits of Universal Essay, coordinate the The Revenger's Tragedy efforts of Benefits Religions Essay numerous organizations in Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should Out on Animals? reviving. 2. RETHINKING THE HISTORY OF THE SOVIET PERIOD #8212; Two de-Stalinization campaigns took place in the Soviet Union. Benefits Of Universal. The one. launched by Khrushchev became known as the struggle against the cult of. personality; the one by Gorbachev, as democratization. Essay Ritchie's. Both campaigns had. a concrete objective: to The Many Essay, rehabilitate the victims of Stalin#8217;s arbitrary. rule, primarily communist functionaries and Soviet public figures. Along the way, society gradually began to see the general picture of terror. with the aid of which the Bolsheviks constructed an order during 1918-1938, which became known as the Soviet system. A colossal number of documents on the mass repressions, which began. circulating among the Driving the Influence Essay general public, convinced many in the Soviet Union. that there were no blank spots left in their history. That was an illusion. The Short Course on Benefits of Universal the History of the AUCP(b), which in 1938 summed up. the gains of the communist revolution, was withdrawn from circulation after. Solar Energy. Stalin#8217;s death, but the postulates remained in the minds of those who. studied and taught history.

In the countries that emerged in place of the USSR, a revision of Soviet. history continued, but at different rates and even along different vectors. Russian historians, for example, have mostly emphasized positive aspects, like the transformation of a backward country into a superpower. Ukrainian historians have basically divided into two camps. Some see nothing. positive in the past; others see almost nothing negative. Official policy in. the field of history (which was particularly manifested in the content of. textbooks recommended by state agencies) has been strongly influenced by. the of Universal Essay anticommunist North American Diaspora. The anticommunism of the Diaspora and Under the Influence Essay, the former Soviet Communist Party. nomenklatura that did not lose power in independent Ukraine sprang from. different causes, which I will examine further on. At this point it should. be noted that anticommunism only impeded the comprehension of the history. of communist construction.

Comparatively few researchers, who try to The Many Benefits Essay, approach the past without using. communist or anticommunist criteria, are working quite successfully on. revising the conceptual principles of the history of the Soviet order. Their. studies are facilitated by the absence of pressure from authorities and the. presence of open archives. The year 1933 cannot be described as a blank spot because everybody knew. about the famine. Tragedy. In the late 1980s, when information about the The Many Benefits of Universal Essay crimes of. Stalinism began pouring out, it was received by society in a variety of. In the minds of many people a positive attitude to Soviet power, ingrained. since childhood, could not coalesce with claims that this government had. Essay Ritchie's Snatch. carried out terror by starvation, i.e., conscious actions specially designed. to Benefits of Universal Religions, physically destroy the population by starving it to death. It is considerably easier to present historical facts in a consecutive order. than to trace the effects of some or other events on a person#8217;s. consciousness. A historian has few sources at his disposal with which to. study individual and collective consciousness. The history of Soviet Ukraine has been studied well in The Revenger's Tragedy terms of events, including the Holodomor, but we know little about how people#8217;s awareness. changed during that revolutionary epoch, how adequately people responded. to terror and propaganda, which were used to herd them toward a #8220;bright. Along with terror and propaganda, the Soviet government intensively used. another factor of influence on the population, namely, the Benefits Religions Essay education of the.

Recently, on the pages of The Day I wrote a commentary on the occasion of. the 50th anniversary of the 20th Congress of the CPSU, but I did not. emphasize an idea that is by knowledge, very important in the context of the The Many Benefits Religions present. article: that congress served to reconcile people who were products of. Soviet schools with the government. At the time, in on Guy Ritchie's the first postwar decades, almost all Soviet citizens were. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay. graduates of Essay on Destruction by knowledge Soviet schools (except in the territories that were annexed to. the USSR in 1939). The Many Benefits. It was now possible to The Revenger's Tragedy, attribute to Stalin the crimes. committed by Benefits the Bolshevik regime, which had used terror and propaganda to. build the Soviet socioeconomic system in the years preceding World War Two. We (I mean my generation) can assess the World Bank, and Third Crisis effectiveness of communist. upbringing by analyzing our own awareness in this period. Of Universal. When I was still a university student (1954-1959) I obtained access, as a. Driving Under Essay. professional archivist, to uncensored information: Ukrainian newspapers of. the occupation period, the first articles on the 1932-1933 famine that were. appearing in the journals of the Ukrainian Diaspora, etc. But that. information was rejected by my consciousness and had no effect on my. ingrained world views. Terror can impose a way of life but not a world view. A world view is the. result of upbringing and propaganda, which must necessarily rely on an. understandable and a positive symbol of The Many of Universal Religions Essay faith.

Who can argue that the Essay on Guy communist doctrine in its propagandistic form was. not attractive? You should read the works of The Many Benefits Essay a very sincere poet, Vladimir. Mayakovsky, to realize its strength. After graduating from Odesa University, I made my way to the Institute of. Economy of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, where I became. fascinated with Soviet economic history of the 1920s and 1930s. In those days I was also following the scholarly literature in my field that. was being published in Tragedy Essay the West, and I tried on a regular basis to read the. Of Universal Religions. journal Problems of Communism, which was quite prestigious among. My indirect acquaintance with #8220;Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists#8221; did not. lead to a split in my consciousness. Our world was different from the West. in its most profound dimensions, i.e. it was a different civilization. The Iron Curtain was like the glass walls of an aquarium separating two. different environments. In its own way our world was logical and had values. that were understandable to everyone. It was false through and through, but.

few could detect this precisely because of the totality of that falsity. For me in particular, both the causes of the 1932-1933 famine and the. reasons behind the Soviet government#8217;s refusal to acknowledge the fact of. the famine remained unfathomable. The literature of the Diaspora stated that. Stalin had starved the by knowledge Ukrainian people to death, but it was simply. impossible to believe such a thing.

It is embarrassing to keep referring to myself, but I lack other empirical. material for analyzing the revolution in world perception that has taken. place in our country. Benefits Essay. My own such revolution was accelerated by my research. on the famine of Driving Essay 1932-1933, and it passed through two stages. The first one lasted seven or eight years during which I accumulated. archival material and formed a factual picture of the Holodomor. I was. compelled to believe the #8220;Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists,#8221; who recounted. how Stalin had killed the Ukrainian people by starving them to death. During the second stage, my department conducted a systematic nine-year. study of the nature of Soviet totalitarianism. The famine of The Many Benefits 1932-1933. became part of the general context of events that took place in 1918-1938 in. a Bolshevik-controlled country. It has become possible to answer the question why Stalin tried to destroy. the Ukrainian people by starving them to death. This is precisely what we. need to define the Holodomor as a famine-genocide in solar accordance with the. criteria set forth in the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of. the Crime of Genocide, of Dec. 9, 1948. 3. Benefits Of Universal. PROBABILITY OF GENOCIDE IN COMMUNIST.

History knows cases of genocide that occurred in wartime and in different. ethnic sociums. In my encounters with some overseas researchers of the. Ukrainian Holodomor, I could see that they were unable to accept the. possibility of genocide in peacetime and within one#8217;s own country. World Debt Crisis Essay. I repeat: in order for them to believe in the facts, the nature of the. Holodomor must be analyzed against a broader background, without separating. this phenomenon from the entire process of communist construction of. Marxism had a number of The Many Benefits of Universal principal distinctions from the teachings that were. Testing But Should All Testing Animals?. known in the Soviet Union as MarxismLeninism. Perhaps the most important one was that Marx regarded a communist society. Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay. as a natural product of objective natural-historical development. You will. not find the term #8220;communist construction#8221; in any of his works.

In contrast, Lenin believed that it was not worth waiting for communism to The Revenger's Tragedy, mature. He saw communist construction as the main duty of the proletarian party (his. and only his) after it came to power and after the founding of the. #8220;dictatorship of the proletariat#8221; (once again, the dictatorship of his very. own party). In his opinion, communism could be built within a very short. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay. Maintaining the stereotypes that were instilled in Essay Snatch us during Soviet times, we are still seeking the roots of the Leninist-Stalinist communist. revolution in the revolution that began in Russia in March 1917 (new style). In reality, the revolution in Russia had only two distinct. currents-bourgeois-democratic and Soviet, which were represented in various. proportions in every region of the Benefits multinational empire. The Bolsheviks joined the Soviet current without in energy any way merging with it. and seized power on the shoulders of the soviets, after which they left only. the Religions Essay outer shell of these soviets. None of the The IMF, Bank, and Third World revolutionary personalities of 1917, except the leaders of The Many Benefits Religions the. Bolshevik Party, wanted to Driving Under Essay, do what was done in Russia and Bolshevik- enslaved Ukraine between World War One and World War Two.

At any rate, in 1917 the Bolshevik leaders kept their communist doctrine to. themselves, and for the purpose of seizing power they exploited completely. different political slogans of the revolutionary soviets. After the failure of the first communist assault in 1921, the Bolsheviks put. The Many. communism on the back burner and played up distribution relations in. communism rather than production relations. Simultaneously, from the angle. of propaganda distribution relations were given the following highly. effective formulation: #8220;From each according to his abilities, to each. Essays. according to his needs.#8221; The building of the Soviet order, starting in 1918, was proclaimed as. socialist, not communist. Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay. This terminological contradiction was resolved. very simply: socialism was proclaimed the first phase of Essay on Guy Snatch communism. The Many Of Universal Essay. Even today we call the communist revolution of 1918-1938 the building of. socialism. However, the notion #8220;socialism#8221; should be left to its original. Western European discoverers, who recognized the objective necessity of. Animal But Should Of Pharmaceuticals Out On Animals?. capitalist enterprise and private ownership. The essence of socialist policies in the West was that the capitalists. pledged to share their profits with the strata of the socium that needed. help. This policy appealed to the population, which could elect organs of. rule. That is The Many Benefits, why social democratic parties began coming to power in solar energy essays Europe. (the Bolsheviks too emerged from the ranks of the social democrats).

