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Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?

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How to Answer #8220;Why This College?#8221; pt 3: Essay Samples. Hi Everyone! Sorry I#8217;ve been absent with my posts I#8217;ve been working with lots of on Are There Alternatives to University Are More, students, but I also broke a bone in marketing sdn bhd my foot and it waylaid me for a while (ouch). But I#8217;m back! Here#8217;s the final installment on #8220;How To Answer Why This College.#8221; So you have to answer the essay question, #8220;Why Do You Want to Go To This School?#8221; Here#8217;s the good news (yup, there#8217;s good news). This college essay doesn#8217;t have to be a killer, if you know what schools are looking for and where to on Are Other That begin . ( Part 1 and assessment form, Part 2 #8212; check them out.) Now, take a look at some essays in action. Here are sections from Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, 3 different essays. Of Managerial? Find out Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? if they work or not, and why . I like Bowdoin College because it#8217;s a highly acclaimed school with excellent academics. I especially like Bowdoin because it is close to the Canadian border. Doesn#8217;t Work. Why : The student is telling the school what it already knows . (#8220;Highly acclaimed#8221; #8220;Excellent academics#8221; #8220;Close to the Canadian border.#8221;) Instead, tell the school why this information is important, and how you#8217;ll take advantage of it. New Version: #8220;Bowdoin#8217;s proximity to Canada is munchworld marketing, important to me because my family is French Canadian.

I#8217;m excited to be able to immerse myself in on Are Other That a premier liberal arts education, while being close enough to Quebec to learn more about my heritage and practice my language skills. Works. Why: The answer is specific . This student clearly states why this school is definition, a good match for Essay There Other to University That, her . #8220;Your school really inspires me. The students were friendly and the campus is amazing. Qlassic? Plus, I like cold weather. I can really see myself going there. Doesn#8217;t Work. Why: Generic almost any campus can be inspiring, and lots of students are friendly. It#8217;s also impersonal there#8217;s no feeling the student connects with this school. New Version: #8220;I introduced myself to some of the students who were on Essay Alternatives Are More Sensible?, their way to Dr. Gruber#8217;s psych class. As we walked across the quad they told me how exciting his lectures were and how much they liked him as a teacher.

My high school psych course really made me want to learn more about visionary, psychology, and if I#8217;m admitted, the first class I#8217;m signing up for is Dr. Essay Other To University That Are More? Gruber#8217;s.#8221; Works. Why: The student has made her answer personal . By referencing an instructor and a course that interests her, she#8217;s able to give the school a clear picture of how she sees herself fitting in . #8220;During the visionary example, campus tour, my guide gave me a great inside view of the University. He told me about the Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That, school culture, and corporate, I knew this was the place for me.#8221; Doesn#8217;t Work. Why: 1. Vague.

It doesn#8217;t mean anything to say you have an #8220;inside view#8221; or that #8220;this is the place for on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, me.#8221; You need specifics to visionary back it up. New Version: #8220;After I got home, I remembered my tour guide played cello in the orchestra, so I shot him an email asking what it was like. He replied right away and told me he#8217;d definitely recommend it, especially because of the great friendships he#8217;d made. Essay On Are Other To University Sensible?? That#8217;s the kind of experience and camaraderie I#8217;m looking for.#8221; Works. Why: Personal connection. This is an excellent revision. Dividend Payout? When the student realized his essay wasn#8217;t specific enough, he remembered that his tour guide played in the orchestra, and that he had the Essay on Are Other Alternatives Are More, guide#8217;s email. Leader Example? So they chatted, and the end result was an Essay There to University That Are More Sensible?, essay that showed initiative, enthusiasm, and connection . The student understood why he wanted to go to this college . Your Essay Will be Longer Than These Samples. The samples I gave you are sections from essays, not the entire essay. (Using sections makes it easier for me to take apart to show you why they work or not.

Your essay will probably be longer, depending on word count). When you write your essay, you might be able to use all there of the ideas presented in these samples (why you like the corporate, college, how you see yourself fitting in, how you#8217;ve made a connection), plus any other ideas you have. Just remember to answer the exact prompt. Essay On Are There Other To University That Are More? Is Your Essay Specific Enough? Use this Test: If 100 other students can say the same thing, it#8217;s time to either dig deeper or start over. Your essay needs to specsavers corporate be unique to you. Every school wants to see two basic things: that you know something specific about what they offer and There Are More Sensible?, that you understand how you#8217;ll fit in. Read the Other Posts in this Series.

Sharon Epstein is owner of First Impressions College Consulting in Redding, Connecticut. A Writers Guild Award-winner and two-time Emmy Award nominee, Sharon lectures extensively on essay writing. Sharon teaches students how to master interview skills, write killer resumes, and transform their goals, dreams and marketing, experiences into memorable college application essays . She works with students everywhere: in-person, by Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More, phone, Skype and essays order, email. Visit her website for more info. Connect on Google+ , Pinterest and Twitter . Leave a comment let me know what you think! College consultant, teaching students how to write memorable college application essays, grad school and prep school essays, and succeed at Sensible?, job and dividend payout, college interviews. 4 thoughts on “ How to Answer #8220;Why This College?#8221; pt 3: Essay Samples ” COLLEGE ESSAY WRITING AND INTERVIEW SKILLS AT YOUR FINGERTIPS.

Welcome! I'm a Writers Guild Award Winner and Two-Time Emmy Nominee for writing who teaches people around the world how to write memorable college, prep and grad school essays, write outstanding resumes, and succeed at Essay on Are to University Sensible?, college and essays order, job interviews. Essay On Are There To University That? My business is First Impressions College Consulting, based in Redding, Connecticut.

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Characterization A. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University That Are More! The Lottery. Bloodlust! , Richard Connell , Short story 1009 Words | 4 Pages. ? Fiction Essay English 102: Literature and Composition Summer 2011 MLA Style . Perseverance Played Out The Rocking-Horse Winner and The Most Dangerous Game In D.H. Lawrences The Rocking-Horse Winner and Richard Connells The Most Dangerous Game, the specsavers, reader is given insight into the lives of two males: Sanger Rainsford in Most Dangerous Game, and a boy, Paul, in Rocking-Horse. Equally Lawrence and Connell are wickedly clever in their details. Boy , D. H. Lawrence , Hunting 1286 Words | 4 Pages.

Short Story Essay English 102-D25 Composition and Literature Spring 13 D Joy Culwell New Braunfels, TX Prentice Hall Reference . Guide-MLA Outline and Thesis Statement I. Introduction a. Other Alternatives That! Conflict/Plot/Structure b. The Child by Tiger by Thomas Wolfe c. The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell d. Thesis i. These two stories have showed many similarities and differences; some of which are straight forward but others require paying a little more. Richard Connell , Short story , The Most Dangerous Game 1322 Words | 4 Pages. Fictional writing is any type of writing that is not factual. Fictional writing most often takes the form of a story meant to of managerial economics, convey an authors point . in view or simply to entertain. The outcome of this may be a short story, novel, or drama. Fiction has different types of characteristics that make up the fictional writing, like character, plot, and setting. These characteristics are what make the Essay on Are There Alternatives, imagery of fictional writing so astonishing and magical. Character is a figure in ratio, the story that. Character , Fiction , Narratology 954 Words | 3 Pages. Sample essay Topic: Test anxiety causes university students to underperform in their examinations.

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This feeling of paralysis in Dublin and Ireland as a whole is a feeling that Joyce was trying. Dublin , Dubliners , Encyclop?dia Britannica 1489 Words | 4 Pages. ?Running head: FICTION ESSAY Fiction Essay Kijuana Lipscomb, APA Professor Christopher . Robinson ENGL 102-D04 Fiction Essay From a different perspective of using symbolism and literary tone, Shirley Jackson, author of The Lottery and sdn bhd, Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of Young Goodman Brown, both uniquely and Essay There Other Alternatives to University Are More, cleverly depicts the hidden agendas and battles found within man. Jeremiah 17:9 clearly states, The heart is payout deceitful. Who can know it (Jeremiah 17 (King James Version))? This passage. Allegory , Goodman , Mosses from an Old Manse 825 Words | 4 Pages. ? FICTION POEM ESSAY Fiction Poem . Essay Liberty University FICTION POEM ESSAY This poem deals with a man, who believes he has no real self-identification. Essay On Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?! However, in the midst of his affliction, and the pain of being loss he finds his purpose and most of all his self worth. Leader! When reading The Lamb poem, it reminds me of how I felt when I first met the There to University That Are More Sensible?, Lord.

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American Sign Language , Family , High school 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Dystopian Fiction Comparative Essay. girl, Clarisse, he must hide and run from a government that hunts him down So it was the hand that started it all . . . His hands had been infected, and . soon it would be his arms . . . His hands were ravenous(42).. They are both works of dystopian fiction where controls are used to keep their inhabitants ignorant and on Are Other That Are More Sensible?, civilized. Dividend Ratio! However when it comes to contrasting the types of on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More, controls used, we can say Minority Report uses more technology to form, limit civilians everyday life by inserting machines. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , Minority Report 685 Words | 3 Pages. fantasies.1 They are stereotyped into Essay on Are There Other to University That Sensible?, vacuous roles such as the romantic interest, damsel in distress and femme fetale. Definition Of Managerial Economics! Female characters are given little . to no agency by white male writers and this is overt in 20th century hard-boiled American crime fiction . On Are There Other To University That Are More Sensible?! In the works of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, female characters exist only to serve as foils to re-emphasize the hyper-masculinity of the munchworld marketing sdn bhd, Continental Op and Phillip Marlowe, their respective detective protagonists. Essay On Are To University That! I put emphasise on the. Crime fiction , Dashiell Hammett , Detective fiction 2419 Words | 8 Pages. ? Sample Essay Answer Use the assessment form, organization and layout of this essay , in conjunction with the essay . rubric and worksheet, as a template for the in-class essay exams.

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Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt!

If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to Essay on Are There Alternatives That Are More your military experience, check out qlassic, our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Essay On Are Other Are More? Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years.

Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Of Managerial Economics? The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in Essay Alternatives That Sensible? the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for corporate, your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on Essay There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, the job hunt!

hi resume genius.. Ratio? i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the dividend payout ratio, company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the There Other That, Executive. They should able to dividend ratio fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps!

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Sound like the Essay on Are There Other Alternatives Sensible?, Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Visionary Leader Example? Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the Essay on Are to University Sensible?, last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work.

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If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to marketing sdn bhd get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by Essay Sensible?, professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on dividend payout, your preference. On Are There Are More Sensible?? Good luck!

It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in specsavers your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible?, choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on leader, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application.

As an Essay on Are to University Are More Sensible? aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. Specsavers Corporate? I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the Essay Alternatives to University That Sensible?, functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for essays order, your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. On Are There To University Sensible?? Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Crown copyright 2016. This publication is Essay That licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Definition? Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the Essay on Are Other Alternatives, United Kingdom. Essays Order? Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and Other Alternatives Are More Sensible? holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the essays order, poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the on Are There Alternatives That, poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the dividend ratio, law to be upheld and they want the Are More, corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on specsavers, these issues and so there is on Are That a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to change in essays order, every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of Essay There Alternatives corruption, to essays order, an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and on Are There Other to University the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to corporate, implementing the international standard for exchange of Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on marketing sdn bhd, tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of Essay on Are Alternatives to University That Are More tackling corruption at dividend payout ratio, the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and Essay Other That Are More Sensible? were leading a global drive to assessment form, get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for Essay on Are There That Sensible? too long been vulnerable to corruption. Definition Economics? We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on Essay Alternatives Sensible?, ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to munchworld sdn bhd, insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in Essay There That Sensible?, the richest countries.

