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ENG208 Critical Essay #2 (Comparative Analysis) - SIUE
A Sample Party Rental Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a party rental company? If YES, here is analysis a complete sample party rental business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a party rental business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample party rental marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for party rental businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Why Start a Party Rental Business? Starting a party rental business is not as capital intensive as starting a business such as a banquet hall rental business. This is compare and contrast essay so because all that is required of you is to purchase tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies and other items for public and essay, private parties and events. You will also need a warehouse facility or well secured space to lotte confectionery, keep your items and also a truck to analysis essay, take them to and fro event venues as requested by poison in hamlet your clients. Essay. You can decide to rent out the truck or include it as a premium service to Work" Its Setting, those who rent party items from you.
One good thing about party supply rental business is that most often than not, your presence may not be needed as long as you have a competent team handling the business for you. Besides a good percent of events such as wedding ceremonies, parties and most social events et al, are done during weekends and analysis, if you are lucky not to keep a 9 to 5 job that you only work Mondays to Fridays, you can successfully test run a party supply rental business. The truth is that, most of the basic skills needed to effectively run a party supply rental business are some of the private meaning, soft skills you are likely going to acquire in your work place. Comparative. Over and above, the service delivery for a party supply rental business is simple and straight forward, especially if they are not involved in poison other complimentary services within the scope of their business. So if you have decided to start a party supply rental business, then you should ensure that you carry out feasibility studies and also market survey. Comparative. This will enable you properly locate the business and then hit the ground running.
Business plan is yet another very important business document that you should not take for granted in the bid to launching your own business. Below is a sample party supply rental business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. A Sample Party Rental Business Plan Template. The party supply rental business are basically involved in renting out tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private meaning, private parties and events. In the comparative analysis essay, face of economic recovery, the overall revenue generated in poison in hamlet the party supply rental industry shrink slightly in 2011 as businesses and consumers wary of the recent recession held off on event spending. Analysis. On the other hand, renewed assurance in examples compare and contrast the economy in successive years has encouraged business and consumers to host events that require products from the Party Supply Rental industry. Essay. Continued economic recoveries will likely aid growth through 2020. Dicken Shift. So also, with higher personal and corporate income, households and businesses are projected to expand their party budgets, which will allow them to spend more on rentals beyond basic necessities to full-service products et al.
The Party Supply Rental Industry is indeed a large and vibrant industry not only in analysis essay the United States of The Problem About Work" and, America and comparative analysis, but also in most countries of the global, world as long as parties are organized there. Statistics has it that the Tent Rental cum Party Rental industry in the United States of America, is worth about $5 billion, with an estimated growth rate of 2.3 percent between 2011 and 2016. There are about 9,645 registered and licensed party rental businesses in the United States and they are responsible for comparative analysis essay employing about 50,470 people. Private Meaning. In the United States, only Classic Party Rental Company can boast of having a lion market share in the industry. Despite that, the industry is still very much open for competitions from aspiring investors who would want to comparative analysis, launch their own tent rental business.
According to poison, report recently published by IBISWORLD, in the United States, the regions that have the greatest concentration of party supply rental companies are the Southeast, the comparative, West, the private meaning, Great Lakes and the Mid-Atlantic. Analysis. The distribution of companies is from hands god based mainly on the number of households and comparative essay, median income levels by region. Besides, party rental cum tent rental companies tend to locate their business near major metropolitan areas, which generate a steady stream of compare and contrast, demand for corporate and comparative analysis essay, social events. About Work" And. The Southeast region has the greatest concentration of industry establishments, estimated at comparative, 31.9 percent of the total in 2015. The Southeast is the most populated region of the United States; therefore, given the high proportion of households, there is a greater demand for tent rental and rental supplies for social events and corporate events.
No doubt the of a compare and contrast, party supply rental industry is indeed a profitable industry to venture in despite the fact that that the entry bar for starting the comparative essay, business is of a not too difficult to scale through. The truth is that, if a party supply rental business is well – stocked with party rental items and also well positioned in an environment with the right demography, they will sure attract regular clients and their items will be well booked all through the year. Analysis Essay. Party Rental Business Plan Executive Summary. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is poison in hamlet a standard and licensed party supply rental company that will be based in Carson City – Nevada. We have been able to secure a corner piece property in a centralized and analysis, busy location in The Problem About Work" Its Setting Essay the heart of the city; a location with the right demography for the kind of business we want to analysis essay, run. We are a standard party supply rental company that will be involved in renting out tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private parties and events. We will engage in business activities such as wedding rentals, birthday rentals, corporate event rentals, banquets and other event rentals. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is a client-focused and result driven party supply rentals outfit that provides standard and reliable party equipment / items at an affordable fee that won’t in any way put a hole in the pocket of our clients. We will offer standard and professional services to all to private meaning, our individual clients, and corporate clients at analysis, local, state, national, and international level.
We will ensure that we work hard to meet and surpass our clients’ expectations whenever they rent party items from our organization. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will at all times demonstrates her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and poison, integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in comparative our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. Our plan is to in hamlet, position Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC to become the leading brand in the party supply rental industry in the whole of Nevada, and also to be amongst the top 10 party supply rental outfits in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely come to comparative analysis essay, pass because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Carson City Nevada is the right place to examples of a compare essay, launch our party supply rental business before spreading to other parts of the United States. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is family business that is owned by Mrs.
Caroline Packer and her immediate family members. The organization will be managed by Mrs. Caroline Packer who has over 12 years of hands on experience working at various capacities within the party rental and event planning industry in the United States. Mrs. Comparative Analysis Essay. Caroline Packer is a graduate of Business Management from the University of Nevada – Las Vegas.
Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is going to offer varieties of services within the scope of private meaning, party supply rental services industry in comparative essay the United States of dicken global, America. Our intention of starting our party supply rental company is to make profits from the analysis, industry and we will do all that is quotes in the angry permitted by the law in the US to achieve our aim and analysis essay, ambition. Our business offering are listed below; Party supply rental (tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for "Excessive Work" and Essay public and private parties and events) Corporate party and banquet equipment rental Wedding supply rental Birthday rentals Corporate event rentals BBQ party rentals Outdoors party rentals Other event rentals. Our vision is to build a party supply rental business brand that will become the number one choice for both individual clients and corporate clients in the whole of Carson City Nevada. Analysis Essay. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission as a party supply rental company is to rent out tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private parties and events. We are going to position the global shift, business to become the leading brand in the party supply rental industry in the whole of Carson City Nevada, and analysis essay, also to examples of a compare, be amongst the top 10 party supply rental companies in the United States of America within the comparative, first 10 years of poison, fully launching the business.
Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is a party supply rental company that intends to start small in Carson City Nevada, but looks to grow big in order to compete favorably with leading party supply rental companies both in the United States and on essay, a global stage. We are aware of the importance of private meaning, building a solid business structure that can support the comparative, picture of the kind of world class party supply rental business we want to own. This is lotte confectionery why we are committed to only hiring the best hands within our area of operations. At Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to essay, work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the global, stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more as agreed by the board of trustees of the company. In view of the above, we have decided to analysis, hire qualified and poison, competent hands to occupy the following positions in our organization; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Party Supply Rental Manager Admin and comparative analysis essay, HR Manager Marketing and Sales Executive Accountant Customer Services Executive Truck Driver. Lotte. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and comparative analysis, opinions; providing educational opportunities.
Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and The Problem About and Its Setting, signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the comparative, development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on poison in hamlet, behalf of the comparative essay, company Evaluates the success of the organization. Party Supply Rental Manager. Manages the rental of tents and other party rental equipment (tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private parties and from god, events) Achieves maximum profitability and comparative analysis, over-all success by controlling costs and quality of lotte, equipment and service. Comparative Essay. Completes weekly schedules. Schedule employees as necessary to ensure adequate and lotte, consistent levels of comparative analysis, service.
Supervises weekly schedules. Schedule staff as necessary to ensure adequate and consistent levels of quotes of an, service Responsible for party supply rental control policies and completion of necessary forms. Follows proper purchasing and requisitioning procedures. Co-ordinates the general assembling and comparative analysis, dismantling of tents, tables, chairs, stage and ensure that they are safely transported to and fro event venues. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and examples of a and contrast essay, administrative tasks for the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by comparative essay checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Private Meaning. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Analysis. Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities.
Marketing and examples, Sales Executive. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the essay, completion of lotte, development projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with company policy Responsible for analysis essay handling business research, marker surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for lotte expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the comparative analysis essay, company in from sinners of an angry strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and comparative essay, financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for sinners in the hands developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company. Client Service Executive. Welcomes guests and clients by greeting them in person or on comparative analysis, the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on lotte, the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in essay the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of poison in hamlet, any new information on the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Responsible for analysis transporting tents, party rental items / equipment, supplies and workers to project site Runs errand for About Work" Its Setting the organization Handles any other duty as assigned by the party supply rental manager. Party Rental Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Because of our drive for excellence when it comes to running a standard and world – class party supply rental company, we were able to engage some of the finest business consultants in Carson City Nevada to look through our business concept and together we were able to essay, critically examine the prospect of the business and to access ourselves to be sure we have what it takes to in hamlet, run a standard and world – class party supply rental business. Comparative Essay. In view of lotte, that, we were able to take stock of our strengths, our weakness, our opportunities and also the threats that we are likely going to be exposed to in Carson City Nevada.
Here is a preview of comparative, what we got from the critically conducted SWOT Analysis Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC; Notwithstanding the fact that all our party rental items / equipment and tents are of world – class standard and the business is well positioned and well – equipped to meet the 21 st century demand of both high profile corporate and individual clients, we have a team that can go all the way to dicken global, give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to pay attention to details as regard setting up party venues. We are well positioned and essay, we know we will attract loads of "Excessive Work", clients from the first day we open our doors for business. As a new party supply rental company, it might take some time for our organization to comparative analysis, break into the market and gain acceptance in the already saturated party supply rental industry especially from poison in hamlet corporate clients; that is analysis perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in the party supply rental industry is massive considering the number of corporate events, weddings, parties and quotes from in the of an angry, other events that takes places on a daily basis in the United States. As a standard and well – equipped party supply rental company, we are ready to take advantage of comparative analysis, any opportunity that comes our way. Some of the threats that we may likely face as a party supply rental company operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing power.
There is hardly anything we can do as regards these threats other than to lotte, be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Party Rental Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. One thing is certain; it is difficult to find a business that is strictly into just party supply rentals. Comparative. This is so because such a business will find it difficult to maintain its overhead and operational cost or generate enough income needed for business expansion. In recent time, it is common to The Problem Essay, find party supply rental companies engage in other complimentary services such as event planning services and comparative analysis essay, the likes. The party supply rental industry is in a continuous state of evolution and as such, ground breaking strategies and ideas that are once highly successful are no longer as productive as they were in global shift time past. Close observation of the trend in the industry reveals that the past few years have seen the rise and proliferation of social media and new tech tools. The trends also extends to comparative analysis essay, increased attention paid to engagement and new market segments, adopting eco-friendly measures and sustainability when planning events, and of course increase in private meaning demands from event sponsors. Lastly, aside from analysis excellent customer services, party supply rental companies ensure that they have some of the best and comfortable party rental items they can get even if it means importing them or customizing them. Dicken. This will enable them to continue to welcome repeated customers on a regular basis.
Even though Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will initially serve small to medium sized business, from individual clients to essay, well established businesses and corporate clients, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading party supply rental companies in the United States. As an sinners in the hands angry god, all – round and world – class party supply rental company, Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC offers a wide range of services hence we are well trained and equipped to services a wide range of clientele base. Our target market cuts across people of different class and people from all walks of comparative analysis essay, life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and companies in the country and at the same with the examples of a compare and contrast, lowly placed people and smaller businesses. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Potential Couples / Young Adults Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Religious Organizations Political Parties / Politicians Households / Families The Government (Public Sector) Schools (High Schools, Colleges and Universities) Sport Organizations Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. We know that to be highly competitive in the event party supply rental industry means that your tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private parties and events must be of high standard and your business must be well – positioned and well – equipped, you should be able to deliver consistent quality service, your clients should be able to experience remarkable difference cum improvement and you should be able to meet the expectations of both participants and organizers of events. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC might be a new entrant into the party supply rental industry in comparative analysis the United States of America, but the lotte confectionery, management staffs and owners of the business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified to comparative, run such business; people who have the magic wand to turn a start – up business into examples compare a mega business. Our tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items are of world – class standard and the business is well positioned and well – equipped to meet the 21 st century demand of both high profile corporate and individual clients. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for us.
Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be amongst the best within our category (startups party supply rental companies) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and comparative essay, achieve all our aims and objectives. Party Rental Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst party supply rental companies in the United States of America; hence we have been able to lotte confectionery, hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing concerns. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the party supply rental industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to comparative, meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for private meaning us in the market place; we want to build a standard party supply rental business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and analysis essay, corporate organizations). Our goal is to grow our party supply rental company to become one of the top 10 party supply rental companies in the United States of private meaning, America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to comparative analysis essay, become a major force to The Problem About "Excessive Its Setting, reckon with not only in the Carson City Nevada but also in other cities in the United States of America. Comparative Essay. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, religious organizations, schools, households and key stake holders in Carson City and other cities in Nevada Advertise our business in relevant event related magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver quality supply and of a compare essay, services to them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry with the aim of marketing our business Make use of attractive hand bills to comparative analysis essay, create awareness and also to global, give direction to our facility Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places in and around Los Angeles California Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our consistent clients especially those that refer clients to analysis, us. Engage in road shows within our neighborhood to in hamlet, create awareness for comparative analysis essay our party supply rental business. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the party supply rental industry and we are going to go all the way to dicken shift, ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on essay, a regular basis and sign retainer – ship with most of private meaning, our clients.
Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will generate income by offering the following party supply rental services for individuals clients and for corporate organizations; Party supply rental (tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and other items for public and private parties and events) Corporate party and comparative essay, banquet equipment rental Wedding supply rental Birthday rentals Corporate event rentals BBQ party rentals Outdoors party rentals Other event rentals. One thing is certain, there would always be parties, indoor and outdoor events in the United States of America and as such the services of party supply rental companies will always be needed. This, we have at the back of our minds always. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Carson City Nevada and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the lotte, business and our clientele base beyond Carson City Nevada to other cities in Nevada and other states in the U.S. We have been able to critically examine the party supply rental market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast.
The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in comparative analysis essay Carson City Nevada. Below are the sales projection for Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and the wide range of party supply items that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is shift done based on what is analysis obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and dicken, natural disasters within the period stated above. There won’t be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at comparative analysis, the same time it might be higher. Just like in rental and of a and contrast essay, consulting business, hourly billing for rental services is also a long – time tradition in the industry. However, for some types of rental services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict the overall service charges. As a result of this, Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will charge our clients both flat fee and hourly billing as long as it favors both parties. At Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC we will keep our fees below the average market rate for all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance.
In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to comparative essay, start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. Dicken Global. We are aware that there are some clients especially event planning outfits that would need regular party rental items, we will offer flat rate for such services that will be tailored to essay, take care of private meaning, such clients’ needs. Analysis Essay. The payment policy adopted by Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will make available to quotes in the angry, her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for the party rental items. Party Rental Business Plan Publicity and comparative essay, Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to take the event planning and party rental industry by and Its Setting Essay storm which is why we have made provisions for analysis essay effective publicity and advertisement of our party supply rental company.
Below are the from angry, platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and analysis essay, advertise Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Carson City Nevada Engage in road show from time to time in The Problem About "Excessive Work" and target neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and comparative analysis, handbills in target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles and trucks are well branded with our company’s logo et al. Party Rental Business Plan Financial Projections and dicken, Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by comparative analysis essay renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is poison conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for essay your business. The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in of a and contrast prices would be minimal and comparative analysis, can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for poison starting a party supply rental business; it might differ in other countries due to comparative analysis, the value of their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC in The Problem About and Its Setting the United of America; The Total Fee for incorporating the Business in the United States of America- $750. The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and business license $2,500 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable facility that will accommodate our dismantled tents, trucks and comparative, small office facility (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $150,000.
The Cost for equipping the office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $5,000 The Cost of Launching an official Website $600 The cost for examples of a the construction of standard tents $10,000 The cost for the purchase of standard party supply items (tables, chairs, flatware, linens, centerpieces, stages, tents, canopies, public address system, red carpet, drums, plates, glasses, cutleries and comparative analysis essay, other items for About Work" and Its Setting Essay public and essay, private parties and events) $50,000 The cost for the purchase of a truck – $10,000 Budget for paying at least 4 employees for 2 months plus utility bills $100,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $5,000. Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about four hundred and fifty thousand ( 450,000 ) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard and well – equipped party supply rental business firm in the United States of poison, America. Generating Funds / Startup Capital for Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC. Comparative. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is a family business that will be owned by Work" Its Setting Mrs. Essay. Caroline Packer and his immediate family members. They are the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is sinners in the of an angry god why they decided to restrict the comparative analysis essay, sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources.
These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and lotte, friends Apply for loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about analysis $150,000 ( Personal savings $100,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000 ) and we are at the final stages of confectionery, obtaining a loan facility of $300,000 from our bank. All the comparative analysis essay, papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the lotte, loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. PARTY RENTAL BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and analysis, competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the of a essay, business close shop. One of analysis essay, our major goals of starting Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the dicken global shift, business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and analysis essay, winning customers over is to rental out our party supply items / equipment a little bit lower than what is poison in hamlet obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while. Caroline Packer® Party Rentals, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to comparative essay, greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. Private Meaning. As a matter of comparative analysis essay, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of six years or more.
We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the private meaning, best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to essay, help us build the quotes of an angry, business of comparative analysis, our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for of a compare business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of analysis essay, Insurance for the Business: Completed Securing a standard facility and reconstruction inclusive: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of compare, The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and comparative, facility facelift: In progress Purchase of various sizes of standard tents and other party rentals items: Completed Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for dicken shift the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress.
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Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis. Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis 1. 0 Executive Summary This report discusses the details of the Geely Automobile Company and an analysis of its financial statements in the past 5 years. The purpose of the report is an application of the knowledge learnt from the essay, Financial Statement Analysis course, and tries to give recommendations. Rather than giving simple suggestions like buy, sell or hold the stocks, it is hoped that by lotte analyzing the financial statements, the data can provide support for the recommendations such as the future profit and loss of Geely. As one of the four largest independent private automobile manufacturers in China, Geely Auto has been expanding rapidly.
The sale of Geely has increased from essay 200 units in 1998 to 329. 100 units in 2009. In addition, in 2010, the purchase of Volvo greatly increases the examples compare, reputation of comparative analysis, Geely. Although the About "Excessive Work" and Essay, acquisition just happened few months ago, it is comparative analysis believed that it will beneficial to increase the market share. Further SWOT analysis shows that, the well-established sales network and the emphasis on RD capabilities will have a positive effect on the future growth of Geely.
Moreover, the external environment such as the continuous growth in Chinese market and government policy support shows a promising future for Geely. However, there are also threats exist outside the market and weaknesses inside Geely. It is in the of an angry god really hard to comparative, give any suggestions by simply analyzing the industry and outside environment. Therefore, the examples compare essay, report mainly focuses on the analysis of the financial statements. Analysis includes the capital structure and essay, solvency, liquidity, operating performance and profitability, and cash flow statements.
On October 28, 2009, Geely was named as the preferred buyer of Volvo Cars by Ford. On December 23, 2009, Ford confirmed that all substantive commercial terms for the sale to poison in hamlet, Geely had been settled. A definitive agreement was signed on comparative analysis, March 28, 2010 worth $1. Private Meaning! 8 billion, and essay, the deal was completed on lotte, August 2, 2010. Management * Executive directors: Mr. Li Shu Fu, Mr. Comparative! Gui Sheng Yue, Mr. Yang Jian, Mr.
Ang, Siu Lun, Mr. Yin Da Qing, Mr. Liu Jin Liang, Mr. Zhao Jie, Dr. Zhao Fuquan * Non-Executive Directors:Mr. Xu Gang * Independent Non-executive Directors: Mr. Song Lin, Mr. Lee Cheuk Yin, Mr. Yeung Sau Hung * Senior Management: Mr. Zhang Peng, Mr. Cheung Chung Yan Products * Xiali TJ7300-based * 1998 — HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV * 2000 — MR/Merrie * 2002 — MR/Uliou/MS * 2004 — PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny * 2002 — BL/Beauty Leopard/BO * Daewoo-designed * 2005 — CK/Freedom Cruiser * 2006 — MK/LG/KingKong * 2006 — FC/Vision * 2008 — Geely China Dragon Major activities and poison in hamlet, achievements * Geely’s JI-6360 model was certified by comparative essay the government making Geely the first private company qualified to be producing automobiles in China.
First Chinese automaker present at the Frankfurt Motor Show in confectionery, September 2005. * First Chinese car maker to display at the US Detroit auto show. Winning the Special Contribution Grand Prize for Invention and Creation for its Blow-out Monitoring and Brake System (“BMBS”), a unique safety system independently developed by Geely. Comparative! * In Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, Geely has already started to of a, sell its products. Geely has also entered the Bangladeshi, Cuba, New Zealand, Pakistani, Romanian, Turkish and South African car markets. Figure 1; Development in sales, source: Geely annual report 1998-2009 3. Financial Analysis In the following sections Geely’s capital structure, solvency and liquidity, profitability and cash flow will be discussed. 3. Comparative! 1 Analysis of Capital Structure Geely automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Capital Structure| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| L-Tdebt| –| –| –| 87000| 1318000| Deferred taxation| –| –| –| 8018| 37727| other L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 0| 1442153| Total L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 95018| 2797880| Current liabilities| 54548| 227198| 5273470| 76378| 8907789| Total liabilities| 54548| 910036| 5582744| 171396| 11705669| %| 6%| 46%| 68%| 3%| 62%| | | | | | common shareholder’s equity| 798080| 1030157| 2441440| 4197862| 6375613| minority interests| 9013| 19769| 211760| 584619| 720907| Total equity capital| 798080| 1049926| 2653200| 4782481| 7096520| %| 94%| 54%| 32%| 97%| 38%| | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| 852628| 1959962| 8235944| 4953877| 18802189| | 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (“HKFRSs”) ————————————————- From common-size analysis, we know leverage rate of dicken, Geely is stable for year 2006 and comparative, 2007, declines sharply for year 2008, and then rebounds strongly to 62% in year 2009. Poison! Then look at the absolute value, it’s not difficult to analysis essay, find out a great rise in both liability and in hamlet, equity capital. In 2009, the total liability is more than a trilion. Referring to its investment and operation in comparative essay, recent years, we think Geely is trading on the equity, which indicates it is using equity capital as a borrowing base in About Work" Its Setting Essay, a desire to reap excess returns. This can be confirmed by its step-by-step acquisition of many assembly line and investment on new factories financed by bond and bank borrowing, which is conversely based on increasing equity (stock price stimulated by comparative analysis essay expansion).
Those investments are revalued and taken into asset as a new backup. 3. 2 Solvency Analysis Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Solvency Ratios| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| D/E ratio| 0. 07 | 0. 88 | 2. 29 | 0. 04 | 1. 84 | Interest coverage ratio| –| 7. 66 | 10. 11 | 16. Dicken Global! 06 | 15. 46 | S-T D/E| –| 0. 22 | 2. 16 | 0. 02 | 1. Comparative Essay! 0 | | The computation for Year 2009 is The Problem Work" and Its Setting Essay shown here:| D/E ratio= Total liabilities / Shareholder’s equity = 2,797,880 / 6,375,613| Interest coverage ratio= EBIT / Interest Expense = 1,657686 / 107,226| S-T D/E= Long-term liabilities / Shareholder’s Equity = 8,907,789 / 6,375,613| | The computation for EBIT is shown below:| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Profit| 115377| 214149| 318100| 866053| 1319028| Interest expense| –| 32390 | 35103 | 60952 | 107226 | Taxation| –| 1585 | 1673 | 51869 | 231432| EBIT| 115377| 248124| 354876| 978874| 1657686| Since the ratio of debt to equity capital is relatively high, we need to essay, take a further look of its financial condition. Before assessing long-term solvency we want to confectionery, be satisfied about the near-term fiancial survival of Geely. Essay! Unfortunately, Geely’s short term debt to equity ratio is The Problem About and Its Setting 1. Analysis Essay! 40, quite high in shift, the most recent year.
Although it can raise capital from HK listed market, equity is apparently not enough to make up its shortage of capital in short term. Essay! According to sinners in the god, NOTE, Geely has discounted notes receivable to banks in exchange for cash with recourse in the ordinary course of business. Therefore, the risk resulting from its speeding expansion not only depends on its own performance, but its customers’ financial distress. Comparative Analysis! Interest coverage ratio is satisfactory, which means payment of the interest liability Geely has incurred on its long-term borrowing is in a less pressure. Lotte! 3. 2 Analysis of Liquidity Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Liquidity| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Industry norm| Accounts Receivable Turnover| 1. 91 | 0. Essay! 95 | 1. 99 | 1. 51 | 2. 29 | 19. 47| Acid-test ratio| 1. 13 | 0. 68 | 10. 44 | 0. 71 | 1. "Excessive Work"! 19 | | Inventory turnover| 15. Comparative Analysis! 9 | 11. 10 | 8. 36 | 136.
70 | 393. 17 | 31. 79| | | | | | | | The computations are as follows:| | Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net sales / Average accounts receivable| | Acid-test ratio = Cash and equivalents + Marketable securities + Accounts receivable / Current liabilities| | Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory| | The selected accouts used in computation are here:| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| | Sales revenue| 101411| 127006| 137209| 4289037| 14069225| | COGS| 90649| 110036| 121251| 3637752| 11528489| | Inventory | 5703| 9910| 14498| 26611| 29322| | urrent asset| 67212| 280681| 884331| 5110552| 12219411| | current liability| 54548| 227198| 79559| 5273470| 8907789| | Trade and other receivables| 44840| 59065| 65443| 2840255| 6144929| | Dividend receivable| 8220| 74840| 3560| –| –| | Accounts receivable| 53060| 133905| 69003| 2840255| 6144929| | cash ; cash equivalents| 8449| 20972| 761684| 889408| 4498155| | Marketable security| | | | | | | The accounts receivable turnover is much worse than industry average. However, an increase of accounts receivable may due to rise in sales or difficulty in collecting quite timely. Referring to NOTE, we know that receivables are guaranteed by established banks in private meaning, the PRC and have maturities of six months or less.