In time, countries called capitalist in the Soviet Union changed, but we. The Many Benefits Essay. could not spot their new look from behind the Iron Curtain, all the more so. as they never called themselves socialist. This popular term was privatized. first by Lenin and later by Hitler. As a matter of fact, Stalin took a dim view of Hitler#8217;s privatization, so. when the National-Socialist German Workers Party became the governing one, he ordered the Nazis to be called fascists. Even though there is an. essential difference between German Nazism and Italian fascism, we still. adhere to Stalin#8217;s directive announced at the 17 th Congress of the AUCP(b). Western European socialism relied on capitalist entrepreneurship and helped. maintain class peace in society, which is the basis of a democratic order.

It was a dynamic and highly effective socioeconomic system, so long as it. took into account the polarized interests of workers and employers. In contrast, Soviet communist socialism destroyed the free market and. private enterprise, replacing them by the planned distribution of finished. products. The destruction of the Essay on Guy Ritchie's free market as a natural regulator of the. economic process a priori deprived production of effective management. The. nationalized economy came alive under the influence of bureaucratic commands. that arrived from outside and could not assure its effectiveness. Marx and Engels peremptorily declared in their Communist Manifesto: #8220;#8230;the. theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition. of private property#8221; (Works, 2nd ed., vol. 4, p. 422).Western European.

Marxists discarded this postulate as premature and, instead of Essay revolutionary. violence, adopted a policy of The IMF, and Third World Debt reform as a method of struggle for a better. The Many Of Universal. Thanks to World Debt Crisis Essay, this, they were able to transform their countries. In contrast, the Bolsheviks adopted early Marxism and declared the destruction of private. ownership of the means of The Many Religions Essay production. Essay Ritchie's. What came of this? Private property is an historical category, i.e., it has a beginning and an. end. But in our days, just like in Marx#8217;s time, it is too soon to discuss. its demise.

We will have to of Universal, wait another couple of Driving hundred years, perhaps. Of Universal. longer. The slogan of the abolition (not demise) of private property is Animal Testing but Should All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, an. altogether different matter. Its realization does not destroy property itself; it merely changes its. owner. Communist construction in the USSR resulted in the concentration of. all ownership of the means of production in the hands of a small group of. oligarchs, the Politburo of the CC CPSU. Even during the first onslaught of 1918-1920, these oligarchs realized that. tens of millions of peasants would not surrender their lands and Benefits of Universal Essay, other means. of production. And so a new communist onslaught, which began in 1929, relied primarily on terrorist means of influencing the peasantry. Essay On Guy Ritchie's Snatch. Hair-raising tragedies, like the of Universal Holodomor and the Great Terror became. possible precisely because the coercive component was paramount in.

In the hands of the Communist Party/Soviet oligarchs the fusion of political. Driving Essay. dictatorship and economic dictatorship turned society into an atomized, helpless, inert mass. Benefits Of Universal. You can do anything you want with an enslaved population: organize an. artificial famine to ward off spontaneous unrest, and Essay, carry out mass. repressions, even with the help of the purged victims#8217; intimidated. Benefits. Many people refuse to The Revenger's Tragedy Essay, believe that the Soviet power could use terror by. starvation in order to systematically destroy people. They seek other causes. behind the famine of 1932-1933, like drought, excessive grain delivery. quotas, or the Benefits of Universal drop in harvests because of the crisis that took place in. agriculture after villages were totally collectivized. I will say straightaway that all these factors were present (except. drought).

They did cause famines both in grain-producing regions (because. of excessive grain delivery quotas) and grain-consuming ones (because of. inadequate government food supplies). But it is is Necessary, of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on, necessary to distinguish between the famine that raged almost. The Many Benefits Of Universal Essay. everywhere in the Soviet Union, and the Holodomor in Ukraine and the. Kuban region. Animal Testing But Should Be Carried Out On. Unfortunately, the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions tenfold difference in the death toll does. not suffice to convince many of our contemporaries. Why has the problem that this article calls the Essay healing of historical memory. become so topical in our day?

The reason may be that in transformational. processes social and humanitarian problems should not be pushed to the. If society wants to remove the blemishes of its totalitarian past, it should. be interested not only in investments or the exchange rate. Of Universal Essay. You cannot head. toward the future with your head turned to the past. I belong to the older generation, those people who were recently granted the. legal status of #8220;children of the war.#8221; The older members of my generation. Solar Essays. fought in Religions the war, mostly in its victorious phase; some younger ones were. born after the war. We are all united by one characteristic: we are. graduates of Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing Out on Animals? Soviet schools.

Throughout my life I have encountered people from my parents#8217; generation. However, the historical consciousness of the preceding generation became. clear to me not through direct contacts, but only as a result of my. professional activities. There was an almost impenetrable wall between us, and even Khrushchev#8217;s #8220;Thaw#8221; failed to The Many of Universal, dismantle it. Frankness was impeded by the staggering number of is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? informers working for. the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay secret police, popularly known as #8220;the organs.#8221; Hounded by the security. organs, the The Revenger's Essay representatives of this first generation of #8220;Soviet people#8221; did. not share their life experiences with the next generation, their children. Those children the oldest of which are over 80 grew up under a mature. Benefits Religions. What was my parents#8217; generation all about?

Those people survived a civil war. that in and of itself attested to that generation#8217;s mixed attitudes to the. Later, this generation became divided (into unknown proportions) into those. who wanted to build a new life to the accompaniment of the March of the. Enthusiasts#8217; and those who were forcibly driven to join communism. The ranks of the Essay latter were probably increasing because life did not get. any better, while the terror intensified.

Still, there is a litmus test for. determining the The Many of Universal attitude to the Soviet regime of a large proportion of this. generation: the Tragedy war against Nazi Germany. German statistics indicate that between June 1941 and Benefits of Universal Essay, October 1942 a. period of less than a year and a half a total of 5.2 million Red Army. troops surrendered to the Nazis. Such was the result after 16 months of the. People preferred to become POWs rather than defend their Bolshevik-conquered.

Fatherland. To keep this horrible phenomenon away from the public eye, Stalin abolished military dog tags and the registry of names of fallen. soldiers, and introduced a strange column in the statistics, which became. usual practice from the spring of 1942: #8220;Missing in action.#8221; It was only after the Soviet people became convinced that Nazism constituted. a lethal danger that they began to fight the enemy in earnest. Between. November 1942 and November 1944, i.e., during a two- year period, only The Revenger's Essay half. a million Red Army soldiers and commanders were taken prisoner, a figure. that is 10 times smaller than during the first period of the war. Therefore, the generation of victors in World War II built a thick wall. separating it from the next generation and did not hinder schools from. Religions. raising their children in the communist spirit. Solar Energy Essays. When we, their children, grew up, we proceeded to form our contemporaries#8217; consciousness and. that of the next generation in of Universal Religions the spirit of convictions instilled by Soviet. However, the impact of propaganda and upbringing should not be. overestimated. Life experience has always been the key factor in the. formation of historical consciousness and citizens#8217; world views. The. By Knowledge. experience accumulated by the communism-building generation was radically. different from that of subsequent generations, the people who were destined. to Benefits of Universal Essay, live under communism.

Without changing its character in any way, the solar energy Soviet government altered its. attitude to Essay, society. It stopped using mass terror as a method of on Destruction by knowledge state rule. At first, mass terror was used to create an artificial socioeconomic order. and later, to strengthen Stalin#8217;s personal authority. After his death terror. became selective rather than mass-scale.

This was enough to Essay, maintain the. existing political system. It turned out, however, that an artificial system. Solar Energy. becomes unstable without mass terror. In this situation, the new political leadership had to exert tremendous. efforts to of Universal Religions, raise the population#8217;s level of well-being. These were truly. heroic efforts, considering the Soviet Union#8217;s military commitments and. inherent ineffectiveness of the command economy. The current generations have duly assessed those efforts. Despite the. inconveniences of daily life that the decades-long death throes of the. Soviet order inflicted on the people, the older, and mostly middle, generation in Ukraine preserved its generally positive views of life in the. past, all the more so as it is difficult for people over 40 to adjust to a. These objective circumstances explain the moral detachment of a large number. of Ukrainians from the Essay by knowledge horrific tragedies of the interwar period, including. the Holodomor. These people cannot believe that the Soviet government, so. The Many Religions. deeply rooted in the masses, was capable of cold-bloodedly annihilating its. 5. THE ATTITUDE OF THE #8220;PARTY OF POWER#8221; TO. Solar Essays. The Kremlin#8217;s dictatorship in Soviet Ukraine was implemented not so much. by the CPU as by The Many of Universal Religions #8220;union-subordinated agencies#8221; (star ting with the KGB).

However, even these agencies were Ukrainized. The Kremlin-reared. nomenklatura reported directly to the CPU leadership and, at Driving, the same time, was a solid link of the Communist Party/Soviet system. In 1988 the The Many of Universal Essay CPSU lost its status as a state structure, and power passed to. the Supreme Councils. The Union center, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, found itself faced with a challenge from Boris Yeltsin, then Speaker of the. The Ukrainian nomenklatura promptly took advantage of the crisis in Moscow. On July 16, 1990, it adopted the Declaration of Ukrainian State Sovereignty; on Aug. 24, the Act of Essay Independence, and on Benefits Aug. Testing Is Necessary, All Testing Be Carried. 30 it banned the CPSU on. the territory of Ukraine. This metamorphosis of the The Many Religions #8220;party of power#8221; did not strike me as odd. Half a. year before the Essay on Guy Snatch national sovereignty declaration, on Jan.

16, 1990, the. Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. deliberated the Benefits of Universal Essay Holodomor question and the publication of relevant archival. A heated discussion took place during the meeting, which was attended. several experts, including me. Some Politburo members started making. alarming statements (not unjustifiably) that the publication of this. collection of Tragedy Essay documents would be a #8220;knife in the party#8217;s back.#8221; However, key party leadership figures, among them First Secretary of the CC. Volodymyr Ivashko, were keen on giving the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay collection the #8220;green light.#8221; The. resolution of the CC CPU includes this final instruction: #8220;The editorial. offices of newspapers, magazines, television and radio must be provided with. truthful, unbiased, documented coverage of events relating to the Holodomor. In my 2005 series of articles entitled #8220;Why did Stalin exterminate the. Ukrainians?#8221; published in The Day (no. 207, 2005) I mentioned another fact. relating to The Revenger's Tragedy Essay, this strange (at first glance) phenomenon. James Mace recounted how Oles Yanchuk#8217;s documentary Holod-33 (Famine #8217;33), on which he had worked as a consultant, did not receive a single penny from. the central budget, but it was shown on Ukrainian television on the eve of. the Benefits of Universal Religions referendum held on Dec.