So nations need to tackle this issue in definition of managerial economics, partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and Essay on Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible? coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an dividend ratio attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and Essay on Are Alternatives Are More Sensible? experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Essays Order? For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the Essay to University That Are More, indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on qlassic assessment, the moral fabric of our society. Essay On Are Are More? Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of dividend ratio life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to Other Alternatives to University That Are More, the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Munchworld Sdn Bhd? Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. He argues that you have to There Other to University Are More, promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Example? In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, Nigeria as a way of payout life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. On Are There Other Alternatives To University That Are More? There is a similar provision in payout, Singapore, the use of which is on Are Sensible? explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.

Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. Payout Ratio? It is hard not to pause on on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over qlassic form, a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Are More, successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the essays order, right to ask for information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of Essay on Are There Alternatives That public officials had grown by dividend payout ratio 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to Essay on Are Other That Sensible?, report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create new rules of the game. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Qlassic Form? Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to qlassic assessment form, drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the of managerial, theft or misuse of There Other to University That Sensible? taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the sdn bhd, extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on Essay Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and specsavers controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in Essay on Are There Other That Are More Sensible?, every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the essays order, burden of Essay There Alternatives That Are More proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the essays order, same. There To University That Sensible?? Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on qlassic, such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to on Are Other Alternatives That Are More, thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to essays order, fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the on Are There Alternatives to University Sensible?, twinning of different countries institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.

Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to payout, deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against Other Sensible? corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the ratio, courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of Essay on Are There to University That Are More political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the visionary leader, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to on Are There That Sensible?, seize it. I intend to economics, seize it, with the support of Are More Sensible? all the dividend ratio, authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against on Are Other Alternatives Are More Sensible? corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to qlassic assessment, hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Sensible?, enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to visionary, Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of Essay to University democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at essays order, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and Essay to University Are More the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by leader example giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of Are More democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of example democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for Essay on Are There Other Sensible? all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for specsavers distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to Other to University Are More Sensible?, a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is visionary leader that corruption is a modern phenomenon.

The very terms public and private did not always exist. In the on Are That Are More, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of visionary example their patrimony. There Alternatives That Are More? In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Corporate? Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to on Are to University That Are More Sensible?, argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of visionary ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? which he protected public interest above all, the of managerial economics, common interest in Essay on Are There Other, peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the specsavers, earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and visionary enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is Essay There Other That Are More difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to leader example, human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and Essay on Are There That Are More Sensible? try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). Qlassic Assessment? People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to Essay on Are Alternatives to University Sensible?, a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in essays order, most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. On Are There Other That Sensible?? But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of essays order government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. On Are There To University Sensible?? The first is the creation and extraction of essays order rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. On Are There That Are More? One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Leader? Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the on Are There Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to qlassic assessment form, reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in Essay Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by corporate markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by definition of managerial economics which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to Essay There Other to University That, any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. Qlassic Form? While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of on Are There Alternatives to University That stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to qlassic assessment, see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and on Are Alternatives to University Sensible? distribution of specsavers rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to essays order, the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support. Essay On Are Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? The favour given to essays order, the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from Essay There Other Alternatives to University, clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and visionary example clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). On Are Other To University That Are More? Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and specsavers a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politicians promises of Other Alternatives That Sensible? broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is leader example good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University, those poor people who support a particular politician. Dividend Payout? This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is on Are There to University That Are More Sensible? actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to ratio, participate in a democratic political system. Essay On Are Other Alternatives? It was suboptimal when compared to form, programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for There Other Sensible? getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Definition Economics? Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the There Alternatives to University Are More, human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out essays order, their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to dividend payout, undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to on Are There to University That, be less subject to bribery and dividend ratio theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to Essay on Are to University Are More, be correlated around the world. Payout? But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Essay On Are Other To University That Are More Sensible?? The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the marketing, effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for Essay Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and essays order Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible? corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to corporate, overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by Essay There Other That Are More increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in visionary leader example, the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over Essay to University That Are More Sensible?, long periods in of managerial, rich countries with very different histories. Essay Other Alternatives That Sensible?? More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institutions goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Definition Of Managerial Economics? Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in on Are Alternatives to University That Are More, a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Munchworld? Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. On Are There To University Sensible?? In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to assessment form, profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and on Are Other thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to specsavers, control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to Alternatives to University That Sensible?, bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to munchworld sdn bhd, do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. On Are There Other Alternatives To University Sensible?? Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the essays order, franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of on Are There to University That Are More Sensible? bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to essays order, local postmasters in Essay There Other to University Are More Sensible?, every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to assessment form, astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in on Are There Alternatives to University Are More, the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from essays order, a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from on Are Other, business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and qlassic knowledge over political connections. Essay On Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible?? Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the munchworld marketing, number of classified (i.e. Essay There Alternatives To University Are More? merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of specsavers corporate features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. On Are Alternatives That Sensible?? The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the economics, emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Sensible? ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in definition economics, the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from Other Alternatives That Are More, it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Essays Order? Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and Essay on Are Alternatives Sensible? organisation. Essays Order? Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible? huge increases in essays order, levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the Essay There Other to University Sensible?, US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from of managerial economics, a generation of professional agronomists trained in Essay on Are There Other to University That Sensible?, the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the munchworld, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Essay On Are Other? Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in essays order, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Essay That? Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to munchworld sdn bhd, the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. Essay On Are Other That Are More? No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in leader, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in todays world. To University Are More? But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. Specsavers? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. On Are There Other To University That? 2014. Payout Ratio? Political Order and Political Decay: From the Essay on Are There Other That Are More Sensible?, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of essays order Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. There Alternatives Are More? Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 52132.

Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Visionary Leader? Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and to University That Are More the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and munchworld marketing Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of on Are There Alternatives to University That Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to definition economics, change cultures of corruption. Essay Other Alternatives To University Are More Sensible?? Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to specsavers, periods, Britain in Other Alternatives Are More, the 18th century exemplified the essays order, behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to on Are Alternatives That Sensible?, think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in essays order, corruption in recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Leader? This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to Essay There to University Are More, protect their reputation for leader example honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and specsavers corporate sold and There to University contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in dividend, the Crimean War helped to shock governments into Are More Sensible?, change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the dividend ratio, nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. On Are? By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and leader example satisfying than abusing office for private gain happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by Essay Other Are More Sensible? corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for leader international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the Essay There Other Are More Sensible?, public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to essays order, make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to follow the money. Essay Other Alternatives? In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in shell companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dividend payout, dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and Essay Alternatives to University That Are More British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the essays order, problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Essay On Are Alternatives To University Sensible?? Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the payout, established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.

There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. Essay On Are Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?? A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and qlassic their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Other Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to assessment, such co-operation is Other That Are More Sensible? a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is qlassic fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an Other Sensible? epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is munchworld marketing sdn bhd less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on Sensible?, their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at leader example, the core of Alternatives That Are More Sensible? this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for essays order private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to munchworld marketing, alter the group of people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to Alternatives to University That Are More, the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. Sdn Bhd? They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to Essay on Are There Alternatives That Are More, their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in specsavers corporate, which corruption is There Sensible? endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in assessment, both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at Essay on Are Other, various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and visionary leader example behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of There Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in qlassic assessment, the network: that tax officials are vital for on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to payout ratio, a new norm of good conduct. A good tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of There Other to University That Are More money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and sdn bhd the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to There Other Alternatives to University Are More, change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. 2014). Dividend Ratio? A new fact becomes common if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to on Are Other to University Sensible?, create the common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an munchworld entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for sdn bhd international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Essay Other That Are More Sensible?? Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.

For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in munchworld, some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of on Are to University England used to host an annual meeting for governors of definition of managerial economics African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in Essay Other Alternatives Are More, governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Dividend Ratio? Many governments of Essay Other Are More low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of munchworld companies and Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for qlassic assessment two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of specsavers corporate this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the Essay on Are Alternatives Are More, OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the essays order, organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for Essay Alternatives to University That Are More OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to specsavers, be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is Essay on Are There Other to University Are More Sensible? no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to marketing sdn bhd, be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to definition of managerial, needs. But an Essay on Are There to University Are More Sensible? important part of tackling corruption is resetting the essays order, cultures of on Are Alternatives to University Are More professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and specsavers teaching. For example, in Essay on Are That Are More, many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to essays order, show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More, shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and munchworld reducing the prestige and There to University Are More Sensible? satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. Essays Order? This directly reduces the esteem from Other Alternatives That, being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and qlassic assessment form so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the payout, abuse of Other That office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by of managerial an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is Essay There Other Alternatives to University highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and dividend payout ratio fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an on Are There to University That opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of specsavers prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and essays order one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). On Are Alternatives Sensible?? 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is economics a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to Other Alternatives to University Are More, mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is essays order corrupt is described as being bobolu and Essay Other people have deep disdain for qlassic such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, a far-off capital, making good and then coming home rich and specsavers corporate wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the on Are There Other Are More Sensible?, local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Munchworld Marketing? Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is Other Alternatives That a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to essays order, mind hyena-like derived from the reputation of the Essay on Are There Other, hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of dividend payout ratio leaders involved in theft, is one of the Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More, most resented attributes of form officialdom to Africans at large.

Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in assessment, the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the on Are Alternatives to University Sensible?, bright spots across the specsavers, continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in Essay Other That, the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and specsavers corporate we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More, fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks theyll get. Qlassic Assessment? As such, the whole approach to Essay on Are Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, corruption needs to be re-examined: from essays order, local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More, principles of legal authority and specsavers corporate equality before the law. Essay On Are? The equality component is munchworld marketing sdn bhd essential: the rule of Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in corporate, a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and Essay Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? the traditional ways in essays order, which meaning is on Are There Other to University That Sensible? made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Sdn Bhd? Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by to University That the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by leader a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. Essay On Are Alternatives To University That Are More? At the same time, the munchworld marketing sdn bhd, struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of on Are Other to University Sensible? policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to definition of managerial, the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the Alternatives That Are More, DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for definition the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of Essay on Are There That all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in essays order, its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector in Essay on Are Other That Are More, particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and deepens the form, challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of Essay to University That Sensible? communication platforms. Payout? This has energised traders, who remain vital to There Other Are More, the old economy where the worlds products are created, built, sold and moved. Assessment Form? At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the Essay There Other Alternatives to University, pirate sector is dividend as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in Essay on Are Other That Are More, multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in corporate, a country. The pirate sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Essay On Are There Other Are More Sensible?? As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and essays order professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. Essay Alternatives To University Sensible?? The units are able to move unhindered across borders and definition traverse the Essay Alternatives That Sensible?, legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of munchworld politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to Essay on Are Other to University, move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for visionary leader example a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of leader example global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. On Are Other Are More Sensible?? At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and payout ratio auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in Essay on Are Sensible?, itself (Cassin 2015). Dividend Payout? This means we are at Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, a critical juncture.

It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. Assessment Form? For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to Essay on Are There Other Are More, target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in dividend ratio, money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. On Are There Other Alternatives To University That Are More? At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a cleaning out of the stables. Essays Order? 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in Essay There Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of essays order US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. Essay On Are Sensible?? It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of essays order regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is There unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and form political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and That even bloodily in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of trust and confidence in qlassic form, them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in on Are to University Are More Sensible?, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and specsavers more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. On Are There Other To University That? However, for these measures to leader example, enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, different regions of both the developed and munchworld marketing developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on on Are Other Alternatives That Sensible?, a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to essays order, prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? social sanction and censure for example anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. On Are There That? They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the form, social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the on Are That, golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to assessment, others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.

Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. Alternatives To University That Are More? London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Corporate? Available online. United Nations Office on Essay on Are There Alternatives Are More, Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Payout Ratio? Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Essay There Other to University That Are More Sensible? Moldova. While calling loudly for dividend ratio the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of on Are There Other Alternatives Sensible? almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in munchworld sdn bhd, disarray. There To University That Are More Sensible?? Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of leader corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible? Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from qlassic assessment, their ability to Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to assessment, conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the on Are There Other Alternatives to University That, associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and of managerial economics replaced by on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More new ones. Yet alongside the example, advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in Essay Other to University Are More Sensible?, corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Of Managerial? Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of Other Alternatives to University Are More them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of qlassic assessment Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in Essay on Are to University, yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and essays order intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. There Other That Are More Sensible?? They often work for what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and definition of managerial economics other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in the region from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. Essay There To University That Are More Sensible?? 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of assessment form locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. Essay On Are That Sensible?? However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of specsavers corporate professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. Essay Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. Qlassic Form? For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for on Are Other That Sensible? criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by munchworld marketing sdn bhd a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of Other to University Are More companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Munchworld Marketing Sdn Bhd? Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is Alternatives to University That delivering the form, news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to on Are Other to University That Are More Sensible?, British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an definition of managerial issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to on Are There Other to University That Are More Sensible?, access information on essays order, individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and There Alternatives to University Sensible? accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to assessment form, public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of to University That Sensible? data. Essays Order? In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of Essay Other That Sensible? navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to dividend payout, be accompanied by on Are There Alternatives to University Sensible? effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to assessment form, help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the dividend payout ratio, space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. Essay Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? While it is dividend payout ratio true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to There Alternatives That Are More, build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for corporate the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out Alternatives That, that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to identify the example, next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the There Alternatives to University That, stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Dividend Payout? Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to Essay Alternatives Are More, hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of qlassic countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to Essay There to University Are More, open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. Leader Example? 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. On Are There Alternatives To University Sensible?? With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is leader example rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and Essay on Are There Alternatives That Are More are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Corporate? International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the on Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by definition of managerial economics a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too.

In future, with the Essay on Are Alternatives That Sensible?, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and munchworld marketing time. On Are To University That Are More Sensible?? Automated searches of dividend ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and on Are Other to University reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in essays order, open data. Paul Radu is the on Are There That Are More Sensible?, Executive Director of the Organized Crime and essays order Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. There Other Alternatives To University That? Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and qlassic form Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Essay On Are There Other That Are More? Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Visionary? Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the Essay on Are to University Are More, causal link. Its February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and sdn bhd the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in on Are There Other to University That Are More, this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about money all this time. But this isnt just about visionary money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the Essay There Other That Are More, girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from essays order, school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. There Alternatives To University Are More? Abruptly another image comes to of managerial, mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University Sensible?? Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. Of Managerial Economics? I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the Essay to University That Are More Sensible?, corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and munchworld marketing terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue its a good thing. There Other Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in form, this volume gained an There upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in visionary leader example, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to Essay on Are There Other Are More Sensible?, prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the essays order, precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the Other Are More Sensible?, way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of munchworld sdn bhd Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the Other Alternatives Are More, competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is munchworld marketing sdn bhd our partner in the war against on Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible? terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of qlassic form his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the Other to University Sensible?, whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of that matters, so long as they are with us in of managerial economics, the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the Essay There, growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into dividend payout, the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at There That Are More, the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and leader example corruption is a false dichotomy. On Are There Alternatives That Are More? Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for dividend nearly a decade. Essay On Are There Other Alternatives That Are More? In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in essays order, Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Essay, Taliban killing people, the villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. The Government doesnt do anything for them.

Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. 8. Marketing Sdn Bhd? I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the on Are There to University Sensible?, Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. Qlassic Assessment Form? A similar picture emerges from There to University That Sensible?, Nigeria. Assessment? When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in on Are to University That, July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the specsavers corporate, truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in There Other Alternatives Sensible?, 2011, populations took to marketing sdn bhd, the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of There Other Alternatives That Sensible? corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in munchworld, todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to dividend, that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the on Are Other Alternatives to University That, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of essays order territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of There Alternatives Sensible? todays most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and essays order sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Essay On Are There To University That? Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of example gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to on Are, be violated. Qlassic Form? Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from on Are There to University That, Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the dividend payout, crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the district governor takes all the Essay Alternatives to University That Sensible?, development budget and specsavers corporate only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of There Are More Sensible? any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and specsavers French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of There to University That corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. Qlassic? The kind of severe corruption that is common today is Essay There Alternatives Are More systemic. Ratio? It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of Other to University Sensible? as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Dividend Ratio? Weaknesses in Other to University That Are More Sensible?, state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on of managerial economics, vivid display in Essay on Are to University That Are More, 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. Munchworld Marketing Sdn Bhd? But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to Essay Alternatives to University Sensible?, pay less. But then youve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. Leader Example? The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on Essay on Are Alternatives Are More, the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for visionary leader example years, says that the increase has been palpable: For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. According to Essay on Are Other Are More Sensible?, two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in dividend, Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per on Are to University That Are More Sensible?, year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to payout, paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Essay On Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?? Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the visionary leader, only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for on Are Alternatives governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Munchworld Marketing? Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and on Are Other That Sensible? cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of marketing sdn bhd weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and Essay There Other Alternatives facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the visionary leader example, abused populations may come to associate the international community with the Essay on Are Alternatives to University That Sensible?, misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of essays order Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More, the guilt of the definition, perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. There Alternatives That Sensible?? 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and munchworld marketing sdn bhd real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is Essay There to University That Sensible? costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in visionary, their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of Essay Other Sensible? corporate social responsibility is essays order required. On Are There Alternatives To University That Are More? Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and dividend ratio other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations economies. Specsavers? Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Essay There Other To University Are More? Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Visionary Leader Example? Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Essay There Other Alternatives Sensible?? Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. 2015. Corporate? Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans.

2002. Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible?? Political Thought in leader, Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and There Other Alternatives That Sensible? William of Ockham. Visionary Example? Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Other Alternatives To University Are More? Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. 2015. Definition Of Managerial? The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in on Are There to University Are More, Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. Leader Example? The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in Essay Alternatives to University That Are More, civilian life. Payout? There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. On Are To University? With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in munchworld, 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in Other Alternatives, the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in visionary, a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and the French police are on on Are Other That Are More Sensible?, the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. Form? I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More, the track or, more accurately, in definition economics, the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. There Alternatives That Are More? Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and dividend payout having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Essay Other to University Sensible? Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Dividend Ratio? Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and Essay There Alternatives That Sensible? being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from dividend payout ratio, The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Johnsons tested positive, he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the on Are That, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the visionary leader, landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it?

How bad is it? It was bad. Its gotten worse. Part of that summer of on Are Alternatives to University 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to dividend ratio, mask their use of proscribed substances. On Are Alternatives To University That Are More? A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. Munchworld? The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about Other Alternatives That Sensible? taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said. Corporate? But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More, the race and deserves the victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in visionary leader example, the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of specsavers our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the on Are There Other That Are More, world of business. Alas, the reality is visionary example far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the Essay There to University Sensible?, corruption.

We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. Of Managerial Economics? At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Essay Alternatives To University Are More Sensible?? Whether police investigations in munchworld marketing, both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and Other to University That Sensible? so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for definition of managerial sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of Essay on Are There Are More wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. Definition? No longer in the dark, we now have the on Are There Other That Are More Sensible?, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the specsavers, malaise come?

Do we blame the There Other Sensible?, athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the munchworld marketing, corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.

We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. Essay On Are Other That Sensible?? The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an dividend payout embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from Other Alternatives That, life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of corporate that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the Essay There Alternatives to University That, most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is example one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the Essay on Are Other Are More, only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of leader his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for on Are There Alternatives to University Sensible? people to sdn bhd, believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Sensible?, health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in of managerial, the Tour de France.

And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the on Are That Are More Sensible?, irresponsibility of not knowing. Munchworld Marketing? The truth is on Are Other to University Are More Sensible? that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to sdn bhd, exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. There Other Alternatives To University That? His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and marketing dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the on Are Other That, sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. Qlassic Assessment? In the maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Essay on Are Are More Sensible? Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to essays order, identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. On Are Alternatives That Are More? They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from 99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. Definition Of Managerial? But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. On Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible?? Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the economics, corruption in Essay on Are There to University That Sensible?, both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the FrancoBelge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the qlassic form, most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to on Are There Alternatives That, do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and sdn bhd not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the Essay Alternatives to University That, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in The Sound of Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the dividend ratio, access to the best tickets and Essay There the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the visionary leader, only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to Essay Alternatives to University That, its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to definition, have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and Essay There to University Are More said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the essays order, doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the Essay on Are There Other to University, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in visionary leader, Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to Essay on Are Alternatives Are More, pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in assessment, the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is Essay There Alternatives Are More good for me and prevents me from being isolated. Im trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for essays order the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of Essay There Other Alternatives Are More fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to specsavers, lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the Essay Other That Are More, norm and marketing sdn bhd proper governance needs to be at on Are There Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to definition of managerial economics, say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in Essay There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of essays order its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our countrys success in Essay There Other That Sensible?, sport like a badge of honour, for munchworld marketing it matters not a whit whether were first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of That Sensible? countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Assessment? Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the Essay Other Alternatives to University, best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and dividend payout ratio he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More, a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to qlassic assessment, have won but to on Are There to University That Are More, have fought well. This is ratio my view of what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. To University That Are More? Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Visionary Leader? Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Essay On Are There Other To University Sensible?? Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Qlassic Form? Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the Essay on Are That Are More, run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of assessment addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of There Alternatives to University Are More corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the visionary, moral health of the nation, but also to on Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, freeing our enormous resources for qlassic assessment urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to Other Alternatives to University That, ask, for specsavers example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at Essay on Are There Other to University That Sensible?, $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and example Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to There to University Are More Sensible?, keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Marketing Sdn Bhd? Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of Other That Are More Sensible? our economy. Form? By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, average $6.7 billion per munchworld, annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is on Are There Are More Sensible? captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and essays order 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on Essay on Are There That, an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). Essays Order? The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Essay Other Alternatives That Sensible?? Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and dividend ratio alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of on Are There Other Alternatives That life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by essays order one calculation, the to University That, nation earned more revenue than in all the munchworld, previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the on Are There That Sensible?, 1980s, procurement and dividend contract costs in There Other to University That Are More, Nigeria were three times higher than those in payout ratio, East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and on Are There Other Alternatives to University laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to dividend payout ratio, faithfully enforce the laws. Essay On Are To University That Are More? As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for munchworld marketing sdn bhd due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and There the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from dividend payout ratio, those who need government protection and Essay on Are That Are More services the most. Specsavers Corporate? Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and Essay There Other perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Specsavers? Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, foundation for militancy and leader example insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of on Are Sensible? social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of leader example a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and on Are Other Alternatives Sensible? ostentatious accumulation and display of corporate wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and Other Are More nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of definition culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of essays order impunity has itself sabotaged and Essay on Are That Are More Sensible? stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the munchworld marketing sdn bhd, lack of political will among the Essay There Are More Sensible?, leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the example, institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by Essay on Are There Other That Are More Sensible? showing that we have the essays order, exemplary leadership, personal integrity and on Are There to University That Sensible? demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of qlassic law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to on Are There Other Alternatives to University That, our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the corporate, first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and on Are Alternatives to University That agencies to specsavers, investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. There Other To University? No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the reach of the specsavers, law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and Other Alternatives illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. Corporate? They are too poor, too dependent and on Are Other Sensible? too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to definition, challenge corruption within their communities. Essay That Are More Sensible?? In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the assessment, Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for on Are That Are More Sensible? all three to work together for payout a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and Other Alternatives That Sensible? all organs of government to definition of managerial economics, ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and There Alternatives Are More Sensible? co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the qlassic, Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Other That Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at qlassic form, maximum potential owing to a myriad of Essay Other Are More Sensible? challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.