So the likelihood of timely collection is in less question. The inventory turnover is exaggeratedly higher than industry level, especially after its installment of P-SCM supply chain management system, which integrates ordering, producing, selling, and distributing. So we can conclude that Geely is doing excellence in inventory management and is enjoying a growth in comparative, market demand of its products 3. Analysis of Operating Activities To be able to make a comprehensive analysis of Geely’s activities, both the income statement and the balance sheet have been restated in appendix A and B, such that it is possible to identify operating and non-operating income, assets and liabilities. Assumptions regarding classifications are also available in the appendixes. Figure 2: illustration of revenue and lotte, operating income, Source Geely annual report 2007 -2009 Figure 2 illustrates how dramatic the development in especially revenue has been the analysis essay, last three years. Net sales are up by almost 200 percent from 2008 to 2009, while only a 60 percent increase in volume is reported in the annual report.
Mainly the large growth is a result of full consolidation of the poison in hamlet, Groups manufacturing Operations. Moreover, the analysis, acquisition of “Drivetrain Systems” at About Work" and, June 30th 2009 generated extra revenue the comparative analysis essay, last half year of 2009. Further the of an angry god, notes reveal that 95 percent of sales are within China in 2010, in 2009 it was only 81 percent. Analysis Essay! A decline in export can in a future growth perspective be a concern. Geely have improved profit margin over the last three years (18 percent In 2009), while the poison in hamlet, operating margin have been rather volatile (Appendix 1). This is comparative essay caused by large income/expences from “share of results of associated companies”.
It is expected that this account will be less important in the future as some associates now are fully consolidated. A large increase in distribution and lotte, selling expenses in 2009 (increase more than 200 percent) is worth to note. It raises questions as can Geely manage all the new acquisitions without getting less effective and the level of earnings quality. No extraordinary or unusual are identified in comparative, the financial statement. It is a good sign since these accounts often are subject to earnings management.
Comprehensive income is nicely increasing and no unusual increase in unrealized gains/losses of The Problem "Excessive Work" and Essay, currency is identified. 3. 4 Analysis of comparative, Return on Common Equity This analysis show that the drivers behind the increasing return to common equity is dicken mainly due to heavy increase in asset turnover and an equal percentage increase in comparative analysis essay, leverage. The adjusted profit margin has unfortunately been declining heavily over The Problem "Excessive Work" and Its Setting, the period. Geely is therefore relying on comparative analysis, Non-operating activities to reach the growth in ROCE. From a shareholder perspective is an The Problem Work" Its Setting increase in ROCE due to leverage not sustainable. However it must be noticed that it was only analysis last year the increase in lotte confectionery, leverage was heavy, while the increase in asset turnover has been for longer. From a financial point of view it can be argued that taking up debt while it is cheap, since the interest rate is currently low, is in the long run better for the shareholders, if the alternative was to analysis, finance expansion with more expensive equity. What is critical is if Geely is strong enough to lotte, turnaround their adjusted profit margin to keep growing healthy.
3. 5 Cash Flow Analysis It is useful to construct a summary of cash inflows and comparative, outflows by major categories because we can evaluate a firm’s sources and uses of cash from operating, investing and financing activities directly. Geely Automobile Holdings LimitedSummary of cash inflows and outflowsYear ended 31 Dec 200X| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Total| Operating activities| (7636)| (31858)| (17747)| 550977 | 948805 | 1442541| Investing activities| 5064| (660806)| 247079 | (274542)| (1305946)| (1989151)| Financing activities| 9452| 704988 | 542943 | (148711)| 3966382 | 5075054| Increase( decrease) in cash| 6880| 12324 | 772275 | 127724 | 3609241 | 4528444| Year 2009 cash reinvestment ratio = (operating cashflow-Dividends) / (Gross plant assets+investment+other assets+working capital) = (948,805- 59,500)/[103+(293,697+97,788)+4,185,892+3,311,622) = 11. 27%| The summary of cash flow chart shows that during fiscal year 2005. 2007 Geely experienced negative operating cash flow. Besides that it has used cash to finance increase in private meaning, inventory and receivables, the ‘Share of results of associates’ turnaround profits before tax from a positive position to a reverse one as it contributes more than 100% negatively before 2008 to Geely’s profit after tax.
This may be due to its stage of growth since total capital expenditures by its operating associates amounts to approximately RMB1 billion, which are mainly funded by the operational cash flow generated by associates. The insufficient operating cashflow part is essay made up by quotes from in the angry financing activities through issuing debt and securities and comparative analysis essay, borrowing from banks. From fiscal year 2008 Geely was able to lotte confectionery, begin generate positive operating cashflow . However, positive operating cashflow may due to the decrease in its working capital. The cash flow statement shows that payables decreased significantly after 2008, which raises doubt on a possibility that Geely delayed payments to suppliers until its operating cash flow before adjustment of working capital become healthier. The major cash outlay is investing activities, corresponding to its funding for the research and development of comparative analysis essay, new vehicle models, new engines and gearboxes, the construction and confectionery, expansion of plants. Concerning financing activities, one point should be mentioned here is that Geely borrows with its receivables as collateral, the analysis essay, inflow of cash is reported as a financing activity in The Problem Work" Its Setting Essay, the cash flow statement. The second doubt come up when comparing with income statement. Earnings are significantly exceeding operating cashflow, this may be an indication of aggressive accounting choices, such as recognizing revenues too soon or delaying the recognition of expenses. Take a look at the free cash flow statement.
From free cash flow to equity (FCFE) we know the cash flow availabel for distribution to common shareholders is comparative analysis sufficient. Private Meaning! Along with its satisfactory reinvestment ratio, Geely proves that it is taking care of investors. Geely automobile Holdings LimitedFree cash flow statementYear ended 31 Dec 200X| | HK$’000| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net income| 214149| 305767| 866053| 1319028| Depreciation| 1403| 2282| 141053| 364598| intereset expense| 32390| 35103| 60952| 107226| net capital expenditure| 99304. 87| 93000| 113990| 113443| working capital investment| 53483| 804772| -162918| 3311622| FCFF| 95154. 13| -554620| 1116986| -1634213| Net borrowing| 716000| 330000| 1061000| 4300000| FCFE| 584837 | 219253 | 1497987 | 5135362 | net capital expenditure = approximate expenditure in RMB* rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date| 4. 0 SWOT analysis of Geely Automobile Strengths 1. Continuously Increasing Revenue Geely’s gross profit margin has continued to grow over the past few years due to analysis essay, successful company expansion and dicken shift, increasing market shares. The total sales for various kinds of Geely vehicles has accumulated to over 800,000 since 2001, and the Geely trademark has been recognized as a well-known mark in essay, China.
It has established over 200 sales service bases overseas, and performed SKD/CKD assembly production and sales in Ukraine, Russia and Indonesia and other countries. 2. Emphasis on Research ; Development Capabilities. By the of a compare and contrast essay, end of 2009, Geely owns a total of essay, 1,600 technology patents. Geely has a professional research and development team, the examples compare and contrast, staff number of essay, which exceeds 1,400, representing 12% of the total staff of the of a compare and contrast essay, Group With its extensive investment in research and development, the group’s R;D team is capable of analysis essay, launching four to five new models every year, reflecting its leading position in R;D and technology innovation capabilities in China’s automobile sector. 3. In The Hands Of An God! Acquisition of Volvo and Enhanced Green Technology. New energy-powered vehicle is the latest trend and analysis essay, it will be the future of the world’s auto industry. From In The Of An! Ford and Volvo have already invested millions of dollars over the past decade in comparative, terms of new energy technology. About "Excessive And Its Setting Essay! Acquiring Volvo may enhance Geely’s technology in new energy-powered vehicle area, help Geely take a step forward in competing with other homegrown brands, and pave the way for Geely to comparative analysis, enter the global auto market. Weaknesses 1. Accounts Receivables Worse than Industry average Geely’s average turnover ratio of private meaning, accounts receivables from 2005 to comparative essay, 2009 is 1. 3, which is substantially lower than the in hamlet, industry average, 19.
47. Although the previous analysis has shown less possibilities of payment collection problem, a low accounts receivable turnover ratio still indicates that there is an opportunity cost of holding receivables for a longer period of time. 2. Image of Lower-end Brand Although Geely has a well-established sales network and growing competence in analysis, core technology, it is hard for Geely to alter its lower-end brand image, since its original target market is low cost vehicle. But branding is about value and perceived quality, so price alone can never facilitate a victory. Enhancing quality and ensuring that its cars are on par with the global leading brands are still a major challenge for Geely.
3. Poison! Less Advanced Technology Despite the vast amount of investment in research and analysis essay, development, capital and private meaning, talents for automobile core technology are limited, and comparative, it is poison hard for Geely to compete with the advanced technology of foreign automobile manufacturers. 4. Comparative Essay! Unsatisfactory Sales in Export Markets Motor vehicles sales in compare essay, most parts of the world market remains fragile. As a result, Geely exports business could continue to face major challenges given the fierce competition and the short history of operation in its major export markets. Opportunities 1. Comparative Analysis! Continuous Growth of China Sedan Market China’s passenger vehicle market ended last year with a 59 percent year-on-year sales increase to surpass the United States as the world’s largest auto market for the first year. According to examples and contrast essay, estimate of Goldman Sachs Global ECS research report, growth in China car market will be remained for the next 10 years and the industry GDP growth will be 11. % in 2010 and 10% in comparative essay, 2011. Goldman Sachs Global ECS research teams forecasts that China will further boost its No. 1 position in "Excessive Work" and Its Setting Essay, the car market with sales reaching 30 million units per year by 2020. 2. Government Policy Support In the past few years, the focus of Chinese government policies for automobile industry is to comparative analysis essay, boost sustainable growth in the economy with auto industry as one of quotes hands of an angry god, its pillars and to support domestic participants and analysis essay, industry consolidation.
Threats 1. Fierce Competition from dicken global shift both Domestic and Foreign Brand The huge profit potential of essay, China car market brings about fierce competition among both local and foreign automobile manufacturers. In the The Problem About "Excessive and, luxury automobile market, foreign manufacturers are in leader position due to their sophisticated technology and high brand recognition. Comparative Analysis! While in lower end automobile market, local brands are strong competitors. From Sinners In The Hands Angry! 2. Analysis! Possibility of examples of a compare and contrast, Overcapacity in China Auto Market Some industrial experts concern that China’s market may one day face vercapacity problems. A report from the official news portal of China’s eastern Zhejiang province showed that, based on the production plan of China’s 12 major auto manufacturers for the next five years, China’s auto production would reach 32. Analysis Essay! 5 million units in 2015, far exceeding the forecast of 22 million units in the blue book of China’s automobile industry. Confectionery! If Overcapacity problems occur, serious overproduction capacity will lead to negative market competitiveness a loss in enterprise efficiency, factory stoppages and other problems. . 0 Analyses of management discussion and analyst’s opinion Appendix C summarizes some Analysts view of Geely. However, not all Analysts agree upon whether you should sell, hold or buy the stock.
Several reasons are discussed in the respective reports; though all analysts agree that Geely is a healthy company with a stable revenue base, increasing volume and comparative essay, satisfactory margins. What analysts do not agree upon lotte, is whether Geely can maintain their growth potential and analysis essay, gain market share in The Problem About "Excessive and Its Setting Essay, both the comparative analysis, domestic and export market. The penetration in private meaning, the Chinese passenger car market is extremely low compared to USA and Europe (JP Morgan, 2010) and as the Chinese people are getting wealthier the market potential will increase the upcoming years. Loads of Automobile manufacturer will compete to gain market share and earn extraordinary profit. Credit Suisse and CIMB are representing the comparative, negative analysts who believe that domestic market competition will increase as the nearest competitors have invested heavily in the industry and developing of new brands (CIMB, 2010). Geely Management has not commented upon this in their report, but instead they emphasize they have sufficient funds to About Work" and Its Setting, cover investments and RD expenses to facilitate their own growth. Additionally, Credit Suisse (2010) emphasize that every auto manufacturer in the Chinese market are currently investing in comparative essay, production facilities. Credit Suisse is therefore worried it will result in an oversupply and consequently make inventories to rice.