1, 1991. Finally, I will mention another fact that is probably the most eloquent one. During an Animal is Necessary, but Should be Carried Out on, international scholarly conference held in Kyiv on Sept. 9, 1993, marking the 60 th anniversary of the Famine, Ukraine#8217;s President Leonid. Kravchuk declared: #8220;I fully agree that this was a planned action, that this. was an act of genocide against one#8217;s own people. However, I would not close the issue here. The Many Of Universal Religions. Yes, they aimed it against their. own people, but they were acting on orders from a different center. Obviously, this is how this horrible page in our history should be treated.#8221; The above facts prove one thing: the leaders of Soviet Ukraine sought to. climb up the rungs of the Kremlin ladder and become genuine state leaders.

After they #8220;flowed#8221; from the party structures into Soviet ones, they banned. the activity of their own party and armed themselves with the state symbols. of the #8220;Ukrainian bourgeois nationalists.#8221; The truth about the Holodomor was used for solar the sole purpose of Benefits Religions revealing the. actual danger of all those fateful decisions if they were made outside the. Solar Energy. republic. This corresponded to the Kyiv leadership#8217;s calculations aimed at. asserting Ukraine#8217;s political independence and, thus, their personal. independence of the Kremlin. I am recounting this without rancor, simply to Benefits Essay, stress the absence of energy real. interest in the problem of the Holodomor among key figures in the #8220;party of. Leonid Kuchma should be given credit for signing his ukase of of Universal Nov. 26, 1998, marking the 65th anniversary of the Holodomor and establishing Holodomor.

Victims Remembrance Day to be marked on the last Saturday of November. On this date measures were supposed to be implemented in order to restore. people#8217;s memories of the most horrifying event in and Third World Debt Essay the history of Ukraine. However, these Remembrance Days serve as the best proof of the indifferent, even scornful, attitude to The Many Essay, this event on the part of regional authorities. In fact, the required measures were formally approved in the Ukrainian. capital only after insistent reminders from activists in the Ukrainian. Quite a few books on the Holodomor have been published in Ukraine. However, I cannot think of a single book that was published with state funds. The. proceedings of the international scholarly conference held in September 1993. were published by the Institute of History at the National Academy of. Sciences of Ukraine. The proceedings of the conference held on Nov.

28, 1998, were published with. funds raised by the Ukrainian American Marian Kots. This philanthropist has. The Influence. been instrumental in the publication of dozens of other books about the. Holodomor. All honor and respect to him! Much can be said about the attempts to create a scholarly-research structure. that would embark on the study of the of Universal Religions Essay genocide of the Tragedy Essay Ukrainian nation. within the framework of the Institute of The Many Benefits Religions Essay History. For example, on Feb. Animal Is Necessary, All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals. 4, 2003, Viktor Yanukovych, the The Many Benefits Religions Essay chairman of the. Organizing Committee to Prepare and Implement Measures in Conjunction with. the 70th Anniversary of the Holodomor in Ukraine, issued a directive stating. that #8220;the scholarly work of the Testing but Should be Carried Animals? Ukrainian Genocide Research Center will be. adequately funded.#8221; Yet to this day the state has not allocated a single. hryvnia for The Many Benefits Religions target-oriented studies in this domain. Essay On Guy. Books published in The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Ukraine, with a print run of 1,000 copies, or even fewer, cannot possibly have an impact on the process of World and Third Debt Essay healing the historical. consciousness of our citizens.

In December 2005 veterans in Kyiv held a meeting during which council. chairman Ivan Krasylnikov took the floor and Benefits Essay, spoke at length about the. Driving Under The Influence Essay. merits of #8220;Joseph Stalin, the greatest figure in the history of the world,#8221; while Yurii Syzenko, the The Many of Universal Essay first secretary of the CPU municipal committee, referred to #8220;the so-called Holodomor.#8221; Oleksandr Omelchenko, the then mayor of Kyiv, was present at the meeting and. declared that he was donating 300,000 hryvnias so that people could receive. complimentary issues of Kievskii vestnik [Russian-language Kyiv Herald] on. whose pages statements made by Krasylnikov, Syzenko, and Driving Essay, others like them. The mayor made it clear that there would be no problem to double the amount. if need be. Thus, government funds are still being used to drum the. postulates from Stalin#8217;s Short Course on the History of the AUCP(b) into. On May 14, 2003, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted a Message to the. Ukrainian People in conjunction with the Holodomor. The document defined the. Holodomor as an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people. The bill. passed with 226 votes in favor.

Without a doubt, President Kuchma and Parliamentary Speaker Volodymyr. Lytvyn had done their best to produce the minimum required majority of. votes, lest the Benefits Religions Essay Verkhovna Rada miss the Animal Testing but Should All Testing Out on 70th anniversary of the Holodomor. During that decade historians and regional historians published mountains of. blood-curdling data. So it would have been strange if the parliamentarians.

6. THE UKRAINIAN DIASPORA AND THE FAMINE GENOCIDE. I will briefly restate what I said in The Day in 2005 with regard to the. role played by the Ukrainian Diaspora in revealing to the world the scope. and fundamental nature of the Holodomor. In 1982-1983 the Diaspora. succeeded in organizing large-scale events commemorating the Holodomor#8217;s. 50th anniversary in a number of countries. Benefits. This was instrumental in the decision of the US Congress to set up what. became known as the Commission on Animal Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on Animals? the Ukraine Famine (1932-1933). The. commission#8217;s activities forced Volodymyr Shcherbytsky to acknowledge in.

December 1987 the fact of the famine in Benefits Ukraine. This, in turn, gave researchers access to archives on the Holodomor. Shcherbytsky#8217;s successors allowed the publication of top-secret KGB archival. documents reflecting the true picture of what actually happened in the. Ukrainian countryside during the Holodomor. This was the systematic nature. of events initiated by the Diaspora. Driving Under Essay. This article analyzes another problem: why is the process of identifying the. Holodomor as a genocidal famine such a difficult one?

An analysis of the reasons preventing people outside Ukraine from. ascertaining this fact should start with the works of journalists and. scholars in the Ukrainian Diaspora, connected to the interpretation of the. Ukrainian immigrants talked about the Holodomor, relying on their own. experiences. They knew that the Soviet regime had placed them in a position. in which they simply had no chance of surviving. In communicating with each. other, they realized that the famine had engulfed the entire Ukrainian. Of Universal. countryside and that the Soviet regime was destroying Ukrainians. The IMF, World Bank, And Third Crisis. After studying their eyewitness accounts, Western scholars, among them the. members of the U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine (1932-1933), arrived. at the conclusion that a genocidal famine had indeed taken place. At the. time, it was not possible to verify the reports of eyewitnesses to The Many, the.

After writing my first booklet entitled 1933: The Tragedy of the Famine, which appeared in May 1989 (also published in the newspaper Literaturna. Ukraina in January and February 1989), I believed that the Ukrainian tragedy. was the result of an economic crisis, and that this crisis stemmed from the. forced collectivization campaign. A more thorough-going familiarization with the Essay by knowledge archives of the CCCP(b)U led. me to a different conclusion, namely that the of Universal Soviet authorities punished. Animal Testing All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Out On. grain producers who had failed to fulfill the state delivery quotas by. levying fines in kind on them; in other words, practically the whole. Ukrainian countryside was made to suffer. Special resolutions were adopted to Essay, levy fines of meat and #8220;other. bread#8221;-potatoes. These documents did not attract attention in the. Essay On Guy. collection that Ivashko allowed to be published. It was only by of Universal Religions Essay cross- checking this data with eyewitness accounts (Mace. brought me a computer page-proof of the unpublished three-volume collection. in 1990) that the horrendous scope of the famine in Ukraine could be. All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Out On Animals?. It turned out The Many Benefits Essay, that the #8220;grain procurement officials#8221; confiscated not only. grain, meat, and potatoes from the peasants, but also all food supplies that. had been collected to last until the Essay on Destruction by knowledge next harvest. Of Universal Religions. This action, in the absence of any possibility to purchase food in the. countryside (peasants were excluded from the World Bank, and Third Essay ration-card system) can only. be regarded as the conscious creation of conditions leading to death by. starvation.

Thus, in my book The Price of the #8220;Great Breakthrough#8221; (published in March 1991) the Holodomor is treated as an act of Benefits of Universal Religions Essay genocide. At the time, however, I did not invest the term #8220;genocide#8221; with legal. On Guy. content, and little did I comprehend the real motives of the government, which was starving peasants to death. Cloaking the confiscation of food in the form of #8220;fines in kind#8221; led me to. the idea that the government was punishing the peasants in such a barbaric. manner for failing to fulfill the official grain delivery quotas. From the heights of our current knowledge of the Holodomor it becomes. obvious that the perpetrators of the act of genocide must have been governed. by a particular reason. The punishment of peasant debtors was selected as. The Many Religions Essay. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the voice of Soviet scholars was hardly. audible, while the voices of the Ukrainian Diaspora#8217;s journalists and. researchers were reverberating mightily all over the world. Animal Testing But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Animals?. What was the. weakness of our collective stands from the standpoint of the legal content. We could recount those criminal actions in detail but were unable to explain. Stalin#8217;s reasoning. At the time we knew about the horrible scope of the. tragedy in Kazakhstan (larger than in Ukraine).

The cause of the Kazakh death toll was clearly apparent: most of the nomads#8217; cattle was confiscated for the meat delivery plan, and they were forced to. work the land. Unaccustomed to agricultural work, they slaughtered the. cattle left to them for food and then started dying of hunger. Naturally, the famine in Kazakhstan was an act of genocide in essence, but. in the categories of criminal law it may be qualified as #8220;manslaughter due. The UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of. Benefits Essay. religious group, as such#8230;#8221; In other words, you always have to prove the. murder of people as a deliberate intention. The genocide of the Armenian people during the First World War was. understandable to Driving Under Essay, everyone: the Armenians were massacred simply because. The Many Benefits. they were Armenian.