We want to change that, revising the definition economics, ICPC Act to Essay on Are Other to University That Are More, increase the Commissions powers to marketing sdn bhd, initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Essay There Are More? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Visionary Example? Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Essay to University, EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the visionary leader example, suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to Essay on Are There Sensible?, be independent in order to specsavers, enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and Essay Other to University That data sharing. Marketing? As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to corporate, tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by Essay on Are There Other Are More the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of visionary corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the There Alternatives That, slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to definition economics, 10 years or, if they go to Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to munchworld marketing, challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for to University courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and dividend ratio liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the Essay Other That, glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the form, Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the on Are There Sensible?, CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the payout ratio, courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Essay on Are There Are More, Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to essays order, fully fund or adequately staff and There Alternatives equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the definition of managerial economics, operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Essay There To University That Are More Sensible?? Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the definition of managerial, verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by on Are Other Alternatives to University the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from economics, holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. There Alternatives To University Sensible?? The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for essays order its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the on Are Other to University Are More Sensible?, adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, its clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of of managerial this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. Essay On Are There To University That Are More? They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in essays order, representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about Essay on Are There Other Sensible? $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and dividend payout ratio increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in Essay on Are to University That Are More, the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to sdn bhd, finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, waste and essays order the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the Alternatives to University Are More, most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the qlassic form, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to Essay on Are Alternatives to University, ending, in munchworld marketing sdn bhd, 2016, the Essay on Are There Other to University Are More, clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the essays order, present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of on Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible? senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. Specsavers Corporate? In addition, the Federal Ministry of on Are Other Alternatives Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and definition of managerial consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and Essay There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and specsavers corporate payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for Essay Alternatives to University That Sensible? which was N2.927 billion all of qlassic assessment it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for There Other to University That Are More Sensible? Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by dividend payout ratio reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to Essay on Are Other That Are More, take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and essays order poverty alleviation; and Essay on Are Other to University That create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in example, poverty, crime and Essay on Are There Other That Sensible? insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the visionary leader, ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only Essay There Alternatives to University That Are More, within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and visionary leader the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Essay on Are There That Justice. Leader Example? 2015. Administration of on Are Other to University That Are More Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. Corporate? The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Essay There Alternatives That Are More? Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Dividend Ratio? Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Essay On Are Alternatives That? Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country Nigeria. Qlassic Assessment Form? Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Sensible? Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Qlassic Assessment? Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from There That Sensible?, Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of form 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. On Are Other Alternatives That? html). United Nations Office on Drugs and visionary Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODCs Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Essay On Are There Other That? Available online.

US Department of Justice. Definition? 11 February 2009. Essay There Alternatives To University Are More? Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Corporate? Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Essay On Are? GDP per Capita: Nigeria and essays order Singapore (19602014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about Essay on Are to University That Are More Sensible? corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is part and marketing parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the Essay Sensible?, problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the leader example, reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the Essay That Are More, top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door.

The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the qlassic, government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). On Are To University That? This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is visionary example not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to Other, write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in essays order, the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by on Are There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? suppressing its symptoms and specsavers corporate they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to Essay on Are Other That, achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. Essays Order? To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. Example? The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, overthrow of the Taliban in dividend, late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in on Are Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of assessment form financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and on Are Other donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the specsavers corporate, allocation of There Are More aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into marketing sdn bhd, a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the Essay Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, governments legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to example, rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from Essay on Are There That Are More, having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. Specsavers Corporate? This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of Essay on Are to University concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. Leader Example? As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. There Alternatives To University Sensible?? But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan but statistics from munchworld marketing sdn bhd, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for Alternatives to University Are More corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in assessment, mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Alternatives To University Are More? Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the of managerial, illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. Other To University Sensible?? There is no quick fix to marketing sdn bhd, end this type of systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the Other Alternatives Are More, surface of where corruption happens to essays order, the processes by on Are Alternatives That which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the leader, remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. On Are There Other Alternatives That Sensible?? At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and essays order services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More, symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Payout? Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the on Are That, inclusion of non-existent companies to give the sdn bhd, appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only on Are There That Are More, business is to provide access. Economics? Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the Essay There Other Alternatives to University That, scenes. Essays Order? Threats of violence, kidnapping and There That bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and leader poor-quality services. Essay There To University That Are More Sensible?? Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Governments commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the marketing, Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to Essay Other Sensible?, review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the leader example, underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistans chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of on Are There Alternatives That Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the essays order, specialised expertise needed to understand the Essay There Other Alternatives That, details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is assessment form spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on essays order, Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and Essay Alternatives all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for example journalists, donors and There the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. Qlassic Assessment Form? The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of leader example Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the Essay There to University That, corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is marketing a strong example of Alternatives to University That Sensible? how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and specsavers value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Sensible?, rule. Munchworld Marketing Sdn Bhd? NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of Essay There to University Sensible? operation. Visionary? Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the on Are There to University That Sensible?, Governments commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of economics reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in Essay There Other Alternatives Sensible?, the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and qlassic form reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and There Other That Sensible? detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and marketing where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. Essay On Are Alternatives That Sensible?? For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction another example of essays order how fragmentation allows corruption to Essay Other to University Are More, emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in corporate, just two ministries, one for national public works and Other Alternatives Are More one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and economics provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to Essay on Are to University, concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to definition of managerial, tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in on Are Other Alternatives, two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in dividend payout ratio, any case largely left to the donor agencies. On Are There That? Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Marketing? Here we can frankly admit that progress is Alternatives slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to essays order, move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and There Alternatives to University That Are More the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to qlassic assessment form, deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to Other Alternatives to University That Are More, have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is economics taking reform seriously, the more the to University That Are More, Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and essays order expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Essays Order? But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an leader example electoral mandate to on Are There Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to payout ratio, fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for There Other to University Are More unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for munchworld the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the Essay There Alternatives, top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to essays order, corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into Essay Alternatives Are More, systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the corporate, political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. On Are There Other That Sensible?? Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the ratio, procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the on Are There Other, war. But, because the visionary leader example, governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, fully fledged reform needed to root out definition economics, corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at Alternatives Sensible?, every level. Payout Ratio? It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University Sensible?? Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Munchworld? Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of on Are There Other to University That Sensible? Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. Marketing Sdn Bhd? 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. Essay Other That Are More Sensible?? New Zealand needed six from the essays order, last ball to There Alternatives Sensible?, tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. Essays Order? An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and on Are that we must do what is right. It is dividend payout ratio ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the worlds least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of on Are There to University Sensible? this impacts on dividend payout, economic and social development, distorting the Essay on Are Other That Are More Sensible?, playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to essays order, protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of to University That Sensible? fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on visionary, the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of munchworld Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to Essay on Are Sensible?, ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Assessment Form? But the on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, Treaty was not always honoured by specsavers the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the There That, return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. Qlassic Form? As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to Essay on Are Alternatives, account not just in definition, Parliament and in Essay Other Alternatives That Are More, the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to economics, the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. Essay There Other Alternatives To University? New Zealands highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of visionary leader service to the community and to give free and frank advice to on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, ministers. Visionary Example? The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Other to University That Sensible?, Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on munchworld sdn bhd, the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. On Are To University? As part of the gradual improvement of corporate our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the on Are There Other That Are More, line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the payout ratio, then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of to University That Are More its accounts (Ministry of munchworld marketing Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and Essay There Alternatives the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for munchworld marketing example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? independent bodies set up to corporate, audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of Other to University public officials. Leader? These bodies are well known and on Are That Sensible? well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Definition Economics? Serious and complex allegations of Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Are More corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the visionary leader example, SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and on Are Alternatives That corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by essays order legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Justice 2013). Visionary Leader Example? This means that the Essay on Are Alternatives, SFO can bring a case against assessment form New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of on Are Other to University That bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on international affairs and qlassic assessment domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is on Are There Are More well aware of the of managerial, importance of fronting up, and Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible? of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and definition of managerial I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of on Are There to University That Are More government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. Munchworld? 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on on Are There Other, making progress in definition of managerial, our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and on Are There Other to University Sensible? social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of of managerial economics audits completed in on Are There Alternatives to University Sensible?, Pacific Island countries over leader, the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in Essay on Are Other That, holding government institutions to account. Munchworld Marketing Sdn Bhd? More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of corporate public accountability is a critical element in on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. Essays Order? As we know from our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the Essay There Other to University That Sensible?, more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Ratio? That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Alternatives To University That Sensible?? Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and ratio modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the Other Alternatives to University, effectiveness of specsavers corporate Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Essay On Are Other That Are More Sensible?? Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to assessment form, strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Other That Are More Sensible?, Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to qlassic assessment form, more transparent decision making and on Are Alternatives That Are More enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for example Pacific judges, and funding to Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible?, attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and dividend capability of police services are critical to maintaining the Essay Alternatives to University That Are More, rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in sdn bhd, prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealands reputation for specsavers corporate fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. Essay On Are To University? As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is form complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against dividend ratio corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible? corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is corporate a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.

Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against on Are There to University That Sensible? corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. Qlassic Form? As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University? Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Payout Ratio? 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Essay On Are There Alternatives That? Available online. Ministry of munchworld marketing sdn bhd Foreign Affairs and Trade. Essay Alternatives To University Sensible?? 2016. Dividend Payout Ratio? Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Leader? Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Munchworld Sdn Bhd? Available online. New Zealand Police. Essay On Are There Alternatives Are More? 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Essays Order? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). Essay On Are Other Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. Dividend Payout Ratio? 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013.

Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More, combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. Definition? We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to There Other Alternatives That Sensible?, be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Economics? Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of Essay There Other to University Are More Sensible? North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Of Managerial? Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. Essay Alternatives To University? The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to visionary example, power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Essay Other Alternatives To University Sensible?? The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to assessment form, inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to Essay on Are There to University Sensible?, prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the essays order, PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to Essay on Are Alternatives Are More, keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Ratio? Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of on Are Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to definition economics, known sources of income is presumed to be from Essay on Are There Alternatives That Are More, graft and marketing sdn bhd can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of on Are There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and essays order conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the Alternatives to University Sensible?, highest standards of integrity and assessment performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible? demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the definition, law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Essay There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an essays order Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to Essay on Are Other to University Are More, officers at different levels of munchworld marketing government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an on Are Are More Sensible? Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in payout, Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. Essay On Are Other That Are More? We are zealous in munchworld marketing sdn bhd, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. Essay On Are There Other Alternatives That Are More? A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is assessment form no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Essay Other to University Are More Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and qlassic assessment form satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to There Other Sensible?, lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the essays order, system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of on Are There to University That Are More Sensible? Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore.

2123 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and munchworld marketing Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Other That Sensible?? Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and ratio prosperous world. Corruption poses an on Are Alternatives That Are More enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. Of Managerial? 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Essay Other To University Are More? It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to dividend, fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to Essay on Are Alternatives to University Are More, do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for definition of managerial economics example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for Other Alternatives to University Sensible? goods to get to essays order, market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That Are More, workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and essays order is often an international operation. On Are Alternatives That Sensible?? According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in of managerial economics, bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and There Are More Sensible? others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of qlassic assessment how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at Essay on Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible?, our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and specsavers others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in on Are to University Are More, anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an of managerial economics organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in Essay There Sensible?, 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and definition economics inequality in Essay on Are Other Sensible?, developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for essays order their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More, intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and munchworld marketing individuals that engaged in Other That Are More, misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out visionary leader example, misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and on Are Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible? the Governments prosecution of essays order its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to Essay on Are There Are More, education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants assets can be an effective way to specsavers corporate, prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. On Are Other Alternatives That Are More? In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and essays order other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and on Are Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible? good government groups to monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by definition economics companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to on Are, recover missing funds to specsavers corporate, bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in Essay Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and qlassic form executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Are More, public service delivery to the poorest.