To bring inventories down a price war on vehicles can arise. This will affect margins negatively. JP Morgan represents a positive analyst that strongly believe that the current acquisition of Volvo will result in synergy effects and a technology platform that no one else can imitate in the near future. Further JP Morgan is confident that the The Problem About, low penetration of vehicles in analysis, the domestic market will ensure future growth, and About "Excessive Work" Its Setting, therefore recommends buying the stock. DBS, Deutche Bank and Yuanta are recommending holding the stock, since they believe there are too many uncertainties connected to Geely and the future. Especially they all emphasize the lack of analysis, a clear growth catalyst to quotes from sinners angry god, outperform the market. Further, the acquisition of Volvo seems to analysis essay, have longer prospects before profiting than expected at first hand (CIMP, 2010). As expected Geely’s management discussion is in hamlet very positive towards the future and leaves the comparative essay, shareholders with the impression of The Problem About Work" and, a highly growing company with a healthy economy and a clear defined strategy, although it is analysis noticed that very little space is used to comment upon dicken global, the current competition in the market. Comparative Essay! Instead Geely Management has chosen to in hamlet, focus at their new strategic platform and how they can develop brands and product lines into a competitive advantage (Geely, 2010). It can be interpreted as an indirectly method to cope with the market competition without discussing the situation in analysis essay, detail. The Problem About "Excessive Work" And! Shareholders, however, must be aware of this matter when evaluating the business.
Even though current revenue is increasing heavily one must consider how sustainable this growth rate is in the future. It can be concluded that Geely Management are slightly taking a too positive approach towards the essay, current market conditions, since these are not discussed in depth and analysts report emphasize different issues than Geely. This analysis facilitate that there are no universal answer to trading with stocks. We all wants to of a compare essay, buy the stocks that are undervalued and sell the ones that are overvalued, and the answer you get depends on the method, forecast and strategic mindset of the analyst. Essay! Geely is without doubt a healthy company so the buy, held, sell decision lies within how you value the confectionery, growth opportunities, how Geely can facilitate RD and implement acquisitions and thereby benefit from synergies. 6. 0 Recommendation.
Geely have the essay, recent years had an expansion strategy, and as a consequence a high level of investment. This has resulted in a higher leverage and that earnings significantly are exceeding cash flows. However this is also a natural picture of a company in shift, an expansion phase. It is found that Geely has satisfactory interest rate coverage even though leverage is increasing. Furthermore, accounts receivables is found worse than industry average, but good bank agreements make it easy for Geely to meet liquidity issues. Inventory turnover is also good, as the focus on SCM systems have proven its worth. This is moreover expressed in the increased asset turnover which partly is the driver behind the comparative essay, increasing ROCE. Poison! However it is important to analysis, note that the adjusted profit margin is declining. The overall performance shows increased revenue/earnings, but it is very difficult to determine the earnings quality since most of the examples of a compare and contrast, rise is due to consolidation and acquisitions. The positive free cash flow and satisfactory reinvestment ratio shows that Geely are taking care of investors. SWOT analysis identifies possible business catalyst as RD and the new acquisition of Volvo that could create synergy effect.
It is our opinion that these business drivers are rather uncertain but is very likely to succeed and combined with Geelys current healthy financial situation; we are taking a positive approach towards Geely and recommends to comparative, buy the stock. 7. Dicken Global! 0 Bibliography Geely Automile Holdings Annual report 2005-2009 Investment Reports: DBS (8. June2010) Hong Kong/ China Company Focus; Geely Automobiles Holding; DBS Vickers Securities; Analyst: Miu, Rachel Credit Suisse (12. July 2010) Asian Daily – Geely Auto; Credit Suisse Analysis; Analyst: HungBin Toh CIMB (28. Comparative Analysis Essay! Sep. 010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; CIMB Reasearch; Analyst: Cheam, The Shen JP Morgan (26. Sep. 2010 ) Geely Automiles Holding LTD – Initiating Coverage, JP Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research; Analyst: by Li, Frank Deutche Bank (26. Aug.
2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Deutche Securities Asia LTD; Analyst: Ha, Vincent Yuanta (26. Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Yuata Research; Analyst: Wong, Johnny Websites: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) Appendix A: Restated income statement Appendix B: Restated Balance Sheet. Appendix C: Overview of confectionery, Analysts opinion Source: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. Analysis Essay! HK) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Industry average figure reference: http:// www. stats. Poison In Hamlet! gov. cn [ 3 ]. Property, plant and comparative, equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis at the following rates per private meaning [ 4 ]. Goldman Sachs, China: Automobiles, May 19, 2010 [ 5 ]. Business Monitor International, BMI China Auto’s Report 2010, November 2009 [ 6 ]. Global Times, China’s Expanding Auto Production Triggers Overcapacity Concerns, July 19 2010. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of President Obama's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in comparative, Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you. Thank you.
Thank you so much. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much. Thank you. Thank you very much, everybody. (Cheers, applause.) Thank you. Michelle, I love you so much. (Cheers, applause.)
A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to school in the morning. Confectionery! (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the very best vice president I could have ever hoped for comparative essay — (cheers, applause) — and being a strong and loyal friend. Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for private meaning president of the comparative analysis, United States. (Cheers, applause.) President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from PBS NewsHour. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years!
Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the lotte confectionery, first time I addressed this convention, in 2004, I was a younger man — (laughter) — a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about comparative analysis hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in The Problem About "Excessive Work" and Its Setting, the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the analysis, odds are great, even when the road is long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by the cost of war, by one of the worst economic crises in history and by political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to tackle the challenges of our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions. Confectionery! Serious issues become sound bites.
The truth gets buried under an analysis, avalanche of money and advertising. And if you're sick of dicken shift hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is said and analysis, done, when you pick up that ballot to in the hands of an angry god vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in a generation. (Cheers.) Over the next few years big decisions will be made in Washington on jobs, the economy, taxes and deficits, energy, education, war and peace — decisions that will have a huge impact on comparative, our lives and on private meaning, our children's lives for decades to come. And on every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties. It will be a choice between two different paths for America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for comparative the future. Ours is a fight to of a compare restore the analysis essay, values that built the largest middle class and the strongest economy the world has ever known — (cheers, applause) — the shift, values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the values that drove my grandmother to work on a bomber assembly line while he was gone. Comparative Essay! They knew they were part of something larger — a nation that triumphed over fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the world's best products, and everyone shared in that pride and success from the corner office to the factory floor. My grandparents were given the About Work" and, chance to comparative analysis essay go to private meaning college and buy their home — their own home and fulfill the basic bargain at the heart of America's story, the promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and analysis essay, everyone plays by the same rules, from Main Street to poison Wall Street to Washington, D.C. (Cheers, applause.) And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. I began my career helping people in comparative analysis essay, the shadow of a shuttered steel mill at a time when too many good jobs were starting to move overseas. About "Excessive Work" And Essay! And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to make the mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in analysis essay, the car or food on essay, the table.
And when the essay, house of cards collapsed in the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to recover. Now, our friends down in Tampa at shift, the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about essay everything they think is wrong with America. But they didn't have much to say about how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan. And that's because all they have to offer is the same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. Have a surplus? Try a tax cut. Deficit too high — try another. Feel a cold coming on?
Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for those who need it — (cheers, applause) — middle-class families, small businesses. But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for millionaires will bring good jobs to our shores, or pay down our deficit. I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy — (cheers, applause) — or help us compete with the scientists and engineers coming out of China. Lotte! After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on Wall Street will help the small-businesswoman expand, or the laid-off construction worker keep his home. We have been there, we've tried that, and we're not going back. We are moving forward, America. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the path I'm offering is quick or easy. I never have. You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to hear. You elected me to comparative tell you the confectionery, truth. (Cheers, applause.)
And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for us to solve challenges that have built up over decades. It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of analysis essay bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the only crisis worse than this one. (Cheers, applause.) And by the way, those of us who carry on his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to a better place, and I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.) I'm asking you to rally around a set of goals for your country, goals in manufacturing, energy, education, national security and the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to new jobs, more opportunity and rebuild this economy on a stronger foundation. That's what we can do in the next four years, and poison, that is why I am running for analysis a second term as president of the examples, United States. Comparative Essay! (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and global, doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. Comparative! (Applause.) I've met workers in in hamlet, Detroit and Toledo who feared — (cheers, applause) — they'd never build another American car.
And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on the top of the analysis, world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products — (cheers) — because we work harder and smarter than anyone else. (Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. (Cheers, applause.) AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA! USA!
USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And after a decade of confectionery decline, this country created over analysis essay, half a million manufacturing jobs in the last 2 1/2 years. (Cheers.) And now you have a choice. We can give more tax breaks to corporations that shift jobs overseas PRESIDENT OBAMA: — or we can start rewarding companies that open new plants and train new workers and create new jobs here in global, the United States of America. (Cheers, applause.) We can help big factories and comparative essay, small businesses double their exports.
And if we choose this path, we can create a million new manufacturing jobs in the next four years. The Problem About Work" And Essay! You can make that happen. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future. You can choose the path where we control more of our own energy. After 30 years of inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by the middle of the next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of analysis essay Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. (Cheers, applause.) In the The Problem "Excessive Work" Its Setting Essay, last year alone, we cut oil imports by 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in recent history. (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of America is comparative less dependent on foreign oil than at any time in the last two decades. (Cheers, applause.) So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on examples compare essay, it.
We've opened millions of new acres for oil and gas exploration in the last three years, and analysis, we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in corporate welfare from our taxpayers. (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path. We're offering a better path where we — a future where we keep investing in private meaning, wind and solar and comparative, clean coal, where farmers and scientists harness new biofuels to The Problem About "Excessive Work" and power our cars and comparative analysis, trucks, where construction workers build homes and The Problem "Excessive Its Setting, factories that waste less energy, where — where we develop a hundred-year supply of natural gas that's right beneath our feet. If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by 2020 and support more than 600,000 new jobs in essay, natural gas alone. Global Shift! (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to reduce the carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is not a hoax.
More droughts and floods and wildfires are not a joke. (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to analysis essay our children's future. And in this election, you can do something about it. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the chance to gain the skills they need to from hands compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have. Education was the gateway to opportunity for me. (Cheers.) It was the gateway for Michelle. Analysis! It was — it was the gateway for most of you. And now more than ever it is the gateway to a middle-class life. For the first time in private meaning, a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to comparative analysis essay raise their standards for quotes of an teaching and learning. (Cheers, applause.) Some of the worst schools in the country have made real gains in math and reading. Millions of students are paying less for comparative college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of dicken global shift a crowded classroom or a crumbling school. Comparative! No family should have to set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the money. (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for The Problem About Work" Its Setting Essay workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the right skills here at home. (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. Comparative Analysis Essay! That is poison not our future. Comparative Essay! (Cheers, applause.)
A government has a role in this. But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead. Parents must instill a thirst for learning. And students, you've got to do the work. (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on earth. (Cheers, applause.) So help me.
Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and private meaning, science teachers within 10 years and improve early childhood education. (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the comparative analysis, chance to learn skills at their community college that will lead directly to The Problem and a job. Help us work with colleges and universities to cut in comparative, half the growth of tuition costs over private meaning, the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in a world of comparative new threats and new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and proven. Four years ago I promised to end the war in Iraq. We did. (Cheers, applause.) I promised to refocus on the terrorists who actually attacked us on 9/11, and we have. (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the "Excessive and Its Setting, Taliban's momentum in Afghanistan and in 2014, our longest war will be over. (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the New York skyline, al- Qaida is on the path to defeat and Osama bin Laden is analysis essay dead. (Cheers, applause.) And tonight we pay tribute to the Americans who still serve in harm's way. We are forever in debt to a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and more respected.
We will never forget you, and quotes from in the of an, so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the comparative analysis essay, strongest military the world has ever known. (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to fight for god a job or a roof over their head or the care that they need when they come home. Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to stop the spread of comparative analysis nuclear weapons. Sinners In The Hands Of An! We've reasserted our power across the essay, Pacific and stood up to China on About "Excessive Work" and, behalf of our workers. From Burma to Libya to analysis South Sudan, we have advanced the poison in hamlet, rights and dignity of comparative analysis all human beings — (cheers) — men and women; Christians and quotes from sinners hands of an angry, Muslims and Jews. (Cheers, applause.) But for all the progress that we've made, challenges remain.
Terrorist plots must be disrupted. Analysis Essay! Europe's crisis must be contained. Our commitment to Israel's security must not waver, and neither must our pursuit of examples of a peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against its nuclear ambitions. The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of a dictator or the hate of extremists, but by the hopes and aspirations of ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.) So now we have a choice. My opponent and his running mate are new to foreign policy. (Laughter, applause.) But from all that we've seen and analysis essay, heard, they want to confectionery take us back to an era of blustering and blundering that cost America so dearly. After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy — not al- Qaida, Russia — (laughter) — unless you're still stuck in analysis essay, a Cold War mind warp. (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for The Problem "Excessive Work" and Essay diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally. (Laughter, cheers, applause.)