The Holocaust of World War II is also understandable. The Nazis massacred the Jews because they were Jews. Germany#8217;s defeat. marked the starting point of criminal prosecutions against the Nazis, including those who were responsible for the Holocaust. The term #8220;Holocaust#8221; proved to be so easily identifiable that journalists in. our Diaspora started using the concept of the #8220;Ukrainian Holocaust#8221; with. regard to Driving, their own national tragedy. They failed to notice that there is a. methodological danger in equating the Holodomor with the Holocaust. The expression #8220;Ukrainian Holocaust#8221; automatically leads one to the. erroneous conclusion that the Kremlin destroyed Ukrainian citizens simply. because they were ethnic Ukrainians. In actuality, the Ukrainian genocide. was not as primitively simple as Hitler#8217;s #8220;final solution#8221; in regard to the.

Identifying the The Many Benefits Essay Holodomor with the Holocaust was transplanted from the. Diaspora by World Bank, and Third World Essay our journalists. This is inadmissible, for The Many Religions Essay two reasons. First, we forget about the true Ukrainian Holocaust, the deaths of 1.6. million Ukrainian Jews at the hands of the Snatch Nazis. Second, we will never convince anyone that the famine of 1932-1933 was an. act of genocide if we keep referring to it as the #8220;Ukrainian Holocaust.#8221; The. international community will never understand why the Kremlin was set on. destroying millions of ethnic Ukrainians precisely in the years 1932-1933. How many millions of Ukrainians starved to death in Ukraine? Unfortunately, our journalists and political figures are still using experts#8217; calculations. borrowed from The Many Benefits of Universal Essay, Diaspora sources in the period when Soviet population. statistics were still secret.

In 1990 we reprinted the dictionary section of the Encyclopedia of Ukraine. published in the West, edited by the celebrated Ukrainian geographer and. demographer Volodymyr Kubijovyc. One entry contains Kubijovyc#8217;s tally of Holodomor death toll statistics. (nearly 2.5 million), and The IMF, World Essay, Dmytro Solovei#8217;s figure from a book published in. Winnipeg in 1954-between four and five million. Another figure (7.5 million) was cited in 1950 by T. Sosnov in a newspaper. published in Neue Ulm (West Germany). Later, Solovei, using the pen name of. Petro Dolyna, contributed his figures to the first joint monograph on Soviet. repressions in Ukraine, published by emigres in The Many Benefits of Universal Toronto in Essay on Destruction 1955. His. estimates were based on The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay a formula of complicated percentages that are. completely unsuitable for demographic analysis. Nevertheless, Vasyl Hryshko used it in his book about the famine in Ukraine. In 1983 an English version was published in Toronto and a Ukrainian one in. Eventually, this data was borrowed by Mykola Zhulynsky, the then deputy.

prime minister of Ukraine and chairman of the Bank, Debt Essay organizing committee of the. international scholarly conference held in Kyiv (September 1993) to. commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Holodomor. Since then, Zhulynsky#8217;s. statistics have often been cited: 7.5 million, including #8220;direct losses#8221; of. 4.8 million people. The Many Benefits Religions Essay. During the parliamentary hearings on honoring Holodomor victims (Feb. 12, 2003), Dmytro Tabachnyk, the then deputy prime minister of Ukraine, noted in. his speech that historians and demographers do not agree on the number of. lives lost during the Holodomor (estimates ranging from three to ten. million), but said that seven million looked liked the most reliable figure. The question is: why do journalists and politicians favor estimates made in. the Diaspora? Is it possible that all these researchers have never looked up. Soviet demographic statistics that have been open for the past 17 years? In March 1990 I flew to Canada from Moscow. The director of the Central.

State Archive of the National Economy of the USSR, Vsevolod Tsaplin, gave. me permission to work in the archive for solar several days. That is how I landed in Toronto with a large digital cargo and Benefits, contacted two. world-renowned demographers with a proposal to write a joint article on. Ukraine#8217;s population losses resulting from the famine of 1932-1933. I contacted Professors Stephen Wheatcroft of the University of Essay Snatch Melbourne and. Alexander Babyonyshev of Harvard University, a former Moscow dissident from. Sakharov#8217;s circle, who signed his works using Bulgakov#8217;s pen name Maksudov. Maksudov#8217;s book entitled Poteri naselenia SSSR (Population Losses in the. USSR) was published in the US in 1988. It is an The Many Benefits, impossible task to tally up the human lives lost in the famines of. 1921-1923 and 1946-1947 because we have no data relating to migrations and. population losses during the world wars.

However, the number of victims of the 1932-1933 famine can be estimated with. a great deal of accuracy, because this number constitutes the difference. between the censuses of 1926 and 1937, allowing for The IMF, and Third World Essay the balance of natural. and mechanical movement. Maksudov helped to figure out some purely demographic problems, and I was. able to include my own estimates in the above-mentioned collection of. archival documents whose publication was specially approved by the Ukrainian. In early 1990, my and Maksudov#8217;s article was published in The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Ukrainskyi. istorychnyi Zhurnal (Ukrainian Historical Journal). My estimates recorded. direct losses of 3,238,000 people, allowing for a margin of error of 3 to. But Should Be Carried. 3.5 million owing to inaccurate data on mechanical population movements. Benefits Essay. Aggregate losses (allowing for solar energy essays the drop in births during the famine years) reached five million. Of Universal Essay. Maksudov refused to take into account official. statistics on Essay on Destruction by knowledge the mechanical increment rate (which I still think is wrong), so his estimates of losses wobbled between 4 and 4.5 million, and after. factoring in the drop in the birth rate, 6 million. The Many Benefits. Using a completely different calculation method, which made it possible to. establish only aggregate losses sustained in 1926-1939, in 1992 Serhii.

Pyrozhkov published his result: 5.8 million lives lost over on Guy Ritchie's Snatch 12 years. I. believe that his figures are closer to my own calculation of the death toll. over The Many Essay two years, compared to Maksudov#8217;s. Stephen Wheatcroft refused to sign our article. I believe that this. Of Pharmaceuticals Be Carried Animals?. conscientious researcher was scared by the excessively high number of. Of Universal. victims, which emerged from the unbiased analysis of sources. By Knowledge. However, in an addendum to the collection of documents entitled Tragediia. sovetskoi derevni (The Tragedy of the Soviet Countryside) published in. The Many Religions Essay. Moscow in 2001, he published his own estimates of Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried direct losses: between 3. and 3.5 million deaths in Ukraine, and between 6 and 7 million in the USSR. So we have death toll statistics. What we do not have is Benefits of Universal Religions, a desire to Essay by knowledge, use. them.

Over the years no one has questioned scholars#8217; estimates. These. estimates were known to Dmytro Tabachnyk, e.g., who said that #8220;historians. and demographers are arguing.#8221; But is it possible to The Many of Universal, use a number that you like, which thus seems to be. reliable? Unbiased findings on the Holodomor, not subjective preferences, must be submitted to the court of world public opinion. My series of articles entitled #8220;Why did Stalin exterminate the Ukrainians?#8221; (Den, no.

207, 2005) includes a subsection on discussions with Russian. scholars, which corresponds thematically with the present question. Indeed, these debates boil down to the assertion (on our part) or negation. (on their part) of the genocidal character of the Famine of 1932-1933. Without repeating what I stated last year, I will dwell on the stand of. political figures who are deforming objective knowledge about the. I will start by characterizing the position of Ukrainian politicians. On the. question of Russia#8217;s responsibility for the Holodomor it was contradictory, but it was always aimed at defending personal powers. For politicians power. probably comes first under all circumstances. In the subsection on the governing party#8217;s attitude to Driving Essay, the Holodomor I. mentioned Leonid Kravchuk#8217;s speech at an international conference that took. place in September 1993. The president of The Many Benefits Essay Ukraine recognized the Holodomor. as an act of genocide perpetrated on instructions from Moscow.

Ivan Drach spoke next. In his speech he declared that the Russian Federation. Animal But Should All Testing Out On Animals?. was asserting itself as the legal successor to the White and Red empires, in. conjunction with which legal and ethical reasons emerge for Ukraine to. present a bill to Russia on account of the Holodomor. The Many Benefits Of Universal. #8220;The time will come,#8221; said the on Guy writer, #8220;when 8 or 12 million eyewitnesses two or three times the number of The Many Benefits of Universal those killed in the war of 1941-1945 will. rise from their graves in every Ukrainian village and demand the abolition. of the Animal Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Out on statute of limitations on their deaths, which is only proper under. I will not comment on the number of victims. Drach derived the right to. submit a bill from the unquestioned fact that Russia truly wanted to be the. legal successor of the USSR. However, this fact, as everyone understands, belongs to the category of objective evaluations of the Russian political. Another fact is objective: the USSR was a totalitarian state whose peoples. were not responsible for the Kremlin#8217;s actions. Drach#8217;s emotional and. selfless (from the political point of view) speech corresponded to the. interests of Kravchuk and the party nomenklatura that he headed, which. The Many Benefits. wanted to move to a safe distance from Driving Under Essay, Russia. The Kremlin reacted rather indulgently to the Ukrainian political leaders#8217; emphasis on their political independence. Its reaction was elicited by the. specific features of its course of collecting the lands that had fallen. away. The Many Of Universal Essay. This course was formulated immediately after the collapse of the USSR.

It consisted in the creation in the post-Soviet countries of an elite social. Is Necessary, But Should Of Pharmaceuticals Be Carried Out On Animals?. stratum connected to the Kremlin with its economic interests at the expense. of Russia#8217;s raw material resources. This stratum was supposed to replace the Communist Party-Soviet. nomenklatura that was linked to the center only by political interests. The. political interest disappeared after Mikhail Gorbachev#8217;s constitutional. reform that #8220;lopped off#8221; the Religions dictatorial functions of the ruling party. The replacement of the Kremlin- supporting social stratum was taking place. almost imperceptibly because private ownership of the means of production, whose rights had been restored, was concentrated mainly in the hands of the. former Communist Party-Soviet nomenklatura. The Kremlin#8217;s influence on this process relied primarily on the penetration.

of Russian capital into the economy of the former Union republics and second. of all, on maintaining their dependence on Essay Russia-in the case of Ukraine, through energy supplies. Thanks to Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, the difference in domestic Russian and world oil and gas prices, a. small but influential group of oligarchic businessmen emerged in Russia and. Ukraine. Business and politics are close connected in Ukraine. Now the Driving Ukrainian elite has stopped spurning Russia, once again in order not. to forfeit its power. On Feb. 23, 2003, an informal meeting of four. presidents Vladimir Putin, Leonid Kuchma, Nursultan Nazarbaev, and. Aleksandr Lukashenko took place in Moscow. The presidents signed a statement with the long heading #8220;On the New Stage of. Of Universal Religions Essay. Economic Integration and the Beginning of Essay Ritchie's Talks on Forming a Single Economic.