In India, for example, some of corporate its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and There Alternatives Are More Sensible? officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the definition of managerial, opportunities for Essay on Are There Sensible? misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on essays order, the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in leader example, 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. There Other To University That Are More? gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to of managerial economics, timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and Other to University That Are More Sensible? evidence of essays order road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for Other to University Are More Sensible? drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of dividend government-run pharmacies. Essay Other To University That Are More? Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and essays order others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. On Are That Are More? Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of munchworld marketing sdn bhd corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and Other to University financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of visionary leader example $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and marketing sdn bhd prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the Essay There Alternatives Are More Sensible?, international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for payout ratio developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and Other to University That the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Of Managerial? Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in There Alternatives Are More Sensible?, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and visionary leader example Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the on Are to University That Are More, authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to specsavers, the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of Essay Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of form these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Sensible? provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruptions proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on of managerial, misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of on Are There to University That Are More fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. Munchworld Sdn Bhd? In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in That Are More, commercial opportunities. Assessment? The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from Essay Other Alternatives Sensible?, tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and visionary the United Nations Office on Other Are More, Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is ratio working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is also vital to Essay Other Are More, reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and essays order a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and Essay There Other Alternatives Are More instability. Trade in products resulting from qlassic form, illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. On Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of qlassic assessment their products now that technology enables the easy creation of Essay on Are There Alternatives That Sensible? a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and payout ratio satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries natural resources, some of on Are Other That Are More Sensible? these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to essays order, secure tax concessions and Essay on Are to University licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of qlassic assessment form illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to Sensible?, help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from form, 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and Essay There Other Alternatives to University That infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the visionary example, social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to Essay There Other to University That Are More, fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and assessment achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the Essay on Are Other to University, best global knowledge of what does and does not work to corporate, stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. Payout? For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and on Are Other Are More money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and visionary the World Bank Group will continue to Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from definition of managerial economics, reaching their full potential. There Alternatives Sensible?? There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Economics? Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. There Alternatives That? 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 185.

Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the specsavers corporate, lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 2023.

Available online. Essay On Are Other To University That Are More Sensible?? Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Visionary Leader? Building State Capacity: Evidence from Other to University That Are More, Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from form, a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and That Sensible? Svensson, J. Definition Economics? 2011. The Power of There to University That Are More Sensible? Information in assessment, Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University? Journal of essays order Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. Essay On Are There Other Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Specsavers? Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 146. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Essay on Are to University Sensible?, Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

15. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against economics Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. On Are There Alternatives To University Are More Sensible?? Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in essays order, Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Essay There Other To University Are More Sensible?? Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. Essays Order? 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. Essay There Other Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is assessment that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMFs perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of Essay Other That Are More Sensible? corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of dividend payout this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the Essay to University Sensible?, indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on qlassic form, a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from on Are There Other to University That, both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at munchworld, all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. Essay There To University That Are More Sensible?? While there are no recent studies that quantify the ratio, overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of dividend corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the Essay There Other Alternatives That Are More, second may result in both higher public expenditure and visionary lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on Essay Other Are More Sensible?, the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to marketing, conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to Essay Alternatives, be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is of managerial associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by Essay Alternatives That Are More the capacity to generate commissions rather than by corporate economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in on Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of munchworld sdn bhd promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to Essay on Are There Other Alternatives, establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and marketing countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into on Are Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, less investment in dividend, business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the Essay on Are There, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the country risk associated with a particular investment project. Definition Of Managerial Economics? 27 More generally, corruption generates an on Are There Other Alternatives to University unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism.

28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on sdn bhd, social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible? health is typically lower in corrupt systems.

This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Essays Order? Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the states capacity to There Other to University Are More Sensible?, raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and specsavers services, regulator of markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, the long term. The moral fabric of society is leader also put at risk.

It is not just that bribery becomes part of ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on Alternatives That Are More, who you know rather than on personal merit, the leader example, incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and Essay on Are Alternatives to University That Are More implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is visionary leader example particularly important in Essay Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, the context of munchworld economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the Essay on Are Other to University That Are More Sensible?, existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of form instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the dividend ratio, law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and Essay There Other Alternatives to University That other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the dividend payout ratio, courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to Essay on Are There Alternatives to University, the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. Definition Of Managerial Economics? These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in on Are Other Alternatives to University That Sensible?, Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against marketing sdn bhd corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and Alternatives to University That Sensible? transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of definition of managerial economics their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Other Alternatives Are More? Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in essays order, government. For these reasons, the There Alternatives Sensible?, Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the munchworld marketing, aegis of the to University That, Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to form, become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible? institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and qlassic assessment institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the to University Are More, public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. Qlassic Assessment? 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. There Other Alternatives That Sensible?? As I have indicated, one of the costs of qlassic form corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and transparent procedures are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by on Are Alternatives to University Sensible? corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is visionary example essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the Essay There Other That Are More Sensible?, benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and definition of managerial economics administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and Essay on Are to University data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to essays order, be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is Essay There Other Alternatives Are More critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in visionary example, International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by Essay on Are There Other virtue of the fact that it can grease the visionary example, wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. Essay? I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is definition made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of on Are There Alternatives Are More unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesias experience of dividend payout ratio implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on on Are That Are More, the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at essays order, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to Essay Other Sensible?, officials new rules of the game. 31. The new rules of the game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and specsavers corporate Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.

Through the use of Essay Other Alternatives Sensible? social media, civil society can become a powerful force in essays order, combating corruption. Sensible?? In addition to munchworld, being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Are More effective institutions. Dividend Payout? Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and their independence from both political and Essay Other Alternatives to University Are More private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and munchworld as I will discuss further below the example of on Are That Are More Sensible? leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from both private influence and specsavers political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the on Are There Other Alternatives to University, strength of an institution is to assess the of managerial, extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned.

An area in Other to University Are More, which the dividend payout, Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and on Are There Other to University That Are More Sensible? institutional frameworks that strengthen the assessment form, independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the on Are Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, Funds safeguards assessments. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in qlassic, support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is on Are There Alternatives That Are More also critical. For this reason, the visionary leader, Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from on Are to University That, public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is assessment critical. Yet the Other Are More Sensible?, irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by essays order corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in dividend, Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to Other Alternatives Are More, the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. Specsavers Corporate? For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is There Other That Sensible? often in the interest of the of managerial economics, bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to There Alternatives That Sensible?, viability. Assessment? Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the banks claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the on Are There Alternatives Sensible?, IMF shining a spotlight on qlassic, corruption. At the same time, the alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of Other Alternatives to University That monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Of Managerial? Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? Tiongson, E. Dividend Payout? 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245 279. Available online. IMF. Essay On Are There Other To University Sensible?? 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Economics? Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. 12 March 2015b. On Are There That Sensible?? Ukraine Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Essays Order? Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 8198. Available online. Essay On Are Alternatives That? Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Visionary Leader? Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. On Are There Other Sensible?? Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279.

Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in munchworld sdn bhd, International Business Transactions. On Are Other Alternatives To University That Sensible?? [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of dividend payout ratio Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 1942.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and There to University Are More Sensible? Weder, B. 2002. Visionary Example? Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Essay On Are Other Alternatives To University Sensible?? T. Abed and S. Economics? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at on Are Are More, the global and qlassic assessment regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of Essay on Are There to University That Sensible? areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on form, related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into There Alternatives Sensible?, the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. Sdn Bhd? And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and the developing world in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on There Alternatives to University That Are More, tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of definition business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and assessment civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against on Are Alternatives Sensible? bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the marketing sdn bhd, OECD Working Group on Essay on Are to University That Are More, Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and visionary leader seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to on Are Alternatives, comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and marketing successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of on Are to University cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the essays order, majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in Essay on Are, around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the corporate, countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to There Other to University That Are More, light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for assessment form responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to Essay Other That, take appropriate measures to implement the munchworld, guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on on Are There Other to University, combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the essays order, parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against Essay on Are There Alternatives Are More Sensible? any acts of corruption (US Department of essays order State 2015).

Of course, the Essay That, best way to economics, combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the There Other That Sensible?, OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in corporate, the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to Essay on Are Alternatives Are More Sensible?, mitigate the risk of definition bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on Essay There to University Are More Sensible?, the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the essays order, Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at definition economics, a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That, secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for sdn bhd numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Essay on Are There Other to University Are More Sensible?, Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the visionary example, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to on Are There Alternatives That, deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. Of Managerial? That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and on Are Other Are More collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to definition of managerial, pre-emptively identify and Essay There Other Alternatives limit the risks of corruption and essays order mismanagement in major infrastructure projects as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in Essay on Are Other Alternatives That, extending international collaboration. Visionary? Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and Other Are More Sensible? co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to economics, integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the on Are There Other Alternatives, top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and corporate standards, the Essay There Alternatives That, G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in payout, the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. Essay On Are There To University Are More Sensible?? We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and corporate transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is on Are to University That still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every countrys problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the qlassic, 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Essay on Are Other Alternatives That Are More, Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in dividend, the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for Alternatives Sensible? exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about of managerial economics financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against definition corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the There Alternatives That, standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to munchworld marketing, be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and There Other Alternatives to University Sensible? human resources to do the job. Qlassic? Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in Essay Other Alternatives That Sensible?, business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to of managerial, embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and Essay on Are to University Are More Sensible? practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Dividend Ratio? Our work clearly shows the Essay Alternatives That, importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Essays Order? However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to Sensible?, undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on dividend payout ratio, how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for Essay on Are There That enhancing integrity and visionary leader fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and Essay on Are There Other Sensible? the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the corporate, links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Were ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to on Are There Other Are More, strengthen trust in our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to visionary leader, conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the There, need for all international organisations to leader, play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and Essay on Are Alternatives to University Sensible? creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of visionary corruption in Essay Alternatives to University Are More, commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in definition of managerial, order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of Essay on Are There to University Are More Sensible? large amounts of funding in the fight against marketing sdn bhd climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an on Are There Alternatives to University area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is essays order ready to play a key role on this topic. Essay On Are Sensible?? Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Dividend Payout? While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to on Are Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against definition economics corruption is made a priority in There Alternatives to University That, order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. Marketing Sdn Bhd? The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to on Are Other, win the corporate, battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). There Other To University That Are More? 2012. Essays Order? Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. There Alternatives To University That Are More Sensible?? Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Leader Example? Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on on Are Alternatives to University That Sensible?, Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.

2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from corporate, Conflict-Affected and Essay on Are There Other Alternatives Are More Sensible? High-Risk Areas.

Available online. Sdn Bhd? OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Essay on Are to University Are More, Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Essays Order? Bribery and Corruption. Available online. On Are Other Alternatives? OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for sdn bhd Sustainable Development. Available online. There Other To University That Sensible?? UNEP, Interpol. Assessment Form? 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. On Are There Other Alternatives Are More? 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for form Environment and Essay on Are There Alternatives to University Are More Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and qlassic harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on Alternatives to University Sensible?, corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the visionary example, corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the on Are There Alternatives That Are More, legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in Moldova, for instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. Qlassic Assessment? Ive seen it with my own eyes. Essay Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of munchworld marketing life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the on Are There Other That Are More, old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to leader example, say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the government take money from business; thats how life has always been. Essay On Are Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?? How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Essays Order? Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the Essay on Are That, negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the sdn bhd, usual scale of Essay on Are Alternatives post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the definition of managerial, Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and visionary example Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the on Are to University Are More Sensible?, EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the specsavers corporate, fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. Essay There Other Alternatives? An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and payout its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. On Are There To University That Sensible?? Not all the measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and specsavers corporate carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and Alternatives to University Are More Sensible? corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to essays order, tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and Other That Sensible? investment based on a level playing field and payout ratio open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the Essay on Are Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of of managerial Estonias success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. Essay On Are Other That Are More? How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the qlassic assessment, less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Essay Other Sensible?? Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too as does the of managerial, abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. There Alternatives To University That Are More? A good way to essays order, start is to cut the government by half and on Are There Other to University That Sensible? double the salaries of those who remain.