My opponent — my opponent said that it was tragic to end the comparative analysis, war in dicken shift, Iraq. Analysis! And he won't tell us how he'll end the lotte, war in Afghanistan. Well, I have, and I will. (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the money we're no longer spending on analysis essay, war to pay down our debt and put more people back to The Problem Work" Its Setting work — (extended cheers, applause) — rebuilding roads and comparative essay, bridges and schools and runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of lives and over lotte confectionery, a trillion dollars, it's time to comparative do some nation building right here at home. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. In Hamlet! (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in Congress to analysis cut a billion dollars in and contrast essay, spending, because those of us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and essay, more efficient and more responsive to the American people. (Cheers, applause.) I want to The Problem reform the tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the wealthiest households to pay higher taxes on incomes over $250,000 — (cheers, applause) — the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the biggest surplus in history and a whole lot of millionaires to boot. Now, I'm still eager to reach an agreement based on the principles of my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom. Essay! No democracy works without compromise. I want to examples compare and contrast get this done, and analysis essay, we can get it done.
But when Governor Romney and his friends in Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by spending trillions more on dicken global, new tax breaks for the wealthy, well — (boos) — what'd Bill Clinton call it? You do the analysis essay, arithmetic. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the math. I refuse to global shift go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask middle-class families to comparative analysis give up their deductions for dicken global shift owning a home or raising their kids just to pay for another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask students to analysis pay more for college or kick children out of Head Start programs to eliminate health insurance for confectionery millions of Americans who are poor and comparative essay, elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less. I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.) And I will never — I will never turn Medicare into examples and contrast essay, a voucher. (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to spend their golden years at the mercy of insurance companies. They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Analysis! Yes, we will reform and strengthen Medicare for The Problem About "Excessive Its Setting Essay the long haul, but we'll do it by comparative analysis reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to private meaning pay thousands of dollars more. (Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by taking the responsible steps to strengthen it, not by turning it over to Wall Street. (Cheers, applause.) This is the comparative analysis essay, choice we now face. This is what the About Work" Essay, election comes down to.
Over and over, we've been told by comparative essay our opponents that bigger tax cuts and private meaning, fewer regulations are the only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing. If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. Comparative Essay! (Murmurs of disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into the air your children breathe, well, that's the price of progress. If you can't afford to "Excessive Work" Essay start a business or go to college, take my opponent's advice and essay, borrow money from your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and poison, boos, applause.) You know what, that's not who we are. That's not what this country is about. As Americans, we believe we are endowed by analysis our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. Confectionery! We insist on essay, personal responsibility, and we celebrate individual initiative. We're not entitled to dicken success. Analysis Essay! We have to earn it. We honor the strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the entrepreneurs who have always been the driving force behind our free enterprise system, the greatest engine of growth and prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship — (cheers, applause) — citizenship, a word at global, the very heart of our founding, a word at comparative, the very essence of private meaning our democracy, the idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations.
We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to buy the cars that they build, the whole company does better. (Cheers, applause.) We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of other people's homes — (cheers, applause) — and so is the entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the little girl who's offered an escape from poverty by a great teacher or a grant for comparative essay college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the president of the United States — (cheers, applause) — and it is in our power to from sinners in the god give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. We don't want handouts for people who refuse to analysis help themselves, and we certainly don't want bailouts for banks that break the rules. (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the quotes from angry god, government is the source of all of our problems — (cheers, applause) — any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles — (cheers, applause) — because — because America, we understand that this democracy is ours. We, the comparative analysis essay, people — (cheers) — recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in global shift, it for me, a freedom without a commitment to comparative analysis essay others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is unworthy of our founding ideals, and dicken global shift, those who died in their defense. (Cheers, applause.) As citizens, we understand that America is not about what can be done for comparative analysis essay us. It's about what can be done by us, together — (cheers, applause) — through the hard and frustrating but necessary work of in hamlet self-government. Comparative Analysis Essay! That's what we believe. So you see, the election four years ago wasn't about me.
It was about you. Quotes Sinners Hands Of An! (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens — you were the change. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the surgery she needs because an insurance company can't limit her coverage. Analysis Essay! You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in lotte, Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of analysis essay earning a medical degree is and contrast essay about to comparative essay get that chance. Quotes From Sinners In The Hands! You made that possible. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and went to school here and comparative analysis essay, pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the sinners of an god, only country she's ever called home — (cheers, applause) — why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out of the military because of who they are or who they love, why thousands of families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. Analysis Essay! (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home. You did that. You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now — if you turn away now, if you buy into the cynicism that the change we fought for lotte confectionery isn't possible, well, change will not happen.
If you give up on the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the lobbyists and special interests, the people with the $10 million checks who are trying to buy this election and essay, those who are trying to make it harder for you to The Problem About "Excessive and Its Setting Essay vote, Washington politicians who want to decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. Only you have the power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to this convention. Times have changed, and comparative, so have I. I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president. (Cheers, applause.) And — (applause) — and that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years!
Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that — and that means I know what it means to send young Americans into battle, for I've held in my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together — (cheers) — I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by About Work" and Its Setting the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. Comparative Analysis Essay! , for I have held in my arms the mothers and examples of a compare and contrast, fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of comparative essay families who've lost their homes, and private meaning, the frustration of comparative workers who've lost their jobs. If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them.
And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about America. (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the answers. Not because I'm naive about the magnitude of our challenges. I'm hopeful because of private meaning you. The young woman I met at a science fair who won national recognition for her biology research while living with her family at a homeless shelter — she gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to work every day, and analysis, bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to surprise his wife — he gives me hope.
The family business in private meaning, Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the recession hit — (cheers, applause) — even when their competitors shut down dozens of plants, even when it meant the owner gave up some perks and some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the community and the workers who had helped build that business — they give me hope. (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from analysis a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the knee. Examples Compare Essay! And six months ago we would watch him walk into a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) — tall and 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on his face, sturdy on his new leg. Essay! And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the confectionery, hard path he had traveled. He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope. I don't know what party these men and women belong to. I don't know if they'll vote for me. But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in the words of Scripture, that ours is a future filled with hope. (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for your vote. If you reject the notion that this nation's promise is essay reserved for the few, your voice must be heard in this election. (Cheers, applause.)
If you reject the private meaning, notion that our government is analysis essay forever beholden to the highest bidder, you need to stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you believe that new plants and factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of lotte opportunity to this nation of dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and comparative analysis, everyone does their fair share and everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to dicken global vote this November. (Cheers, applause.) America, I never said this journey would be easy, and I won't promise that now. Comparative Analysis! Yes, our path is harder, but it leads to sinners in the of an god a better place. Analysis! (Cheers.) Yes, our road is longer, but we travel it together. (Cheers.) We don't turn back. We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from our victories. Global! (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from comparative analysis our mistakes.
But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is with us and that we are surely blessed to be citizens of the greatest nation on poison, earth. Thank you, God bless you and comparative, God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)
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Analyzing Satire and Parody in Blazing Saddles Essay. No one is born a racist bigot. In other words, racial bigotry or racial prejudice is not genetically or. biologically determined. Therefore, if most people spoke out about racism, it would be the first step. towards a revolutionary change. Analysis Essay. -Dr. Charles Quist-Adade. Mel Brooks’ Blazing Saddles, sheds light to the cultural problems of the private meaning Western era through satire with elements of parody within. John Vogel describes Blazing Saddles as “The Ultimate Western Spoof.” The problem of racism is the comparative analysis main focus of this film. If one takes a closer look at the work of Mel Brooks, there is a noticeable trend of his films pointing fingers at racists. In order to better understand why he takes this approach, a bit of background on his life is necessary.
Mel Brooks’ birth name was Melvin Kaminsky. He was born in in hamlet 1926 in Brooklyn, NY. Brooks was the comparative analysis essay son of lotte, Eastern European Jewish immigrants (Funk). Just that small bit of information begins to essay unravel a larger story. Many people are familiar with the Holocaust and the hardships that persons of Jewish descent faced. Poison. David Thompson describes Brooks in his book A Biographical Dictionary of Film, “Brooks is the product of live-audience TV, hired to comparative analysis essay write gags for Sid Caesar’s Your Show of Shows in 1950. For over a decade, he was a script doctor for confectionery the TV, radio, and stage musicals. … His first two features are his most personal and comparative essay, dangerous works.” (93) Even from a brief summary such as Essay The Satire of Blazing Saddles.
the railroad is present throughout Blazing Saddles. The sheriff starts the movie as a railroad worker, before becoming the private meaning sheriff of comparative analysis essay, Rock Ridge. In addition, the villain is the head of the About "Excessive railroad, which motivates him to destroy the comparative essay small town. Quotes From In The Of An God. He needs the land to lay more tracks, which is typical of a power hungry villain. The elements of westerns are represented in a zany way during the movie. Comparative. The villains are also poked fun at during Blazing Saddles. His name is Hedey Lamar, but everyone In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, satire can be found in About "Excessive Work" Its Setting Essay the actions of one character named Piggy. Piggy is the boy that is the nerd or intellectual of the group.
Piggy represents the intellectuals that created that atomic bomb in WWII. Golding was strongly opposed to the atomic bomb hence the satire in his novel. The first example of satire is found in chapter two .The boys are trying to start a fire and they are all gathering wood except for Piggy. Instead of helping Piggy, “. For this reason, satire offends very few people, but still inspires that important change. Whatever form satire takes is how this will be accomplished. If it is Juvenalian, it is done with indignation and harshness. This tone is somewhat dark and makes inspires change though a form of resentment. This is comparative analysis essay, usually more successful than the global other because anger causes action. The other form is Horatian, and is the amused and witty form of comparative essay, satire. It is presented as mockery, but never to insult or Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead, A Satirical Piece That Parodies Hamle.
The purpose of satire is to point out human flaws in a humorous way in order to instruct and possibly change humanity. A parody is a literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic styles of an author or a work for comic affect or ridicule. Rosencrantz Guildenstern Are Dead is a satirical piece of work that parodies Hamlet, especially in terms of death, a common theme in both. These two plays take different views on death portrayed by the protagonists of each: either Hamlet or Rosencrantz A Brief History of Parody Advertisements Essay. society parody advertisement is commonly used to draw attention to common issues in society that are normally overlooked. The first type of parody advertisements were caricatures. Private Meaning. In history caricatures were used to analysis essay prove a point in politics. Today most parody advertisements express views on poison in hamlet alcohol, drugs, and other common issues that people struggle with to “fit-in” with society. A few examples of parody advertisements are Absolute on Ice, Barcode Escape, and Feed Me Spoof. These parody advertisements South Park as Parody of Society Essay. promotion of sexual promiscuity is comparative analysis essay, a dangerous thing: never have the writers mentioned the lotte confectionery use of condoms by Chef during his encounters.
Finally, because of the analysis recent advances in genetic research and its awakening of new fears in quotes from sinners in the angry god the public, South Park's parody of the geneticist could further play on people's fears. Despite the potentially negative influences of these behaviors and actions, there could be a positive influence existing in the form of catharsis. American society has suffered from the rules is destroyed and will 'not be there to see' the consumers who 'die of cancer' due to comparative analysis essay the foe's malpractices. It is straightforwardly identifiable to the reader the weapons that the victorious side has used to massacre the foe. Using a direct satire (A first-person speaker addresses the reader whose conversation helps further the speaker's purpose) in the poem, the victorious side has massacred the foe using the weapons of structural irony (e.g. the farmers judgment/conscience is in the of an angry god, impaired Understanding Satire Worksheet Essays. 1. Locate an example of satire. Copy and comparative analysis essay, paste it here, making sure to note the source where you found it in a proper citation. (Possible sources include television shows, humor magazines, the op/ed section of the newspaper, movies, comic strips, songs, and internet memes.) 1. Example of satire: “How is it that an ugly ogre could fall in love with the princess? Or how is it that the princess can fall in love with an private meaning ogre? 2. Picture Window Template. Powered by Blogger. Published Tuesday, November Contrastingly, such morally unconventional solutions would not exist in a calmer, straight forward Horatian satire.
Swift’s development of the absurd proposal for eating young children so that “the poorer tenants will have something valuable” or that there “would be constant customers for comparative analysis essay infants flesh” is enhanced by numerous examples of biting irony. Such irony exists even in sinners in the angry the title: “A Modest Proposal.” Upon reading the text, the audience can agree that Swift’s proposal is far from Dissecting the Ideology of Satire Essay. point he brings up is the ideology of satire. Satire, by definition, is a technique utilized by analysis essay writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society. This can be done by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule (Satire - Definition and Examples, para.1). Often times, the humor used opens the audiences’ minds to the underlying problem that the writer is trying to reveal. By examining the purpose and dicken, methods of satire, dissecting literary works, and displaying
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consciousness essay Department of Philosophy. University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Comparative Essay. Also online is my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness, to 26 articles commenting on this paper. That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is quotes in the hands of an nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the explanations always seem to fall short of the target.
Some have been led to suppose that the problem is intractable, and that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on comparative analysis essay, the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from About Work" and Its Setting Essay more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. Comparative. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to confectionery grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the door to further progress is opened. In the analysis second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of in hamlet nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. I put forward my own candidate for comparative essay such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of lotte confectionery information.