Space and The Many of Universal Religions Essay, Creation of a Single Regulatory Intergovernmental Commission on. Trade and Tariffs.#8221; Thus, the new concept of a #8220;Single Economic Space#8221; (SES) was introduced into daily life. The concept and draft of the SES agreement had been developed already in. August 2003. A number of Essay Ukrainian ministries showed a markedly critical. The Many Benefits. attitude, but at the Yalta meeting in September 2003 the Agreement on the. Creation of the SES was signed. On April 20, 2004, Ukraine#8217;s Verkhovna Rada passed the Law on the. Ratification of the Agreement on the Formation of the SES by a roll-call. Driving Essay. There is no doubt that the results of the voting and before that, the. positions of President Leonid Kuchma and Prime Minister Volodymyr. Yanukovych of Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Ukraine were the consequence of heavy pressure from. the Russian Federation. On the eve of the presidential elections the. candidates needed support from the Kremlin, but for this support they. had to make certain commitments in return.

Readers may think that the Under the Influence Essay previous paragraphs are a digression from the. Of Universal Essay. present topic. In reality, they form the energy background against which subsequent. debates on the character of the Ukrainian Holodomor unfolded. In 1991 the Communist Party-Soviet nomenklatura connected independent. Ukraine with the Ukrainian National Republic, which was crushed by the. Kremlin. This allowed historians to of Universal, freely assess documentary sources and. more effectively rid themselves of sham communist stereotypes. However, this also created difficulties for Ukrainian and Russian historians. in reaching an understanding of certain acute problems, one of which is the.

Holodomor of 1932-1933. On Guy. Ukrainian and Russian historiographies are drifting increasingly farther. apart in assessing the recent past. In Ukraine, a thorough revision of the. Soviet concept of of Universal #8220;socialist construction#8221; is underway. In Russia, however, this revision is superficial and selective. Developed in. the 1938 edition of the Short Course on the History of the AUCP(b), the. concept of socialist construction is still prevalent in Essay on Guy our neighbor#8217;s. In his introduction to the Russian edition of Le Livre noir du communisme:

Crimes, terreur, repression, the The Many Benefits Essay famous joint study by mostly French. scholars, Aleksandr Yakovlev wrote bitterly in September 1999: #8220;Our students. and The Revenger's Essay, schoolchildren continue to study using the same (content- wise) textbooks as before.#8221; Lest this statement by the chief architect of Gorbachev#8217;s perestroika seem. grossly exaggerated, it would be useful to bolster it with the conclusions. of an historiographic analysis carried by Voprosy istorii (Questions of. History), the leading historical journal of the Russian Academy of The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Sciences. In 2006 the journal published I. Chemodanov#8217;s article under the paradoxical. heading, #8220;Was There an Alternative in the USSR to Forced Collectivization?#8221; The author states that there are two approaches to this question, including. this one: the implementation of by knowledge mass collectivization was on the whole. Further on he writes: #8220;When the question arises of the price that the. peasantry paid, the advocates of all-out collectivization only spread their. hands: you can#8217;t make an omelet without breaking eggs, and every victory has. to be paid for.#8221; That#8217;s not all.

Summing up a survey of literature, Chemodanov arrives at the following. Benefits Religions Essay. conclusion: in the mid-1920s there was a possibility of relatively dynamic. industrial development through a linkage with NEP-based agriculture, but by. the end of this decade there was no longer such a possibility: the. development of market relations in agriculture turned out to be incompatible. with the reinforcement of the planned principles of industry. Hence his final conclusion: #8220;There was only one way out of that situation: mass forced collectivization.#8221; In thrall to Soviet stereotypes, this author did not even bother to consider. that the reinforcement of the planned foundations of industry was the result. of the Under the Influence voluntaristic decision of Stalin#8217;s team to resume the course of. communist construction that was begun in The Many 1918. I think that we will continue to encounter difficulties in finding a common. language with many Russian scholars with regard to the Famine-Genocide of. 1932-1933, if they continue to suggest that we spread our hands helplessly. and forget about the millions of victims: #8220;You can#8217;t make an omelet without. The position of the journal Voprosy istorii would have been more. understandable some 20 years ago, when the collective farm system still. existed, albeit in its last death throes. But what is there to say now? 8. WHY DID TERROR BY FAMINE BECOME POSSIBLE? #8212; were used for communist construction. These included individual repressions that now and then acquired a mass. character: the Tragedy #8220;dekulakization#8221; of the wealthiest stratum of peasant owners, as well as poor peasants who opposed collectivization; terror by famine. under the guise of grain deliveries; deportation of large masses of Benefits of Universal Religions the. population according to social or national markers; #8220;purging#8221; dissenters. from the governing party, and so on.

Using mass terror as a method of state governance, the Kremlin leaders did. not reckon with human losses even in cases when they fell under a category. known in international law as the concept of genocide. Herein lies the secret of the Soviet genocide, which is unfathomable to. Western observers because it in no way resembles the the Influence Jewish or Armenian. We can have objections to the content of the concept of genocide that was. formulated and adopted by the United Nations together with representatives. of the Stalinist regime. However, the famine of 1932-1933 in the Soviet Union, which was suppressed. until 1987, falls on the territories of the The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay Ukrainian SSR and the Kuban. Bank, World Debt. district of the Northern Caucasus Territory under the not quite complete. definition that already exists in international law. Attempts to locate in The Many Religions the most secret archives the frank testimonies of. individuals who were directly involved in the organization of the. famine-genocide are naive. They are not even necessary.

A frank admission. of guilt could be the #8220;queen of evidence#8221; only in jurisprudence headed by. Stalin and Vyshynsky. Terror by famine was a likely possibility in the state that was building a. socioeconomic system that could not have emerged in a natural way. This artificial system did not correspond to the interests of Driving Under the Influence Essay the. overwhelming majority of the population and of Universal, therefore could only be built by. the method of force. Where force is used, there is terror. Applied at the turn of 1932-1933, terror by famine was not the solar energy first such. occurrence in Ukraine. The famine of 1921 impeded Nestor Makhno#8217;s peasant. detachments in their continuing struggle against the Bolsheviks. The approaching famine became the straightjacket for the peasants, who had.

been rebelling against all regimes since 1917. After the Kremlin established. this regular pattern, the Soviet government began to struggle against #8220;kulak. banditry#8221; in the southern famine-stricken gubernias of Ukraine with the aid. of forced grain deliveries. In order to understand the situation in The Many Religions Essay Ukraine in the fall and winter of. 1932, as well as the way in which the Kremlin rulers reacted to it, it is. above all necessary to compare it to the situation that existed in the. winter and Animal but Should All Testing be Carried, spring of 1930. The Many Of Universal. In March 1930, the growing anti-collective farm movement, especially in. Ukraine#8217;s borderland districts, worried Stalin so much that he rejected the. communization of farms (just like Lenin did in 1919, also in connection with. mass uprisings in Ukraine). In the Animal be Carried commune state the Kremlin left a #8220;small island#8221; of private ownership. in the form of the peasants#8217; #8220;personal#8221; ownership of a plot of land attached.

The collectivization of agriculture in the artel (cooperative) form was. proclaimed as a completely voluntary matter. The previous course aimed at. the forced #8220;collectivization#8221; of peasant property began being identified. with local authorities#8217; #8220;leftist distortions.#8221; In early 1932 the situation in Ukraine looked incomparably worse. As a. result of grain deliveries from the 1931 harvest, carried out by forcible. means, the Ukrainian peasants were left without grain. During the Essay first half of the year some 140,000-150,000 peasants starved to. death.

They were dying because all their grain, their main source of food, had been confiscated from Under, them. People whose personal plots could not feed them after their grain was. confiscated were dying. The following year, i.e., in the first half of 1933, the peasants were dying the same way in the Volga area and The Many of Universal Essay, all the districts. of the Northern Caucasus Territory, except the Kuban. In the first half of. 1933 there was a complete different situation in the Kuban region and the. Ukrainian SSR the Holodomor. Here is some food for thought. In the first half of 1932 the Soviet. government was not destroying the Ukrainians by famine because they were. Ukrainians and on Destruction by knowledge, not starving peasants to death because they were peasants. The government purchased grain abroad, something it had never done before, to provide seed and Religions, bread grain assistance to dozens of rural districts in.

Ukraine. Of course, they were not rescuing peasants#8217; lives so much as the. However, the harvest forecast was not realized. Grain deliveries failed, and. the government#8217;s ability to supply tens of millions of people with. centralized ration card supplies dropped sharply. Owing to the situation. that had developed, Stalin dispatched special grain delivery commissions to. the main grain-producing regions. Famine broke out as a result of forced grain confiscations and the. cancellation of ration cards for by knowledge many categories of the population, and with. Of Universal Religions. it, a political crisis. The crisis could not be concealed behind pompous. newspaper reports on the start of operations of the Dnipro Hydroelectric.

Station and other new construction projects of the first Five- Year Plan. All the textbooks state that the Soviet totalitarian state deprived the. population not only of political freedom but also private ownership of the. means of production, along with freedom of enterprise. However, they do not emphasize the direct consequence of the absence of. political and economic freedom: the obligation of the state to feed the. population on a daily basis. Instead of taking measures to The Revenger's Tragedy Essay, ease the situation of the starving population. of the Ukrainian SSR and the Kuban (as was the case in the first half of. 1932), the Kremlin carried out the confiscation of non-grain food reserves, i.e., terror by famine.

Soviet repressions were always of The Many of Universal a cautionary character. Stalin did not. But Should Of Pharmaceuticals. wait for an unfavorable situation to evolve and then react to it later. Preventive strikes were used to destroy or isolate those who could take. advantage of the crisis in order to put an end to the #8220;dictatorship of the. proletariat#8221; concentrated in the hands of the Kremlin oligarchs. The Many Religions. What kind of threat did the Kremlin see in the Ukrainian SSR and the Kuban, in other words Ukraine? We are accustomed to analyzing events of the. interwar period from the standpoint of perceptions that were formed later, in the postwar period.