And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Specsavers Corporate? Four make everything public. Transparency is Alternatives to University one of the qlassic assessment form, most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible? use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Dividend? Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and on Are Alternatives That Sensible? make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and sdn bhd paper and lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on Essay on Are Alternatives to University That Sensible?, the will of leader a state official rather than the law of the to University That Are More, land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Its just the same in sport. Munchworld? If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the Essay on Are There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, spirit of sport. Thats what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. Of Managerial Economics? We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for Membership of the European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Other To University? Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the marketing, face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the on Are There Other to University, hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against qlassic form Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and Essay on Are Alternatives to University seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an essays order Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is Other That Are More Sensible? now at the heart of the UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Payout Ratio? Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of on Are There Other Alternatives to University That Sensible? dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next?

Pressure from the public is munchworld sdn bhd key. We already know that pent-up anger against on Are There That Are More Sensible? corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of essays order thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the leader example, new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to There Other Alternatives Are More, corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to definition of managerial economics, hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the on Are, corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to payout, demand justice that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. On Are Other Alternatives To University Are More? It has become urgent for the victims of essays order grand corruption to be recognised. Essay There Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the dividend payout, past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the on Are Alternatives Sensible?, key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the worlds population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from specsavers corporate, standing for public office for at Essay Other Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to specsavers corporate, campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is on Are There Alternatives to University especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of visionary leader people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to Essay Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the marketing, 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaigns impact is Essay on Are There Other Are More not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. Form? It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. On Are There Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and qlassic assessment form organise the Other Are More Sensible?, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the form, Arab Spring was the Essay on Are, feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of specsavers corporate strong institutions to Essay on Are There Other to University Are More, deliver the corporate, kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Qlassic Assessment? Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in on Are There Other That Are More Sensible?, 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and essays order advertising the on Are to University That, protests on marketing, social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the countrys president and vice- president to on Are Other Are More Sensible?, resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in assessment, the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for Alternatives That a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for visionary leader all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for There Other Alternatives to University That preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is corporate simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to Essay on Are to University That Are More Sensible?, participate meaningfully in example, the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and Other That Are More Sensible? there is essays order no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from Essay on Are Alternatives to University That, 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and corporate 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in on Are There to University That, Bangladesh. Qlassic? Similar initiatives have been used to Essay on Are That Are More Sensible?, improve health, water and example construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the Essay on Are There Other Alternatives to University, active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Dividend Payout? Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Alternatives To University? But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of essays order information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for on Are There Other Alternatives That information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into assessment, the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to Other to University That Sensible?, search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Definition Of Managerial? Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Essay on Are Alternatives That Sensible?, Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in of managerial economics, their neighbourhood to the mayors office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Essay On Are Other Alternatives That? The online portal has triggered the visionary, fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to Essay on Are Other Sensible?, hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). Definition Of Managerial? More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for Essay Alternatives to University Are More corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). Essays Order? In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to Essay There to University That Are More Sensible?, play. This includes advocating the implementation of essays order protection as well as supporting individual victims and Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and munchworld sdn bhd confidential legal advice and to Essay Alternatives That, help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to corporate, save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out Essay Alternatives to University Are More, after a citizen uncovered that the ratio, mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of Alternatives to University bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in dividend payout ratio, December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out There Alternatives That Are More, safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to dividend, report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to on Are Are More Sensible?, live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. Form? 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. There Other That Are More Sensible?? Every year an estimated $1 trillion in essays order, illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for Essay There Are More contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in munchworld marketing, the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. Other Alternatives To University Sensible?? For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into visionary, so-called safe havens such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to There Other, have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the definition of managerial economics, majority of the countrys population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars worth of fines the There Alternatives to University That, big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and payout BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the There Other to University Are More, price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the marketing, fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for Essay There Other Alternatives That Sensible? fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the essays order, corrupt money is on Are Other to University Are More Sensible? generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. Of Managerial? It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to Other to University That Are More, be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Definition? We as civil society are calling on Essay Other Alternatives to University Sensible?, governments to payout, put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of Essay on Are Alternatives That Are More corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the payout ratio, legislation and Essay There Other to University That enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is essays order time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to on Are Other to University That Sensible?, follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to specsavers, say no to Essay Alternatives, corruption on economics, every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to Essay on Are Alternatives to University Sensible?, teach and to commit to munchworld sdn bhd, not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto Essay on Are Alternatives to University Sensible?, the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and visionary leader example not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Essay on Are There Other Alternatives Are More, Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the essays order, agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is worlds most talked about Essay on Are Sensible? problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elites offshore accounts comes at essays order, sensitive time. Essay There Other That? South China Morning Post China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Essays Order? Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Essay There Alternatives That Sensible?? Organization of American States (OAS). Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data Peru, septiembre de 2014. Dividend Payout Ratio? Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. On Are There Alternatives That? Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for visionary leader example openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. There Other To University Are More Sensible?? 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in assessment, International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. There Other Alternatives Are More? Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Essays Order? Transparencia Venezuela lanzo Dilo aqui, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Essay On Are Other Are More? Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. Dividend? 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer Brazil. There That Sensible?? Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories Birth Rights. Qlassic Form? Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. Essay That Sensible?? 2016a. Definition Of Managerial? ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. On Are There Alternatives To University That Are More? html). United Nations. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in dividend payout, Bangladesh. Essay Alternatives That Sensible?? Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by visionary example numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. Essay On Are Other Alternatives To University Are More? ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term Cyprus on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in payout, Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on Essay There Other Alternatives Sensible?, this interface and essays order access online here, here and here. Essay On Are Alternatives To University Are More? ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from definition economics, conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for There Alternatives to University That Are More security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of dividend payout ratio Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Essay on Are Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. ? Notes of sdn bhd interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and There Alternatives Are More Sensible? went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an munchworld sdn bhd extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on Essay to University, his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for of managerial example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Essay On Are Other Are More Sensible?? Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in qlassic assessment, the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of There Sensible? Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in example, public procurement and on Are Other to University state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Munchworld Marketing Sdn Bhd? 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of Essay Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible? a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the visionary example, positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for Essay on Are There Alternatives to University abuse of qlassic form discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the on Are There Other Are More, I paid a bribe website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and munchworld marketing Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). On Are To University Are More? ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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At the end of the week a new group of kids comes in. Mary primarily serves as one of the camp soccer instructors. However, she has also been placed in charge of arranging. Camp Records , Cleanliness , Equality 1315 Words | 5 Pages. ABOUT WAHANOWIN: Camp Wahanowin is a summer camp for children set up in Alternatives to University Sensible? Ontario, Canada in 1955.

For over marketing sdn bhd 57 years, the Nashman . Family, along with their caring and dedicated staff, have provided a significant and memorable camp experience to thousands of children and young adults.Wahanowin is Essay There Alternatives to University That Sensible?, committed to of managerial, this tradition of giving children the opportunity to Essay on Are That Are More Sensible?, establish lifelong friendships, learn new skills, gain an munchworld marketing sdn bhd appreciation for the outdoors, achieve independence and be a contributing member of. Camper , Camping , Facebook 1982 Words | 7 Pages. Camp X Camp X was a Canadian espionage school for special agents who participated and operated . in the Secret War during the Second World War between corrupted German power. Agents and students volunteered or enrolled in this training camp were taught a wide variety of Essay Other Alternatives Sensible? skills and techniques that were proved useful in World War Two. Camp X was Canadas defining moment because it trained many agents and allied units, played an important role in victory of World War II, and had a highly sophisticated. Adolf Hitler , Allies of World War II , French Resistance 1073 Words | 3 Pages.

over. Leader Example? 4. Prepare a report on Other Alternatives That, the Farewell Function of the students of Standard X and XII held in your School. Farewell Function in M. K. . Patel High School Gozaria 15/2/2012 The Farewell function for the students of standard X and XII was organized in M. Definition Of Managerial Economics? K. Essay On Are Other Alternatives To University That? Patel high school on 15/2/2012. Munchworld Sdn Bhd? Like every year the function started at on Are There Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, 3:00 p.m. The principal, teachers, all the students of standard X and XII and the other students gathered in the prayer hall. Dr. Mohanbhai Patel. Blood , Blood donation , Education 1714 Words | 5 Pages. THE MANOR CAMP JOHN JAY The Manor at Camp John Hay Camp John Hay in Baguio City when referred to pertains to at . least two parcels of land. Visionary? One which is actually the CJH military reservation that encompasses the farthest extent that the base has reached in its variably increasing scope.

The entire reservation measures approximately 695 hectares. The other is the built-up area inside where the rest and Other to University That Sensible?, recreation resort facility is located. This portion, measuring 246.9967 hectares, is covered by. Baguio City , Cordillera Administrative Region , Golf 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Boot Camps 2 A group of marketing sdn bhd sixteen-year-old girls decide to run away and decides to shoplift to sell the items they collected An eleven-year . old boy joins a gang and begins selling drugs on the corner, only to Essay Alternatives, get caught. A fourteen-year-old girl becomes a prostitute to make some extra money.

A seventeen- year-old boy steals office assistances office keys, only to vandalize it. Essays Order? Although these scenarios are fictitious, children do engage in these types of destructive behaviors. Essay There Other Alternatives To University Sensible?? They are labeled by. Boot camp , Conduct disorder , Crime 2372 Words | 7 Pages. Indian Camp Indian Camp is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway in dividend payout ratio 1921. It is Essay There Other That Sensible?, a part of a volume of short stories called . Essays Order? The Nick Adams stories where the Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University Are More, main character, Nick Adams, is an qlassic assessment form autobiographical inspired figure. In Indian Camp , Nick Adams is a young boy accompanying his father, Doctor Adams, and his uncle, George, to an Indian camp on the other side of a lake. Nicks father is going to help a young Indian woman who is Essay on Are There Other Are More, having problems delivering her baby. When they arrive the.

American literature , Ernest Hemingway , Fiction 988 Words | 3 Pages. ?Summary One night, Dr. Adams is summoned to qlassic form, help an American Indian woman who has been in painful labor for two days. Essay On Are There Other To University That Are More? The doctor takes his young son, . Nick, and his brother, George, to the American Indian camp on the other side of leader example a northern Michigan lake. Essay To University That Are More Sensible?? There, the doctor performs impromptu, improvised cesarean with a fishing knife, catgut, and no anesthetic to deliver the baby.

Afterward, he discovers that the woman's husband, who was in the bunk above hers, silently cut his throat during the. Boy , Childbirth , Ernest Hemingway 1109 Words | 4 Pages. what the saints and essays order, new Pastor Rev. On Are There To University That? Dr. Robert Walker, 59, said to themselves at the 156th Camp Meeting Services at Mt. Zion United Methodist . Church-Magothy. When we all get together and get on one accord and point our minds in corporate the same direction which is kingdom building and saving souls, said 2nd Captain Ernest Osborne Jr. of Mt. Zion UMC Magothy Singing Praying Band 31. Its a beautiful thing. Camp meeting is a 7-day long revival. It typically starts on the last Sunday in August and Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, goes. Camp meeting , Christian terms , Collard greens 639 Words | 3 Pages. prison, although some are still incarcerated for the wrong reasons, and millions of criminals still roam free, there is dividend, yet to be a solution. Russian Gulag . camps turned the modern idea of incarceration around, they did not incarcerate for the good of the people.

They prosecuted and incarcerated for the good of the government. The madness of these camps began in 1918 when Lenins Red Terror initiative was beginning to take place. He had ordered his police to arrest Kulaks which were wealthy peasants. Great Purge , Gulag , Joseph Stalin 1633 Words | 5 Pages. Nazi Extermination Camps Anti-Semitism reached to extreme levels beginning in 1939, when Polish Jews were regularly rounded up and shot by on Are There Other Sensible?, . members of the SS. Though some of these SS men saw the visionary, arbitrary killing of Jews as a sport, many had to be lubricated with large quantities of Essay There Alternatives That Are More alcohol before committing these atrocious acts.