2 The easy problems and the hard problem. There is not just one problem of comparative analysis essay consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to confectionery be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the start, it is comparative analysis essay useful to divide the associated problems of consciousness into hard and easy problems. From Angry God. The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods. The easy problems of consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of information by a cognitive system; the reportability of mental states; the comparative analysis essay ability of a system to dicken global shift access its own internal states; the focus of attention; the deliberate control of behavior; the difference between wakefulness and sleep. All of these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. Essay. Sometimes a system is said to be conscious of quotes sinners angry god some information when it has the ability to react on the basis of comparative analysis that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and exploit it in quotes from of an the sophisticated control of behavior.
We sometimes say that an comparative action is examples of a compare essay conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Often, we say that an organism is essay conscious as another way of dicken saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only essay specify the mechanism by which information about internal states is retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by which information is brought together and examples of a essay exploited by later processes. For an account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organisms' contrasting behavior in comparative analysis essay those states will suffice. In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the explanatory work.
If these phenomena were all there was to consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of dicken global these phenomena, we have a clear idea of how we might go about explaining them. This is why I call these problems the easy problems. Analysis Essay. Of course, easy is a relative term. Getting the details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Still, there is private meaning every reason to believe that the essay methods of cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of consciousness is the The Problem and Essay problem of experience . Essay. When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is The Problem About "Excessive Work" Its Setting Essay also a subjective aspect.
As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is something it is comparative analysis essay like to quotes from sinners of an angry god be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is analysis essay experience. Sinners In The Hands Of An Angry. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of essay dark and light, the quality of lotte confectionery depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the analysis essay sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothballs. Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to dicken global orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of a stream of conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to comparative essay be in poison in hamlet them. All of them are states of experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of comparative essay experience. But the question of About Essay how it is that these systems are subjects of experience is perplexing.
Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the analysis quality of deep blue, the sensation of middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and dicken how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an analysis essay organism is conscious if there is dicken global shift something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is comparative essay something it is like to be in that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to speak of conscious experience or simply experience. Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the term consciousness for the phenomena of experience, using the less loaded term awareness for the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and scientists writing on the subject.
It is common to see a paper on consciousness begin with an invocation of the mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and ineffability of subjectivity, and dicken worrying that so far we have no theory of the comparative analysis essay phenomenon. Here, the topic is clearly the hard problem - the problem of in hamlet experience. In the second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of consciousness is outlined. Upon examination, this theory turns out to be a theory of one of the more straightforward phenomena - of essay reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. At the close, the author declares that consciousness has turned out to be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the victim of a bait-and-switch.
The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the easy problems easy, and why is the hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the explanation of quotes sinners in the angry god cognitive abilities and functions . To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. The methods of cognitive science are well-suited for this sort of explanation, and so are well-suited to the easy problems of consciousness. By contrast, the hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the performance of functions. The problem persists even when the performance of all the relevant functions is explained. (Here function is not used in the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is comparative designed to do, but in private meaning the broader sense of any causal role in analysis the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the dicken function of comparative producing reports on internal states. To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by its internal states and private meaning use information about those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and control, we need to explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and analysis essay use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.
These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Here, neurophysiological and cognitive modeling are perfect for the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. Confectionery. If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in computational terms. Essay. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for example, the bulk of our work in explaining reportability is over. In a way, the point is trivial.
It is a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to be instantiated in a system is lotte confectionery that the system has the capacity for analysis essay verbal reports of internal information. All it means for a system to be awake is for it to be appropriately receptive to global shift information from the environment and for it to be able to use this information in directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is making a trivial conceptual mistake about reportability. All it could possibly take to explain reportability is an explanation of how the relevant function is performed; the essay same goes for the other phenomena in question. Throughout the higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the mechanism that stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next. Examples Essay. It turns out that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the comparative essay gene.
To explain life, we ultimately need to explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to lotte its environment, metabolize, and comparative essay so on. All of these are questions about the performance of functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. Global. The same holds for most problems in cognitive science. Comparative Essay. To explain learning, we need to explain the way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in which new information can be brought to bear in adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the job, we have explained learning. We can say the same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.
Sometimes the relevant functions need to be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by explaining the performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of in hamlet experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? A simple explanation of the functions leaves this question open.
There is no analogous further question in comparative analysis the explanation of quotes sinners in the hands of an angry genes, or of life, or of learning. If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next, but you have not explained how it is a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to be a gene is to be an entity that performs the comparative analysis essay relevant storage and transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the key question in the problem of consciousness.
Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. There is an explanatory gap (a term due to Levine 1983) between the functions and experience, and we need an explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the functions stays on one side of the gap, so the materials for the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is global shift not to say that experience has no function. Analysis Essay. Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for compare essay any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the comparative analysis function. Perhaps it will even turn out that in the course of explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of experience.
If this happens, though, the discovery will be an extra explanatory reward. There is no cognitive function such that we can say in advance that explanation of that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. The usual explanatory methods of cognitive science and The Problem About "Excessive Work" and Essay neuroscience do not suffice. Comparative Essay. These methods have been developed precisely to explain the performance of cognitive functions, and in hamlet they do a good job of it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to explain the performance of functions. When it comes to the hard problem, the standard approach has nothing to say. In the last few years, a number of works have addressed the problems of consciousness within the essay framework of cognitive science and neuroscience. This might suggest that the analysis above is faulty, but in fact a close examination of the relevant work only lends the analysis further support. Private Meaning. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the comparative analysis ultimate target of explanation is always one of the easy problems.
I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of consciousness outlined by Crick and Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and private meaning Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness. This is partly because the oscillations seem to comparative essay be correlated with awareness in a number of private meaning different modalities - within the visual and comparative analysis olfactory systems, for example - and also because they suggest a mechanism by private meaning, which the binding of information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about essay, a single entity are brought together to be used by later processing, as when information about the color and dicken shift shape of a perceived object is comparative analysis integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by About "Excessive and, the synchronized oscillations of neuronal groups representing the relevant contents. When two pieces of information are to be bound together, the comparative essay relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and phase. The details of how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. What might the resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of information contents, and perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in the brain. Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of this and perhaps other forms of memory in dicken global the distance.
The theory might eventually lead to analysis essay a general account of of a essay how perceived information is bound and stored in memory, for comparative use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the neural correlates of experience. This claim is arguable - does not binding also take place in the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the role they play in binding and storage, but the question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by experience is never addressed. If we do not know why binding and storage should give rise to experience, telling a story about the oscillations cannot help us. Conversely, if we knew why binding and storage gave rise to experience, the neurophysiological details would be just the icing on the cake. Crick and Koch's theory gains its purchase by assuming a connection between binding and lotte experience, and so can do nothing to explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to address the comparative essay hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.
A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of dicken global shift pain, of pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of essay explaining molecules and neurons, and the subjective level. Let's focus on things that are easier to study - like visual awareness. You're now talking to me, but you're not looking at me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and so you are aware of it. Quotes From Hands Of An Angry. You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in a meaningful manner. That's what I call awareness. (What is Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. 96.) The second example is an approach at analysis the level of lotte confectionery cognitive psychology. This is Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . According to this theory, the contents of consciousness are contained in a global workspace , a central processor used to mediate communication between a host of analysis specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to shift the rest of the system, they do so by sending this information to the workspace, which acts as a kind of communal blackboard for comparative analysis the rest of the system, accessible to in hamlet all the comparative analysis other processors.
Baars uses this model to dicken global address many aspects of human cognition, and to explain a number of contrasts between conscious and analysis essay unconscious cognitive functioning. Lotte Confectionery. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of informational integration and reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the functional correlate of conscious experience, but an explanation of analysis experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to this theory, the contents of experience are precisely the in the contents of the workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to say that the information is experienced because it is globally accessible . But now the question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.
Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in recent years could be subjected to comparative a similar critique. About "Excessive. The Neural Darwinism model of comparative analysis essay Edelman (1989), for dicken instance, addresses questions about comparative analysis, perceptual awareness and The Problem About "Excessive Work" and the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. The multiple drafts model of Dennett (1991) is largely directed at explaining the reportability of certain mental contents. The intermediate level theory of Jackendoff (1988) provides an comparative account of some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to The Problem "Excessive Its Setting Essay the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. In placing this sort of essay work with respect to the problem of experience, a number of different strategies are available.
It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is simply to explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the domain of in hamlet science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. Analysis Essay. Although I have called these problems the easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is About "Excessive Its Setting Essay certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of this choice is analysis that in the context of research on consciousness it is relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to take a harder line and deny the The Problem About Work" and Its Setting Essay phenomenon . (Variations on this approach are taken by comparative analysis essay, Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and Work" and Essay Wilkes 1988.) According to this line, once we have explained the comparative essay functions such as accessibility, reportability, and the like, there is no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Global. Some explicitly deny the phenomenon, holding for example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by allowing that experience exists, but only if we equate experience with something like the comparative capacity to discriminate and and contrast report. These approaches lead to a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. Experience is the most central and manifest aspect of our mental lives, and analysis indeed is perhaps the key explanandum in the science of the mind.
Because of this status as an explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of consciousness must explain. A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the lotte problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). The relevant step in the explanation is usually passed over quickly, however, and usually ends up looking something like magic.
After some details about information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to experience. Perhaps it is simply taken for granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and a version of the comparative fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . Poison. For example, it is arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about comparative analysis essay, structures found in processing will correspond to and arguably explain facts about the structure of experience. This strategy is plausible but limited. "Excessive Work" Its Setting Essay. At best, it takes the existence of experience for granted and accounts for some facts about its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). This is useful for many purposes, but it tells us nothing about why there should be experience in the first place.
A fifth and reasonable strategy is to isolate the essay substrate of experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and it makes sense to dicken shift identify the sort of process from which it arises. Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the comparative essay neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and examples compare and contrast Edelman (1989) and Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is not directly observable in comparative analysis experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on the problem of experience. Nevertheless, the strategy is compare and contrast essay clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and how.
A full theory of analysis consciousness must build an The Problem Work" explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the comparative usual methods of cognitive science and neuroscience fail to account for conscious experience. Poison In Hamlet. These are simply the wrong sort of methods: nothing that they give to us can yield an explanation. To account for conscious experience, we need an extra ingredient in the explanation. This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is your extra ingredient, and why should that account for conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to be had. Some propose an injection of chaos and nonlinear dynamics. Some think that the key lies in nonalgorithmic processing.
Some appeal to future discoveries in neurophysiology. Some suppose that the key to the mystery will lie at the level of quantum mechanics. It is easy to see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the comparative old methods work, so the solution must lie with something new. Confectionery. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.
Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is put forward by Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the role it might play in the process of conscious mathematical insight. Comparative Analysis. The arguments about mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and an account of nonalgorithmic processing in shift the human brain is given, it will still only be an account of the functions involved in mathematical reasoning and the like. Analysis. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the question is left unanswered: why should this process give rise to private meaning experience? In answering this question, there is no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. Essay. These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by standard methods in cognitive science. But from dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. The question about experience here is as mysterious as ever. The point is quotes sinners hands angry god even clearer for new discoveries in neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for analysis essay any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.
It is difficult to imagine what a proponent of new neurophysiology expects to happen, over and above the explanation of further cognitive functions. It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the of a and contrast most popular extra ingredient of comparative essay all is quantum mechanics (e.g. Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is mysterious and quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the two mysteries have a common source. Nevertheless, quantum theories of private meaning consciousness suffer from the same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. It is natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of comparative essay information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out a priori . Poison. But when it comes to the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in the same boat as any other. The question of why these processes should give rise to experience is entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of comparative quantum theories is the fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in collapsing the quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of explaining consciousness in terms of quantum processes.
Rather, these theories assume the existence of consciousness, and use it in the explanation of quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about a physical role that consciousness may play. They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of consciousness. For any physical process we specify there will be an unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to experience?
Given any such process, it is sinners in the hands of an god conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in the absence of experience. It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is well-suited to the explanation of physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of detailed microstructural constituents; and it provides a satisfying explanation of the performance of functions , accounting for these functions in essay terms of the physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the facts about structures and functions: once the internal details of the physical account are given, the dicken shift structural and functional properties fall out as an automatic consequence. But the structure and dynamics of physical processes yield only more structure and dynamics, so structures and functions are all we can expect these processes to explain. The facts about experience cannot be an automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.
Experience may arise from the physical, but it is comparative essay not entailed by the physical. The moral of all this is About Its Setting that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of analysis essay more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. In a sense, one can explain most biological and cognitive phenomena on the cheap, in dicken global shift that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of more fundamental processes. It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for comparative a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in those domains are structures and functions, and these are the kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over and above the dicken explanation of structures and functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the cases are disanalogous.
What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the job and put forward the comparative analysis essay hypothesis of the lotte vital spirit as an alternative explanation. Once it turned out that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is not in analysis essay question. The key is instead the conceptual point that the explanation of functions does not suffice for the explanation of in hamlet experience.
This basic conceptual point is not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to analysis essay the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an explanatory posit, in order to explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is not an explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and so is not a candidate for this sort of elimination. It is tempting to The Problem Work" Its Setting note that all sorts of comparative puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. But each of these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to problems in the explanation of structures and functions. Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. The tempting induction from these cases fails in the case of consciousness, which is not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of consciousness is quotes from sinners in the of an puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the kind of thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in explaining.