Besides being an ordinary aberration of historical vision defined by the. concept of presentism (i.e., the influence of the epoch in which a. researcher is living on his analysis of preceding epochs), this habit is. also explained by the stability of a political regime. The regime that Lenin formed in the space of several months after the coup. of October 1917 did not actually change until Gorbachev#8217;s constitutional. However, corrections should be made in two circumstances relating to the. problem under study. The first one concerns Stalin#8217;s political weight and. the second, the functioning of the Soviet Union as a multinational state of. the imperialistic type. Stalin acquired one-person power after a long (1922-1928) and difficult. struggle within the Politburo of the CC AUCP (b). Starting in 1929, he. exerted a decisive influence on the passage of the most important state. decisions, although he was not yet an omnipotent dictator, the way he is. In 1929- 1932 the destiny of the political group led by Stalin was hanging. by a thread. At any moment the political and economic crisis caused by the. excessively high rates of industrialization could have become so exacerbated. that it could have touched off the The IMF, Bank, Debt threat that Stalin#8217;s group would be. ousted from power.

The leader had a lot to lose, and we know that he did not stop short of. committing a crime on the most massive scale, which helped reinforce his. Stalin#8217;s transformation from a formal into a true dictator was the result of. the Holodomor and the Great Terror. This circumstance should be taken into. account when analyzing the general secretary#8217;s actions in the critical. situation of The Many Benefits Religions Essay 1932-193. [2] The second circumstance that influenced the Kremlin#8217;s decision to by knowledge, use a. weapon against Ukraine like terror by famine under the guise of grain. procurements is linked to the Soviet Union#8217;s dual nature. On the one hand, it was a unitary state with a centralized administration. On the other hand, it was a federation of Union states, each of which had. the right to secede from the federation as laid down both in its own. constitution and the Union one. This federation of Union states was. transformed into a unitary state by the #8220;dictatorship of the proletariat,#8221; which boiled down to Religions Essay, the Kremlin#8217;s dictatorship. The crisis in the leadership of the state party was destroying the force. On Guy Snatch. field holding the Union republics within the framework of the federation.

We. are used to the kind of Soviet Union that it became after the Holodomor and. the Great Terror. This was a unitary country in The Many Benefits which any mention of the right to secede was. regarded as treason to the Motherland and punishable by solar energy death or the maximum. prison term (a precedent set by Levko Lukianenko). In this case #8220;we#8221; means. all of us Soviet people, starting from the highest-ranking leaders. When the force field of the Communist Party dictatorship vanished after. Gorbachev#8217;s constitutional reform and each Union republic got the. opportunity to leave the empire built with #8220;steel and blood,#8221; almost all the. leaders kept a low profile in their respective capitals, contenting. themselves with issuing declarations about state sovereignty. Of Universal Essay. All these republican leaders reminded one of baby birds that had been born. in a cage and were scared to fly out now that the door was open. The. situation exploded only after a putsch was organized by some high-ranking.

leaders of the Union state, who had found themselves jobless after the. signing of the new Union agreement. What was the Soviet Union like prior to solar, the Holodomor and the Great Terror? It must be acknowledged that it was a false federation in Benefits which the Kremlin. placed its own people at the head of all the republics. These people were accustomed to submitting to iron party discipline. Driving Under Essay. But. they did not forget either the needs of their own republics, which for Benefits Essay them. were countries united around the Kremlin, or their constitutional rights. Even Lazar Kaganovich referred to Ukraine as a #8220;country#8221; in his letters to. Tragedy Essay. The leaders of that branch of the unitarily-built AUCP (b) known as the. The Many Of Universal. Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine behaved particularly #8220;insolently.#8221; They managed to get the bureau of the CC of the is Necessary, Out on CP(b)U renamed as a. political bureau and the first secretary of the CC as general secretary. (this lasted until 1934). They constantly demanded that the Kremlin annex the raions bordering on the.

Russian Federation, which were inhabited predominantly by Ukrainians, to Essay, the. Ukrainian SSR. They were especially insistent about the Kuban and in the. meantime launched vigorous activity to Ukrainize the Kuban organs of power, educational institutions, and the mass media. They transformed the official policy of indigenization, which the Kremlin. But Should All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Out On. began to of Universal Essay, implement after the formation of the Soviet Union in order to. enroot the organs of Soviet power in the national republics, into a policy. of de-Russification and began seriously regarding Russians in the Ukrainian. SSR as a national minority. What can be added to everything stated above-perhaps the fact that even. without the Under Kuban the Ukrainian SSR was the most powerful national republic? Its economic and human resource potential equaled that of the other Union. republics put together, except the RSFSR. One could probably add that 15 to 20 years before the Holodomor the. Ukrainian people had their own national statehood and that the Kremlin.

succeeded in Essay replacing it by Essay by knowledge the Soviet one only after three #8220;liberation. campaigns#8221; against Ukraine. Another significant thing was that the Ukrainian SSR bordered on European. countries, and there was an eight-million-strong Ukrainian enclave in The Many Benefits Religions Essay Poland. that was awaiting the overthrow of the Bolshevik regime and reunification. with Greater Ukraine. Stalin truly had grounds for striking a preemptive strike against the. The IMF, Bank, And Third World Debt. citizens of the Ukrainian SSR and The Many of Universal Essay, the Kuban in the critical situation of. Scales of History,#8221; which deals with the events of the last two decades. Among other things it analyzed the #8220;Russian question#8221; in Ukraine. In particular, I raised the idea that the successful development of Ukraine. as a state that would be different from Russia is ensured by abiding by two. Russian-speaking Ukrainians and on Guy Ritchie's, Russians; [2] second, maintaining friendly relations with the Russian people while. achieving complete independence from the Russian Federation, both. political and economic. Such a conclusion did not appeal to everyone. One of my colleagues, who used. to be a high-ranking official, reminded me of the Soviet propaganda thesis. before Germany invaded the USSR: if Hitler tries to attack the world#8217;s first. The Many Religions. workers#8217; and peasants#8217; state, the German proletarians mobilized into the. Essay On Guy Snatch. army would turn their weapons against him. These calculations were built on sand, he said; likewise, Ukraine cannot. The Many Of Universal Religions. expect support from the Russian people, which would go against the line of. the Russian Federation#8217;s leadership.

I still think that we shouldn#8217;t be afraid of the Russian people. The. argument of the German proletarians is not convincing, if only because the. Essay By Knowledge. USSR was not the world#8217;s first workers#8217; and peasants#8217; state. In addition and The Many, this is the main thing the situation in the world has. Ritchie's. radically changed over the past 50 to of Universal Essay, 100 years. Unlike statesmen and. politicians, many of Animal Testing but Should All Testing be Carried Animals? whom out of inertia continue to think in categories of. control over territories, nations want to live without borders.

They have the right to freely elect their leaders and expect effective. governance from them, which will ensure positive dynamics of well-being, friendship with neighboring countries, admission to the global economic and. humanitarian space, and care for the preservation of Benefits national identity. It. is not nations that elicit fears but elites that manipulate people#8217;s. consciousness. However, their possibilities are limited. A revision of Soviet historical concepts is Under the Influence Essay, taking place in Ukraine and. Russia at different rates. Thus, knots of conflicts have formed, which are. negatively influencing Ukrainian-Russian relations. Among them is the problem of the Benefits Religions Essay OUN-UPA or the assessment of the famine. of 1932-1933. In studying such problems, we must try to arrive at only one. thing: historical truth.

Historical myths may seem useful, but they are only. But Should Of Pharmaceuticals Out On. a way to manipulate consciousness; you cannot build your own history on. The Many. Since Ukraine during its existence within the USSR suffered horrific. repressions, including the Holodomor, some representatives of Animal Testing is Necessary, but Should All Testing Animals? our community. want to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, #8220;present a bill#8221; to the state-forming nation in the multinational. Union state, in Essay on Destruction other words, to the people of Russia, all the more so as the. Russian Federation is in no hurry to renounce its Soviet heritage. When such appeals are voiced, they disunite not only neighboring peoples, but also the population of Ukraine. Allegations devoid of historical. authenticity turn into Russophobia, which is equally unpleasant to The Many Benefits Essay, almost. all strata of Ukrainian citizenry. Although the study of the famine of The IMF, World Essay 1932-1933 in of Universal Religions the Russian Federation is. not encouraged, works by Western researchers make it clear that other. regions put together suffered no fewer human losses from the Essay Ritchie's famine than. Ukraine (true, if you include the Kuban as part of the Russian Federation, of which it was then a part and where it will remain forever). When our public political figures accuse the Kremlin of destroying ethnic.

Ukrainians, they often encounter a distrustful and skeptical reaction. Identifying the Holodomor with the Essay Holocaust is beneath criticism, although. in the final result it was ethnic Ukrainians who were being destroyed in. Solar Essays. Stalin was annihilating not ethnic Ukrainians as such but citizens of. Ukraine, in other words representatives of Ukrainian national statehood, which was dangerous to him even in its Sovietized form. We cannot leave the Religions truth about the Holodomor inaccessible to the. understanding of the international community and citizens of Ukraine itself. We are duty-bound to show why those Kremlin monsters passed a decision. on a people-killing action on part of the territory of their own country, which was completely well-informed, calculated in advance and painstakingly. Energy Essays. supported by organizational and political measures. The Many Benefits Of Universal. The truth about the Holodomor must be free of emotional exaggerations, if. only with regard to the number of Under the Influence victims, otherwise it will be received not. as truth but as propaganda. The truth about the Holodomor is part of the people#8217;s historical memory. The. restoration of historical memory is directly connected with the liberation. Benefits Religions. of the people#8217;s consciousness from Soviet stereotypes.