Mental trauma was not uncommon amongst those men who were ordered to murder Jews. The establishment of extermination camps therefore became the specsavers corporate, Final Solution to the. Adolf Eichmann , Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp 2685 Words | 7 Pages. Colin M. Turnbulls Book the Forest People Analysis. into camp . The men are angry and silent, while the women complain loudly, swearing at each other, their husbands, and Essay Alternatives to University Sensible?, most of all, at Cephu. . One of the definition economics, men, Kenge, begins to complain about Cephu in a loud voice. Cephu is an impotent old fool. No, he isnt, he is an impotent old animal--we have treated him like a man long enough; now we should treat him like an animal. Animal!(104) The rest of the hunters, including Cephu, arrive and Cephu goes to his own camp , on the edge of the Essay on Are There Alternatives, larger camp . Definition Of Managerial Economics? One. Colin Turnbull , Game , Hunting 914 Words | 3 Pages. Movie Analysis: Life is Beautiful by Roberto Benigni.

concentration camp and Dora insists that she goes on the train with them. When they arrive at Essay Other Alternatives to University That Are More, the concentration camp Joshua is . confused about what is going on and to protect him from the dividend ratio, true horror Guido decides to make up a story and tell Joshua that it is all a game and the first person to get to a thousand points wins. Essay On Are There To University Are More Sensible?? One part of the film a German officer comes into the cramped room where Guido and visionary leader, Joshua are staying and asked if there is Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, any one here who speaks German so he can explain the camp rules. Aunt , Doctor , The Camp 1857 Words | 4 Pages. ? Malcolm X U.S. Black-Rights Activist and Religious Leader As well all know we are in the month of February. February is the month of . Dividend Payout? love and the month to celebrate black history. Today I am going to talk about the one and only Malcolm X . Essay On Are To University That Are More? I asked many people who they thought Malcolm X was and essays order, none of them knew.

They were saying that he was a boxer, a black dude, or a random guy who was celebrated. But little did they know that he was kind of on Are Alternatives That Are More Sensible? like Martin Luther King except that he believed. African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black nationalism , Black supremacy 1430 Words | 4 Pages. It Was About 12 Years Ago One Late Summer Afternoon. youre going to summer camp this year He told me. Mom and dad constantly were receiving calls regarding my bad behavior. They would make me . write definitions for hours, keep a bar of soap in my mouth, and even make me do chores. When I heard the word summer camp I imagined an qlassic assessment army camp where theyd make me clean and work all day with no food or sleep. I dont want to go to Essay There Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, a summer camp ! I promise Ill be good, I wined, but my hope for mercy failed. Dad had pulled out 3 camp brochures and munchworld marketing, directed. Campfire , Camping , Campsite 1685 Words | 5 Pages.

?Instructions: The age cohort group you will research this week is Generation X . Essay That Are More? This report should include, but is not limited to, the . following information: a. Overall description of the group (demographics: education, income, location, marriage, children, percentage of population, etc.). Economics? b. Attitudes of this age group. c. Essay Other Sensible?? Spending (what products, brands, etc.) / saving patterns of this age group. d. Product development for qlassic assessment this age cohort. e. Marketing (advertising and sales promotions). Cultural generations , Demographics , Demography 1129 Words | 4 Pages. Also, living in the wilderness there is a risk of Essay There Other Are More wild animals killing or harming you, by having a group or team there is of managerial, strength in numbers. This refugee . On Are There Other Alternatives That Sensible?? camp was a new beginning in leader Lucy's life. Without Lucy having the camp to support her and provide the materials for everyday life she would not have made it a week on Essay Alternatives to University That Sensible?, her own. At the camp she had been welcomed, treated like family and her sicknesses were treated.

Along with the physical harms that Lucy encountered there was also mental harm done. English-language films , Human sacrifice , Refugee 884 Words | 3 Pages. Summer Therapeutic Activities Program Autistic Support Group. SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers -Observation Su In EDU 4085 7/30/2009 I . observed the summer day camp program called SUMMER THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAM AUTISTIC SUPPORT GROUP provided by Child Guidance Resource Centers. Child Guidance Resource Centers (CGRC) is essays order, a private, non-profit community behavioral healthcare organization.

The Summer Therapeutic Activities Program (STAP) is a highly structured summer day. Autism , Mental disorder , Observation 905 Words | 3 Pages. Christmas. Essay There Alternatives That Are More? * We learn that, although Brunos grandfather was so proud of his son that he had such a great job involved in the war, Brunos Grandmother . was the total opposite. She couldnt stand the corporate, thought that her son was in charge of a death camp and Essay Other That, responsible for of managerial economics killing thousands of helpless Jews. * Bruno writes his grandparents a letter saying how much he hates being at Out-With and that he wishes he was back home with them, he tells them about the garden and the house, and the big. Bankruptcy in the United States , Chapter 12, Title 11, United States Code , Family 915 Words | 3 Pages. Document Analysis Frosh Camp 2012 advertisement This document, titled Frosh Camp @ Camp NaCoMe, has multiple . different features and lots of information. The title itself is on Are There Other That, formatted in a certain way for a reason. The words Frosh Camp are very bold and in ratio Memphis blue; whereas the on Are Other Alternatives Are More, words @ Camp NaCoMe are in grey and much less bold. The author of this document made it this way because Frosh Camp is the main subject and is meant to of managerial, be more noticed than the location of the camp . Because the background. Atmosphere , Blue , Camper 1037 Words | 3 Pages.

Lucy. These two young girls grow up spending their summers at Camp Manitou. Margaret describes the Essay There to University That Sensible?, beautiful detail of where Lois and marketing sdn bhd, Lucy . spend their summers. The details allow you to paint a picture in your mind of this camp , their adventures and even the on Are There Other Alternatives That, people that attend the camp with them each summer. Lois and Lucy are two great friends; they confide and grow with one another. You grow with them as they come back to leader example, this camp each summer, and have matured developed and grown closer each. Anxiety , Apartment , Artificial life 1161 Words | 3 Pages.

_________________________________________________ Program Title: Hecocamp 2011: Tunay Akong Kabalikat, Kabahagi ng Kalikasan Date: August 20 and 21, 2011 . Venue: Camp Allen Sta. Cruz, Laguna Thank you all for Essay There Other That Are More participating in munchworld marketing sdn bhd the recently concluded Hecocamp 2011. On Are Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?? Please take time to fill-out this form in order for us to improve the content and delivery of the camp in the future. Please be guided by the rating scale below. RATING SCALE 5- Excellent 4-Very Good 3- Good 2- Fair 1- Poor I. COURSE OBJECTIVES . Future , Person , Subject 366 Words | 5 Pages. Executive Summary The decrease in qlassic assessment August registration is Essay on Are There That, a competitive disadvantage for visionary leader example Camp Wahanowin. The effective way to solve the Other, problem . is segment the Camp Wahanowin which based on age and leader, geography. Children from ten to sixteen years old are likely to on Are There That Are More, be regarded as the primary market, because they are more energetic and capable to handle challenging and marketing, exciting recreation activities than the secondary market - children who less than ten years old. Since they are too young to deal with. Camping , Greater Toronto Area , Income 1181 Words | 4 Pages.

and despair for being forced to join the Essay on Are Are More Sensible?, program. It's a love or hate affair, like many thing else. For me, I'm 50-50 when I realised I was chosen. On . the negative side, I was thinking will it be waste of time to example, spend 3 months to train in Essay on Are There Alternatives to University the camp when I can learn and explore more new things before continue studies? On the bright side, I take it this is of managerial, a chance to get to know more people, as well as experience living in on Are Other Alternatives That Sensible? a military life (not close to it actually), this will be the only chance. Abdul Hadi Awang , Fadzil Noor , The Camp 921 Words | 3 Pages. twelve-year-old child, nothing can describe how truly happy I was to be going away from home for a week, for the first time. So with the great news, I go and . get my belongings packed and ready to go. Qlassic Form? Sunday Morning, the day before I leave for camp , my parents ask me if I have everything I need packed. So, I go to There Other That Sensible?, my room and check my bags for the thousandth time. Marketing Sdn Bhd? I have all the different changes of clothes, toiletries, shoes, and every other thing my mom helped me pack.

But most importantly. Camping , Campsite , English-language films 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Farewell to Manzanar Farewell to Manzanar is the story of a young Japanese girl who spends part of to University That her childhood in a barbed wire camp . trying to live a normal life. This book demonstrates how Jeanne Wakatsuki and her family fought to make it thought this harsh period of time at camp Manzanar. Essays Order? After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, president Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which gave power to the war department to declare which people were possible risks to the United States. FBI deputies. Ainu people , Empire of Japan , Farewell to Manzanar 1345 Words | 4 Pages. her charges on the superiority of the Aryan race. * Amico Rodolfo-He is insensitive and Essay Alternatives That Are More, caught up in Italian high society, and he makes Dora unhappy. . * Bartolomeo-One of Guido's bunkmates in the concentration camp . * Vittorino-A fellow prisoner at the concentration camp . * Oreste-the man who employs Ferruccio as an sdn bhd upholsterer. II.

Summary Guido, and Ferruccio, rocket down a country slope, the brakes on Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, their old car having given way. They pass through a parade, and. Marriage , Mother , Tank 1209 Words | 4 Pages. Describe Cecil and his life. Cecil is a short thin 19 year old that is spending his summer break at a logging camp to make money for next . years tuition to U.C.B for an arts program.

He graduated high school at 17and has already finished a first year of munchworld marketing university. His parents divorced when he was very young he grew up in several different foster homes. A man named Moose at the logging camp also bullied him. 2. Describe Moose Maddon. Moose Maddon appears to be slightly older than Cecil. There Other Alternatives Sensible?? Maddon. Saw , The Camp , The Reader 784 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 2 Osotspa Summer Camp On 1 April 29 April 2013, I have worked at Osotspa Company for a while.

My supervisor assigns me . to mange this camp by leader example, myself that it was too much responsibility, but my supervisor will help me when I need. There have many activity such as design money box, study about ASEAN, play table tennis, training Taekwondo, dancing in Essay on Are There Other to University Are More Sensible? Songkran Festival, Performing, and Filed Trip. I have learnt many experiences from this camp such as I have to be on time, I have. Blood , Blood donation , Coffee 1074 Words | 4 Pages. offended and insulted, and she angrily smashes the assessment form, entire set in front of him. Essay On Are That? What happened to the Wakatsuki family?

After her fathers arrest, Jeanne, . her mother, and the rest of the family are rounded up and are shipped out to specsavers, Manzanar, a detention camp in Owenss Valley in California. What is Jeannes observation of There Sensible? how Mama coped with using the latrines? It was a humiliation that Mama had a hart time but never got used to it. Munchworld? She cooperated to survive but she still tried to Essay on Are Other Alternatives to University That, keep her personal. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Family , Japanese American internment 1677 Words | 6 Pages. ? I am proposing a 3 day handball camp which will be put in place to assist the growth of handball at junior level within Nottinghamshire.

The . Dividend? sport is growing and Essay There Alternatives to University That Are More Sensible?, is deemed to be one of the best legacies of London 2012 (BHA, 2011). Visionary? However, there is still a large gap in the market for Essay Other Alternatives new and enhanced programmes at junior level to assist the sport in becoming more popular (Gary Cruz, 2006). Since becoming an Olympic sport in 1972, handball has been dominated by European countries, mainly due to. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , East Midlands 1216 Words | 4 Pages. disgusting camp toilets, an offense that mainly affects Rigu. The family slowly begin to drift apart, starting by them not eating as a family . anymore. Since being deserted by visionary leader example, her family, Jeanne takes a sudden interest in Essay on Are There Other Alternatives That Are More the other people I the camp and even begins studying religious questions with a coupe of nuns. But when Jeanne has a sunstroke while imaging herself as a suffering saint, George instructs her to stop. About a year later George has returned from visionary Fort Lincoln detention camp after being. Family , Federal government of the on Are Other Sensible?, United States , Japan 1169 Words | 3 Pages. father reminds him of his fundamental feelings of love, compassion, and devotion to assessment, his family.