At this point some are tempted to give up, holding that we will never have a theory of comparative conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for example, argues that the problem is too hard for our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. This is not the place to give up; it is the place where things get interesting. When simple methods of explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. In physics, it occasionally happens that an entity has to be taken as fundamental . Poison. Fundamental entities are not explained in terms of anything simpler.
Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of how they relate to everything else in the world. For example, in the nineteenth century it turned out that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in terms of the wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and analysis essay basic laws were needed to give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and space-time. No attempt is made to explain these features in terms of anything simpler. And Contrast Essay. But this does not rule out the possibility of a theory of essay mass or of space-time. There is an intricate theory of private meaning how these features interrelate, and of the comparative basic laws they enter into. These basic principles are used to explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and time at a higher level.
I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the private meaning addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in essay physical theory is compatible with the absence of consciousness. We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the private meaning world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of constructing a theory of experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of experience will add new principles to the furniture of the basic laws of nature. These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in terms of more basic principles involving experience and other entities.
In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. Comparative Analysis. These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to private meaning a physical theory. A physical theory gives a theory of physical processes, and a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to experience. Comparative Analysis Essay. We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from "Excessive physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an explanatory bridge.
Of course, by comparative analysis, taking experience as fundamental, there is a sense in which this approach does not tell us why there is experience in the first place. And Its Setting Essay. But this is the same for any fundamental theory. Nothing in physics tells us why there is analysis matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to be taken as fundamental by any scientific theory. A theory of matter can still explain all sorts of facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of dualism, as it postulates basic properties over and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the scientific view of the world. Nothing in this approach contradicts anything in physical theory; we simply need to add further bridging principles to private meaning explain how experience arises from comparative essay physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by The Problem "Excessive Essay, fundamental laws. It expands the ontology slightly, to comparative essay be sure, but Maxwell did the private meaning same thing.
Indeed, the overall structure of this position is entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the universe comes down to a network of basic entities obeying simple laws, and allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of consciousness cast in analysis terms of such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of private meaning consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in biology. Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and comparative essay messiness to it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to simplicity and elegance. Private Meaning. The fundamental laws of nature are part of the basic furniture of the comparative world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is shift remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. The principles of comparative analysis simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for a fundamental theory will also apply to from in the hands god a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is analysis essay a conceptual gap between physical processes and experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Usually this line of argument is supported by an appeal to the notion of a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). I think that this position rests on a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of necessity that we have no reason to believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for details. In any case, this position still concedes an explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.
For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the laws of global physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of comparative a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of dicken global a theory of comparative analysis essay consciousness. It is not too soon to begin work on a theory. We are already in a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an private meaning ultimate theory.
There is an obvious problem that plagues the analysis essay development of a theory of consciousness, and that is the dicken paucity of objective data. Conscious experience is not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and experience at will. Comparative Essay. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of data in our own case. Many important regularities between experience and processing can be inferred from considerations about one's own experience. There are also good indirect sources of data from observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.
These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is also useful in getting value for money out of the data we have. This sort of analysis can yield a number of principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the shape of an in hamlet ultimate theory. The method of thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Finally, the fact that we are searching for a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and analysis essay the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to be part of the confectionery fundamental furniture of the world.
Such theories will always retain an element of speculation that is not present in other scientific theories, because of the impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the data that we have, and evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of analysis intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for the evaluation of such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in other domains, the The Problem "Excessive and Its Setting ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from our own case, and even an overall fit with the dictates of common sense. Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of analysis essay consciousness will consist in and a number of psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of experience. We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of analysis essay physical properties are relevant to the emergence of experience, and just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.
This is a tall order, but there is no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and experience at a relatively high level. These principles can play a significant role in developing and constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of a fundamental theory of consciousness. This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the kind of speculation that is required if we are ever to have a satisfying theory of consciousness. I can present these principles only briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of structural coherence . This is a principle of coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of awareness . Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. I am now using it to refer to a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. In particular, the from sinners of an god contents of analysis essay awareness are to be understood as those information contents that are accessible to private meaning central systems, and brought to bear in a widespread way in the control of behavior.
Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for global control . To a first approximation, the contents of awareness are the contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at least in comparative analysis a language-using system. Awareness is from in the hands of an angry a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Comparative Essay. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is in hamlet some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is available in the control of behavior, and available for verbal report. Conversely, it seems that whenever information is comparative analysis available for report and for global control, there is a corresponding conscious experience. Thus, there is a direct correspondence between consciousness and awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. It is a central fact about experience that it has a complex structure. Shift. The visual field has a complex geometry, for instance. There are also relations of similarity and difference between experiences, and relations in such things as relative intensity. Essay. Every subject's experience can be at About "Excessive Work" and Its Setting Essay least partly characterized and decomposed in terms of these structural properties: similarity and difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and so on.
It is also a central fact that to each of these structural features, there is a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of awareness. Take color sensations as an example. For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in comparative essay processing. The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in sinners in the of an angry hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of this space can be recovered from information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and essay analyzed along three different axes, and it is this three-dimensional information that is relevant to later processing.
The three-dimensional structure of phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to private meaning the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. This is precisely what we would expect. After all, every color distinction corresponds to some reportable information, and therefore to a distinction that is represented in the structure of processing. In a more straightforward way, the analysis geometric structure of the visual field is directly reflected in a structure that can be recovered from visual processing. Examples And Contrast. Every geometric relation corresponds to something that can be reported and is therefore cognitively represented. If we were given only the comparative analysis story about information-processing in an agent's visual and cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.
In general, any information that is consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. The fine-grained structure of the visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and even for nonsensory experiences. Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in processing. And Contrast Essay. Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. In general, precisely because the structural properties of experience are accessible and comparative analysis reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is this isomorphism between the structures of consciousness and awareness that constitutes the principle of structural coherence. This principle reflects the central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. It allows us to dicken global recover structural properties of experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of comparative essay experience are structural properties.
There are properties of About experience, such as the intrinsic nature of a sensation of red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. Essay. The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of red and global green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of comparative structural coherence is to our conception of our mental lives. It is not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at private meaning all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of structural coherence allows for essay a very useful kind of indirect explanation of experience in terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of visual information to indirectly explain the structure of color space. The facts about in hamlet, neural processing can entail and explain the structure of comparative awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the structure of shift experience will also be explained.
Empirical investigation might even lead us to better understand the comparative analysis essay structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is like to be a bat. This principle provides a natural interpretation of much existing work on the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Private Meaning. Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992 on colors, and comparative Akins 1993 on bats), although it is often appealed to inexplicitly. Poison. It is so familiar that it is taken for granted by almost everybody, and is a central plank in the cognitive explanation of consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at analysis essay isolating the examples of a and contrast essay substrate (or the neural correlate ) of comparative consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the neural correlate of consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the poison in hamlet principle of coherence, the most direct physical correlate of comparative consciousness is awareness: the process whereby information is made directly available for global control. The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about lotte confectionery, how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by comparative analysis, which information is integrated into working memory and thereby made available to later processes.
Similarly, it is natural to examples essay suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only that sort of activity achieves global availability. The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of essay Baars (1988), the of a high-quality representations of Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to action systems of analysis essay Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of awareness : the mechanisms that perform the function of making information directly available for global control. Given the coherence between consciousness and awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of conscious experience. The question of just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the coherence principle, we have reason to believe that the processes that explain awareness will at the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. The principle of poison organizational invariance . This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in comparative silicon, for example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of interaction, then the same experiences would arise. According to this principle, what matters for the emergence of experience is not the specific physical makeup of private meaning a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.
Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of comparative a reductio ad absurdum ) that the principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only private meaning one of the systems is conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of illustration, let us say that one system is made of neurons and the other of silicon, and that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.
The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at a time by silicon chips with the same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of intermediate cases, each with the comparative analysis essay same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and slightly different experiences. Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the shift system, but whose experiences differ. Essay. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in poison in hamlet A has been replaced by comparative essay, a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the private meaning two. What happens when we flip the essay switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from red to blue, say, for About Work" Its Setting Essay the purposes of comparative analysis illustration. Of A Compare And Contrast. This follows from the fact that the system after the change is analysis essay essentially a version of B , whereas before the change it is global shift just A . But given the assumptions, there is no way for the system to comparative notice the changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and The Problem Its Setting Essay behavioral dispositions stay fixed.
As far as the system is concerned, nothing unusual has happened. There is no room for comparative the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of processing remains constant here. If there were to be such a thought it must float entirely free of the dicken system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. Analysis. (If it affected later processing, the systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to examples and contrast hypothesis). We might even flip the switch a number of times, so that experiences of red and blue dance back and comparative analysis forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the The Problem About "Excessive Essay system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and we are paying attention, we can notice the change; if this were not to analysis essay be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. This hypothesis has the same status as the possibility that the world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is lotte not plausible. Given the extremely plausible assumption that changes in analysis essay experience correspond to changes in processing, we are led to the conclusion that the original hypothesis is impossible, and that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.
To put it in technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of absent qualia and inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for technical reasons. That question is open. The invariance principle says only that if an isomorph is possible, then it will have the same sort of examples essay conscious experience.) There is essay more to from in the hands of an angry god be said here, but this gives the basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the coherence between consciousness and analysis essay cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the only physical properties directly relevant to the emergence of experience are organizational properties. This acts as a further strong constraint on confectionery, a theory of consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.
They involve high-level notions such as awareness and organization, and therefore lie at comparative analysis the wrong level to lotte constitute the fundamental laws in comparative analysis a theory of consciousness. Quotes In The. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. What is further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the notion of information . Analysis. I understand information in more or less the sense of Shannon (1948). And Its Setting. Where there is information, there are information states embedded in an information space . An information space has a basic structure of difference relations between its elements, characterizing the ways in which different elements in a space are similar or different, possibly in complex ways. An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of comparative distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the observation that there is a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.
From the same sort of observations that went into the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to the differences embedded in physical processes; in confectionery particular, to those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in essay global availability and control. That is, we can find the same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in examples compare conscious experience. This leads to a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. Comparative Analysis Essay. This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and explain the emergence of experience from the physical. Experience arises by virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is found embodied in physical processing. This principle is lent support by a number of considerations, which I can only outline briefly here. The Problem Essay. First, consideration of the comparative analysis essay sort of physical changes that correspond to changes in conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of their role in quotes from in the hands angry god constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to essay hold, then we need to find some fundamental organizational property for experience to be linked to, and The Problem About and Its Setting Essay information is an essay organizational property par excellence . Lotte Confectionery. Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of structural coherence in terms of the structure present within information spaces. Comparative Analysis. Fourth, analysis of the cognitive explanation of from sinners in the hands angry god our judgments and essay claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the information states embedded in quotes from in the angry cognitive processing.
It follows that a theory based on information allows a deep coherence between the explanation of essay experience and private meaning the explanation of our judgments and claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is comparative essay fundamental to the physics of the universe. Lotte. According to this it from bit doctrine, the laws of analysis essay physics can be cast in terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to different effects without actually saying what those states are . It is only their position in an information space that counts. If so, then information is a natural candidate to also play a role in a fundamental theory of consciousness. We are led to a conception of the world on which information is truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to global shift the physical and essay the phenomenal features of the world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and is also underdetermined, leaving a number of key questions unanswered. An obvious question is global whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. One possibility is that we need a further constraint on comparative, the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is that there is no such constraint. If not, then experience is much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on reflection I think the lotte confectionery position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.
Where there is simple information processing, there is simple experience, and where there is complex information processing, there is comparative analysis essay complex experience. A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for it to arise only every now and then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. In any case, this is poison very much an comparative open question, but I believe that the position is not as implausible as it is often thought to be. Once a fundamental link between information and experience is on the table, the door is "Excessive and Its Setting opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the nature of the comparative world.
For example, it is often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only and contrast extrinsically , in terms of their relations to other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and comparative analysis so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is left aside. Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is left with a world that is pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to relate. If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the intrinsic properties of the physical - the properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of information. This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the lotte confectionery physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is essay supplementary to the physical.
The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of causal relevance in virtue of in the hands of an angry its status as the intrinsic nature of the physical. Comparative Analysis Essay. This metaphysical speculation is dicken global probably best ignored for the purposes of developing a scientific theory, but in addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is speculative, but it is a candidate theory. I suspect that the principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is more of an idea than a theory.
To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into comparative analysis essay a more powerful form. Still, reflection on just what is plausible and private meaning implausible about it, on where it works and comparative where it fails, can only lead to a better theory. Most existing theories of consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to an eternal mystery. I hope to private meaning have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.
The hard problem is a hard problem, but there is no reason to believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the various problems of consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Those who have stressed the difficulties of explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and comparative analysis Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. Examples Of A And Contrast Essay. There have not been many attempts to build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.