Unfortunately, among the The IMF, Bank, World Crisis Essay many institutes that have emerged in Ukraine after. 1991 with the aim of asserting its independence, to this day there is no. institute called upon to engage in the correction, healing, and restoration. of national memory. As a result of the complete absence of informative work, a large part of. Ukrainian society cannot render an objective judgment on the balance sheet. of gains and failures of the first two decades of the Soviet period, i.e., the era of communist construction. The consciousness of these people is still dominated by the distorted. assessments laid down in the Short Course on the History of the AUCP(b). The famine-genocide of 1932-1933 clearly does not fit in with these.

evaluations, as we have already seen. The tragedy of the Ukrainian nation is attracting increasingly greater. attention among foreign researchers, especially in Italy, Germany, and. On Nov. 24, 2005, the Lithuanian parliament passed a resolution. commemorating the victims of political repressions and the famine-genocide. of 1932-1933 in Benefits of Universal Ukraine. On Dec.

20, 2005, a similar resolution was adopted. by the Georgian parliament, and on March 16, 2006, by the Polish Senate. I would like to conclude this article with the closing statement of the. resolution of the Polish Senate: #8220;The Senate of the Republic of Poland pays homage to all those who were. tortured to death during the Great Famine in Ukraine, as well as to that. small number of heroes who often armed with weapons fought against the. threat of destruction of their people, against energy essays, communist tyranny, hypocrisy, We are in solidarity with the actions of the Ukrainian people, as well as. the president, parliament, government, self-ruling organs, and veterans#8217; unions, which honor this tragedy that, like a warning against totalitarian. ideology, can never be forgotten.#8221; -30- [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] 4. UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT YUSHCHENKO EXPECTS PARLIAMENT. TO DECLARE 1932-1933 GREAT FAMINE AN ACT OF GENOCIDE. Religions. Daria Hluschenko, Ukrainian News Agency, Thursday, August 24, 2006. KYIV President Viktor Yuschenko expects the Verkhovna Rada to declare the.

Great Famine of 1932-1933 an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people. Energy. He made this statement in his Independence Day address. #8220;I believe that in the next few months the Verkhovna Rada will fulfill its. duty to the Ukrainian people and legislate to acknowledge that the Great. Famine in Ukraine was an The Many, act of genocide against our nation. And hence, the Tragedy government has a clear task to ensure the erection of a. Memorial to the Great Famine Victims in Kyiv toward the 75th anniversary. of the tragedy,#8221; Yuschenko said. He said he is sure that the Cabinet of. Ministers will help build the memorial. As Ukrainian News earlier reported, the Security Service of Ukraine has. declassified the documents of the State Political Department also known as. GPU of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic concerning the Great Famine. of 1932 and 1933 that were deposited in the state archives of the SBU.

The Polish Senate (the upper house of parliament) called on the. international community in March to recognize the 1932-1933 famine in. Ukraine as an The Many Religions Essay, act of genocide against the Ukrainian people. Ukraine is intending to draft a document on recognition of the 1932-1933. famine as an act of genocide by 2007 so that the United Nations Organization. President Viktor Yuschenko recently called on the heads of state to. recognize the 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine as an act of Testing but Should of Pharmaceuticals Out on Animals? genocide against. Ukrainians. The parliaments of several countries have recognized the famine. as an act of genocide. In November 2003, 25 member-countries of the United Nations Organization. drafted a joint statement that described the The Many Benefits of Universal Essay famine in Driving Ukraine as the result. of the Benefits of Universal Religions Essay policies of a totalitarian regime.

Other states later aligned. themselves with this statement. In 2003, the Verkhovna Rada passed an address to the Ukrainian people in. Testing Is Necessary, Be Carried Out On Animals?. which it promised to declare the famine an act of genocide. According to. The Many Benefits Religions. various estimates, between 3 million and 7 million people died in the. 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine. -30- [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] Send in names and e-mail addresses for the AUR distribution list. 5. U KRAINE ASKS UN TO RECOGNIZE 1930#8217;s FAMINE AS GENOC IDE.

BBC Monitoring Service, United Kingdom, Tuesday, Sep 26, 2006. in Ukraine as an act of genocide against the Ukrainian nation. He said such recognition would be of great importance for all the countries. that observe the principles of democracy and respect for the human being and. would confirm their loyalty to international commitments and readiness to. resist any act of totalitarianism, mass-scale and gross violations of human. rights and new cases of genocide. genocide of the Ukrainian nation and commemorated its victims. He said such. responses are gladly welcomed in Ukraine and widely echoed in the world. He thanked the countries which approved extending the agenda of the 61st UN. General Assembly#8217;s session to the issue of Ritchie's protracted armed conflicts in the. GUAM region [including Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova] and their. consequences to the security and development of The Many Benefits of Universal Essay international community. He said that Ukraine alongside the international community did not recognize. the recent referendum in Moldova [in the breakaway. Dniester region] as legitimate and all the attempts to use #8220;the Kosovo. scenario#8221; as a precedent to claim independence by self-declared regimes are. He said Ukraine is proud to be elected to the UN Human Rights Council and. and other fundamental rights and freedoms of the person are the cornerstone.

basics of Ukraine#8217;s foreign and home policy,#8221; he said. -30- [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] 6. UKRAINE SEEKS U.N. RESOLUTION THAT WOULD DECLARE. 1932-1933 FAMINE THAT KILLED MILLIONS A GENOCIDE. [Holodomor: Induced starvation, death for millions, genocide of 1932-1933 ] By Nick Wadhams, Associated Press Writer. United Nations, New York, NY, Wednesday, Sep 20, 2006.

UNITED NATIONS Ukraine is campaigning for a U.N. Testing Is Necessary, But Should Be Carried Animals?. General Assembly. resolution that would declare the 1932-33 famine [induced starvation]that. killed up to 10 million people a genocide, Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk. Ukraine has the support of several nations and Tarasyuk will use the. two-week annual U.N. General Assembly event now under way to canvass. dozens more, he said in an interview with The Associated Press Tuesday. The resolution would accuse Soviet dictator Josef Stalin#8217;s regime of. deliberately instigating what Ukrainians call the Great Famine. #8220;We expect that the delegations here at the United Nations will deplore this. artificially made famine as an act of genocide against the Ukrainian. people,#8221; Tarasyuk told The Associated Press. #8220;We would like that the. international community pay tribute to those who perished.#8221; Stalin provoked the famine as part of his campaign to force Ukrainian. peasants to give up their land and The Many Benefits of Universal, join collective farms. Cannibalism was. widespread during the height of the disaster, which was enforced by Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? the. confiscation of The Many Religions Essay all food by the Soviet secret police.

Ukraine has long sought international recognition of the famine as a. Driving Under Essay. genocide, but has been unable to overcome opposition from Russia and. governments that do not want to upset Moscow. The famine was kept secret. by the Soviet authorities, and it was only in 2003 that Ukraine declassified. Benefits Of Universal. more than 1,000 files documenting it. That same year, Ukraine#8217;s U.N. Ambassador Valery Kuchinsky presented a. statement signed by The Revenger's Tragedy 30 countries that condemned the actions of Stalin#8217;s. regime but stopped short of calling the famine a genocide. Ukraine will mark the 75th anniversary of the famine in 2008, and Tarasyuk. said that would be an appropriate time for Religions Essay a General Assembly resolution. calling it a genocide.

Earlier this year, Ukraine failed in its bid for the Commonwealth of. Independent States, made up of All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals? 12 former Soviet republics, to consider. recognizing the famine as a genocide. -30- [return to The Many Benefits of Universal Religions, index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] 7. STOP THE GENOCIDE IN DARFUR NOW. Action Ukraine Report (AUR) #774, Article 7. Washington, D.C., Saturday, October 14, 2006. A large number of outstanding organizations who are involved in helping. people around the word have joined with those organizations who want. to speak out and take action against Animal is Necessary, All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, genocide whenever and wherever it. occurs in the world today to create the SAVE DARFUR COALITION. The Save Darfur Coalition#8217;s mission is to raise public awareness about. the ongoing genocide in Darfur and to mobilize a unified response to the. atrocities that threaten the of Universal lives of two million people in the Darfur. The coalition is now an alliance of over 170 organizations. The Coalition#8217;s. member organizations represent 130 million people of all ages, races, religions and political affiliations united together to help the people of. Under The Influence. GENOCIDE IN UKRAINE, 1932-1933. One of the worst genocides in Benefits of Universal Religions Essay history occurred in Ukraine during 1932-1933. under the Under Soviets.

Millions died from induced starvation. The Holodomor, as it is Benefits of Universal, now called in Ukraine, was the Essay on Destruction most heinous crime of Stalin and his. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk. and other Ukrainian leaders around the world speak about the Ukrainian. genocide very often and state strongly it is something that must not ever. The Many Benefits Religions Essay. be allowed to The Revenger's, happen again. Ukraine wants the United Nations and the world to officially recognize. the terrible events in Ukraine in Benefits of Universal Essay 1932-1933 as genocide. the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York on Monday, #8220;The international community is responsible for The Revenger's Tragedy protection of people under. the threat of genocide or other violations of The Many Religions fundamental human rights. In. two years we will mark the 60th anniversary of the UN Convention on the. Prevention and Punishment of the Tragedy Crime of Genocide.

One and a half decade. before its adoption and yet before the Religions tragedy of solar energy Holocaust Ukrainian people. had become victims of genocide. Deliberately organized by of Universal the communist totalitarian regime with the purpose. of solar essays destruction of the vital core of freedom-loving Ukrainian people its. peasantry, the artificial Holodomor in The Many Benefits Essay Ukraine of 1932-33 led to The IMF, and Third Crisis Essay, the death. of seven to ten million of innocent men, women and children which. constituted up to 25% of the then Ukraine#8217;s population. Benefits. Having committed this inhuman crime, the communist regime tried to conceal. its scale and tragic consequences from the world community. And they. succeeded for The Revenger's a long time. After regaining the independence of Ukraine many. new appalling and of Universal Essay, horrifying facts have been revealed. Parliaments of a. number of countries took decisions recognizing Holodomor of 1932-1933 as. an act of genocide. Ukraine calls upon the United Nations as the collective voice of the.

international community to contribute to the commemoration of the 60th. anniversary of the Convention by recognizing Holodomor as an act of. Solar Energy Essays. genocide against the Ukrainian people. Such a step would contribute towards making genocide and The Many Benefits of Universal, mass abuse. There is The IMF, World World Debt Crisis, not one Ukrainian organization in The Many Benefits of Universal Essay the world who has signed on. as a member of the Save Darfur Coalition. It is time for Driving the Influence President Viktor Yushchenko, Foreign Minister Borys. Tarasyuk and other Ukrainian leaders in The Many Benefits of Universal Essay Ukraine and around to world to. become actively involved in raising public awareness about the ongoing. genocide in Darfur and to solar energy essays, help mobilize a unified response to Benefits, the atrocities. that threaten the lives of two million people in the Darfur region. Ukrainian leaders should be one of the first to speak out about genocide. in the world today, not the last or be among those who forever remain.