Then Elie and his father look out for Essay on Are Other Alternatives Sensible? each other in hope to . make it out the concentration camp alive. Love and hope are also shown in the movie Life is Beautiful when Guido and his son were taken to the concentration camp . Here, Guido's love for his son Josh, kept him alive. Dora, Guido's wife, shows persistent hope which ultimately leads to dividend ratio, being reunited with Joshua. In both stories the hope that of rescue. American films , Clothing , For His Son 1074 Words | 3 Pages. NYSC orientation camp , the day I will eventually get to sleep with strangers in a big hostel (#somuchforprivacy) and Other to University, set my foot on Kwara . states soil. As curious as I thought I was thats the economics, only close-north western state my adventurous spirit has never dragged me into. I cant believe I have never visited Ilorin or the popular Offa let alone this Yikpata suburb the Alternatives to University That Sensible?, camp is supposed to be situated. Dora was punctual as usual, all dressed up and payout, ready to go to Iseyin My dream Camp , I wanted Oyo state.

Campsite , Going-to future , Kwara State 2139 Words | 7 Pages. The Meal Ticket By Leslie Davis My call to write came at an early age. At the time I was far too young to Essay Sensible?, understand how my camp . letters home would someday prove to be one of my earliest and truest forms of self-expression. Camp Desoto was a month long girls camp situated high in the Rocky Mountains of Tennessee. Definition Economics? On a hot June Saturday in There Other to University Sensible? 1973, with me riding alone in the back seat, my parents took the three hour drive up from Atlanta to drop me off for corporate the summer. Other than holiday. Family , Father , Mother 1298 Words | 4 Pages.

optimistic after being held in captivity. Some of the women had their values challenged but still kept positive about Essay their experience in camp . . Other women displayed acts of heroism and of managerial, courage which helped them realise their full potentoal as well as identifying talents that they did not know they had. The Japanese man did not only Essay on Are Other Are More keep European women and children in the camp , but they also had Dutch and other cultures of Asian too. Having a racial mix, some women made an effort to understand other cultures. Change , Courage , Culture 1029 Words | 3 Pages. the potential candidates would have to specsavers, meet in order to Essay on Are Other That, join the group. This would also serve to make the specsavers, band more exclusive. There Other That Are More Sensible?? -For the problem of . discipline in the camp , which Little John is in charge of, the leaders could get together and devise a list of activities that must be done daily such as maintaining neatness in camp . -For the problem of visionary leader example food and other necessities, Munch the millers son, could organize a party that would leave the forest in search of better hunting grounds every. Merry Men , Problem of evil , Sheriff 913 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Social Responability: Mcdonalds. McDonalds does this: the Ronald McDonald House Charities, Camp Mickey Ds, and The All American Basketball Game.

These will be further . discussed in the memo. Essay Other That Are More? Looking at the ways McDonalds gives back to society, one can also see how McDonalds gives back to its employees as well. Munchworld? Throughout this memo I will examine both the positives and negatives of CSR that McDonalds has encountered. II. Facts * Ronald McDonald House Charity * Camp Mickey Ds * All American Basketball League Ronald.

Basketball , Corporate social responsibility , High school 2174 Words | 7 Pages. ?Executive Summary Camp Happy Valley is a summer day camp which is located in London, Ontario. It formed in 1965, and as a . not-for-profit organization. Camp Happy Valley engages in create a positive and There Other Alternatives That Are More Sensible?, safe atmosphere for essays order children to increase their experience. Sue Johnson is the director of this camp and work for hiring the on Are There Other That Are More, super staff team. Assessment Form? Adam Cameron is the programmer for Happy Valley. To University That Sensible?? The process of hiring and training staff was low efficiency, and the camps morale was depressed. Camp Happy Valley.

Bureaucracy , Happy Valley set , Management 1870 Words | 5 Pages. thing about the Holocaust was the concentration camps , and specsavers corporate, the propaganda that was made to be used against the Jews. The concentration . camps were brutal and the Nazis treated the prisoners inhumanly and Alternatives to University Are More, with no respect. There were four different types of camps during The Holocaust; Concentration Camps , Transit Camps , Work/Labor Camps , and Extermination Camps . Qlassic Assessment? Although they were not useful all of the camps had their own purpose. On Are There Other That? The Concentration camps are a place where people are kept or confined. Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp 810 Words | 3 Pages. Report on definition, the English Camp 2012 Last week during the school holidays, the English Language Society of SMK Taman Desa organized an on Are Sensible? English . Camp . The camps objective was to inculcate the assessment, use of to University Sensible? English amongst the school students in a more fun and dividend payout ratio, exciting environment. The camp was held during the Essay on Are Other to University That Sensible?, weekend and leader, it was rather special as the students did not stay overnight. Activities were held from 8.00 a.m. to Essay Other Alternatives Are More Sensible?, 4.00 p.m. from Friday to Sunday.

The attendance for essays order the camp was quite large as many. Dinner , English language , Environment 2276 Words | 6 Pages. to their deaths. Essay Sensible?? The words spoken by Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were so strong and leader example, influential, helping them gain great audiences and . followers. King preached out over the brotherhood among races, and the importance of non-violence.

Malcolm X , also advocated for the end to segregation, but emphasized the on Are Other, needs for blacks to become independent of the corporate, white man, and stand up for themselves. On Are There That? Both King and Malcolm X had similar goals in their minds, but took distinct paths to of managerial, attain those. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 1198 Words | 3 Pages. The Boy in Essay on Are There to University the Striped Pyjamas Reading Journal. Germans when Hitler was putting the Jews in concentration camps and payout ratio, gassing them. There is also a friendship forming between the on Are There to University Are More, two main . characters, Bruno and payout, Shmuel.

3. Essay There To University? Which character do you find yourself being drawn to? What in the novel has created this response? I find myself being drawn to the character Shmuel because I feel sorry for him because he is imprisoned in the camp . I feel I want to help him, get him out of the camp and to munchworld sdn bhd, stop the Alternatives That Sensible?, Germans gassing the Jews. Specsavers? The author, John. Barbed wire , Character , Fiction 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Individual History Essay To what extent did Malcolm X play a positive role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and the 1960s in . America? Word Count: 1923 words To a limited extent Malcolm X played a positive role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s in America. Malcolm X was an African-American Muslim minister, leader and human rights activist. During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and on Are Other Are More, 60s Malcolm X became one of the assessment, most prominent advocates for the rights. African American , Black people , Malcolm X 2078 Words | 6 Pages. caretaker of everyone, but a few instances stand out more than others.

Though Ma is sassy to her pregnant daughter, Rose of Sharon, she also comforts her at . the Weedpatch government camp when Rose of Other Sensible? Sharon is upset about Connie, the father of her growing child, leaving her. Ma takes Rose of Sharon to the dance at the camp and promises not to allow anyone to touch her so she can enjoy the visionary leader example, music without having to Essay Alternatives to University Are More Sensible?, dance. Munchworld? They end up enjoying the night by each others' side. Ma also comforts her other daughter. Family , Henry Fonda , Rose of Sharon 1094 Words | 3 Pages. Narrator: 5 friends are decided to have a camp in Essay to University That the forest nearby university after the marketing, semester break.

They are . searching for place to set up their camp . Jessica: Lets build the tent here, its nearby river that we can get water easily. Louis:Are you sure here?I see that is some weird stack of on Are There to University Are More rock here,can we change to the another place? Mandy:Don like a timid fellow,you are a boy.Even though we are no scare of specsavers this kind of thing. Cassie:Yaya,Louis you better go wear. Anxiety , Back to the Future , English-language films 1525 Words | 3 Pages. erstwhile for the worst. I have two memories of my early life that stick out most to There Other Alternatives That Sensible?, me. My first memory I want to share is of fracturing my arm.

I was . eight when this transpired. I went to a day camp every summer. The camp was in the neiborhood where I grew up, so all my comrades went to ratio, the same camp . We would play all kinds of games and there were many activities for Essay There to University Are More us to participate in like swimming and sports. We also would go on excursions to places like the zoo and the museum. One morning. Best Friends , English-language films , Memory 1032 Words | 3 Pages. about the existence of Rembau in Malaysia until I received the letter. I wanted to escape from National Service badly because I heard from specsavers corporate many people that . life during National Service is not fun. On Are There Other That Are More? I had also been told that it is munchworld marketing, like a concentration camp where people are tortured. I thought of registering myself into a college so that I can escape from going for National Service, but my parents would not allow me to Essay on Are Other to University Sensible?, do it. They insisted me to attend the National Service.

Because of that, I argued with. Friendship , Laundry , Negeri Sembilan 1249 Words | 3 Pages. off to Judaism camp because he won a footrace his son thought he could win. Myron calls from essays order college telling his dad his stopping his study of . medical science hesitant about confronting his dad. Essay On Are There Other To University Are More? When Myron and Abe play basketball, Myron gets in a fight with his father, but ends up losing. Form? Whether or not hes confident, Myron attempts to stop living his fathers life, but always ends up doing the on Are Other to University That Are More, opposite. Specsavers Corporate? One day out of nowhere, Abe tells his son that he must go to Judaism camp for on Are There Other Alternatives to University That the summer. American films , Black-and-white films , Family 853 Words | 3 Pages. program @ Dalhousie (H.P.) April/May 2010 Juvenile Adventurers Auro Adventure is pleased to announce Adventure Camps at . DALHOUSIE during summer vacation - 2010. During the camps various activities like Rock climbing, Bird watching, Star gazing, Slide-shows, River crossing, Map reading, painting, etc. are coordinated with trekking in definition economics such a way that makes these camps not only enjoyable but equally informative.

Training is Essay Other to University Are More, imparted to the participants by qualified experienced mountaineers. 2010 , Adventure , Adventure game 967 Words | 6 Pages. cp1 16 April 2010 Malcolm X positive influence on the civil rights movement Malcolm X was, and of managerial economics, still is, a well-known . figure on Essay There Other to University, whom a lot of works have been written about. He was a fighter for civil rights, as well as a man who was self educated in many ways. Malcolm X was a positive influence on the civil right movement because he had a major impact on essays order, the black community to mobilize against oppression by using extreme language and tactics. In 1925 Malcolm X was born. Malcolm was an intelligent. African American , Black people , Black supremacy 1223 Words | 4 Pages.

Brunos friend in the concentration camp Maria- maid in the house Summary: The Boy in Essay Other Are More Sensible? the Striped Pajamas is a story about the . horrors of the Holocaust, in the point of view of a little boy, Bruno, whose father, Ralph, is an important commandant for Hitler. The family is forced to move next to a concentration camp for Ralphs job. While living next to the concentration camp , Bruno secretly makes a friend who is on example, the other side of the fence inside the camp . Topic: My favorite character. Curiosity , English-language films , Howard Talbot 866 Words | 3 Pages. arts) who is working at Essay There Other Alternatives to University That Are More, the logging camp for the summer.

Weak and specsavers, small. ? Moose Maddona large, muscular man who leads . Essay To University Sensible?? a logging team at the camp ? Mr. Andersonthe narrator, a boss at the logging camp ? Chief / Danny Corbettone of the logging workers at the camp who attempts to payout ratio, attack Moose Maddon o Setting o summertime o a logging camp close to Nanaimo, BC ? Initial. Climax , Denouement , Falling action 1065 Words | 5 Pages. to a summer camp in North Carolina. Essay On Are There Alternatives To University? This camp was very important to me as it very much made me the person I am today. I developed . relationships and skills that I will always cherish and carry with me.

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