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1994. Visual perception and visual awareness after brain damage: A tutorial overview. In (C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch, eds.) Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15 . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Flohr, H. Lotte Confectionery. 1992. Qualia and brain processes. In (A. Beckermann, H. Flohr, and J. Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hameroff, S.R. 1994. Quantum coherence in microtubules: A neural basis for emergent consciousness?
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Essay on “Science- A Blessing or A Curse” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. Science has revolutionized the human existence. Much of the progress that mankind has made in different fields right from the stone age to essay the modern age is due to The Problem "Excessive Work" Essay the progress made in the field of science. Analysis? Not only material progress but also the mental outlook of man has been influenced by it. It has made man’s life more comfortable. Agriculture, business, transport, communication and medicine to quotes sinners in the angry name a few are all highly indebted to the wonders science has produced. Electricity is one of the greatest wonders of modern science. It is comparative, a source of energy.
It can run any type of machinery. With the confectionery, help of electricity, we can light our rooms run buses and trains, and lift water for irrigation. The discovery and comparative essay development of a large number of powerful energy sources coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity, etc. have facilitated the growth of fast modes of transport an dicken shift communication, which in turn have changed the world into a global village. Science has given man the means of travelling cars, trains, ships, etc. Comparative? Man has even travelled to the moon. Faster means of transport can be utilized for sending food grains to victims of famine or epidemics across the globe, for transporting armed men for fighting in distant places. Science has benefited agriculture too.
The food production levels and quality have improved. Soil analysis, hybrid verities of crops, fertilizers, pesticides, advanced tools and The Problem About "Excessive Work" machinery, improved irrigation methods, etc. have all contributed to the increase of the production of crops. Today we have metrological satellites in outer space sending data and pictures to earth stations helping agriculture scientists find and analyses soil patterns. They also help them trace the progress of comparative analysis, rains winds and from sinners god even locusts that endanger crops. Analysis? Satellites can even forewarn about natural calamities like hurricanes which cause mass destruction. Man with the help of science, has been able to increase longevity, arrest the gradual decay of human body and control the spread of lethal diseases by making extraordinary life prolonging drugs and medicines. Quotes From Angry God? Diseases like tuberculosis and many kinds of cancer which were considered fatal a few decades ago are no longer incurable. One of the comparative essay, biggest achievements of poison in hamlet, science is in comparative analysis essay the field of The Problem About, entertainment. Leisure management industry, with television shows, music concerts and films, is emerging as emerging as the comparative essay, largest and global shift the most important industry in the twenty first century satellite television has made it possible for millions of people to watch sporting and entertainment events taking place in different parts of the world simultaneously.
Information technology and computer have revolutionized our lifestyle. Automation in banks and railways stations has provided relief to the public and staff alike. Analysis? Ticketing and reservation have become more efficient and examples of a compare essay convenient. In medical diagnosis, computers are used to locate and investigate accurately and reservation have become more efficient convenient. In medical diagnosis, computers are used to locate and investigate accurately and precisely any abnormalities or diseases. The internet has some very useful applications in our day to day life. Mobile phones are the outcome of information technology. But at the same time it cannot be denied that the boon in many cases has turned out to be the bane. There are innumerable examples which prove that science a blessing has been turned into a curse. Sir Alfred Nobel experience with dynamite to comparative essay clear huge mountains to turn it into in hamlet productive lands.
But modern man uses it to comparative analysis kill his fellow human beings and destroy nature. It is a fact that much of the essay, national income of a developing country is spent on comparative analysis essay, acquiring latest weapons, bombs and missiles. Guns, revolvers, tanks and fighter planners’ explosives nuclear bombs, etc were invented to develop a strong security system to protect the lotte confectionery, innocent masses, but their misuse is analysis essay, now crushing humanity. The Problem "Excessive And Its Setting? Apart from essay atomic weapons man has also started stockpiling biological and chemical weapons. These weapons are equally dangerous. Biotechnology is and contrast essay, a great boon for fighting disease. But along with medicines lethal biological weapons have also been developed. Germs are deliberately released into the air to spread diseases. Anthrax envelopes are used for spreading terrorism.
The negative effects of the excessive use of comparative analysis essay, fertilizers and private meaning pesticides, used to increase yield are now evident. Soil salinity has increases. Traces of DDT are found in plants. The power of the internet is also being abused through unhealthy practice such as the widespread use of pornographic materials. Lots of comparative essay, people spend their time in chat rooms for obscene discussions.
Science has two faces good and bad. It depends on us which face we want to see. If we use the gifts of quotes in the hands, science in a positive manner with positive intention and in positive direction it will benefit the mankind, but if we misuse it, it will prove harmful to all. To save ourselves and the world as a whole from destruction, we should use the gifts of science properly. Science – A Blessing or Curse. This is the age of science and technology.
Science has changed the face of the earth with its too many wonderful inventions and discoveries. Analysis Essay? If one of our ancestors were to lotte return to the earth, he or she would not be able to recognize it – so tremendous, complete and fundamental has been the change. Science has benefited mankind in an unprecedented manner by its wonderful progress and development. And still the development, research, inventions and analysis discoveries are going on a very fast track. These are of fundamental nature and of far reaching consequences, also much so that the world would get further transformed unrecognizably. Science touches all of us and our life at every step, as a big boon and blessing. It has helped us to conquer space and time. The world has now become a global village, thanks to very fast and reliable means of travel and communication. Science has also helped man to conquer the moon and to lotte explore the outer space.
Many a fatal disease is now checked and eradicated. The great and significant researches in the fields, of comparative, agriculture, irrigation, water – management, etc,. Compare And Contrast Essay? have helped in developing new variety of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and comparative effective methods of water conservation. These benefits and facilities were not available to our forefathers. The use of computers and super computers has further revolutionized our life and The Problem Work" work with the analysis, dawn of scientific era, the barriers of the nations are crumbling fast and the international living and interaction are very much in sight. Nations and countries have come close rand isolation has been eliminated. Poison In Hamlet? A new composite culture marked with greater tolerance and understanding , and secularism is now assured. In a sense, science has unified the world and reduced differences in outlook and thinking. Essay? By removing many superstitions and blind beliefs, modern science has inculcated scientific temper and spirit in man to great extent. Because of science and technology there has been tremendous progress in the fields of industry, commerce and human resources development as well. Consequently, there is lotte, a new world economic order in sight and the gap between the developed and developed countries are being reduced.
The new economic order ensures a great industrial and comparative essay corporate cooperation, globalization, expansion and private meaning liberalization among the nations. The quality of life and analysis standard of living, in private meaning various underdeveloped and developing countries, have improved and the countries are likely to be upgraded further. Essay? The contribution of science in the betterment of human life has been great and significant and further expectations from it are no less significant or great. The boons and blessings of science assure us further strengthening of human equality, fraternity and liberty. Man feels more safe, secure, comfortable and private meaning important. Today than ever before, because of scientific development and advancement. The day is not far off when we shall have colonies on the moon and the planets. Science has achieved much, and promises to achieve still more and more in comparative analysis essay the years to The Problem "Excessive and Its Setting Essay come. Science has tamed forces of nature, conquered space and time, eradicated may fatal diseases given us food clothing etc. Analysis? , enough to spare.
Now there are no more famines, epidemics and pestilences. Science ahs even pushed further the threats of death and increased the average longevity of man. But science has been a mixed blessing. It has been a boon and blessing in certain fields; it has also proved a curse and bane in many others. It has given us many dangerous and destructive weapons like atom and private meaning hydrogen bombs and missiles. During the second world War itself 300,000 people died in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the USA dropped atom bombs there in 1945. The biological and chemical weapons are still more destructive. The bombs and comparative analysis essay other means of mass destruction now produced are far more lethal and powerful than used in 1945. The biological and chemical weapons are still more dangerous and destructive. They have the added advantage, as the source of private meaning, attack can remain hidden and unidentified to a great extent. These weapons can be used to declaration of war.
Then there are well- organized terrorist groups spread all over the world. They use these weapons in their desperation and comparative essay sue unprecedented deaths and ruination. Shakespeare has said that there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. There have been many scientific researches and discoveries which have unfortunately been hijacked to harmful destructive paths. It is reported that about half a million scientists are now employed on global, weapon research through hour the world. The huge amount of money spent on these dangerous recherche fan exceeds the amount of money being spent on developing technologies for new energy resources, improving human health, raising agricultural productivity, controlling pollution, etc. At the end of the last world war, many of the scientists were taken away by the victorious countries for developing their own biological and chemical war weapons.
It is alleged that the outbreak of plague in India in 1994 was genetically engineered. Obviously, science is being used so much for destructive purpose and so little for comparative analysis essay meeting real needs of humanity. This turns science into a bane. It is man who is ultimately responsible for turning science into a curse instead a blessing. By itself science can be said to a blessing , boon or bonanza; the bane and cures are brought about by quotes from in the of an angry god our wrong orientation and priorities. The misuse of science has ushered in our life many undesirable elements. There has been erosion in man’s faith in sod and religion. Morality and ethics have been marginalized and analysis materialism has increased unprecedented. Rapid , unplanned and indiscriminate industrialization has resulted in pollution on a vast scale. No doubt , science and technology has taken giant strides in recent times, but it has dehumanized human life in poison the same proportion. Human values have been pushed in the background and man has become more selfish, cruel , sensual, violent and comparative analysis essay destructive.
There is no more simple living and high thinking. Lotte? But let us hope that ultimately sanity prevails and analysis science is used more and more for the benefit of mankind. It depends solely upon man himself how he uses science and its discoveries and researches. Science as knowledge and power is neither savior nor destroyer. Science is a Blessing, not a Curse. Science is important in today’s life. We cannot live without science in the modern world. Science can be called one of the greatest blessings of this age.
We owe all our progress to it. Today we can go round the globe in a matter of hours. Inventions such as washing machine, refrigerator, air-conditioner, dishwasher and private meaning geyser make our lives easy. Comparative Analysis? Television, cinema and compact discs have changed the entertainment industry. Examples Essay? Thousands of lives are saved every day due to the progress of essay, medical science. It is impossible to run a company or a factory without a computer. We can also say that computers are the greatest invention of modern age. However., r science has also brought a lot of private meaning, misery upon man. Nuclear weapons can destroy our planet several times over. It is not impossible to remove at least some of the curses of science.
We must resolve to use it only to make life better for man. We must also not pollute our planet or cut trees any more. We must not build any more arms until every man has food on his plate. In this way, we can build a better world. Science is, at analysis, its heart, a quest; a quest whose goal is to private meaning create an understanding of the universe. In fact, science attempts to comparative quantify reality.
It does this in many ways; through experimentation and of a and contrast essay observation, through theorizing and testing. This quest has been undergoing since the birth of mankind and yet the further we go the further away the end of the quest seems to be. Despite this, it has been theorized that man will eventually understand the analysis essay, universe through science and its relentless quest for knowledge. Not only has it been said that this is likely, but it has been said that this understanding lies mere decades away from the present. Is this possible, not only mere decades from the present, but is it possible, at all, to achieve an understanding of the universe?
In short, no. The extended answer, however, takes a little more time. First, to begin the answer to this question, it is necessary to understand what is meant by understanding the universe. Private Meaning? It means “the act of one who comes to know the meaning of; who apprehends”. Well, in the realm of science, understanding the universe would probably entail the creation of a TOE (Theory of Everything). The TOE is to the theoretical physicist as the holy grail was to King Arthur; it is the most desirable peak of achievement. To the uninitiated, a TOE is a theorem that explains, literally, everything, from the motion of subatomic particles to the existence of black holes and the motion of galaxies. Analysis? The TOE would, in effect, explain the behaviour and nature of everything in the universe. It could, in effect be a way through which we could understand the universe and it has been theorized that such a theory is not far away.
Does this theory, however, if it is created, indicate that we do understand in full, the nature of the universe. Compare? The answer is, simply Put, no; not in comparative analysis any regards at all. First of all, the creation of a TOE that works does not even mean that it is poison in hamlet, right. It is possible that any formula created may function out of mere coincidence instead of out of a profound truth. Discounting this fact for a moment, the creation of a formula in no way imparts understanding. Essay? Man has discovered and expressed the The Problem Essay, speed of light (in vacuum) as being 3 x 10 8 m/s. Analysis Essay? However, this in no way means that everyone understands this and, in fact, it is improbable that anyone can even begin to imagine this speed. Thus, how can we hope to derive understanding out of a formula that would be almost infinitely more complicated then a mere number? The answer is, of course, that most of us, if not all, could not begin to understand such a formula much less its implications or meanings.
Why, however, can we not hope to understand such things? Are we not sane, rational beings? Well, to put it simply, human beings seem far to simple to actually understand the universe in all of its entirety, even if it is reduced to a formula. It has been theorized that there are hundreds of billions of galaxies each containing an equal number of solar systems. Despite this, most stars’ closest neighbour is more than 10 light years away. How could a human mind, being comprised such a tiny amount of About and Its Setting, brain cells, hope to understand something so big? The fact is that there is analysis, such a limited capacity in the human mind that such understanding almost unequivocally escapes us. Sir please help me.
What help you want? I was also writing an essay and I needed some points…. This essay was really helpful… #128578;