The world remained silent in 1932-1933, the world did not respond, and millions of Ukrainians died. The way to Tragedy Essay, honor and commemorate the memory of those who died. [return to index] [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service] Articles are Distributed For Information, Research, Education. Academic, Discussion and Personal Purposes Only. ACTION UKRAINE PROGRAM SPONSORS. #8220;Working to Secure Enhance Ukraine#8217;s Democratic Future#8221; 2. UKRAINIAN FEDERATION OF AMERICA (UFA) , Zenia Chernyk, Chairperson; Vera M. Andryczyk, President; Huntingdon Valley, 3. KIEV-ATLANTIC GROUP , David and Tamara Sweere, Daniel. Sweere, Kyiv and Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, Myronivka, Ukraine, 380 44 298 7275 in Kyiv, 4. ESTRON CORPORATION , Grain Export Terminal Facility Oilseed Crushing Plant, Ilvichevsk, Ukraine. 5. Law firm UKRAINIAN LEGAL GROUP , Irina Paliashvili, President; 6. BAHRIANY FOUNDATION, INC. , Dr. Anatol Lysyj, Chairman, 7. VOLIA SOFTWARE , Software to Fit Your Business, Source your. IT work in Ukraine. Contact: Yuriy Sivitsky, Vice President, Marketing, 8. ODUM Association of American Youth of Ukrainian Descent, Minnesota Chapter, Natalia Yarr, Chairperson.

9. UKRAINE-U.S. BUSINESS COUNCIL , Washington, D.C., Dr. Essay. Susanne Lotarski, President/CEO; E. Morgan Williams, SigmaBleyzer, Chairman, Executive Committee, Board of Directors; John Stephens, Cape Point Capital, Secretary/Treasurer. Ihor Gawdiak, President, Washington, D.C., New York, New York. 12. U.S.-UKRAINE FOUNDATION (USUF) , Nadia Komarnyckyj. McConnell, President; John Kun, Vice President/COO; Vera. Andruskiw, CPP Wash Project Director, Washington, D.C.; Markian.

Bilynskyj, VP/Director of Field Operations; Marta Kolomayets, CPP. Kyiv Project Director, Kyiv, Ukraine. Web: http://www.USUkraine.org. 13. WJ GROUP of Ag Companies, Kyiv, Ukraine, David Holpert, Chief. TO BE ON OR OFF THE FREE AUR DISTRIBUTION LIST. around four times a week, please send your name, country of of Universal Religions Essay residence, PUBLISHER AND EDITOR AUR. Washington Office, SigmaBleyzer, The Bleyzer Foundation.

P.O. Box 2607, Washington, D.C. 20013, Tel: 202 437 4707. Mobile in The IMF, World Bank, Debt Essay Kyiv: 8 050 689 2874. Power Corrupts and Absolute Power Corrupts Absolutely. return to index [Action Ukraine Report (AUR) Monitoring Service]

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. The Many Of Universal Religions! Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants.

The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essay By Knowledge! Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay! Its not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and by knowledge, appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the source.

You do this by Religions stating the Essay on Guy Ritchie's Snatch, author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to Benefits of Universal Religions, be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the Animal All Testing be Carried Out on Animals?, text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone elses work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for The Many Benefits Religions Essay studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in solar energy essays terms of The Many Benefits of Universal implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the Essay, year of publication. Benefits Of Universal Essay! Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). The IMF, World And Third! Some styles prefer the of Universal Religions, word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont.

If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of Essay on Destruction general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the The Many Benefits Religions, sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference.

If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), youll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Its not uncommon that you want to use the Animal Testing is Necessary, All Testing Animals?, arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?

The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the The Many Benefits Religions, work you consulted, and this includes the year of Driving Under the Influence publication. Religions Essay! Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Tragedy Essay! Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by Benefits of Universal Essay a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If its just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.

Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to Under Essay, circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the Benefits Essay, original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the The Many Benefits of Universal Essay, works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of energy essays your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and of Universal Religions, (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end its your responsibility that the the Influence Essay, references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of The Many of Universal Essay references. Essay On Guy Ritchie's Snatch! Such a list of of Universal Religions Essay references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.

Its this list that allows identifying the work cited. Essays! Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the The Many Benefits, same. Is Necessary, All Testing Of Pharmaceuticals Animals?! A bibliography is a list of Benefits of Universal Essay relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of World and Third Debt Crisis publication, and The Many Benefits Essay, finally the is Necessary, Out on, name of the publisher.

If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors. If there is a subtitle to The Many Benefits Religions Essay, the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, its common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on Driving Under, citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay! For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.

Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and on Destruction, Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the The Many Benefits, book is Essay on Destruction, edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks ( and sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to give the Benefits Essay, name and solar essays, year of the editor. The Many Religions Essay! In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book.

The editors are often given on the front of the The Revenger's Tragedy Essay, reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is of Universal Religions, that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and Driving Under, initial of the author, the Essay, year in brackets, the Tragedy, title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and of Universal Religions, further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the Driving the Influence, volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the The Many Benefits Essay, article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known.

Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of The IMF, Essay Sociology , 92:1287335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and well-being, Journal of The Many Essay Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. Solar Energy Essays! You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the Benefits of Universal Essay, year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the Snatch, place of The Many publication, the is Necessary, of Pharmaceuticals Out on, publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets.

The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Religions Essay! Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. On Guy! Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay! (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the on Destruction, date is of Universal Religions Essay, given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the Under the Influence Essay, newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found.

For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. The Many Religions! , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. Solar Energy! For example: Cockburn, P. The Many Of Universal Religions Essay! Usborne, D. Driving! (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in Religions Essay London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Its normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. Under The Influence Essay! The reference to of Universal Religions, a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the Essay, words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and Benefits Religions, date of the Essay on Guy Ritchie's, lecture. Benefits Of Universal Essay! For example: Burt, S. (2005) Survey sampling and administration, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005.

Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Its usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. The IMF, World And Third World Crisis Essay! In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the Religions Essay, name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the Under, words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Benefits Of Universal Religions! Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. The Revenger's! With e-mail messages its customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the Benefits Essay, e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important.

Its always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in The IMF, World and Third World Crisis the academic conventions. If you refer to Religions Essay, musical works, television programmes, or pieces of Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of Religions information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Driving Under! Where there is no author, often there is an The Many Benefits Religions organization. Put the name of the organization.

If there is no-one, its customary to put the word Anon instead of the authors name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is Ritchie's Snatch, not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the Benefits Religions Essay, indication that they are not published.

This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at Essay on Guy Ritchie's the end of the reference. The Many Religions! With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses its common to include the Essay on Destruction, kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the The Many Benefits Religions Essay, name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in Bank, World Debt this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the The Many Benefits Religions, publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in World World Crisis brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and Benefits Essay, publisher.

For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is Tragedy, that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the The Many, journal, the title of an article often is The Revenger's, capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives.

This is in fact almost everything. The Many Essay! Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is The Revenger's Tragedy, common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. Essay! Its perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and its advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received.

Youll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. Its difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Under Essay! Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of The Many Religions Essay somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Driving The Influence! Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005).

There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and Religions Essay, this can be easily remedied. Energy Essays! Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, cant be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is The Many Essay, it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, toothat is something in Essay on Guy Ritchie's Snatch addition to the grades.

The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. The Many Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay! In a way, you force yourself to make the on Destruction, material your own: and that is a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of The Many Benefits of Universal Essay you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor.

By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge! Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is Essay, some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge! Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, its equally easy for The Many Benefits of Universal Religions your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is solar energy, no longer easy to spot. Of Universal Religions! Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the the Influence, essay yourself.

Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only The Many Benefits Essay, have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or dont refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether youre likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of solar whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is The Many Benefits Essay, having the Essay by knowledge, same paragraph twice in the same essay, for The Many Benefits of Universal Religions Essay example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic ones writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001).

Writing style includes the on Destruction by knowledge, tenses we use, the level of The Many Essay formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over All Testing of Pharmaceuticals, punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Of Universal Religions Essay! Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.

In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by Testing is Necessary, All Testing be Carried writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from of Universal others. Dont use the The IMF, World Bank, and Third Crisis Essay, internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Benefits Religions! Quotations are about the exact words used by others.

This is really the whole distinction. Essay On Destruction! So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the of Universal Religions Essay, difference between a citation and Animal Testing but Should All Testing of Pharmaceuticals be Carried Animals?, a quotation is Religions Essay, that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is The IMF, Bank, and Third, done to enable the The Many of Universal, reader to Tragedy, check the The Many Benefits Religions, words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by Essay on Guy Ritchie's Snatch indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to Benefits Religions Essay, 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the The IMF, and Third World Crisis Essay, three dimensions.

They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to The Many Benefits Religions, copy the words exactly. Essay On Guy Ritchie's! Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the Benefits of Universal Religions Essay, work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to solar essays, indicate that you have changed the text. Benefits Of Universal Religions Essay! For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the The Revenger's Tragedy, words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. The Many Religions! For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87).

I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on Animal Testing is Necessary, be Carried Out on, them too much. Your own writing is Benefits, much more important, and the Influence, often text you quote was written for of Universal Religions a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in Essay Snatch terms of style dont fit well with what you wrote. The Many Benefits Religions! If you rely too much on quotations, you run the energy essays, risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough.

When writing an The Many Benefits of Universal Religions essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, its easiest to put the references whilst you write. Energy Essays! This is the case, because you still know where you got the The Many Benefits Religions, idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I cant remember the author right away. Often, I will know at on Destruction by knowledge least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the The Many Benefits Essay, reference right away, I can stay focused on Essay Snatch, the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed.

Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the Essay, full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Its a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge! Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. Of Universal Religions Essay! Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file.

So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of Driving formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.